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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437927/the-viscoelastic-properties-of-the-fungal-cell-wall-allow-traffic-of-ambisome-as-intact-liposome-vesicles
#1
Louise Walker, Prashant Sood, Megan D Lenardon, Gillian Milne, Jon Olson, Gerard Jensen, Julie Wolf, Arturo Casadevall, Jill Adler-Moore, Neil A R Gow
The fungal cell wall is a critically important structure that represents a permeability barrier and protective shield. We probed Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans with liposomes containing amphotericin B (AmBisome), with or without 15-nm colloidal gold particles. The liposomes have a diameter of 60 to 80 nm, and yet their mode of action requires them to penetrate the fungal cell wall to deliver amphotericin B to the cell membrane, where it binds to ergosterol. Surprisingly, using cryofixation techniques with electron microscopy, we observed that the liposomes remained intact during transit through the cell wall of both yeast species, even though the predicted porosity of the cell wall (pore size, ~5...
February 6, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436899/the-capsule-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#2
Arturo Casadevall, Carolina Coelho, Radames J B Cordero, Quigly Dragotakes, Eric Jung, Raghav Vij, Maggie P Wear
The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is its dominant virulence factor and plays a key role in the biology of this fungus. In this essay, we focus on the capsule as a cellular structure and note the limitations inherent in the current methodologies available for its study. Given that no single method can provide the structure of the capsule, our notions of what is the cryptococcal capsule must be arrived at by synthesizing information gathered from very different methodological approaches including microscopy, polysaccharide chemistry and physical chemistry of macromolecules...
February 13, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420889/hydrodynamics-in-cell-studies
#3
Deborah Huber, Ali Oskooei, Xavier Casadevall I Solvas, Andrew deMello, Govind V Kaigala
Hydrodynamic phenomena are ubiquitous in living organisms and can be used to manipulate cells or emulate physiological microenvironments experienced in vivo. Hydrodynamic effects influence multiple cellular properties and processes, including cell morphology, intracellular processes, cell-cell signaling cascades and reaction kinetics, and play an important role at the single-cell, multicellular, and organ level. Selected hydrodynamic effects can also be leveraged to control mechanical stresses, analyte transport, as well as local temperature within cellular microenvironments...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384960/dabrafenib-plus-trametinib-for-compassionate-use-in-metastatic-melanoma-a-strobe-compliant-retrospective-observational-postauthorization-study
#4
Salvador Martín Algarra, Virtudes Soriano, Luis Fernández-Morales, Miguel-Ángel Berciano-Guerrero, Karmele Mujika, José Luis Manzano, Teresa Puértolas Hernández, Ainara Soria, Delvys Rodríguez-Abreu, Enrique Espinosa Arranz, Javier Medina Martínez, Ivan Márquez-Rodas, Jordi Rubió-Casadevall, María Eugenia Ortega, José Miguel Jurado García, María José Lecumberri Biurrun, Isabel Palacio, María Rodríguez de la Borbolla Artacho, Javier Pérez Altozano, Victoria Eugenia Castellón Rubio, Almudena García, Pablo Luna, Anabel Ballesteros, Ovidio Fernández, Jose Antonio López Martín, Alfonso Berrocal, Ana Arance
The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dabrafenib alone or combined with trametinib for compassionate use in patients with metastatic melanoma.This retrospective, observational study involved 135 patients with unresectable stage IIIC or stage IV melanoma from an expanded-access program at 30 Spanish centers.Forty-eight patients received dabrafenib monotherapy and 87 received combination dabrafenib and trametinib; 4.4% and 95.6% of the patients had stage IIIC and IV melanoma, respectively...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364243/automated-measurement-of-cryptococcal-species-polysaccharide-capsule-and-cell-body
#5
Quigly Dragotakes, Arturo Casadevall
The purpose of this technique is to provide a consistent, accurate, and manageable process for large numbers of polysaccharide capsule measurements. First, a threshold image is generated based on intensity values uniquely calculated for each image. Then, circles are detected based on contrast between the object and background using the well-established Circle Hough Transformation (CHT) algorithm. Finally, the detected cell capsules and bodies are matched according to center coordinates and radius size, and data is exported to the user in a manageable spreadsheet...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259091/reply-to-arg%C3%A3-elles-and-arg%C3%A3-elles-prieto-are-the-editors-responsible-for-our-obsession-with-the-impact-factor
#6
Arturo Casadevall, Ferric C Fang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259084/graduate-biomedical-science-education-needs-a-new-philosophy
#7
Gundula Bosch, Arturo Casadevall
