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Insulin antibodies

Galia Spectre, Fariborz Mobarrez, Ragnhild Stålesen, Claes-Göran Östenson, David Varon, Håkan Wallen, Paul Hjemdahl
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with prothrombotic alterations, and postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications. We therefore investigated whether a standardized mixed meal alters circulating microparticles (MPs) and their procoagulant activity in DM patients. Patients with DM type 1 (T1DM, n = 11) and type 2 (T2DM; n = 9) were studied before and 90 min after a standardized meal (without premeal insulin). MPs in plasma derived from platelets (PMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs), or monocytes (MMPs) were measured by flow cytometry...
March 16, 2018: Platelets
Su Hwan Lee, Ju Hye Shin, Joo Han Song, Ah Young Leem, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Kyung Soo Chung
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels are known to increase in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Herein, we investigated the role of IGF-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. In LPS-treated cells, expressions of receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) were decreased in IGF-1 receptor small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated cells compared to control cells. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-α, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2/C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 in the supernatant were significantly reduced in IGF-1 receptor siRNA-treated cells compared to control cells...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Robyn K Pollom, Timothy Costigan, Lyndon B Lacaya, Liza L Ilag, Priscilla A Hollander
INTRODUCTION: To compare efficacy and safety of Basaglar® [insulin glargine 100 units/mL; LY insulin glargine (LY IGlar)] to Lantus® [insulin glargine 100 units/mL; SA insulin glargine (SA IGlar)] in older (≥ 65 years) or younger (< 65 years) patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This subgroup analysis of a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multinational, 24-week study compared LY IGlar and SA IGlar on several clinical efficacy (change in glycated hemoglobin (A1c), basal insulin dose, weight) and safety outcomes (incidence of adverse events, insulin antibodies, hypoglycemia incidence and rates) in patients either ≥ 65 or < 65 years...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Min Yang, Li Su, Qin Tao, Chenxi Zhang, Yueyue Wu, Jun Liu
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT) is a common organ-specific autoimmune disorder associated with a high incidence, and insulin resistance is highly related to autoimmune. Here, we examined the insulin sensitivity in HT patients and found decreased insulin sensitivity occurred in HT patients. To explore the relationship between impaired insulin sensitivity and immune status, we established HT model mice which showed similar pathological features and immune features to HT patients. In HT model mice, reinfusion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) from peripheral blood of normal mice could improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Bin Zhao, Jun-Jie Xia, Lu-Min Wang, Chang Gao, Jia-Li Li, Jia-Yin Liu, Qi-Jun Cheng, Chen Dai, Qi-Lin Ma, Zhong-Quan Qi, Ben-Hua Zhao
The role of arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) in inhibiting immune rejection and prolonging islet allograft survival has been identified in islet allotransplantation. This study aims to explore the role of As2 O3 in islet xenotransplantation and the action mechanism. The streptozotocin (STZ) was used in C57BL/6 mice to induce the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) for xenotransplantation models establishment. Donor islets were isolated by digesting. The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze lymphocyte types. The blood sugar level was detected by using intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT)...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Tomohide Yamada, Ryuichi Kamata, Kotomi Ishinohachi, Nobuhiro Shojima, Sophia Ananiadou, Hisashi Noma, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Takashi Kadowaki
Biosimilar insulins have expanded treatment options for diabetes. We compared clinical efficacy and safety between biosimilar and originator insulins by meta-analysis. Random effects meta-analysis was performed on randomized controlled trials comparing biosimilar and originator insulins in adults with diabetes from electronic databases up to December 2017. Ten trials (4,935 patients) were assessed (2 each for LY2963016, MK-1293, Mylan's insulin glargine, and SAR342434, and 1 each for FFP-112 and Basalog). Meta-analysis revealed no differences between long-acting biosimilar and originator insulins for reduction of hemoglobin A1c at 24 weeks (0...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Anna E Long, Isabel V Wilson, Dorothy J Becker, Ingrid M Libman, Vincent C Arena, F Susan Wong, Andrea K Steck, Marian J Rewers, Liping Yu, Peter Achenbach, Rosaura Casas, Johnny Ludvigsson, Alistair J K Williams, Kathleen M Gillespie
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Multiple islet autoimmunity increases risk of diabetes, but not all individuals positive for two or more islet autoantibodies progress to disease within a decade. Major islet autoantibodies recognise insulin (IAA), GAD (GADA), islet antigen-2 (IA-2A) and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A). Here we describe the baseline characteristics of a unique cohort of 'slow progressors' (n = 132) who were positive for multiple islet autoantibodies (IAA, GADA, IA-2A or ZnT8A) but did not progress to diabetes within 10 years...
