Read by QxMD icon Read


Guozhu Zhao, Guohua Yin, Arati A Inamdar, Jing Luo, Ning Zhang, Ill Yang, Brian Buckley, Joan W Bennett
Super Storm Sandy provided an opportunity to study filamentous fungi (molds) associated with winter storm damage. We collected 36 morphologically distinct fungal isolates from flooded buildings. By combining traditional morphological and cultural characters with an analysis of ITS sequences (the fungal DNA barcode), we identified 24 fungal species that belong to 8 genera: Penicillium (12 species), Fusarium (4 species), Aspergillus (3 species), Trichoderma (2 species), and one species each of Metarhizium, Mucor, Pestalotiopsis, and Umbelopsis...
October 17, 2016: Indoor Air
Kenion H Blakeman, Craig A Cavanaugh, William M Gilliland, J Michael Ramsey
RATIONALE: There are many chemical measurement scenarios that would benefit from hand portable mass spectrometry tools including forensics, environmental monitoring, and safety and security. High pressure mass spectrometry (HPMS) facilitates miniaturization by significantly reducing vacuum system requirements. Previous work demonstrated HPMS using helium buffer gas, but HPMS conducted using ambient air would further reduce the size and weight of a portable instrument while also reducing logistical demands by eliminating the need for a helium supply...
October 17, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Jin-Lian Chen, Shi-Zhong Sun, Cui-Ping Miao, Kai Wu, You-Wei Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Hui-Lin Guan, Li-Xing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Biocontrol agents are regarded as promising and environmental friendly approaches as agrochemicals for phytodiseases that cause serious environmental and health problems. Trichoderma species have been widely used in suppression of soil-borne pathogens. In this study, an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019, from healthy Panax notoginseng root was investigated for its biocontrol potential. METHODS: In vitro detached healthy roots, and pot and field experiments were used to investigate the pathogenicity and biocontrol efficacy of T...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Guiqian Tang, Na Chao, Yuesi Wang, Jiashan Chen
Vehicular emissions in China in 2006 and 2010 were calculated at a high spatial resolution based on the data released by the National Bureau of Statistics, by taking the emission standards into consideration. China's vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), fine particulate matters (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matters (PM10), black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) were 30,113.9, 4593.7, 6838.0, 20.9, 400.2, 430.5, 285.6, and 105...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Qinghuan Xu, Lin Yang, Wangting Yang, Yan Bai, Ping Hou, Jingxian Zhao, Lv Zhou, Zhaojiang Zuo
Eutrophication promotes massive growth of cyanobacteria and algal blooms, which can poison other algae and reduce biodiversity. To investigate the differences in multiple nitrogen (N) sources in eutrophicated water on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cyanobacteria, and their toxic effects on other algal growth, we analyzed VOCs emitted from Microcystis flos-aquae with different types and concentrations of nitrogen, and determined the effects under Normal-N and Non-N conditions on Chlorella vulgaris...
October 11, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Cleyton Martins da Silva, Luane Lima da Silva, Sergio Machado Corrêa, Graciela Arbilla
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a central role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, the kinetic and mechanistic reactivities of VOCs are analyzed, and the contribution of the organic compounds emitted by anthropogenic and natural sources is estimated. VOCs react with hydroxyl radicals and other photochemical oxidants, such as ozone and nitrate radicals, which cause the conversion of NO to NO2 in various potential reaction paths, including photolysis, to form oxygen atoms, which generate ozone. The kinetic reactivity was evaluated based on the reaction coefficients for hydroxyl radicals with VOCs...
October 13, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Miyuki Noguchi, Saya Tanaka, Kaede Watanabe, Akihiro Yamasaki
We examined the correlation between the odor concentration and the chemical composition of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Three types of ETS samples were prepared: secondhand smoke (SHS), thirdhand smoke (THS), and field ETS samples from an outside smoking area. The odor concentrations of the ETS, SHS, and THS samples were determined by the triangle-odor-bag method, and the chemical compositions were determined by proton transfer mass spectrometry. The odor concentration of the SHS samples was three or four orders of magnitude higher than that of the field ETS samples, and three orders of magnitude higher than that of the THS samples...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rongrong Chen, Jiandong Fan, Chong Liu, Xing Zhang, Yanjiao Shen, Yaohua Mai
Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductor has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative absorber in thin film solar cell in virtue of its earth-abundant, non-toxic element, suitable optical and electrical properties. Herein, a low-cost and non-toxic method that based on the thermal decomposition and reaction of metal-thiourea-oxygen sol-gel complexes to synthesize CZTS thin film was developed. The low-dimensional ZnO@CdS heterojunction nano-arrays coupling with the as-prepared CZTS thin film were employed to fabricate a novel solar cell with inverted structure...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ivan Kourtchev, Chiara Giorio, Antti Manninen, Eoin Wilson, Brendan Mahon, Juho Aalto, Maija Kajos, Dean Venables, Taina Ruuskanen, Janne Levula, Matti Loponen, Sarah Connors, Neil Harris, Defeng Zhao, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas Mentel, Yinon Rudich, Mattias Hallquist, Jean-Francois Doussin, Willy Maenhaut, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, John Wenger, Markku Kulmala, Markus Kalberer
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sean W Harshman, Nilan Mani, Brian A Geier, Jae Kwak, Phillip Shepard, Maomian Fan, Gregory L Sudberry, Ryan S Mayes, Darrin K Ott, Jennifer A Martin, Claude C Grigsby
Exhaled breath is coming to the forefront of non-invasive biomarker discovery efforts. Concentration of exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on thermal desorption (TD) tubes with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has dominated this field. As discovery experimentation increases in frequency, the need to evaluate the long-term storage stability of exhaled breath VOCs on thermal desorption adsorbent material is critical. To address this gap, exhaled breath was loaded on Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes and stored at various temperature conditions...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Kristin Schallschmidt, Roland Becker, Christian Jung, Wolfram Bremser, Thorsten Walles, Jens Neudecker, Gunda Leschber, Steffen Frese, Irene Nehls
This paper outlines the design and performance of an observational study on the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of 37 lung cancer patients and 23 healthy controls of similar age. The need to quantify each VOC considered as a potential disease marker on the basis of individual calibration is elaborated, and the quality control measures required to maintain reproducibility in breath sampling and subsequent instrumental trace VOC analysis using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over a study period of 14 months are described...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Susana Arrechea, Ana Aljarilla, Pilar de la Cruz, Emilio Palomares, Ganesh D Sharma, Fernando Langa
Two new conjugated acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor (A-π-D-π-A) porphyrins have been synthesised using 3-ethylrhodanine (1a) or dicyanovinylene (1b) groups as acceptor units. Their optical and electrochemical properties made these materials excellent electron donors along with PC71BM as the acceptor for solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. The devices based on 1a:PC71BM (1 : 2) and 1b:PC71BM (1 : 2) processed with CB showed low power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 2.30% and 2...
