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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767307/virus-vector-mediated-genetic-modification-of-brain-tumor-stromal-cells-after-intravenous-delivery
#1
Adrienn Volak, Stanley G LeRoy, Jeya Shree Natasan, David J Park, Pike See Cheah, Andreas Maus, Zachary Fitzpatrick, Eloise Hudry, Kelsey Pinkham, Sheetal Gandhi, Bradley T Hyman, Dakai Mu, Dwijit GuhaSarkar, Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Christian E Badr, Casey A Maguire
The malignant primary brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM) is generally incurable. New approaches are desperately needed. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated delivery of anti-tumor transgenes is a promising strategy, however direct injection leads to focal transgene spread in tumor and rapid tumor division dilutes out the extra-chromosomal AAV genome, limiting duration of transgene expression. Intravenous (IV) injection gives widespread distribution of AAV in normal brain, however poor transgene expression in tumor, and high expression in non-target cells which may lead to ineffective therapy and high toxicity, respectively...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715463/histopathological-variables-in-liver-metastases-of-patients-with-stage-iv-colorectal-cancer-potential-prognostic-relevance-of-poorly-differentiated-clusters
#2
Simona Lionti, Luca Reggiani Bonetti, Stefania Bettelli, Andrea Spallanzani, Fabio Gelsomino, Valeria Barresi
The prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastases (LM) is mostly established on clinical variables or on the anatomic extent of colorectal cancer (CRC). Histopathological factors of LM which may actually reflect the biological aggressiveness of the tumor are not routinely considered to define the risk of worse clinical outcome in those patients. The number of poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) of neoplastic cells in primary CRC is associated with metastatic risk and bad prognosis, but PDC presence in LM has been barely analyzed thus far...
April 28, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685543/homogeneous-myxoid-liposarcomas-mimicking-cysts-on-mri-a-challenging-diagnosis
#3
A Crombé, F Le Loarer, N Alberti, X Buy, E Stoeckle, S Cousin, M Toulmonde, J M Coindre, A Italiano, M Kind
OBJECTIVES: Myxoid liposarcoma (M-LPS) is the second most frequent subtype of liposarcoma. Foci of fat on MRI are strongly suggestive of this diagnosis. The aims of this study are to (i) assess the prevalence of perfectly homogeneous M-LPS-mimicking cyst and characterize their associated clinical and pathological features and to (ii) identify helpful clues to prevent misdiagnosis when encountered with a cyst-like lesion in soft tissue parts. METHODS: MR images from 32 consecutive pathologically proven M-LPS and round cell liposarcomas (RC-LPS) were retrospectively reviewed independently by two radiologists at our institution...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644257/intravenous-labeling-and-analysis-of-the-content-of-thymic-perivascular-spaces
#4
Roland Ruscher, Kristin A Hogquist
Following development in the thymus, T cells are thought to exit into the periphery predominantly through perivascular spaces (PVS). This exit route is used by conventional T cells, and likely also applies to unconventional T cell subsets, such as precursors of CD8αα and TCRγδ intraepithelial lymphocytes, regulatory T cells and natural killer T cells. Additional cell types might also be found in the PVS and initiate interactions with exiting T cells. The exact content of the PVS, and the processes within, are not well studied...
