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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102830/can-exhaled-volatile-organic-compounds-predict-asthma-exacerbations-in-children
#1
Dillys van Vliet, Agnieszka Smolinska, Quirijn Jöbsis, Jean Muris, Philippe Rosias, Jan Dallinga, Edward Dompeling, Frederik van Schooten
Background Asthma control falls short of current goals of asthma management guidelines. Non-invasive monitoring of airway inflammation may help to improve the level of asthma control in children. Aim 1) To identify a set of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that is most predictive for an asthma exacerbation in children. 2) To determine the chemical background of predictive VOCs. Methods In an one-year prospective observational study, 96 asthmatic children were studied . At clinical visits with an interval of 2 months, asthma control, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, lung function (FEV1, FEV1/VC) and VOCs in exhaled breath were determined by means of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097791/alpha-thalassaemia-promotes-frequent-vaso-occlusive-crises-in-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia-through-haemorheological-changes
#2
Céline Renoux, Philippe Connes, Elie Nader, Sarah Skinner, Camille Faes, Marie Petras, Yves Bertrand, Nathalie Garnier, Daniela Cuzzubbo, Lydia Divialle-Doumdo, Kamila Kebaïli, Cécile Renard, Alexandra Gauthier, Maryse Etienne-Julan, Giovanna Cannas, Cyril Martin, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources, Vincent Pialoux, Marc Romana, Philippe Joly
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a severe hereditary haemoglobinopathy characterised by haemorheological abnormalities, which play a role in the occurrence of several acute and chronic clinical complications. While β(S) -haplotypes and alpha-thalassaemia modulate SCA clinical severity, their effects on blood rheology have been incompletely described. The aim of this study was to test the effects of these genetic modifiers on the haemorheological properties and clinical complication of children with SCA...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094911/co-dependence-between-crystalline-and-photovoltage-evolutions-in-p3ht-pcbm-solar-cells-probed-with-in-operando-giwaxs
#3
Daniel Moseguí González, Christoph J Schaffer, Stephan Pröller, Johannes Schlipf, Lin Song, Sigrid Bernstorff, Eva M Herzig, Peter Muller-Buschbaum
We address the correlation between the crystalline state of photoactive materials in model organic solar cell based on poly(3-hexylthiophen-2,5-diyl):phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and the photovoltage in an in-operando investigation. I-V curves are simultaneously measured together with grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering probing the crystalline state of the device active layer as function of the operation time. The results show a high degree of correlation between open-circuit voltage VOC and the crystalline state of P3HT...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092935/alloying-strategy-in-cu-in-ga-se-quantum-dots-for-high-efficiency-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells
#4
Wenxiang Peng, Jun Du, Zhenxiao Pan, Naoki Nakazawa, Jiankun Sun, Zhonglin Du, Gencai Shen, Juan Yu, Jin-Song Hu, Qing Shen, Xinhua Zhong
I-III-VI2 group "green" quantum dots (QDs) are attracting increasing attentions in photoelectronic conversion applications. Herein, based on the "simultaneous nucleation and growth" approach, Cu-In-Ga-Se (CIGSe) QDs with light harvesting range about 1000 nm were synthetized and used as sensitizer to construct quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), wild-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses demonstrate that the Ga element was alloyed in the Cu-In-Se (CISe) host...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091587/bacillus-volatiles-adversely-affect-the-physiology-and-ultra-structure-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-induce-systemic-resistance-in-tobacco-against-bacterial-wilt
#5
Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Yuedi Niu, Rong Huo, Xuewen Gao
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by various bacteria have significant potential to enhance plant growth and to control phytopathogens. Six of the most effective antagonistic Bacillus spp. were used in this study against Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsc) TBBS1, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease in tobacco. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and Bacillus artrophaeus LSSC22 had the strongest inhibitory effect against Rsc. Thirteen VOCs produced by FZB42 and 10 by LSSC22 were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090133/impacts-of-changes-of-indoor-air-pressure-and-air-exchange-rate-in-vapor-intrusion-scenarios
#6
Rui Shen, Eric M Suuberg
There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. This paper focuses on two major factors that may be subject to significant transients in vapor intrusion situations, including the indoor air pressure and the air exchange rate in the subject building...
February 1, 2016: Building and Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079979/a-general-strategy-to-enhance-the-performance-of-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-by-incorporating-light-harvesting-dye-with-hydrophobic-polydiacetylene-electrolyte-blocking-layer
#7
Shih-Sheng Sun, Mekonnen Abebayehu Desta, Chia-Wei Liao
A unique strategy for effectively suppressing charge recombination and enhancing light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is demonstrated by designing a new dipolar organic dye functionalized with a diacetylene unit, which is capable of undergoing photoinduced cross-linking reaction to generate a hydrophobic polydiacetylene layer. The polydiacetylene layer serves as not only an electrolyte-blocking layer to effectively block the approaching of the oxidized redox mediator and supress the dark current but also light-harvesting role by efficient energy transfer to the dipolar dyes...