There is a growing realization that graduate education in the biomedical sciences is successful at teaching students how to conduct research but falls short in preparing them for a diverse job market, communicating with the public, and remaining versatile scientists throughout their careers. Major problems with graduate level education today include overspecialization in a narrow area of science without a proper grounding in essential critical thinking skills. Shortcomings in education may also contribute to some of the problems of the biomedical sciences, such as poor reproducibility, shoddy literature, and the rise in retracted publications...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233901/immune-mediated-damage-completes-the-parabola-cryptococcus-neoformans-pathogenesis-can-reflect-the-outcome-of-a-weak-or-strong-immune-response
#8
Liise-Anne Pirofski, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcosis occurs most frequently in immunocompromised individuals. This has led to the prevailing view that this disease is the result of weak immune responses that cannot control the fungus. However, increasingly, clinical and experimental studies have revealed that the host immune response can contribute to cryptococcal pathogenesis, including the recent study of L. M. Neal et al. (mBio 8:e01415-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01415-17) that reports that CD4+ T cells mediate tissue damage in experimental murine cryptococcosis...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213074/galectin-3-impacts-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection-through-direct-antifungal-effects
#9
Fausto Almeida, Julie M Wolf, Thiago Aparecido da Silva, Carlos M DeLeon-Rodriguez, Caroline Patini Rezende, André Moreira Pessoni, Fabrício Freitas Fernandes, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Roberto Martinez, Marcio L Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that causes cryptococcosis, which is a major opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals. Mammalian β-galactoside-binding protein Galectin-3 (Gal-3) modulates the host innate and adaptive immunity, and plays significant roles during microbial infections including some fungal diseases. Here we show that this protein plays a role also in C. neoformans infection. We find augmented Gal-3 serum levels in human and experimental infections, as well as in spleen, lung, and brain tissues of infected mice...
December 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162716/erratum-for-schloss-et-al-support-science-by-publishing-in-scientific-society-journals
#10
Patrick D Schloss, Mark Johnston, Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150507/divalent-metal-cations-potentiate-the-predatory-capacity-of-amoeba-for-cryptococcus-neoformans
#11
Man Shun Fu, Arturo Casadevall
Among the best studied interaction between soil phagocytic predators and a human pathogenic fungus is that of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Cryptococcus neoformans The experimental conditions used in amoeba-fungal confrontation assays can have major effects on whether the fungus or the protozoan is ascendant in the interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in PBS, C. neoformans was consistently killed when incubated with A. castellanii. A. castellanii survived better in the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), even when incubated with C...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121502/the-prognostic-role-of-epigenetic-dysregulation-in-bladder-cancer-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
David Casadevall, Anaïs Yacine Kilian, Joaquim Bellmunt
BACKGROUND: Despite adequate treatment and follow-up, around one fifth of patients with localized bladder cancer will present with disease progression. Adequate prognostic biomarkers are lacking to define patients who are at risk. Mutations in chromatin remodeling genes are more frequently found in bladder cancer than in any other solid tumor. However, the prognostic relevance of epigenetic dysregulation has not been established and may offer an opportunity for biomarker discovery. METHODS: Looking for prognostic epigenetic factors, we performed a comprehensive PubMed search using keywords such as "bladder cancer", "chromatin remodeling", "gene methylation" and "epigenetics"...
November 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043954/n-acetylglucosamine-affects-cryptococcus-neoformans-cell-wall-composition-and-melanin-architecture
#13
Emma Camacho, Christine Chrissian, Radames J B Cordero, Livia Liporagi-Lopes, Ruth E Stark, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that belongs to the phylum Basidiomycetes and is a major pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The ability of C. neoformans to produce melanin pigments represents its second most important virulence factor, after the presence of a polysaccharide capsule. Both the capsule and melanin are closely associated with the fungal cell wall, a complex structure that is essential for maintaining cell morphology and viability under conditions of stress. The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a key constituent of the cell-wall chitin and is used for both N-linked glycosylation and GPI anchor synthesis...
