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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208654/a-protein-isolate-from-moringa-oleifera-leaves-has-hypoglycemic-and-antioxidant-effects-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice
#1
Paulo C Paula, Daniele O B Sousa, Jose T A Oliveira, Ana F U Carvalho, Bella G T Alves, Mirella L Pereira, Davi F Farias, Martonio P Viana, Flavia A Santos, Talita C Morais, Ilka M Vasconcelos
Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature...
February 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196799/a-phase-2-trial-of-long-acting-transcon-growth-hormone-in-adult-gh-deficiency
#2
Charlotte Höybye, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Diego Ferone, Jens S Christiansen, David Gilfoyle, Eva Dam Christoffersen, Eva Mortensen, Jonathan A Leff, Michael Beckert
TransCon growth hormone is a sustained release human growth hormone prodrug in development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope)...
February 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192480/mtor-activity-in-aids-related-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#3
Sara H Browne, Julio A Diaz-Perez, Michael Preziosi, Charles C King, George A Jones, Sonia Jain, Xiaoying Sun, Erin G Reid, Scott VandenBerg, Huan-You Wang
BACKGROUND: Patients infected with HIV have a significantly increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphomas despite the widespread use of HAART. To investigate mTOR pathway activity in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma AR-DLBCL, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the presence of the phosphorylated 70 ribosomal S6 protein-kinase (p70S6K), an extensively studied effector of mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and the phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog (pPTEN), a negative regulator of mTORC1 pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187313/il-20-contributes-to-low-grade-inflammation-and-weight-gain-in-the-psammomys-obesus
#4
Helena Cucak, Lise Høj Thomsen, Alexander Rosendahl
The metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated in gene deficient animals, e.g. db/db mice, to include a systemic inflammation leading to insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). To determine the importance of inflammation in obesity and diabetes, in a normal non-genetically modified species, an intervention study with neutralizing anti-IL-20 antibodies was conducted in the spontaneous T2D model Psammomys obesus. All IL-20 receptor chains were expressed on protein level in the Psammomys obesus. Neutralization of IL-20 did not modulate blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin levels or lymphocyte numbers after five weeks treatment although a trend to reduced weight gain rate was observed upon anti-IL-20 treatment...
February 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185128/effects-of-trpm7-mir-34a-gene-silencing-on-spatial-cognitive-function-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-mice-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Qing-Jiu Zhang, Jie Li, Song-Yun Zhang
This study aimed to explore the effects of transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7)/microRNA-34a (miR-34a) gene silencing on spatial cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). BALB/c mice were chosen to establish T1DM models and divided into five groups respectively: the negative control (NC), T1DM, T1DM + si-TRPM7, T1DM + si-miR-34a, and T1DM + si-TRPM7 + si-miR-34a groups. Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to observe behavioral alterations in mice...
February 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174179/s100b-impairs-glycolysis-via-enhanced-poly-adp-ribosyl-ation-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-in-rodent-muscle-cells
#6
Kaori Hosokawa, Yoji Hamada, Atsushi Fujiya, Masatoshi Murase, Ryuya Maekawa, Yasuhiro Niwa, Takako Izumoto, Yusuke Seino, Shin Tsunekawa, Hiroshi Arima
S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a multifunctional macromolecule mainly expressed in nerve tissues and adipocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. To clarify the role of S100B in insulin action and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues, we investigated the effect of S100B on glycolysis in myoblast and myotube cells. Rat myoblast L6 cells were treated with recombinant mouse S100B to examine glucose consumption, lactate production, glycogen accumulation, glycolytic metabolites and enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164609/anti-cytoplasmic-autoantibodies-in-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#7
Joachim Sennekamp, Hans-Peter Seelig
BACKGROUND: A 42-year old male patient with anamnesis of bronchial asthma presented himself with exertional dyspnea. High titer antibodies of cytoplasmic pattern in the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) on HEp-2cells, not attributable to common specificities like anti-tRNA-synthetases, anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) or anti-ribosomal proteins (RPs) prompted the molecular biological approach for determination of antigen specificity. In-depth investigation of the patient's clinical settings revealed a lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma, which could be brought to complete remission by chemotherapy...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164139/dietary-supplementation-of-astragalus-polysaccharides-enhanced-immune-components-and-growth-factors-egf-and-igf-1-in-sow-colostrum
#8
Lunbo Tan, Ting Wei, Anwen Yuan, Jun He, Jinhui Liu, Daojun Xu, Qing Yang
Colostrum is the main external resource providing piglets with nutrients and maternal immune molecules. Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) have been used as immunopotentiators in vitro and several animal models. This study aimed to determine the effects of APS on immune factors in sow colostrum and milk. The sow diet was supplemented with APS one week before the expected delivery date. Colostrum and milk were collected and designated as 0 h- (onset of parturition), 12 h-, and 24 h-colostrum and 36 h-milk postpartum...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149264/serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-quantitation-by-mass-spectrometry-insights-for-protein-quantitation-with-this-technology
#9
Richard Kin Ting Kam, Chung Shun Ho, Michael Ho Ming Chan
Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a widely used technique in the clinical laboratory, especially for small molecule quantitation in biological specimens, for example, steroid hormones and therapeutic drugs. Analysis of circulating macromolecules, including proteins and peptides, is largely dominated by traditional enzymatic, spectrophotometric, or immunological assays in clinical laboratories. However, these methodologies are known to be subjected to interfering substances, for example heterophilic antibodies, as well as subjected to non-specificity issues...
