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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244654/novel-nanostructured-electron-transport-compact-layer-for-efficient-and-large-area-perovskite-solar-cells-using-acidic-treatment-of-titanium-layer
#1
Fatemeh Ansari, Pariya Nazari, Masoud Payandeh, Farzad Mardehkatani Asl, Bahram Abdollahi Nejand, Vahid Ahmadi, Jalal Taghiloo, Masoud Salavati
A new method for the deposition of a pinhole-free compact layer of TiO2 was introduced for the efficient perovskite solar cells. Acidic treatment of titanium layer (ATTL) which was deposited by rotational magnetron sputtering, presents a compact pinhole-free TiO2 thin film. Deposition of compact TiO2 thin film on FTO layers by ATTL did not change the surface roughness. To compare the introduced method, perovskite solar cell devices were fabricated and studied using different methods in the deposition of TiO2 compact layers, which were used as common compact layer deposition methods...
December 15, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244616/application-of-passive-sorbent-tube-and-canister-samplers-for-volatile-organic-compounds-at-refinery-fenceline-locations-in-whiting-indiana
#2
Shaibal Mukerjee, Luther A Smith, Motria P Caudill, Karen D Oliver, Wayne Whipple, Donald A Whitaker, Tamira A Cousett
Select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air were measured at four fenceline sites at a petroleum refinery in Whiting, Indiana, USA using modified EPA Method 325 A/B with passive tubes and EPA Compendium Method TO-15 with canister samplers. One-week, time-integrated samplers were deployed for eight weeks with tubes and canister samplers deployed in duplicate. Good precision was obtained from the duplicate tubes (< 7%) and duplicate canisters (≤ 10%) for BTEX, perchloroethylene, and styrene. The tubes yielded statistically significantly higher concentrations than canisters for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m,p-xylene...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240978/biomimicry-of-volatile-based-microbial-control-for-managing-emerging-fungal-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Kyle T Gabriel, Joseph D Sexton, Christopher T Cornelison
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by a wide range of microorganisms and for a number of purposes. Volatile-based microbial inhibition in environments such as soil is well-founded, with numerous antimicrobial VOCs having been identified. Inhibitory VOCs are of interest as microbial control agents, as low concentrations of gaseous VOCs can elicit significant antimicrobial effects. Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals typically characterized as having low molecular weight, low solubility in water, and high vapor pressure...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236184/hybrid-uv-ozone-treated-rgo-pedot-pss-as-an-efficient-hole-transport-material-in-inverted-planar-perovskite-solar-cells
#4
Shuying Wang, Xiaona Huang, Haoxuan Sun, Chunyang Wu
Inverted planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs), which are regarded as promising devices for new generation of photovoltaic systems, show many advantages, such as low-temperature film formation, low-cost fabrication, and smaller hysteresis compared with those of traditional n-i-p PSCs. As an important carrier transport layer in PSCs, the hole transport layer (HTL) considerably affects the device performance. Therefore, HTL modification becomes one of the most critical issues in improving the performance of PSCs...
December 13, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236157/isoprene-emissions-and-ozone-formation-in-urban-conditions-a-case-study-in-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro
#5
Cleyton Martins da Silva, Sergio Machado Corrêa, Graciela Arbilla
The potential role of isoprene oxidative processes, as well as the possible impact of air pollution on isoprene emissions, are more important in tropical cities, surrounded by rainforests. In this study, the contribution of isoprene to ozone formation was determined considering different scenarios, mainly volatile organic compounds/NO x (VOC/NO x ) ratios, and typical atmospheric conditions for the city of Rio de Janeiro, where more than 36% of the urbanized area is covered by vegetation. Ozone isopleths and incremental reactivity coefficients (IR) were evaluated to understand the direct contribution of isoprene to ground-level ozone formation and the negative impact of anthropogenic NO x emissions on the natural atmospheric balance...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235849/all-small-molecule-solar-cells-incorporating-ndi-based-acceptors-synthesis-and-full-characterization
#6
Jisu Hong, Yeon Hee Ha, Hyojung Cha, Ran Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Chan Eon Park, James R Durrant, Soon-Ki Kwon, Tae Kyu An, Yun-Hi Kim
A series of naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based small molecules were synthesized as nonfullerene acceptors and incorporated in all-small-molecule solar cells. Three NDI-based small molecules, NDICN-T, NDICN-BT, and NDICN-TVT, were designed with different linkers between two NDI units to induce the different conjugation length and modulate the geometric structures of the NDI dimers. The small NDI-based dimer electron acceptors with slip-stacked structures that facilitate π-π stacking interactions and/or hinder excessive aggregation exhibited different morphological behaviors, such as miscibility or crystallinity in bulk heterojunction blends with 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (DTS-F) electron donors...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234454/pulmonary-injury-associated-with-spray-of-a-water-based-nano-sized-waterproofing-product-a-case-study
#7
Paul T J Scheepers, Lucie Masen-Poos, Frits G B G J van Rooy, Arné Oerlemans, Eline van Daalen, Robbert Cremers, Hera Lichtenbeld, Bonne Biesma, Jorid B Sørli, Ismo K Koponen, Søren Thor Larsen, Peder Wolkoff, Asger W Nørgaard