March 12, 2018: Diabetologia
Fumiko Kawasaki, Takatoshi Anno, Maiko Takai, Shintaro Irie, Hideaki Kaneto, Kohei Kaku, Niro Okimoto
Type B insulin resistance syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease and no effective therapy has yet been established. On the other hand, it is known that Saibokuto, one type of Japanese Kampo medicine, may have beneficial effects on various symptoms associated with this disease and it is therefore occasionally prescribed for various immune disorders. We herein describe a case of type B insulin resistance syndrome in which anti-insulin receptor antibody disappeared and the patient's glycemic control markedly improved after the administration of Saibokuto...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Haiyan Wang, Huanshun Yin, Hua Huang, Kelin Li, Yunlei Zhou, Geoffrey I N Waterhouse, Hai Lin, Shiyun Ai
Herein, a novel dual-signal amplified photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor was successfully developed for the highly selective detection of N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) methylated RNA. The PEC biosensor comprised BiVO4 -110-TiO2 heterojunction and gold nanoparticle decorated MoS2 (MoS2 -AuNPs) as the photoactive materials, horseradish peroxidase conjugated biotin (HRP-Biotin) as the enzymatic unit, Ag+ -mediated cytosine pairs (C-Ag+ -C) as the signal amplification unit, and the anti-m6 A antibody as the m6 A methylated RNA recognition unit...
February 27, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Anthony B El-Khoueiry, Robert O'Donnell, Thomas J Semrad, Philip Mack, Suzette Blanchard, Nathan Bahary, Yixing Jiang, Yun Yen, John Wright, Helen Chen, Heinz-Josef Lenz, David R Gandara
PURPOSE: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is activated in hepatocarcinogenesis. Cixutumumab is a monoclonal antibody against human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Given the cross-talk between the IGF and VEGF pathways, we performed a phase I study of the combination of cixutumumab and sorafenib in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). METHODS: Eligible patients with no prior systemic therapy for advanced HCC and Child-Pugh A to B7 were treated with sorafenib 400 mg BID and escalating doses of cixutumumab (2, 4, or 6 mg/kg IV weekly) in a 3 + 3 design...
March 8, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Ke He, Yun Hu, Jun-Cheng Shi, Yun-Qing Zhu, Xiao-Ming Mao
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur more frequently in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and microorganisms of UTIs in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Patients and methods: A total of 3,652 Chinese inpatients with T2D were reviewed and data on their clinical characteristics, symptoms of UTIs, random blood glucose, HbA1c, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody, insulin autoantibody, albumin excretion rate in 24-hour urine, urine culture and susceptibility to antibiotics, and so on were collected...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Shreyasi Asthana, Bibekanand Mallick, Andrei T Alexandrescu, Suman Jha
Islet amyloid polypeptide (a.k.a. IAPP, amylin) is a 37 amino acid hormone that has long been associated with the progression of type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM) disease. The endocrine peptide hormone aggregatively misfolds to form amyloid deposits in and around the pancreatic islet β-cells that synthesize both insulin and IAPP, leading to a decrease in β-cell mass in patients with the disease. Extracellular IAPP amyloids induce β-cell death through the formation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, chromatin condensation, and apoptotic mechanisms, although the precise roles of IAPP in TIIDM are yet to be established...
