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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963165/first-draft-genome-sequence-of-the-pathogenic-fungus-lomentospora-prolificans-formerly-scedosporium-prolificans
#1
Ruibang Luo, Aleksey Zimin, Rachael Workman, Yunfan Fan, Geo Pertea, Nina Grossman, Maggie P Wear, Bei Jia, Heather Miller, Arturo Casadevall, Winston Timp, Sean X Zhang, Steven L Salzberg
Here we describe the sequencing and assembly of the pathogenic fungus Lomentospora prolificans using a combination of short, highly accurate Illumina reads and additional coverage in very long Oxford Nanopore reads. The resulting assembly is highly contiguous, containing a total of 37,627,092 bp with over 98% of the sequence in just 26 scaffolds. Annotation identified 8,896 protein-coding genes. Pulsed-field gel analysis suggests that this organism contains at least 7 and possibly 11 chromosomes, the two longest of which have sizes corresponding closely to the sizes of the longest scaffolds, at 6...
September 29, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951482/support-science-by-publishing-in-scientific-society-journals
#2
EDITORIAL
Patrick D Schloss, Mark Johnston, Arturo Casadevall
Scientific societies provide numerous services to the scientific enterprise, including convening meetings, publishing journals, developing scientific programs, advocating for science, promoting education, providing cohesion and direction for the discipline, and more. For most scientific societies, publishing provides revenues that support these important activities. In recent decades, the proportion of papers on microbiology published in scientific society journals has declined. This is largely due to two competing pressures: authors' drive to publish in "glam journals"-those with high journal impact factors-and the availability of "mega journals," which offer speedy publication of articles regardless of their potential impact...
September 26, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947642/lipids-affect-the-cryptococcus-neoformans-macrophage-interaction-and-promote-non-lytic-exocytosis
#3
Sabrina J Nolan, Man Shun Fu, Isabelle Coppens, Arturo Casadevall
Many microbes exploit host cellular lipid droplets during the host-microbe interaction but this phenomenon has not been extensively studied for fungal pathogens. In this study, we analyzed the role of lipid droplets during the interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with macrophages in the presence and absence of exogenous lipid, in particular oleate, supplementation. Addition of oleic acid increased the frequency of lipid droplets in both C. neoformans and macrophages. C. neoformans responded to oleic acid supplementation by faster growth inside and outside macrophages...
September 25, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852538/forensic-bitemark-identification-weak-foundations-exaggerated-claims
#4
Michael J Saks, Thomas Albright, Thomas L Bohan, Barbara E Bierer, C Michael Bowers, Mary A Bush, Peter J Bush, Arturo Casadevall, Simon A Cole, M Bonner Denton, Shari Seidman Diamond, Rachel Dioso-Villa, Jules Epstein, David Faigman, Lisa Faigman, Stephen E Fienberg, Brandon L Garrett, Paul C Giannelli, Henry T Greely, Edward Imwinkelried, Allan Jamieson, Karen Kafadar, Jerome P Kassirer, Jonathan 'Jay' Koehler, David Korn, Jennifer Mnookin, Alan B Morrison, Erin Murphy, Nizam Peerwani, Joseph L Peterson, D Michael Risinger, George F Sensabaugh, Clifford Spiegelman, Hal Stern, William C Thompson, James L Wayman, Sandy Zabell, Ross E Zumwalt
Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field...
December 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827389/correction-macrophage-mitochondrial-and-stress-response-to-ingestion-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#5
Carolina Coelho, Ana Camila Oliveira Souza, Lorena da Silveira Derengowski, Carlos de Leon-Rodriguez, Bo Wang, Rosiris Leon-Rivera, Anamelia Lorenzetti Bocca, Teresa Gonçalves, Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805351/microbial-melanins-for-radioprotection-and-bioremediation
#6
Radames J B Cordero, Raghav Vij, Arturo Casadevall
Microbial melanins provide a biocompatible and scalable approach for bioremediation and radioprotection technologies due to their physicochemical properties.
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795418/cd274-pdl1-and-jak2-genomic-amplifications-in-pulmonary-squamous-cell-and-adenocarcinoma-patients
#7
Sergi Clavé, Lara Pijuan, David Casadevall, Álvaro Taus, Javier Gimeno, Sílvia Hernández-Llodrà, María Rodríguez-Rivera, Marta Lorenzo, Sílvia Menéndez, Joan Albanell, Blanca Espinet, Edurne Arriola, Marta Salido
AIMS: CD274 (PDL1) and JAK2 (9p24.1) gene amplifications have been recently described in pulmonary carcinomas in association with PD-L1 protein expression. Also, PTEN loss have been explored preclinically in relation with PD-L1 expression. It remains to be determined if these genomic alterations may affect PD-L1 expression levels in non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: PD-L1 and PTEN protein expression by IHC, and CD274, JAK2 and PTEN gene copy number alterations (CNAs) by FISH were studied in 171 pulmonary carcinoma specimens...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766493/evaluation-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-subcutaneous-hx575-epoetin-alfa-in-the-treatment-of-anemia-associated-with-chronic-kidney-disease-in-predialysis-and-dialysis-patients%C3%A2
#8
Nicole Casadevall, Vladimir Dobronravov, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Sehsuvar Ertürk, Liliya Martynyuk, Susanne Schmitt, Gregor Schaffar, Anita Rudy, Andriy Krendyukov, Marité Ode
AIM: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of subcutaneous (SC) HX575 (epoetin-α) in dialysis- and nondialysis-dependent adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Open-label, single-arm, multicenter study in patients (n = 416) from Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine. RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation (SD)) age was 52.3 (15.8) years, all patients were Caucasian, and similar proportions were male/female...