Background: In most reported cases of lung trauma with water proofing products, volatile organic compounds (VOC) have a prominent role. Here we report on a case involving ten workers exposed to a sprayed product containing nanoparticles in a water solution with only a few percent VOC. Case presentation: Ten workers suffered from respiratory symptoms following spray impregnation of hardwood furniture using a waterproofing product that contained positively charged fluorinated acrylate copolymer solid cores with a median diameter of 70 nm (1...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234099/characterization-of-ozone-in-the-lower-troposphere-during-the-2016-g20-conference-in-hangzhou
#8
Wenjing Su, Cheng Liu, Qihou Hu, Guangqiang Fan, Zhouqing Xie, Xin Huang, Tianshu Zhang, Zhenyi Chen, Yunsheng Dong, Xiangguang Ji, Haoran Liu, Zhuang Wang, Jianguo Liu
Recently, atmospheric ozone pollution has demonstrated an aggravating tendency in China. To date, most research about atmospheric ozone has been confined near the surface, and an understanding of the vertical ozone structure is limited. During the 2016 G20 conference, strict emission control measures were implemented in Hangzhou, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta, and its surrounding regions. Here, we monitored the vertical profiles of ozone concentration and aerosol extinction coefficients in the lower troposphere using an ozone lidar, in addition to the vertical column densities (VCDs) of ozone and its precursors in the troposphere through satellite-based remote sensing...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231889/exploring-the-caste-specific-multi-layer-defense-mechanism-of-formosan-subterranean-termites-coptotermes-formosanus-shiraki
#9
Abid Hussain, Ming-Yi Tian, Shuo-Yang Wen
The survival and foraging of Coptotermesformosanus Shiraki in a microbe-rich environment reflect the adaptation of an extraordinary, sophisticated defense mechanism by the nest-mates. We aimed to explore the host pathogen interaction by studying caste-specific volatile chemistry and genes encoding the antioxidant defense of winged imagoes, nymphs, soldiers and workers of Formosan subterranean termites. Qualitative analyses of C.formosanus Shiraki performed by HS-SPME/GC-MS showed considerable variations in the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their proportions among all the castes...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231842/smell-of-cells-volatile-profiling-of-stem-and-non-stem-cell-proliferation
#10
Ann-Christin Bischoff, Peter Oertel, Pritam Sukul, Christian Rimmbach, Robert David, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Bacterial and cell cultures are known to emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Conventional biochemical methods are often destructive, time-consuming and ex-pensive. In contrast, VOC analysis of headspace over cultures, may offer a non-destructive alternative to monitor cell proliferation and metabolism. VOC profiles from cultures of murine pluripotent stem cells and fibroblasts were assessed every 24 hours for 3 days. Pure cell media were measured as parallel controls. VOC analysis was highly standardized with respect to time of measurement and phases of cell growth...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231015/-relationship-between-the-change-rules-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-rat-muscle-and-postmortem-interval
#11
B B Liu, Z Y Xia, J Q Ma, P Li, P Lü, H M Zhou
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between the change rules of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in rat muscle and postmortem interval (PMI). METHODS: A total of 120 healthy rats were divided randomly into 12 groups (10 for each group). After the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, the bodies were kept at (25±1) ℃. Rat muscle samples were separately obtained at 12 PMI points, including 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 d...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226594/selective-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-for-quantitative-detection-of-lung-cancer-biomarkers-in-superparticle-mof-structure
#12
Xuezhi Qiao, Bensheng Su, Cong Liu, Qian Song, Dan Luo, Guang Mo, Tie Wang
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a trace detection technique that extends even to single molecule detection. Its potential application to the noninvasive recognition of lung malignancies by detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that serve as biomarkers would be a breakthrough in early cancer diagnostics. This application, however, is currently limited by two main factors: (1) most VOC biomarkers exhibit only weak Raman scattering; and (2) the high mobility of gaseous molecules results in a low adsorptivity on solid substrates...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223899/nighttime-nox-loss-and-clno2-formation-in-the-residual-layer-of-a-polluted-region-insights-from-field-measurements-and-an-iterative-box-model
#13
Hui Yun, Tao Wang, Weihao Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Qinyi Li, Zhe Wang, Steven C N Poon
The heterogeneous reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on aerosols is an important sink of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the polluted boundary layer, and the production of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can have significant effects on the atmospheric oxidative capacity. However, the heterogeneous loss of N2O5 and the formation of ClNO2 are still not well quantified, especially in China. In a previous study, we measured ClNO2 and N2O5 concentrations in several air masses at a high-elevation site in Hong Kong, and found the highest levels ever reported at one night...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222304/targeting-novel-mechanisms-of-pain-in-sickle-cell-disease
#14
REVIEW
Huy Tran, Mihir Gupta, Kalpna Gupta
