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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440728/characterization-of-chemical-contaminants-generated-by-a-desktop-fused-deposition-modeling-3-dimensional-printer
#1
Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Ryan F LeBouf, Jinghai Yi, Jason Ham, Timothy Nurkewicz, Diane E Schwegler-Berry, Bean T Chen, J Raymond Wells, Matthew G Duling, Robert B Lawrence, Stephen B Martin, Alyson R Johnson, M Abbas Virji
Printing devices are known to emit chemicals into the indoor atmosphere. Understanding factors that influence release of chemical contaminants from printers is necessary to develop effective exposure assessment and control strategies. In this study, a desktop fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3-D printer using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polylactic acid (PLA) filaments and two monochrome laser printers were evaluated in a 0.5 m(3) chamber. During printing, chamber air was monitored for vapors using a real-time photoionization detector (results expressed as isobutylene equivalents) to measure total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, evacuated canisters to identify specific VOCs by off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and liquid bubblers to identify carbonyl compounds by GC-MS...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440072/efficient-bulk-heterojunction-ch3nh3pbi3-tio2-solar-cells-with-tio2-nanoparticles-at-grain-boundaries-of-perovskite-by-multi-cycle-coating-strategy
#2
Jun Shao, Songwang Yang, Yan Liu
A novel bulk heterojunction (BHJ) perovskite solar cell (PSC), where the perovskite grains act as donor and the TiO2 nanoparticles act as acceptor, is reported. This efficient BHJ PSC was simply solution-processed from a mixing precursor of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) and TiO2 nanoparticles. With dissolution and recrystallization by multi-cycle-coating, a unique composite structure ranging from a MAPbI3-TiO2-dominated layer on the substrate side to a pure perovskite layer on the top side is formed, which is beneficial for the blocking of possible contact between TiO2 and hole transport material on the interface...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440000/human-symptom-responses-to-bioeffluents-short-chain-carbonyls-acids-and-long-chain-carbonyls-in-a-simulated-aircraft-cabin-environment
#3
Clifford P Weisel, Nancy Fiedler, Charles J Weschler, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Krishnan R Mohan, Kathy McNeil, David Space
Occupants of aircraft have reported an array of symptoms related to general discomfort and irritation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested to contribute to the reported symptoms. VOCs are from products used, bioeffluents from people and ozone reaction products. Thirty-six healthy, young female subjects rated symptoms and environmental quality during an 8-hour exposure to groups of compounds often present in aircraft: 1) long chain carbonyls, 2) simulated bioeffluents, and 3) short chain carbonyls/organic acids...
April 25, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439048/faecal-volatile-organic-compounds-analysis-using-field-asymmetric-ion-mobility-spectrometry-non-invasive-diagnostics-in-paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Nora van Gaal, Rozanne Lakenman, James Covington, Richard Savage, Evelien de Groot, Marije Bomers, Marc Benninga, Chris Mulder, Nanne de Boer, Tim de Meij
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), remains challenging to diagnose. Diagnostic work up carries a high burden, especially in paediatric patients, due to invasive endoscopic procedures. IBD is associated with alterations in intestinal microbiota composition. Faecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reflect gut microbiota composition. Aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of faecal VOC profiling as non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for paediatric IBD...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439021/differences-between-measured-and-reported-volatile-organic-compound-emissions-from-oil-sands-facilities-in-alberta-canada
#5
Shao-Meng Li, Amy Leithead, Samar G Moussa, John Liggio, Michael D Moran, Daniel Wang, Katherine Hayden, Andrea Darlington, Mark Gordon, Ralf Staebler, Paul A Makar, Craig A Stroud, Robert McLaren, Peter S K Liu, Jason O'Brien, Richard L Mittermeier, Junhua Zhang, George Marson, Stewart G Cober, Mengistu Wolde, Jeremy J B Wentzell
Large-scale oil production from oil sands deposits in Alberta, Canada has raised concerns about environmental impacts, such as the magnitude of air pollution emissions. This paper reports compound emission rates (E) for 69-89 nonbiogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for each of four surface mining facilities, determined with a top-down approach using aircraft measurements in the summer of 2013. The aggregate emission rate (aE) of the nonbiogenic VOCs ranged from 50 ± 14 to 70 ± 22 t/d depending on the facility...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438317/a-novel-chromatographic-approach-to-distinguish-gram-positive-from-gram-negative-bacteria-using-exogenous-volatile-organic-compound-metabolites
#6
Susana Ramírez-Guízar, Hannah Sykes, John D Perry, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Stanforth, Ma Cristina I Perez-Perez, John R Dean
This paper utilized L-alanine aminopeptidase activity as a useful approach to distinguish between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This was done using two enzyme substrates, specifically 2-amino-N-phenylpropanamide and 2-amino-N-(4-methylphenyl)propanamide which liberated the volatile compounds aniline and p-toluidine, respectively. Two complementary analytical techniques have been used to identify and quantify the VOCs, specifically static headspace multicapillary column gas chromatography ion mobility spectrometry (SHS-MCC-GC-IMS) and headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436218/the-ptr3-a-novel-instrument-for-studying-the-lifecycle-of-reactive-organic-carbon-in-the-atmosphere
#7
Martin Breitenlechner, Lukas Fischer, Markus Hainer, Martin Heinritzi, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel
We have developed and characterized the novel PTR3, a Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF) using a new gas inlet and an innovative reaction chamber design. The reaction chamber consists of a tripole operated with RF voltages generating an electric field only in radial direction. An elevated electrical field is necessary to reduce clustering of primary hydronium (H3O(+)) and product ions with water molecules present in the sample gas. The axial movement of the ions is achieved by the sample gas flow only...