March 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606801/subcutaneous-lipomas-a-minimally-invasive-method-for-resection-of-subcutaneous-lipomas-preserving-retaining-ligaments
#5
Akio Sakamoto, Takeshi Okamoto, Shuichi Matsuda
Background: Lipomas are common benign tumors usually located in the subcutaneous tissues. Resection of lipomas frequently requires incisions equal to the diameter of the tumor. The "squeeze technique" with a small incision is well-described, but is frequently not successful, particularly for lipomas in the shoulder region. We report a method for resection of subcutaneous lipomas that preserves retaining ligaments. Methods: Lipomas are characterized by high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images on magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: European Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474960/anti-tumor-efficacy-of-hyaluronan-based-nanoparticles-for-the-co-delivery-of-drugs-in-lung-cancer
#6
Victor Jeannot, Cony Gauche, Silvia Mazzaferro, Morgane Couvet, Laetitia Vanwonterghem, Maxime Henry, Chloé Didier, Julien Vollaire, Véronique Josserand, Jean-Luc Coll, Christophe Schatz, Sébastien Lecommandoux, Amandine Hurbin
Combinations of therapeutic agents could synergistically enhance the response of lung cancer cells. Co-delivery systems capable of transporting chemotherapeutics with different physicochemical properties and with the simultaneous release of drugs remain elusive. Here, we assess the ability of nanoparticles of 30-nm diameter obtained from the self-assembly of hyaluronan-based copolymer targeting CD44 receptors to encapsulate both gefitinib and vorinostat for effective combinational lung cancer treatment. Drug loading was performed by nanoprecipitation...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474222/hemorrhagic-occlusive-retinal-vasculitis-after-intracameral-vancomycin-use-in-cataract-surgery-after-intravenous-exposure
#7
Tarek Alasil, James J Y Wong, Ron A Adelman, David Tom, Patrick A Coady
PURPOSE: To report a case of hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis after cataract surgery. METHODS: A 74-year-old woman presented with blurry vision and distorted vision, which started 2 days after an uncomplicated cataract surgery in the left eye. Intracameral vancomycin was injected during the case. The patient reported being treated with systemic vancomycin in the past. RESULTS: The visual acuity was 20/80 in the left eye. She had trace cells in the anterior chamber with no hypopyon and intraocular lens implant within the capsular bag in the left eye...
February 22, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385412/leptin-resistance-during-pregnancy-is-also-exerted-at-the-periphery
#8
Martha Liliana Trujillo-Güiza, Rosa Señarís
Pregnancy is a physiological state with a great demand of energy and nutrients in mammals and is characterized by hyperphagia, increase in fat mass, hyperleptinemia, and central resistance to leptin. In order to evaluate whether pregnancy is also a state of leptin resistance at the periphery, we studied the response to leptin in the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We demonstrated reduced levels of phosphoryalated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) after intravenous leptin in both tissues in mid-term pregnant rats (G13) and a restored response in late pregnancy (G18)...
May 1, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369752/fluorine-mr-imaging-monitoring-of-tumor-inflammation-after-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-ablation
#9
Soo Hyun Shin, Sang Hyun Park, Seung Won Kim, Minsun Kim, Daehong Kim
Purpose To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced macrophage infiltration could be longitudinally monitored with fluorine 19 (19 F) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a quantitative manner. Materials and Methods BALB/c mice were subcutaneously inoculated with 4T1 cells and were separated into three groups: untreated mice (control, n = 9), HIFU-treated mice (HIFU, n = 9), and HIFU- and clodronate-treated mice (HIFU+Clod, n = 9). Immediately after HIFU treatment, all mice were intravenously given perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion...
May 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366594/the-neonatal-anti-viral-response-fails-to-control-measles-virus-spread-in-neurons-despite-interferon-gamma-expression-and-a-th1-like-cytokine-profile
#10
Priya Ganesan, Manisha N Chandwani, Patrick S Creisher, Larissa Bohn, Lauren A O'Donnell
Neonates are highly susceptible to viral infections in the periphery, potentially due to deviant cytokine responses. Here, we investigated the role of interferon-gamma (IFNγ), a key anti-viral in the neonatal brain. We found that (i) IFNγ, which is critical for viral control and survival in adults, delays mortality in neonates, (ii) IFNγ limits infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and T cells in the neonatal brain, (iii) neonates and adults differentially express pathogen recognition receptors and Type I interferons in response to the infection, (iv) both neonates and adults express IFNγ and other Th1-related factors, but expression of many cytokines/chemokines and IFNγ-responsive genes is age-dependent, and (v) administration of IFNγ extends survival and reduces CD4 T cell infiltration in the neonatal brain...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327789/imaging-macrophage-distribution-and-density-in-mammary-tumors-and-lung-metastases-using-fluorine-19-mri-cell-tracking
#11
Ashley V Makela, Paula J Foster
PURPOSE: The presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) correlates with breast cancer progression and metastatic spread. Metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs) are also recruited to distant sites, where they support metastatic growth. In this study, we demonstrate that in vivo fluorine-19 (19 F)-based MRI cell tracking can evaluate the density and distribution of macrophages within murine breast cancer tumors and associated metastases. METHODS: Three murine breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials (4T1, 168FARN, and 67NR) were implanted into the mammary fat pad in mice...