January 12, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078400/characterization-of-four-endophytic-fungi-as-potential-consolidated-bioprocessing-hosts-for-conversion-of-lignocellulose-into-advanced-biofuels
#8
Weihua Wu, Ryan W Davis, Mary Bao Tran-Gyamfi, Alan Kuo, Kurt LaButti, Sirma Mihaltcheva, Hope Hundley, Mansi Chovatia, Erika Lindquist, Kerrie Barry, Igor V Grigoriev, Bernard Henrissat, John M Gladden
Recently, several endophytic fungi have been demonstrated to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with properties similar to fossil fuels, called "mycodiesel," while growing on lignocellulosic plant and agricultural residues. The fact that endophytes are plant symbionts suggests that some may be able to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes, making them capable of both deconstructing lignocellulose and converting it into mycodiesel, two properties that indicate that these strains may be useful consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) hosts for the biofuel production...
January 12, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077775/dung-odours-signal-sex-age-territorial-and-oestrous-state-in-white-rhinos
#9
Courtney Marneweck, Andreas Jürgens, Adrian M Shrader
Mammals commonly communicate olfactorily via urine. However, the extent to which they communicate via dung, another waste product, is unknown. Behavioural studies suggest that mammals can obtain information from dung odours but are unclear about the information transmitted. Moreover, an understanding of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from dung is limited. To address this, we analysed the odours emitted from the dung of free-ranging white rhinos, and found that 2,3-dimethylundecane signalled an individual's sex, heptanal discriminated age class, nonane defined male territorial status and 2,6-dimethylundecane indicated female oestrous state...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074957/high-efficiency-perovskite-solar-cells-prepared-by-using-a-sandwich-structure-mai-pbi2-mai-precursor-film
#10
Xuhui Zhang, Jiajiu Ye, Liangzheng Zhu, Haiying Zheng, Guozhen Liu, Xuepeng Liu, Bin Duan, Xu Pan, Songyuan Dai
Two-step deposition has been widely used in the perovskite layer preparation for perovskite solar cells due to its attractive morphology controllability. However, the limited diffusivity of CH3NH3I (MAI) might cause some PbI2 to remain in the perovskite film. The residual PbI2 in the perovskite film would lead to inferior performance of devices, such as, low power conversion efficiency (PCE), poor reproducibility and weak air stability. In this work, we developed a sandwich structure MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film to prepare a PbI2-free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film...
January 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073471/biochemistry-and-genetics-of-taste-and-odor-producing-cyanobacteria
#11
REVIEW
Susan B Watson, Paul Monis, Peter Baker, Steven Giglio
Cyanobacteria are one of the principal sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which cause offensive taste and odor (T&O) in drinking and recreational water, fish, shellfish and other seafood. Although non-toxic to humans, these T&O compounds severely undermine public trust in these commodities, resulting in substantial costs in treatment, and lost revenue to drinking water, aquaculture, food and beverage and tourist/hospitality industries. Mitigation and control have been hindered by the complexity of the communities and processes which produce and modify T&O events, making it difficult to source-track the major producer(s) and the factors governing VOC production and fate...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070022/stable-isotope-profiles-reveal-active-production-of-vocs-from-human-associated-microbes
#12
Joann Phan, Simone Meinardi, Barbara Barletta, Donald Blake, Katrine Whiteson
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured from exhaled breath have great promise for the diagnosis of bacterial infections. However, determining human or microbial origin of VOCs detected in breath remains a great challenge. For example, the microbial fermentation product 2,3-butanedione was recently found in the breath of CF patients; parallel culture-independent metagenomic sequencing of the same samples revealed that Streptococcus and Rothia spp. have the genetic capacity to produce 2,3-butanedione. To investigate whether the genetic capacity found in metagenomes translates to bacterial production of a VOC of interest such as 2,3-butanedione, we fed stable isotopes to three bacterial strains isolated from Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients: two Gram-positive bacteria, Rothia mucilaginosa and Streptococcus salivarius, and a dominant opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068534/potential-effects-of-loading-nano-zero-valent-iron-discharged-on-membrane-fouling-in-an-anoxic-oxic-membrane-bioreactor
#13
Lijie Zhou, Weiqin Zhuang, Xin Wang, Ke Yu, Shufang Yang, Siqing Xia
A laboratory-scale submerged anoxic-oxic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater was operated to investigate the potential effects of loading suspended nano zero valent iron (nZVI, 25 and 50 mg/L) discharged on the membrane fouling. nZVI transformed rapidly into Fe(n+), generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caused oxidative stress. This result rapidly led to the cell lysis and bacteria death, and further resulted in the decrease of biomass and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). nZVI also thinned the membrane fouling layer...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068288/monitoring-of-breath-vocs-and-electrical-impedance-tomography-under-pulmonary-recruitment-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#14
Beate Brock, Svend Kamysek, Josephine Silz, Phillip Trefz, Jochen K Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Analysis of exhaled VOCs can provide information on physiology, metabolic processes, oxidative stress and lung diseases. In critically ill patients, VOC analysis may be used to gain complimentary information beyond global clinical parameters. This seems especially attractive in mechanically ventilated patients frequently suffering from impairment of gas exchange. This study was intended to assess (a) the effects of recruitment maneuvers onto VOC profiles, (b) the correlations between electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data and VOC profiles and (c) the effects of recruitment onto distribution of ventilation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066506/reduced-voltage-losses-yield-10-efficient-fullerene-free-organic-solar-cells-with-1-v-open-circuit-voltages
#15
D Baran, T Kirchartz, S Wheeler, S Dimitrov, M Abdelsamie, J Gorman, R S Ashraf, S Holliday, A Wadsworth, N Gasparini, P Kaienburg, H Yan, A Amassian, C J Brabec, J R Durrant, I McCulloch
Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9...