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) suffer from intense pain that can start during infancy and increase in severity throughout life, leading to hospitalization and poor quality of life. A unique feature of SCD is vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) characterized by episodic, recurrent, and unpredictable episodes of acute pain. Microvascular obstruction during a VOC leads to impaired oxygen supply to the periphery and ischemia reperfusion injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which may perpetuate a noxious microenvironment leading to pain...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218139/herbivory-by-leaf-cutter-ants-changes-the-glandular-trichomes-density-and-the-volatile-components-in-an-aromatic-plant-model
#15
Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos Tozin, Marcia Ortiz Mayo Marques, Tatiane Maria Rodrigues
Herbivory can induce several structural and functional alterations in the plant secretory system. Glandular trichomes are the main sites of production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with several chemical properties in Lamiaceae species. Ocimum species usually have three morphotypes of glandular trichomes (morphotype I is peltate and has a wide four-celled head; morphotype II is capitate and has a unicellular head; and morphotype III is capitate with a bicellular head) which produce a great amount of terpenes, although other chemical categories of substances are also produced...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218109/rational-lung-tissue-and-animal-models-for-rapid-breath-tests-to-determine-pneumonia-and-pathogens
#16
Yong Zhou, Enguo Chen, Xiaohong Wu, Yanjie Hu, Huiqing Ge, Peifeng Xu, Yingchang Zou, Joy Jin, Ping Wang, Kejing Ying
OBJECTIVE: This study works to develop novel models that may be adopted for earlier non-invasive breathomics tests to determine pneumonia pathogens. METHODS: Two types of pneumonia models were created, both in vitro and in vivo. Paraneoplasm lung tissue and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits were adopted and separately challenged with sterile saline solution control or three pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After inoculation, headspace air or exhaled air were absorbed by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fibers and subsequently analyzed with gas chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217486/aberrant-promoter-methylation-in-genes-related-to-hematopoietic-malignancy-in-workers-exposed-to-a-voc-mixture
#17
Octavio Jiménez-Garza, Liqiong Guo, Hyang-Min Byun, Mariella Carrieri, Giovanni Battista Bartolucci, Briscia Socorro Barrón-Vivanco, Andrea A Baccarelli
Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may cause hematopoietic malignancy, either by single exposure to benzene or possibly due to a concomitant exposure to several VOCs. Since oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA repair pathways are closely involved in cancer development, the effect of VOC exposure on expression of proteins involved in these pathways has been studied, but epigenetic changes have not been well described. Here, DNA methylation status following occupational exposure to a VOC mixture was assessed by bisulfite sequencing of the promoter regions of seven genes involved in the mentioned pathways...
December 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216422/distinguishing-petroleum-crude-oil-and-fuel-from-smoke-exposure-within-populations-based-on-the-relative-blood-levels-of-benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-and-xylenes-btex-styrene-and-2-5-dimethylfuran-by-pattern-recognition-using-artificial-neural-networks
#18
David Michael Chambers, Christopher Mark Reese, Lydia Grace Thornburg, Eduardo Sanchez, Jessica Patricia Rafson, Benjamin C Blount, John Russell Erskine Ruhl, Victor Raul De Jesus
Studies of exposure to petroleum (crude oil/fuel) often involve monitoring benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) and styrene (BTEXS) because of their toxicity and gas-phase prevalence, where exposure is typically by inhalation. However, BTEXS levels in the general U.S. population are primarily from exposure to tobacco smoke, where smokers have blood levels on average up to eight times higher than nonsmokers. This work describes a method using partition theory and artificial neural network (ANN) pattern recognition to classify exposure source based on relative BTEXS and 2,5-dimethylfuran blood levels...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215961/analysis-of-air-quality-in-dire-dawa-ethiopia
#19
Oluwasinaayomi Faith Kasim, Muluneh Woldetisadik Abshare, Samuel Babatunde Agbola
Ambient air quality was monitored and analysed to develop air quality index and its implications for liveability and climate change in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. Using survey research design, 16 geo-referenced locations, representing different land uses, were randomly selected and assessed for sulphur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO),Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity). The study found mean concentrations across all land uses for SO2 of 0...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215760/synergistic-effects-of-selenophene-and-extended-ladder-type-donor-units-for-efficient-polymer-solar-cells
#20
Hua-Chun Wang, Qing-Ya Li, Hong-Bo Yin, Xiancheng Ren, Kai Yao, Yonghao Zheng, Yun-Xiang Xu
Two pairs of polymer donor materials based on indacenodithiophene (IDT) and indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene (IDTT) as the donor units are synthesized. Thiophene or selenophene is introduced as the π-bridge units and electron-deficient fluorine-substituted quinoxaline is used as acceptor unit. Selenophene-containing polymers PIDT-DFQ-Se and PIDTT-DFQ-Se show redshifted absorption and narrower bandgaps. Combined with IDTT donor unit, PIDTT-DFQ-Se shows the highest absorption coefficient. Both the IDTT unit and selenophene unit have positive effects on the hole mobilities, making PIDTT-DFQ-Se the highest one...
December 7, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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