October 12, 2016: Nanoscale
Philip B Pedros, Omid Askari, Hameed Metghalchi
During the last decade municipal wastewater treatment plants have been regulated with increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements including nitrogen. Typically biological treatment processes are employed to meet these limits. Although the nitrogen in the wastewater stream is reduced, certain steps in the biological processes allow for the release of gaseous nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas (GHG). A comprehensive study was conducted to investigate the potential to mitigate N2O emissions from biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes by means of thermal decomposition...
October 4, 2016: Water Research
Xisheng Zhang, Dong Yang, Zhou Yang, Xiaojia Guo, Bin Liu, Xiaodong Ren, Shengzhong Frank Liu
The PEDOT:PSS is often used as the window layer in the normal structured PEDOT:PSS/c-Si hybrid solar cell (HSC), leading to significantly reduced response, especially in red and near-infrared region. By depositing the PEDOT:PSS on the rear side of the c-Si wafer, we developed an inverted structured HSC with much higher solar cell response in the red and near-infrared spectrum. Passivating the other side with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) before electrode deposition, the minority carrier lifetime has been significantly increased and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the inverted HSC is improved to as high as 16...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Herbivores emit plant-associated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after feeding on plants. These plant-associated VOCs can be used by parasitoids to locate their hosts. It is hypothesized that certain compounds play key roles in the attractiveness of host-associated odor blends. The larval parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its herbivore host, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major pest of cotton plant were used as model species to identify key compounds mediating attraction of parasitoids to hosts...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jake A Pruett, J Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Stephanie M Campos, Helena A Soini, Milos V Novotny, Cuauhcihuatl Vital-García, Emília P Martins, Diana K Hews
Animals rely on multimodal signals to obtain information from conspecifics through alternative sensory systems, and the evolutionary loss of a signal in one modality may lead to compensation through increased use of signals in an alternative modality. We investigated associations between chemical signaling and evolutionary loss of abdominal color patches in males of four species (two plain-bellied and two colorful-bellied) of Sceloporus lizards. We conducted field trials to compare behavioral responses of male lizards to swabs with femoral gland (FG) secretions from conspecific males and control swabs (clean paper)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Telugu Bhim Raju, Jayraj V Vaghasiya, Mohammad Adil Afroz, Saurabh S Soni, Parameswar Krishnan Iyer
The influence of TiO2 film thickness on the performance of DSSCs with a new series of dyes having ortho-fluorine substituted phenyl spacers and different donor moieties is reported. Optical, electrochemical, molecular orbital and photovoltaic properties were studied by varying the TiO2 thickness (9 and 12 μm) using these dyes. The thickness variation of TiO2 films had a significant effect on the open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc) and efficiency. The Jsc and Voc of dye 1b with a TiO2 film thickness of 12 μm (8...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Atef Thamri, Hamdi Baccar, Claudia Struzzi, Carla Bittencourt, Adnane Abdelghani, Eduard Llobet
The chemical modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a long chain mercapto acid is reported as a way to improve sensitivity and response time of gas sensors for detecting alcohols, acetone and toxic gases such as DMMP. We have developed sensors employing MWCNTs decorated with gold nanoparticles and modified with a 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) monolayer. Morphological and compositional analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the gold nanoparticles and to check the bonding of the thiol monolayer...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marie Chantal Lemfack, Srinivasa Rao Ravella, Nicola Lorenz, Marco Kai, Kirsten Jung, Stefan Schulz, Birgit Piechulla
The skin microbiota is import for body protection. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of typical skin-resident corynebacterial and staphylococcal species. The VOC profile of Staphylococcus schleiferi DSMZ 4807 was of particular interest as it is dominated by two compounds, 3-(phenylamino)butan-2-one and 3-(phenylimino)butan-2-one (schleiferon A and B, respectively). Neither of these has previously been reported from natural sources. Schleiferon A and B inhibited the growth of various Gram-positive species and affected two quorum-sensing-dependent phenotypes - prodigiosin accumulation and bioluminescence - of Gram-negative bacteria...
September 27, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Piers MacNaughton, John Spengler, Jose Vallarino, Suresh Santanam, Usha Satish, Joseph Allen
Green buildings are designed to have low environmental impacts and improved occupant health and well-being. Improvements to the built environment including ventilation, lighting, and materials have resulted in improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in green buildings, but the evidence around occupant health is currently centered around environmental perceptions and self-reported health. To investigate the objective impact of green buildings on health, we tracked IEQ, self-reported health, and heart rate in 30 participants from green and conventional buildings for two weeks...
August 1, 2016: Building and Environment
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"