January 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298725/sex-differences-in-primary-muscle-afferent-sensitization-following-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#12
Jessica L Ross, Luis F Queme, Jordan E Lamb, Kathryn J Green, Michael P Jankowski
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain conditions are more prevalent in women, but most preclinical studies into mechanisms of pain generation are performed using male animals. Furthermore, whereas group III and IV nociceptive muscle afferents provoke central sensitization more effectively than their cutaneous counterparts, less is known about this critical population of muscle nociceptors. Here, we compare the physiology of individual muscle afferents in uninjured males and females. We then characterize the molecular, physiological, and behavioral effects of transient ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R), a model we have extensively studied in males and in females...
January 3, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215396/outcomes-of-corneal-cross-linking-correlate-with-cone-specific-lysyl-oxidase-expression-in-patients-with-keratoconus
#13
Rohit Shetty, Nimisha Rajiv Kumar, Natasha Pahuja, Rashmi Deshmukh, KrishnaPoojita Vunnava, Valsala Gopalakrishnan Abilash, Abhijit Sinha Roy, Arkasubhra Ghosh
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation of visual and keratometry outcomes after corneal cross-linking (CXL) in patients with keratoconus with cone epithelium-specific gene expression levels. METHODS: Corneal epithelium was obtained from 35 eyes that underwent accelerated CXL (KXLII, 9 mW/cm for 10 min). Using corneal topography, epithelium over the cone and periphery was obtained separately from each subject. The ratio of gene expression for lysyl oxidase (LOX), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), bone morphogenic protein 7, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, collagen, type I, alpha 1, and collagen, type IV, alpha 1 (COL IVA1) from the cone and peripheral cornea was correlated with the outcome of cross-linking surgery...
March 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193288/characterization-of-tumor-vascular-permeability-using-natural-dextrans-and-cest-mri
#14
Yuguo Li, Yuan Qiao, Hanwei Chen, Renyuan Bai, Verena Staedtke, Zheng Han, Jiadi Xu, Kannie W Y Chan, Nirbhay Yadav, Jeff W M Bulte, Shibin Zhou, Peter C M van Zijl, Guanshu Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the use of natural dextrans as nano-sized chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI probes for characterizing size-dependent tumor vascular permeability. METHODS: Dextrans of different molecular weight (10, 70, 150, and 2000 kD) were characterized for their CEST contrast. Mice (N = 5) bearing CT26 subcutaneous colon tumors were injected intravenously with 10 kD (D10, 6 nm) and 70 kD (D70, 12 nm) dextran at a dose of 375 mg/kg...
February 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117462/gaining-access-to-bacteria-through-reversible-control-of-lipophilicity
#15
Anzhela Galstyan, Johannes Putze, Ulrich Dobrindt
The development of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is highly dependent on the development of suitable photosensitizers (PSs); ideally, affinity of a PS towards bacterial cells should be much higher than that towards mammalian cells. A cationic charge on a PS may lead to its selective binding to bacteria mediated through electrostatic interaction; however, the photodynamic outcome is highly dependent on the lipophilicity of the PS. Herein, we report the aPDT effect of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine derivatives bearing four positive charges and methyl, phenyl, or naphthyl substituents at the periphery of the macrocycle...
January 24, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075880/endovascular-stroke-treatment-how-far-downstream-should-we-go
#16
Benjamin Friedrich, Donald Lobsien, Silke Wunderlich, Christian Maegerlein, David Pree, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Claus Zimmer, Johannes Kaesmacher
BACKGROUND: Endovascular thrombectomy has become the de facto standard in the treatment of large vessel occlusion. Previously, a correlation between good outcome and the occlusion site, measured by the 'distance to thrombus' (DT)-as the distance from the carotid T to the beginning of the thrombus-after thrombolysis could be shown. In the present study, we analyze the differences between the chances of a good outcome in respect of DT between patients treated endovascularly or intravenously...