December 1, 2016: Energy & Environmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064071/enhanced-efficiency-of-solid-state-nmr-investigations-of-energy-materials-using-an-external-automatic-tuning-matching-eatm-robot
#16
Oliver Pecher, David M Halat, Jeongjae Lee, Zigeng Liu, Kent J Griffith, Marco Braun, Clare P Grey
We have developed and explored an external automatic tuning/matching (eATM) robot that can be attached to commercial and/or home-built magic angle spinning (MAS) or static nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probeheads. Complete synchronization and automation with Bruker and Tecmag spectrometers is ensured via transistor-transistor-logic (TTL) signals. The eATM robot enables an automated "on-the-fly" re-calibration of the radio frequency (rf) carrier frequency, which is beneficial whenever tuning/matching of the resonance circuit is required, e...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061934/dynamic-modeling-of-hydrogen-sulfide-within-enclosed-environments-in-biosolids-recovery-facilities
#17
Rita Ventura Matos, Natércia Matias, Filipa Ferreira, José Saldanha Matos
  Hydrogen sulfide emissions from wastewater affect human health and equipment durability, thus presenting a complex issue for utilities. Several VOC emission models have been used before to predict H2S in collection systems and water resources recovery operations, even if with restrictions. By contrast, fewer studies focus on biosolids emissions and modelling. This paper presents a dynamic modelling approach to predict H2S concentration in a tank headspace of a wastewater biosolids recovery facility. Data from one of the largest Portuguese water resources recovery facilities was collected under different facility operating modes...
December 1, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061028/self-powered-electrochemical-oxidation-of-4-aminoazobenzene-driven-by-a-triboelectric-nanogenerator
#18
Shuyan Gao, Jingzhen Su, Xianjun Wei, Miao Wang, Miao Tian, Tao Jiang, Zhong Lin Wang
A rotary disc-structured triboelectric nanogenerator (rd-TENG) on the basis of free-standing electrification has been designed, where the aluminum composite panel has not been tailored to the stator becauseit is commercially available and cost-effective, has good electronic conductivity, and is easily processed. With the rotating speed increasing from 200 to 1000 rpm, the short-circuit current (Isc) is sharply enhanced from 50 μA to 200 μA, while the measured open-circuit voltage (Voc) and transferred charge (Qtr) almost keep constant, 600 V and 0...
January 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059241/binary-coded-identification-of-industrial-chemical-vapors-with-an-optofluidic-nose
#19
Abubakar Isa Adamu, Fahri Emre Ozturk, Mehmet Bayindir
An artificial nose system for the recognition and classification of gas-phase analytes and its application in identifying common industrial gases is reported. The sensing mechanism of the device comprises the measurement of infrared absorption of volatile analytes inside the hollow cores of optofluidic Bragg fibers. An array of six fibers is used, where each fiber targets a different region of the mid-infrared in the range of 2-14 μm with transmission bandwidths of about 1-3 μm. The quenching in the transmission of each fiber due to the presence of analyte molecules in the hollow core is measured separately and the cross response of the array allows the identification of virtually any volatile organic compound (VOC)...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049457/breathdx-molecular-analysis-of-exhaled-breath-as-a-diagnostic-test-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-protocol-for-a-european-multicentre-observational-study
#20
Pouline M P van Oort, Tamara Nijsen, Hans Weda, Hugo Knobel, Paul Dark, Timothy Felton, Nicholas J W Rattray, Oluwasola Lawal, Waqar Ahmed, Craig Portsmouth, Peter J Sterk, Marcus J Schultz, Tetyana Zakharkina, Antonio Artigas, Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Stephen J Fowler, Lieuwe D J Bos
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains time-consuming and costly, the clinical tools lack specificity and a bedside test to exclude infection in suspected patients is unavailable. Breath contains hundreds to thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that result from host and microbial metabolism as well as the environment. The present study aims to use breath VOC analysis to develop a model that can discriminate between patients who have positive cultures and who have negative cultures with a high sensitivity...
January 3, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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