October 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963165/first-draft-genome-sequence-of-the-pathogenic-fungus-lomentospora-prolificans-formerly-scedosporium-prolificans
#14
Ruibang Luo, Aleksey Zimin, Rachael Workman, Yunfan Fan, Geo Pertea, Nina Grossman, Maggie P Wear, Bei Jia, Heather Miller, Arturo Casadevall, Winston Timp, Sean X Zhang, Steven L Salzberg
Here we describe the sequencing and assembly of the pathogenic fungus Lomentospora prolificans using a combination of short, highly accurate Illumina reads and additional coverage in very long Oxford Nanopore reads. The resulting assembly is highly contiguous, containing a total of 37,627,092 bp with over 98% of the sequence in just 26 scaffolds. Annotation identified 8896 protein-coding genes. Pulsed-field gel analysis suggests that this organism contains at least 7 and possibly 11 chromosomes, the two longest of which have sizes corresponding closely to the sizes of the longest scaffolds, at 6...
November 6, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951482/support-science-by-publishing-in-scientific-society-journals
#15
EDITORIAL
Patrick D Schloss, Mark Johnston, Arturo Casadevall
Scientific societies provide numerous services to the scientific enterprise, including convening meetings, publishing journals, developing scientific programs, advocating for science, promoting education, providing cohesion and direction for the discipline, and more. For most scientific societies, publishing provides revenues that support these important activities. In recent decades, the proportion of papers on microbiology published in scientific society journals has declined. This is largely due to two competing pressures: authors' drive to publish in "glam journals"-those with high journal impact factors-and the availability of "mega journals," which offer speedy publication of articles regardless of their potential impact...
September 26, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947642/lipids-affect-the-cryptococcus-neoformans-macrophage-interaction-and-promote-non-lytic-exocytosis
#16
Sabrina J Nolan, Man Shun Fu, Isabelle Coppens, Arturo Casadevall
Many microbes exploit host cellular lipid droplets during the host-microbe interaction but this phenomenon has not been extensively studied for fungal pathogens. In this study, we analyzed the role of lipid droplets during the interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with macrophages in the presence and absence of exogenous lipid, in particular oleate, supplementation. Addition of oleic acid increased the frequency of lipid droplets in both C. neoformans and macrophages. C. neoformans responded to oleic acid supplementation by faster growth inside and outside macrophages...
September 25, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852538/forensic-bitemark-identification-weak-foundations-exaggerated-claims
#17
Michael J Saks, Thomas Albright, Thomas L Bohan, Barbara E Bierer, C Michael Bowers, Mary A Bush, Peter J Bush, Arturo Casadevall, Simon A Cole, M Bonner Denton, Shari Seidman Diamond, Rachel Dioso-Villa, Jules Epstein, David Faigman, Lisa Faigman, Stephen E Fienberg, Brandon L Garrett, Paul C Giannelli, Henry T Greely, Edward Imwinkelried, Allan Jamieson, Karen Kafadar, Jerome P Kassirer, Jonathan 'Jay' Koehler, David Korn, Jennifer Mnookin, Alan B Morrison, Erin Murphy, Nizam Peerwani, Joseph L Peterson, D Michael Risinger, George F Sensabaugh, Clifford Spiegelman, Hal Stern, William C Thompson, James L Wayman, Sandy Zabell, Ross E Zumwalt
Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field...
December 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827389/correction-macrophage-mitochondrial-and-stress-response-to-ingestion-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#18
Carolina Coelho, Ana Camila Oliveira Souza, Lorena da Silveira Derengowski, Carlos de Leon-Rodriguez, Bo Wang, Rosiris Leon-Rivera, Anamelia Lorenzetti Bocca, Teresa Gonçalves, Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805351/microbial-melanins-for-radioprotection-and-bioremediation
#19
Radames J B Cordero, Raghav Vij, Arturo Casadevall
Microbial melanins provide a biocompatible and scalable approach for bioremediation and radioprotection technologies due to their physicochemical properties.
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795418/cd274-pdl1-and-jak2-genomic-amplifications-in-pulmonary-squamous-cell-and-adenocarcinoma-patients
#20
Sergi Clavé, Lara Pijuan, David Casadevall, Álvaro Taus, Javier Gimeno, Silvia Hernández-Llodrà, María Rodríguez-Rivera, Marta Lorenzo, Silvia Menéndez, Joan Albanell, Blanca Espinet, Edurne Arriola, Marta Salido
AIMS: CD274 (PDL1) and JAK2 (9p24.1) gene amplifications have been recently described in pulmonary carcinomas in association with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Furthermore, PTEN loss has been explored preclinically in relation to PD-L1 expression. Our aim was to determine whether these genomic alterations affect PD-L1 expression levels in non-small-cell lung cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: PD-L1 and PTEN expression determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and CD274, JAK2 and PTEN copy number alterations (CNAs) determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation, were studied in 171 pulmonary carcinoma specimens...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
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