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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805351/microbial-melanins-for-radioprotection-and-bioremediation
#1
Radames J B Cordero, Raghav Vij, Arturo Casadevall
Microbial melanins provide a biocompatible and scalable approach for bioremediation and radioprotection technologies due to their physicochemical properties.
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795418/cd274-pdl1-and-jak2-genomic-amplifications-in-pulmonary-squamous-cell-and-adenocarcinoma-patients
#2
Sergi Clavé, Lara Pijuan, David Casadevall, Álvaro Taus, Javier Gimeno, Sílvia Hernández-Llodrà, María Rodríguez-Rivera, Marta Lorenzo, Sílvia Menéndez, Joan Albanell, Blanca Espinet, Edurne Arriola, Marta Salido
AIMS: CD274 (PDL1) and JAK2 (9p24.1) gene amplifications have been recently described in pulmonary carcinomas in association with PD-L1 protein expression. Also, PTEN loss have been explored preclinically in relation with PD-L1 expression. It remains to be determined if these genomic alterations may affect PD-L1 expression levels in non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: PD-L1 and PTEN protein expression by IHC, and CD274, JAK2 and PTEN gene copy number alterations (CNAs) by FISH were studied in 171 pulmonary carcinoma specimens...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766493/evaluation-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-subcutaneous-hx575-epoetin-alfa-in-the-treatment-of-anemia-associated-with-chronic-kidney-disease-in-predialysis-and-dialysis-patients%C3%A2
#3
Nicole Casadevall, Vladimir Dobronravov, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Sehsuvar Ertürk, Liliya Martynyuk, Susanne Schmitt, Gregor Schaffar, Anita Rudy, Andriy Krendyukov, Marité Ode
AIM: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of subcutaneous (SC) HX575 (epoetin-α) in dialysis- and nondialysis-dependent adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Open-label, single-arm, multicenter study in patients (n = 416) from Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine. RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation (SD)) age was 52.3 (15.8) years, all patients were Caucasian, and similar proportions were male/female...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742386/don-t-forget-the-fungi-when-considering-global-catastrophic-biorisks
#4
Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674034/antibody-mediated-catalysis-in-infection-and-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Anthony Bowen, Maggie Wear, Arturo Casadevall
The existence of catalytic antibodies has been known for decades. Natural antibodies capable of cleaving nucleic acid, protein, and polysaccharide substrates have been described. Although the discovery of catalytic antibodies initially aroused great interest because of their promise for the development of new catalysts, their enzymatic performance has been disappointing due to low reaction rates. However, in the areas of infection and immunity, where processes often occur over much longer times and involve high antibody concentrations, even low catalytic rates have the potential to influence biological outcomes...
September 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635996/reply-to-engelthaler-and-meyer-furthering-the-continental-drift-speciation-hypothesis-in-the-pathogenic-cryptococcus-species-complexes
#6
COMMENT
Arturo Casadevall, Joudeh B Freij, Christopher Hann-Soden, John Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597822/fungi-that-infect-humans
#7
Julia R Köhler, Bernhard Hube, Rosana Puccia, Arturo Casadevall, John R Perfect
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549836/heterogeneity-of-tumor-and-immune-cell-pd-l1-expression-and-lymphocyte-counts-in-surgical-nsclc-samples
#8
David Casadevall, Sergi Clavé, Álvaro Taus, Max Hardy-Werbin, Pedro Rocha, Marta Lorenzo, Silvia Menéndez, Marta Salido, Joan Albanell, Lara Pijuan, Edurne Arriola
BACKGROUND: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown remarkable therapeutic activity in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, biomarker-based patient selection remains a challenge. Our aim was to assess the heterogeneity of various immune markers between different tumor areas of surgically resected NSCLC specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 94 adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 50 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens...
May 4, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483676/selective-testing-for-calreticulin-gene-mutations-in-patients-with-splanchnic-vein-thrombosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Johanne Poisson, Aurélie Plessier, Jean-Jacques Kiladjian, Fanny Turon, Bruno Cassinat, Annalisa Andreoli, Emmanuelle De Raucourt, Odile Goria, Kamal Zekrini, Christophe Bureau, Florence Lorre, Francisco Cervantes, Dolors Colomer, François Durand, Juan-Carlos Garcia-Pagan, Nicole Casadevall, Dominique-Charles Valla, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Christophe Marzac
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are the leading cause of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2)(V617F) mutations are found in 80 to 90% of patients with SVT and MPN. Mutations of the calreticulin (CALR) gene have also been reported. However, as their prevalence ranges from 0 to 2%, the utility of routine testing is questionable. This study aimed to identify a group of patients with SVT at high risk of harboring CALR mutations and thus requiring this genetic testing...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450275/evolution-of-biological-agents-how-established-drugs-can-become-less-safe
#10
Nicole Casadevall, Oliver Flossmann, David Hunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435888/continental-drift-and-speciation-of-the-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-species-complexes
#11
Arturo Casadevall, Joudeh B Freij, Christopher Hann-Soden, John Taylor
Genomic analysis has placed the origins of two human-pathogenic fungi, the Cryptococcus gattii species complex and the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, in South America and Africa, respectively. Molecular clock calculations suggest that the two species separated ~80 to 100 million years ago. This time closely approximates the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea, which gave rise to South America and Africa. On the basis of the geographic distribution of these two species complexes and the coincidence of the evolutionary divergence and Pangea breakup times, we propose that a spatial separation caused by continental drift resulted in the emergence of the C...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410490/survival-of-86-690-patients-with-thyroid-cancer-a-population-based-study-in-29-european-countries-from-eurocare-5
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
L Dal Maso, A Tavilla, F Pacini, D Serraino, B A C van Dijk, M D Chirlaque, R Capocaccia, N Larrañaga, M Colonna, D Agius, E Ardanaz, J Rubió-Casadevall, A Kowalska, S Virdone, S Mallone, H Amash, R De Angelis
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates of thyroid cancer (TC) increased in several countries during the last 30 years, while mortality rates remained unchanged, raising important questions for treatment and follow-up of TC patients. This study updates population-based estimates of relative survival (RS) after TC diagnosis in Europe by sex, country, age, period and histology. METHODS: Data from 87 cancer registries in 29 countries were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 dataset...