April 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435781/carbon-nanotubes-in-tio2-nanofiber-photoelectrodes-for-high-performance-perovskite-solar-cells
#8
Munkhbayar Batmunkh, Thomas J Macdonald, Cameron J Shearer, Munkhjargal Bat-Erdene, Yun Wang, Mark J Biggs, Ivan P Parkin, Thomas Nann, Joseph G Shapter
1D semiconducting oxides are unique structures that have been widely used for photovoltaic (PV) devices due to their capability to provide a direct pathway for charge transport. In addition, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have played multifunctional roles in a range of PV cells because of their fascinating properties. Herein, the influence of CNTs on the PV performance of 1D titanium dioxide nanofiber (TiO2 NF) photoelectrode perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is systematically explored. Among the different types of CNTs, single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) incorporated in the TiO2 NF photoelectrode PSCs show a significant enhancement (≈40%) in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) as compared to control cells...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432965/spatiotemporal-description-of-btex-volatile-organic-compounds-in-a-middle-eastern-megacity-tehran-study-of-exposure-prediction-for-environmental-health-research-tehran-sepehr
#9
Heresh Amini, Vahid Hosseini, Christian Schindler, Hossein Hassankhany, Masud Yunesian, Sarah B Henderson, Nino Künzli
The spatiotemporal variability of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Tehran, Iran, is not well understood. Here we present the design, methods, and results of the Tehran Study of Exposure Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran SEPEHR) on ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX. To date, this is the largest study of its kind in a low- and middle-income country and one of the largest globally. We measured BTEX concentrations at five reference sites and 174 distributed sites identified by a cluster analytic method...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429762/annealing-induced-re-crystallization-in-ch3nh3pbi3-xclx-for-high-performance-perovskite-solar-cells
#10
Yingguo Yang, Shanglei Feng, Meng Li, Weidong Xu, Guangzhi Yin, Zhaokui Wang, Baoquan Sun, Xingyu Gao
Using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as hole conductor, a series of inverted planar CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated based on perovskite annealed by an improved time-temperature dependent (TTD) procedure in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere for different time. Only after an optimum annealing time, an optimized power conversion efficiency of 14.36% could be achieved. To understand their performance dependence on annealing time, an in situ real-time synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) was used to monitor a step-by-step gradual structure transformation from distinct mainly organic-inorganic hybrid materials into highly ordered CH3NH3PbI3 crystal during annealing...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429390/microporous-polyamide-membranes-for-molecular-sieving-of-nitrogen-from-volatile-organic-compounds
#11
Haoli Zhou, Fei Tao, Quan Liu, Chunxin Zong, Wenchao Yang, Xingzhong Cao, Wanqin Jin, Nanping Xu
Microporous polymer membranes continue to receive tremendous attention for energy-efficient gas separation processes owing to their high separation performances. A new network microporous polyamide membrane with good molecular-sieving performance for the separation of N2 from a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture is described. Triple-substituted triptycene was used as the main monomer to form a fisherman's net-shaped polymer, which readily forms a composite membrane by solution casting. This membrane exhibited outstanding separation performance and good stability for the molecular-sieving separation of N2 over VOCs such as cyclohexane...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426293/identifying-thermal-breakdown-products-of-thermoplastics
#12
Marianne Guillemot, Benoît Oury, Sandrine Melin
Polymers processed to produce plastic articles are subjected to temperatures between 150°C and 450°C or more during overheated processing and breakdowns. Heat-based processing of this nature can lead to emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the thermoplastic processing shop. In this study, laboratory experiments, qualitative and quantitative emissions measurement in thermoplastic factories were carried out. The first step was to identify the compounds released depending on the thermoplastic nature, the temperature and the type of process...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426040/enhancement-of-the-hole-conducting-effect-of-nio-by-a-n2-blow-drying-method-in-printable-perovskite-solar-cells-with-low-temperature-carbon-as-the-counter-electrode
#13
T A Nirmal Peiris, Ajay K Baranwal, Hiroyuki Kanda, Shota Fukumoto, Shusaku Kanaya, Ludmila Cojocaru, Takeru Bessho, Tsutomu Miyasaka, Hiroshi Segawa, Seigo Ito
In this article, we demonstrate for the first time a mesoscopic printable perovskite solar cell (PSC) using NiO as the hole transporting material and low-temperature processed carbon as the counter electrode. A single deposition method assisted by N2 blow drying was used for the deposition of MAPbI3 on a TiO2/ZrO2/NiO screen-printed electrode. As the final step a low-temperature processing (i.e. 75 °C) carbon counter layer was fabricated on MAPbI3 by a blade coating method. It is found that the capping layer thickness of MAPbI3 has a significant effect on the device efficiency, especially when NiO is introduced as a hole transporting material into the structure...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423218/strain-specific-variation-in-plant-growth-promoting-volatile-organic-compound-production-by-five-different-pseudomonas-spp-as-confirmed-by-response-of-vigna-radiata-seedlings