January 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057059/lucky-switcheroo-dramatic-potency-and-selectivity-improvement-of-imidazoline-inhibitors-of-human-carbonic-anhydrase-vii
#17
Stanislav Kalinin, Stanislav Kopylov, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Alexander Sapegin, Dmitry Dar'in, Andrea Angeli, Claudiu T Supuran, Mikhail Krasavin
A substantial improvement of potency and selectivity of imidazoline-based inhibitors of hCA VII (a promising target for the treatment of seizures and neuropathic pain) was achieved by simply switching the position of the benzenesulfonamide moiety from N1 (as in the earlier reported series) to C2 . Selectivity indices vs the off-target isoforms (hCA I, I, I and IV) greater than 100 were reached, which is exceedingly rare for hCA VII inhibitors. The drastic profile improvement of the new series has been rationalized by an additional hydrogen bonding with the nonconserved Q69 residue in the active site of hCA VII (absent in the other three isoforms studied), which also results in a favorable accommodation of the inhibitor's lipophilic periphery in the nearby hydrophobic pocket...
October 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040410/ror%C3%AE-coordinates-thalamic-and-cortical-maturation-to-instruct-barrel-cortex-development
#18
Tania Vitalis, Luce Dauphinot, Pierre Gressens, Marie-Claude Potier, Jean Mariani, Patricia Gaspar
The retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) is well-known for its role in cerebellar development and maturation as revealed in staggerer mice. However, its potential involvement in the development of other brain regions has hardly been assessed. Here, we describe a new role of RORα in the development of primary somatosensory maps. Staggerer mice showed a complete disruption of barrels in the somatosensory cortex and of barreloids in the thalamus. This phenotype results from a severe reduction of thalamocortical axon (TCA) branching and a defective maturation of layer IV cortical neurons during postnatal development...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985760/an-improved-pre-clinical-patient-derived-liquid-xenograft-mouse-model-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#19
Zhisheng Her, Kylie Su Mei Yong, Kathirvel Paramasivam, Wilson Wei Sheng Tan, Xue Ying Chan, Sue Yee Tan, Min Liu, Yong Fan, Yeh Ching Linn, Kam Man Hui, Uttam Surana, Qingfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantation of patient-derived AML (acute myeloid leukemia) cells in NOD-scid Il2rγ (null) (NSG) mice is the method of choice for evaluating this human hematologic malignancy. However, existing models constructed using intravenous injection in adult or newborn NSG mice have inferior engraftment efficiency, poor peripheral blood engraftment, or are difficult to construct. METHODS: Here, we describe an improved AML xenograft model where primary human AML cells were injected into NSG newborn pups intrahepatically...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808085/sub-mitochondrial-localization-of-the-genetic-tagged-mitochondrial-intermembrane-space-bridging-components-mic19-mic60-and-sam50
#20
Mira Sastri, Manjula Darshi, Mason Mackey, Ranjan Ramachandra, Saeyeon Ju, Sebastien Phan, Stephen Adams, Kathryn Stein, Christopher R Douglas, Jiwan John Kim, Mark H Ellisman, Susan S Taylor, Guy A Perkins
Each mitochondrial compartment contains varying protein compositions that underlie a diversity of localized functions. Insights into the localization of mitochondrial intermembrane space-bridging (MIB) components will have an impact on our understanding of mitochondrial architecture, dynamics and function. By using the novel visualizable genetic tags miniSOG and APEX2 in cultured mouse cardiac and human astrocyte cell lines and performing electron tomography, we have mapped at nanoscale resolution three key MIB components, Mic19, Mic60 and Sam50 (also known as CHCHD3, IMMT and SAMM50, respectively), in the environment of structural landmarks such as cristae and crista junctions (CJs)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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