October 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742386/don-t-forget-the-fungi-when-considering-global-catastrophic-biorisks
#9
Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674034/antibody-mediated-catalysis-in-infection-and-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Anthony Bowen, Maggie Wear, Arturo Casadevall
The existence of catalytic antibodies has been known for decades. Natural antibodies capable of cleaving nucleic acid, protein, and polysaccharide substrates have been described. Although the discovery of catalytic antibodies initially aroused great interest because of their promise for the development of new catalysts, their enzymatic performance has been disappointing due to low reaction rates. However, in the areas of infection and immunity, where processes often occur over much longer times and involve high antibody concentrations, even low catalytic rates have the potential to influence biological outcomes...
September 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635996/reply-to-engelthaler-and-meyer-furthering-the-continental-drift-speciation-hypothesis-in-the-pathogenic-cryptococcus-species-complexes
#11
COMMENT
Arturo Casadevall, Joudeh B Freij, Christopher Hann-Soden, John Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597822/fungi-that-infect-humans
#12
Julia R Köhler, Bernhard Hube, Rosana Puccia, Arturo Casadevall, John R Perfect
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549836/heterogeneity-of-tumor-and-immune-cell-pd-l1-expression-and-lymphocyte-counts-in-surgical-nsclc-samples
#13
David Casadevall, Sergi Clavé, Álvaro Taus, Max Hardy-Werbin, Pedro Rocha, Marta Lorenzo, Silvia Menéndez, Marta Salido, Joan Albanell, Lara Pijuan, Edurne Arriola
BACKGROUND: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown remarkable therapeutic activity in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, biomarker-based patient selection remains a challenge. Our aim was to assess the heterogeneity of various immune markers between different tumor areas of surgically resected NSCLC specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 94 adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 50 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens...
May 4, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483676/selective-testing-for-calreticulin-gene-mutations-in-patients-with-splanchnic-vein-thrombosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Johanne Poisson, Aurélie Plessier, Jean-Jacques Kiladjian, Fanny Turon, Bruno Cassinat, Annalisa Andreoli, Emmanuelle De Raucourt, Odile Goria, Kamal Zekrini, Christophe Bureau, Florence Lorre, Francisco Cervantes, Dolors Colomer, François Durand, Juan-Carlos Garcia-Pagan, Nicole Casadevall, Dominique-Charles Valla, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Christophe Marzac
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are the leading cause of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2)(V617F) mutations are found in 80 to 90% of patients with SVT and MPN. Mutations of the calreticulin (CALR) gene have also been reported. However, as their prevalence ranges from 0 to 2%, the utility of routine testing is questionable. This study aimed to identify a group of patients with SVT at high risk of harboring CALR mutations and thus requiring this genetic testing...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450275/evolution-of-biological-agents-how-established-drugs-can-become-less-safe
#15
Nicole Casadevall, Oliver Flossmann, David Hunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435888/continental-drift-and-speciation-of-the-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-species-complexes
#16
Arturo Casadevall, Joudeh B Freij, Christopher Hann-Soden, John Taylor
Genomic analysis has placed the origins of two human-pathogenic fungi, the Cryptococcus gattii species complex and the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, in South America and Africa, respectively. Molecular clock calculations suggest that the two species separated ~80 to 100 million years ago. This time closely approximates the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea, which gave rise to South America and Africa. On the basis of the geographic distribution of these two species complexes and the coincidence of the evolutionary divergence and Pangea breakup times, we propose that a spatial separation caused by continental drift resulted in the emergence of the C...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410490/survival-of-86-690-patients-with-thyroid-cancer-a-population-based-study-in-29-european-countries-from-eurocare-5
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
L Dal Maso, A Tavilla, F Pacini, D Serraino, B A C van Dijk, M D Chirlaque, R Capocaccia, N Larrañaga, M Colonna, D Agius, E Ardanaz, J Rubió-Casadevall, A Kowalska, S Virdone, S Mallone, H Amash, R De Angelis
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates of thyroid cancer (TC) increased in several countries during the last 30 years, while mortality rates remained unchanged, raising important questions for treatment and follow-up of TC patients. This study updates population-based estimates of relative survival (RS) after TC diagnosis in Europe by sex, country, age, period and histology. METHODS: Data from 87 cancer registries in 29 countries were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 dataset...
May 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400494/uv-b-inhibits-leaf-growth-through-changes-in-growth-regulating-factors-and-gibberellin-levels
#18
Julieta Fina, Romina Casadevall, Hamada AbdElgawad, Els Prinsen, Marios N Markakis, Gerrit T S Beemster, Paula Casati
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation affects leaf growth in a wide range of species. In this work, we demonstrate that UV-B levels present in solar radiation inhibit maize (Zea mays) leaf growth without causing any other visible stress symptoms, including the accumulation of DNA damage. We conducted kinematic analyses of cell division and expansion to understand the impact of UV-B radiation on these cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that the decrease in leaf growth in UV-B-irradiated leaves is a consequence of a reduction in cell production and a shortened growth zone (GZ)...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377532/acknowledgment-of-invited-editors
#19
Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375703/chemical-and-biological-dynamics-using-droplet-based-microfluidics
#20
REVIEW
Oliver J Dressler, Xavier Casadevall I Solvas, Andrew J deMello
Recent years have witnessed an increased use of droplet-based microfluidic techniques in a wide variety of chemical and biological assays. Nevertheless, obtaining dynamic data from these platforms has remained challenging, as this often requires reading the same droplets (possibly thousands of them) multiple times over a wide range of intervals (from milliseconds to hours). In this review, we introduce the elemental techniques for the formation and manipulation of microfluidic droplets, together with the most recent developments in these areas...
June 12, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
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