#14
Jishma P, Nisma Hussain, Rakhi Chellappan, Romy Rajendran, Jyothis Mathew, Radhakrishnan E K
AIM: Analysis of blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by Pseudomonas spp. with growth promoting effect in Vigna radiata seedlings. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plant growth promoting activity of VOCs produced by five different Pseudomonas spp. was investigated by I-plate technique. VOCs produced by different organisms were extracted by various solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and butanol) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422943/the-effect-of-prenatal-tvoc-exposure-on-birth-and-infantile-weight-the-mothers-and-children-s-environmental-health-moceh-study
#15
Moonhee Chang, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yun-Chul Hong, Youn-Hee Lim, Yangho Kim, Young Ju Kim, Dongheon Lee, Eun-Hee Ha
BACKGROUND: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) might restrict prenatal and postnatal growth. However, the effect of prenatal VOCs exposure on postnatal growth has not been studied sufficiently. Thus we investigated the relationship between total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) exposure during pregnancy and postnatal growth. METHODS: A total of 383 pregnant participants were enrolled from 2006 to 2008. We investigated maternal characteristics using questionnaire...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418289/volatile-organic-compounds-produced-by-a-soil-isolate-bacillus-subtilis-fa26-induce-adverse-ultra-structural-changes-to-the-cells-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-ssp-sepedonicus-the-causal-agent-of-bacterial-ring-rot-of-potato
#16
Faheem Uddin Rajer, Huijun Wu, Yongli Xie, Shanshan Xie, Waseem Raza, Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Xuewen Gao
Rhizobacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in the suppression of soil-borne phytopathogens. In this study, the VOCs produced by a soil-isolate, Bacillus subtilis FA26, were evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The VOCs emitted by FA26 inhibited the growth of Cms significantly compared with the control. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed distorted colony morphology and a wide range of abnormalities in Cms cells exposed to the VOCs of FA26...
April 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417171/resolution-optimized-headspace-gas-chromatography-ion-mobility-spectrometry-hs-gc-ims-for-non-targeted-olive-oil-profiling
#17
Natalie Gerhardt, Markus Birkenmeier, Daniel Sanders, Sascha Rohn, Philipp Weller
A prototype gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) system, hyphenating temperature-ramped headspace GC to a modified drift time IMS cell, was evaluated and compared to a conventional, isothermal capillary column (CC)-IMS system on the example of the geographical differentiation of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from Spain and Italy. It allows orthogonal, 2D separation of complex samples and individual detection of compounds in robust and compact benchtop systems. The information from the high-resolution 3D fingerprints of volatile organic compound (VOC) fractions of EVOO samples were extracted by specifically developed chemometric MATLAB® routines to differentiate between the different olive oil provenances...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412617/selection-of-optimized-air-pollutant-filtration-technologies-for-petrochemical-industries-through-multiple-attribute-decision-making
#18
Parvin Moridi, Farideh Atabi, Jafar Nouri, Rasoul Yarahmadi
Selecting cost-effective and efficient air filtration technologies that ensure sustainable development is a challenge to national, regional and local policy makers. Various factors such as efficiency, maintainability, and design of the developed devices can affect the selection of optimized technologies. The present study aimed to select optimal technologies for air filtration devices in petrochemical industries through a multi-criteria decision-making (MADM) method based on a fuzzy model of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409887/a-blue-diketopyrrolopyrrole-sensitizer-with-high-efficiency-in-nio-based-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#19
Fabrice Odobel, Yoann Farre, Mahfoudh Raissi, Arnaud Fihey, Yann Pellegrin, Errol Blart, Denis Jacquemin
We have prepared a series of four new diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPPs) based sensitizers that exhibit high molar extinction coefficients, extended absorption into the long wavelengths and well suited photoredox properties to act as sensitizers in p-DSSCs. These new DPP dyes, composed of a thienyl DPP core, are substituted on one end either by a thiophene carboxylic (Th) or a 4,4'-((phenyl)aza)dibenzoic acid as anchoring group and, on the other extremity, either by a proton or a naphthalene diimide (NDI) moiety...
April 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408917/high-level-of-nitrogen-makes-tomato-plants-releasing-less-volatiles-and-attracting-more-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae
#20
Md Nazrul Islam, Abu Tayeb Mohammad Hasanuzzaman, Zhan-Feng Zhang, Yi Zhang, Tong-Xian Liu
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production is seriously hampered by the infestation of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MEAM 1 (Middle East-Asia Minor 1). The infestation behavior of the whiteflies could be affected by the quantity of plant released volatile organic compounds (VOCs) related to nitrogen concentrations of the plant. In this study, we determined the infestation behavior of B. tabaci to the tomato plants that produced different levels of VOCs after application of different levels of nitrogen with a wind tunnel and an olfactometer...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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