May 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400494/uv-b-inhibits-leaf-growth-through-changes-in-growth-regulating-factors-and-gibberellin-levels
#13
Julieta Fina, Romina Casadevall, Hamada AbdElgawad, Els Prinsen, Marios N Markakis, Gerrit T S Beemster, Paula Casati
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation affects leaf growth in a wide range of species. In this work, we demonstrate that UV-B levels present in solar radiation inhibit maize (Zea mays) leaf growth without causing any other visible stress symptoms, including the accumulation of DNA damage. We conducted kinematic analyses of cell division and expansion to understand the impact of UV-B radiation on these cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that the decrease in leaf growth in UV-B-irradiated leaves is a consequence of a reduction in cell production and a shortened growth zone (GZ)...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377532/acknowledgment-of-invited-editors
#14
Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375703/chemical-and-biological-dynamics-using-droplet-based-microfluidics
#15
REVIEW
Oliver J Dressler, Xavier Casadevall I Solvas, Andrew J deMello
Recent years have witnessed an increased use of droplet-based microfluidic techniques in a wide variety of chemical and biological assays. Nevertheless, obtaining dynamic data from these platforms has remained challenging, as this often requires reading the same droplets (possibly thousands of them) multiple times over a wide range of intervals (from milliseconds to hours). In this review, we introduce the elemental techniques for the formation and manipulation of microfluidic droplets, together with the most recent developments in these areas...
June 12, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362950/crisis-in-infectious-diseases-2-decades-later
#16
Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278283/enhanced-control-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-extrapulmonary-dissemination-in-mice-by-an-arabinomannan-protein-conjugate-vaccine
#17
Rafael Prados-Rosales, Leandro Carreño, Tingting Cheng, Caroline Blanc, Brian Weinrick, Adel Malek, Todd L Lowary, Andres Baena, Maju Joe, Yu Bai, Rainer Kalscheuer, Ana Batista-Gonzalez, Noemi A Saavedra, Leticia Sampedro, Julen Tomás, Juan Anguita, Shang-Cheng Hung, Ashish Tripathi, Jiayong Xu, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Williams R Jacobs, John Chan, Steven A Porcelli, Jacqueline M Achkar, Arturo Casadevall
Currently there are a dozen or so of new vaccine candidates in clinical trials for prevention of tuberculosis (TB) and each formulation attempts to elicit protection by enhancement of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). In contrast, most approved vaccines against other bacterial pathogens are believed to mediate protection by eliciting antibody responses. However, it has been difficult to apply this formula to TB because of the difficulty in reliably eliciting protective antibodies. Here, we developed capsular polysaccharide conjugates by linking mycobacterial capsular arabinomannan (AM) to either Mtb Ag85b or B...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256187/melanin-radiation-and-energy-transduction-in-fungi
#18
REVIEW
Arturo Casadevall, Radames J B Cordero, Ruth Bryan, Joshua Nosanchuk, Ekaterina Dadachova
Melanin pigments are found in many diverse fungal species, where they serve a variety of functions that promote fitness and cell survival. Melanotic fungi inhabit some of the most extreme habitats on earth such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl and the highlands of Antarctica, both of which are high-radiation environments. Melanotic fungi migrate toward radioactive sources, which appear to enhance their growth. This phenomenon, combined with the known capacities of melanin to absorb a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation and transduce this radiation into other forms of energy, raises the possibility that melanin also functions in harvesting such energy for biological usage...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251180/the-pathogenic-potential-of-a-microbe
#19
Arturo Casadevall
Virulence is a microbial property that is realized only in susceptible hosts. There is no absolute measurement for virulence, and consequently it is always measured relative to a standard, usually another microbe or host. This article introduces the concept of pathogenic potential, which provides a new approach to measuring the capacity of microbes for virulence. The pathogenic potential is proportional to the fraction of individuals who become symptomatic after infection with a defined inoculum and can include such attributes as mortality, communicability, and the time from infection to disease...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186976/32-phosphorus-selectively-delivered-by-listeria-to-pancreatic-cancer-demonstrates-a-strong-therapeutic-effect
#20
Dinesh Chandra, Benson Chellakkan Selvanesan, Ziqiang Yuan, Steven K Libutti, Wade Koba, Amanda Beck, Kun Zhu, Arturo Casadevall, Ekaterina Dadachova, Claudia Gravekamp
Our laboratory has developed a novel delivery platform using an attenuated non-toxic and non-pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that infects tumor cells and selectively survives and multiplies in metastases and primary tumors with help of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). 32P was efficiently incorporated into the Listeria bacteria by starvation of the bacteria in saline, and then cultured in phosphorus-free medium complemented with 32P as a nutrient...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
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