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Insulin antibodies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916774/non-islet-cell-tumor-hypoglycemia-caused-by-a-big-insulin-like-growth-factor-ii-producing-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-autopsy-case-report
#1
Hirohito Naruse, Norihiko Shimoyama, Tsugumi Satoh, Yoshiya Yamamoto, Kazuteru Hatanaka, Taiki Kudo, Masayoshi Ohno, Kazuharu Suzuki, Hajime Hirata, Marina Suzuki
A 73-year-old man with a hepatocellular carcinoma was admitted to our hospital. He suffered from recurrent severe hypoglycemia. An autopsy was performed after his death. Anti-insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) monoclonal antibody immunostaining of the hepatocellular carcinoma was positive. Western immunoblot analysis of the serum revealed highly elevated IGF-II. Therefore, we diagnosed this case as a non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia caused by a big IGF-II-producing hepatocellular carcinoma.
2016: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913012/hyperglycemic-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-in-patients-receiving-sglt-2-inhibitors-for-diabetes-management
#2
Juliette Sandifer Kum-Nji, Aidar R Gosmanov, Helmut Steinberg, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a class of antidiabetic medications that improve glycemic control via inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose and are approved for use in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These drugs have recently been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). An increasing number of cases of SGLT-2i-associated DKA have occurred in patients with T2DM. Herein, we describe five episodes of hyperglycemic DKA in four type 2 diabetes patients receiving SGLT-2i therapy...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905891/erratum-to-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-mediated-tyrosine-845-phosphorylation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-the-presence-of-monoclonal-antibody-cetuximab
#3
Gopal Iyer, James Price, Shay Bourgeois, Eric Armstrong, Shyhmin Huang, Paul M Harari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900974/disseminated-mycobacteria-chelonae-infection-in-a-kidney-pancreas-transplant-recipient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Shafi Malik, Ananda Ghosh, Shahid Husain
A 40-year-old male with a long-standing history of type 1 diabetes with end-stage renal failure underwent combined kidney-pancreas (KP) transplant from a standard criteria donor. Post-operative course was uncomplicated with good primary function of both transplant grafts. Induction was with thymoglobulin and maintenance immunosuppression was with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Nine weeks post-transplant, the patient developed dysfunction of both grafts. Panel reactive antibody testing revealed that the patient had developed a de novo donor-specific antibody and considering an antibody-mediated rejection the patient was treated with intravenous pulse methyl prednisone 500 mg ×3 doses, IV immunoglobulin 2 mg/kg in two divided doses, and ATG 7 mg/kg (total dose of 700 mg)...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891401/premature-ovarian-failure-an-association-with-autoimmune-diseases
#5
Ayesha, Vandana Jha, Deepti Goswami
INTRODUCTION: Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) is the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40 years. POF is reported to be associated with autoimmune diseases in 20-30% of cases. AIM: Patients presenting with idiopathic POF were screened for the presence of autoimmune disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with idiopathic POF were included in the study. Baseline investigation in all subjects included fasting serum FSH, LH, E2, progesterone, free T3, free T4, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Anti-Thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, testosterone and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) levels...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891268/a-case-report-describing-a-rare-presentation-of-simultaneous-occurrence-of-mpo-anca-associated-vasculitis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Nathalie Foray, Tamer Hudali, Muralidhar Papireddy, John Gao
Background. Renal-limited myeloperoxidase vasculitis with simultaneous rheumatoid arthritis is reported as a rare occurrence. Review of literature suggests that most patients had a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis for several years prior to presenting with renal failure from myeloperoxidase vasculitis. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old Caucasian male presented to the hospital experiencing malaise, fevers, decreased oral intake, nausea, and vomiting for one week duration. His past medical history consisted of newly diagnosed but untreated rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874076/oligofructose-as-an-adjunct-in-treatment-of-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#7
Clement Chan, Colin M Hyslop, Vipul Shrivastava, Andrea Ochoa, Raylene A Reimer, Carol Huang
In type 1 diabetes, restoration of normoglycemia can be achieved if the autoimmune attack on beta cells ceases and insulin requirement is met by the residual beta cells. We hypothesize that an adjunctive therapy that reduces insulin demand by increasing insulin sensitivity will improve the efficacy of an immunotherapy in reversing diabetes. We tested the gut microbiota-modulating prebiotic, oligofructose (OFS), as the adjunctive therapy. We treated non-obese diabetic mice with an immunotherapy, monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody (aCD3), with or without concurrent dietary supplement of OFS...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870972/mek-erk-signaling-is-involved-in-the-role-of-vegf-and-igf1-in-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-mouse-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#8
Chunhui Wang, Wenhui Liu, Xianning Zhang, Yinghui Wang, Huan Liu, Haifang Li
BACKGROUND: We found that mouse brown adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (BATDCs), but not white adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (WATDCs), could spontaneously differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells in a simple culture medium. This study would find out some critical trophic factors that were responsible for such difference in differentiation, and further determine the involved signaling pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cardiomyocyte differentiation capacity of cells was identified by morphological observations, immunofluorescence staining, and evaluation of expression of cardiomyocyte specific markers...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862363/a-comprehensive-microbiological-safety-approach-for-agarose-encapsulated-porcine-islets-intended-for-clinical-trials
#9
Lawrence S Gazda, James Collins, Archie Lovatt, Robert W Holdcraft, Merribeth J Morin, Daniel Galbraith, Melanie Graham, Melissa A Laramore, Christine Maclean, John Black, Euan W Milne, Douglas G Marthaler, Horatiu V Vinerean, Michelle M Michalak, Deborah Hoffer, Steven Richter, Richard D Hall, Barry H Smith
BACKGROUND: The use of porcine islets to replace insulin-producing islet β-cells, destroyed during the diabetogenic disease process, presents distinct challenges if this option is to become a therapeutic reality for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. These challenges include a thorough evaluation of the microbiological safety of the islets. In this study, we describe a robust porcine islet-screening program that provides a high level of confidence in the microbiological safety of porcine islets suitable for clinical trials...