March 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Vini Singh, Sadagopan Krishnan
Diabetes is a complex immune disorder that requires extensive medical care beyond glycemic control. Recently, the prevalence of diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes (T1D), has significantly increased from 5% to 10%, and this has affected the health-associated complication incidences in children and adults. The 2012 statistics by the American Diabetes Association reported that 29.1 million Americans (9.3% of the population) had diabetes, and 86 million Americans (age ≥20 years, an increase from 79 million in 2010) had prediabetes...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Florence Gunawan, Elizabeth George, Adam Roberts
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment for advanced melanoma, and their use is being increasingly implicated in the development of autoimmune endocrinopathies. We present a case of a 52-year-old man with metastatic melanoma on combination nivolumab and ipilumimab therapy who developed concurrent hypophysitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and diabetes insipidus. He presented prior to third cycle of combination treatment with a headache, myalgias and fatigue. Biochemistry and MRI pituitary confirmed anterior pituitary dysfunction with a TSH: 0...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Emma Ahlqvist, Petter Storm, Annemari Käräjämäki, Mats Martinell, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Annelie Carlsson, Petter Vikman, Rashmi B Prasad, Dina Mansour Aly, Peter Almgren, Ylva Wessman, Nael Shaat, Peter Spégel, Hindrik Mulder, Eero Lindholm, Olle Melander, Ola Hansson, Ulf Malmqvist, Åke Lernmark, Kaj Lahti, Tom Forsén, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Anders H Rosengren, Leif Groop
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is presently classified into two main forms, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but type 2 diabetes in particular is highly heterogeneous. A refined classification could provide a powerful tool to individualise treatment regimens and identify individuals with increased risk of complications at diagnosis. METHODS: We did data-driven cluster analysis (k-means and hierarchical clustering) in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (n=8980) from the Swedish All New Diabetics in Scania cohort...
March 1, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Danchun Lan, Nenggui Xu, Jian Sun, Zhixing Li, Rongzhen Liao, Hongtao Zhang, Xiaoli Liang, Wei Yi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on endothelial dysfunction related to high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signalling pathway. METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a regular diet (Control group, n=8) or a HFD (n=16) for 12 weeks to induce an insulin resistance model. HFD-fed rats were divided into two groups that remained untreated (HFD group, n=8) or received electroacupuncture (HFD+EA group, n=8)...
March 3, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Lan Liu, Wenjuan Jia, Ruike Liu, Jie Shen
BACKGROUND: Studies reported that fulminant type 1 diabetes (fT1DM) can occurred during pregnancy or within 2 weeks after delivery, and was defined as pregnancy-associated fulminant type 1 diabetes (PF). In PF patients, plasma glucose (PG) levels have an abrupt rise while glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C ) levels are not markedly elevated, resulting in a sharply increased PG/HbA1C ratio. METHODS: We studied 30 PF patients, 21 non-pregnant fulminant type 1 diabetes (NPF) patients, and 26 female patients of child-bearing age (13-49 years) with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), all from China...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine
Gudmundur Johannsson, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Ida Holme Håkonsson, Henrik Biering, Patrice Rodien, Shigeyuki Tahara, Andrew A Toogood, Michael Højby Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: Somapacitan is a reversible albumin-binding growth hormone (GH) derivative, developed for once-weekly administration. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of once-weekly somapacitan vs once-daily Norditropin® Local tolerability and treatment satisfaction were also assessed. DESIGN: 26-week randomized, controlled phase 3 safety and tolerability trial in six countries (NCT02382939). METHODS: Male or female patients aged 18-79 years with adult GH deficiency (AGHD), treated with once-daily GH for ≥6 months, were randomized to once-weekly somapacitan (n = 61) or once-daily Norditropin® (n = 31) administered subcutaneously by pen...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Adel Abdel-Moneim, Heba H Bakery, Gamal Allam
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious medical problem affecting millions of peoples worldwide, and has a great socio-economic impacts. Cytokines possess a pivotal role in modulation of immune reactions and disease pathogenesis. T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells, an important proinflammatory CD4+ T cell subset secreting interleukin 17 (IL-17), has been embroiled in development of DM. There are recent evidences supporting a definitive role of Th17 cells in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition, IL-17 has been shown to play a crucial role in inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
February 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Michiru Shiba, Hidefumi Inaba, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Shintaro Kawai, Yuko Inagaki, Shohei Matsuno, Hiroshi Iwakura, Yuki Yamamoto, Masahiro Nishi, Takashi Akamizu
An 80-year-old woman with malignant melanoma received 20 cycles of anti-PD-1 antibody (nivolumab) treatment and showed normal glucose tolerance. Three weeks after switching to anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab), her plasma glucose level was elevated to 639 mg/dL, her HbA1c was 7.7%, and her fastening serum CPR was undetectable. Anti-GAD and IA-2 antibodies were negative. She was diagnosed with fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (F1DM). Remarkably, her anti-insulin antibody was positively converted, and her KL-6 levels increased after ipilimumab therapy...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
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