December 2016: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149012/filarial-abundant-larval-transcript-protein-alt-2-an-immunomodulatory-therapeutic-agent-for-type-1-diabetes
#10
Sridhar M Reddy, Pooja M Reddy, Nitin Amdare, Vishal Khatri, Aaditya Tarnekar, Kalyan Goswami, Maryada Venkata Rami Reddy
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) that accounts for about 5-10 % of all diabetes cases results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. It is characterized by severe inflammatory reaction mediated by pronounced T helper type-1 response. Parasitic infections having the ability to skew the host immune responses towards type-2 type as a part of their defense mechanism are able to induce protection against autoimmune diseases like T1D. Hence, the present study is undertaken to explore a recombinant abundant larval transcript protein of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (rBmALT-2), a known anti-inflammatory molecule for its therapeutic effect on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D in mice...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143425/higher-igfbp-1-to-igf-1-serum-ratio-predicts-unfavourable-survival-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#11
Xinwei Feng, Jianhua Lin, Shan Xing, Wanli Liu, Ge Zhang
BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. However, little is known about the expression of the IGF system components and their clinicopathological significance and prognostic value in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: IGF system components (IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1SR, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-6) were quantified from the plasma of NPC patients and healthy individuals using the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array...
January 31, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132934/sustained-epidermal-powder-drug-delivery-via-skin-microchannels
#12
Yan Cao, Prateek Kakar, Md Nazir Hossen, Mei X Wu, Xinyuan Chen
Transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs is challenging. This study presents a novel sustained epidermal powder delivery technology (sEPD) for safe, efficient, and sustained delivery of hydrophilic drugs across the skin. sEPD is based on coating powder drugs into high-aspect-ratio, micro-coating channels (MCCs) followed by topical application of powder drug-coated array patches onto ablative fractional laser-generated skin MCs to deliver drugs into the skin. We found sEPD could efficiently deliver chemical drugs without excipients and biologics drugs in the presence of sugar excipients into the skin with a duration of ~12h...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130446/coupling-of-insulin-secretion-and-display-of-a-granule-resident-zinc-transporter-znt8-on-the-surface-of-pancreatic-beta-cells
#13
Qiong Huang, Chengfeng Merriman, Hao Zhang, Dax Fu
The islet-specific zinc transporter ZnT8 mediates zinc enrichment in the insulin secretory granules of the pancreatic beta cell. This granular zinc transporter is also a major self-antigen found in type-1 diabetes (T1D) patients. It is not clear whether ZnT8 can be displayed on the cell surface and how insulin secretion may regulate the level of ZnT8 exposure to extracellular immune surveillance. Here we report specific antibody binding to the extracellular surface of rat insulinoma INS-1E cells that stably expressed a tagged human zinc transporter ZnT8...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127991/tshr-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-graves-disease
#14
Terry Smith
Introduction Graves' disease (GD) and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) are thought to result from actions of pathogenic antibodies mediated through the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). This leads to the unregulated consequences of the antibody-mediated receptor activity in the thyroid and connective tissues of the orbit. Recent studies reveal antibodies that appear to be directed against the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR). Areas covered In this brief article, I attempt to review the fundamental characteristics of the TSHR, its role in GD and TAO, and its relationship to IGF-IR...