November 11, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861887/effects-of-localized-interactions-and-surface-properties-on-stability-of-protein-based-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Brittney J Mills, Jennifer S Laurence Chadwick
OBJECTIVES: Protein-based therapeutics garner significant attention because of exquisite specificity and limited side effects and are now being used to accomplish targeted delivery of small-molecule drugs. This review identifies and highlights individual chemical attributes and categorizes how site-specific changes affect protein stability based on published high-resolution molecular analyses. KEY FINDINGS: Because it is challenging to determine the mechanisms by which the stability of large, complex molecules is altered and data are sparse, smaller, therapeutic proteins (insulin, erythropoietin, interferons) are examined alongside antibody data...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858328/adverse-events-and-efficacy-of-cixutumumab-in-phase-ii-clinical-trials-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Hongxin Cao, Lixuan Cui, Wei Ma, Linhai Zhu, Kai Wang, Yang Ni, Yibing Wang, Jiajun Du
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cixutumumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of cixutumumab in the treatment of cancer, and to comprehensively assess the associated adverse events in phase II clinical trials. METHODS: Data were collected from PubMed, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov. The improvement on progression-free survival (PFS) was evaluated by hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)...
November 17, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855237/insulin-autoimmune-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-postprandial-hypoglycemia
#12
Pooja Sahni, Nitin Trivedi, Abdulkadir Omer
: A 65-year-old obese Caucasian woman presented with symptomatic postprandial hypoglycemic episodes, resolution of symptoms with carbohydrate intake and significantly elevated anti-insulin antibody levels. She did not have any evidence for the use of oral antidiabetic medications, insulin, herbal substances, performing strenuous exercise or history of bariatric surgery. Fingerstick blood glucose readings revealed blood sugar of 35 mg/dL and 48 mg/dL, when she had these symptoms. Her medical history was significant for morbid obesity, hypothyroidism and gastro esophageal reflux disease...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853810/inflammation-but-not-recruitment-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-requires-signalling-through-mac-1-cd11b-cd18-in-diet-induced-obesity-dio
#13
Dennis Wolf, Nora Bukosza, David Engel, Marjorie Poggi, Felix Jehle, Nathaly Anto Michel, Yung-Chih Chen, Christian Colberg, Natalie Hoppe, Bianca Dufner, Louis Boon, Hermann Blankenbach, Ingo Hilgendorf, Constantin von Zur Muhlen, Jochen Reinöhl, Björn Sommer, Timoteo Marchini, Mark A Febbraio, Christian Weber, Christoph Bode, Karlheinz Peter, Esther Lutgens, Andreas Zirlik
Cell accumulation is a prerequisite for adipose tissue inflammation. The leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2) is a classic adhesion receptor critically regulating inflammatory cell recruitment. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a genetic deficiency and a therapeutic modulation of Mac-1 regulate adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). C57Bl6/J mice genetically deficient (Mac-1(-/-)) or competent for Mac-1 (WT) consumed a high fat diet for 20 weeks. Surprisingly, Mac-1(-/-) mice presented with increased diet-induced weight gain, decreased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and in the liver in insulin-clamps, insulin secretion deficiency and elevated glucose levels in fasting animals, and dyslipidaemia...
November 17, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852316/defined-three-dimensional-culture-conditions-mediate-efficient-induction-of-definitive-endoderm-lineage-from-human-umbilical-cord-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Ashraf Al Madhoun, Hamad Ali, Sarah AlKandari, Valerie Lopez Atizado, Nadeem Akhter, Fahd Al-Mulla, Maher Atari
BACKGROUND: Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are gaining increasing interest as an alternative source of stem cells for regenerative medicine applications. Definitive endoderm (DE) specification is a prerequisite for the development of vital organs such as liver and pancreas. Hence, efficient induction of the DE lineage from stem cells is crucial for subsequent generation of clinically relevant cell types. Here we present a defined 3D differentiation protocol of WJ-MSCs into DE cells...
November 16, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845231/streptozotocin-diabetes-increases-mrna-expression-of-ketogenic-enzymes-in-the-rat-heart
#15
George A Cook, Eduard N Lavrentyev, Kevin Pham, Edwards A Park
BACKGROUND: Diabetic cardiomyopathy develops in insulin-dependent diabetic patients who have no hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy or vascular disease. Diabetes increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation, but cardiac hypertrophy limits fatty acid oxidation. Here we examined effects of diabetes on gene expression in rat hearts. METHODS: We used oligonucleotide microarrays to examine effects of insulindependent diabetes in the rat heart. RTQ PCR confirmed results of microarrays...
November 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836414/identification-of-the-igf-1-processing-product-human-ec-rodent-eb-peptide-in-various-tissues-evidence-for-its-differential-regulation-after-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-humans
#16
George Vassilakos, Anastassios Philippou, Michael Koutsilieris
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a pleiotropic factor expressed in various tissues and plays a critical role in skeletal muscle physiology. Alternative splicing of the IGF-1 gene gives rise to different precursor polypeptides (isoforms) which could undergo post-translational cleavage, generating the common mature IGF-1 peptide and different carboxyl terminal extension (E-) peptides, with the fate of the latter being, so far, unknown. The objective if this study was to identify the IGF-1Ec forms or processing product(s), other than mature IGF-1, generated in different human and rodent tissues and particularly in human skeletal muscle after exercise-induced damage...
November 4, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835791/the-role-of-pdgfr-%C3%AE-activation-in-acquired-resistance-to-igf-1r-blockade-in-preclinical-models-of-rhabdomyosarcoma
#17
Christine M Heske, Choh Yeung, Arnulfo Mendoza, Joshua T Baumgart, Leah D Edessa, Xiaolin Wan, Lee J Helman
To determine what alternative pathways may act as mechanisms of bypass resistance to type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) blockade in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), we compared expression of receptor tyrosine kinase activity in a number of IGF-1R antibody-resistant and -sensitive RMS cell lines. We found that platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β) activity was upregulated in three xenograft-derived IGF-1R antibody-resistant cell lines that arose from a highly sensitive fusion-positive RMS cell line (Rh41)...
November 8, 2016: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830021/tongxinluo-modulates-cytokine-secretion-by-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Hehe Cui, Na Li, Xiangdong Li, Kang Qi, Qing Li, Chen Jin, Tianjie Wang, Lian Duan, Leipei Jiang, Guihao Chen, Zhigang Wang, Cong Wei, Yuejin Yang
Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) extensively secrete cytokines during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI). Tongxinluo (TXL) has been demonstrated to preserve the function of the endothelium and myocardium against MIRI. This study was designed to identify alterations in the paracrine function of CMECs under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) conditions and assess its modulation by TXL. CMECs were exposed to different concentrations of TXL for 30 min and then subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation for 12 and 2 h, respectively...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823763/structure-of-neuro-endocrine-and-neuro-epithelial-interactions-in-human-foetal-pancreas
#19
Yuliya Krivova, Alexandra Proshchina, Valeriy Barabanov, Olga Leonova, Sergey Saveliev
In the pancreas of many mammals including humans, endocrine islet cells can be integrated with the nervous system components into neuro-insular complexes. The mechanism of the formation of such complexes is not clearly understood. The present study evaluated the interactions between the nervous system components, epithelial cells and endocrine cells in the human pancreas. Foetal pancreas, gestational age 19-23 weeks (13 cases) and 30-34 weeks (7 cases), were studied using double immunohistochemical labeling with neural markers (S100 protein and beta III tubulin), epithelial marker (cytokeratin 19 (CK19)) and antibodies to insulin and glucagon...
October 26, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804051/receptor-mediated-toxicity-of-human-amylin-fragment-aggregated-by-short-and-long-term-incubations-with-copper-ions
#20
Giuseppe Caruso, Donatella A Distefano, Paolo Parlascino, Claudia G Fresta, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Susan M Lunte, Vincenzo G Nicoletti
Human amylin (hA1-37) is a polypeptide hormone secreted in conjunction with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The shorter fragment hA17-29 than full-length peptide is capable to form amyloids "in vitro". Here, we monitored the time course of hA17-29 β-amyloid fibril and oligomer formation [without and with copper(II)], cellular toxicity of different amyloid aggregates, and involvement of specific receptors (receptor for advanced glycation end-products, RAGE; low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, p75-NGFR) in aggregate toxicity...
November 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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