January 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122051/low-cytochrome-oxidase-1-links-mitochondrial-dysfunction-to-atherosclerosis-in-mice-and-pigs
#15
Paul Holvoet, Maarten Vanhaverbeke, Benjamine Geeraert, Dieuwke De Keyzer, Maarten Hulsmans, Stefan Janssens
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome oxidase IV complex regulates energy production in mitochondria. Therefore, we determined the relation of COX genes with atherosclerosis in mice and pigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we compared atherosclerosis in the aortic arch of age-matched (24 weeks) C57BL/6J control (n = 10), LDL-receptor deficient (n = 8), leptin-deficient ob/ob (n = 10), and double knock-out (lacking LDL-receptor and leptin) mice (n = 12). Low aortic mitochondria-encoded cytochrome oxidase 1 in obese diabetic double knock-out mice was associated with a larger plaque area and higher propensity of M1 macrophages and oxidized LDL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115918/immune-enrichment-of-insulin-in-bio-fluids-on-gold-nanoparticle-decorated-target-plate-and-in-situ-detection-by-maldi-ms
#16
Kai Liang, Hongmei Wu, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Detection of low-abundance biomarkers using mass spectrometry (MS) is often hampered by non-target molecules in biological fluids. In addition, current procedures for sample preparation increase sample consumption and limit analysis throughput. Here, a simple strategy is proposed to construct an antibody-modified target plate for high-sensitivity MS detection of target markers such as insulin, in biological fluids. METHODS: The target plate was first modified with gold nanoparticle, and then functionalized with corresponding antibody through chemical conjugation...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115707/glucagon-receptor-inhibition-normalizes-blood-glucose-in-severe-insulin-resistant-mice
#17
Haruka Okamoto, Katie Cavino, Erqian Na, Elizabeth Krumm, Sun Y Kim, Xiping Cheng, Andrew J Murphy, George D Yancopoulos, Jesper Gromada
Inactivating mutations in the insulin receptor results in extreme insulin resistance. The resulting hyperglycemia is very difficult to treat, and patients are at risk for early morbidity and mortality from complications of diabetes. We used the insulin receptor antagonist S961 to induce severe insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and ketonemia in mice. Using this model, we show that glucagon receptor (GCGR) inhibition with a monoclonal antibody normalized blood glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate levels. Insulin receptor antagonism increased pancreatic β-cell mass threefold...
January 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111849/sulfonylurea-challenge-test-in-subjects-diagnosed-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Maria S Remedi, Mareen Thomas, Colin G Nichols, Bess A Marshall
BACKGROUND: Patients with early onset diabetes because of defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) may respond better to sulfonylureas than insulin treatment. Such patients include those with monogenic disorders, who can be differentiated from autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) by genetic testing. Genetic testing is expensive and unknown defects in GSIS would not be diagnosed. AIMS: We propose a sulfonylurea challenge test to identify patients who have been clinically diagnosed with T1DM, but those who maintain a preferentially sulfonylurea-responsive insulin secretion...
January 23, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107439/development-of-a-dipg-orthotopic-model-in-mice-using-an-implantable-guide-screw-system
#19
Miguel Marigil, Naiara Martinez-Velez, Pablo D Domínguez, Miguel Angel Idoate, Enric Xipell, Ana Patiño-García, Marisol Gonzalez-Huarriz, Marc García-Moure, Marie-Pierre Junier, Hervé Chneiweiss, Elías El-Habr, Ricardo Diez-Valle, Sonia Tejada-Solís, Marta M Alonso
OBJECTIVE: In this work we set to develop and to validate a new in vivo frameless orthotopic Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) model based in the implantation of a guide-screw system. METHODS: It consisted of a guide-screw also called bolt, a Hamilton syringe with a 26-gauge needle and an insulin-like 15-gauge needle. The guide screw is 2.6 mm in length and harbors a 0.5 mm central hole which accepts the needle of the Hamilton syringe avoiding a theoretical displacement during insertion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101570/inhibition-of-tlr4-protects-rat-islets-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-dysfunction
#20
Xiao Wang, Qin Min Ge, Fan Bian, Yan Dong, Chun Mei Huang
Oxidative stress leads to dysfunction in pancreatic cells, causing a reduction in insulin secretion following exposure to glucose. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may be activated by exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress. TLR4 may mediate the initiation of inflammatory and immune defense responses; however, the importance of the LPS/TLR4 interaction in apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the importance of TLR4 during LPS‑induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and dysfunction of insulin secretion in isolated islets of rats...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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