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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906292/cryptococcus-neoformans-urease-affects-the-outcome-of-intracellular-pathogenesis-by-modulating-phagolysosomal-ph
#1
Man Shun Fu, Carolina Coelho, Carlos M De Leon-Rodriguez, Diego C P Rossi, Emma Camacho, Eric H Jung, Madhura Kulkarni, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and its interaction with macrophages is a key event determining the outcome of infection. Urease is a major virulence factor in C. neoformans but its role during macrophage interaction has not been characterized. Consequently, we analyzed the effect of urease on fungal-macrophage interaction using wild-type, urease-deficient and urease-complemented strains of C. neoformans. The frequency of non-lytic exocytosis events was reduced in the absence of urease...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873027/patterns-of-increased-incidence-and-survival-of-cutaneous-melanoma-in-girona-spain-1994-2013-a-population-based-study
#2
J Rubió-Casadevall, M Puig-Vives, M Puigdemont, L Vilardell, A Carbó-Bagué, R Marcos-Gragera, N Vilar-Coromina
INTRODUCTION: We conducted a population-based study on the Girona Cancer Registry (Spain) for the period 1994-2013 to determine patterns of change in the incidence of melanoma, which is increasing in many countries, and patient survival in our geographical area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the standard registration rules for cancer registries, we calculated crude and standardized incidence rates as well as their trends. We also analysed the observed survival, 1-year conditioned survival and relative survival at 3, 5 and 10 years...
June 5, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858266/the-outcome-of-the-cryptococcus-neoformans-macrophage-interaction-depends-on-phagolysosomal-membrane-integrity
#3
Carlos M De Leon-Rodriguez, Diego C P Rossi, Man Shun Fu, Quigly Dragotakes, Carolina Coelho, Ignacio Guerrero Ros, Benjamin Caballero, Sabrina J Nolan, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen with worldwide distribution. C. neoformans resides within mature phagolysosomes where it often evades killing and replicates. C. neoformans induces phagolysosomal membrane permeabilization (PMP), but the mechanism for this phenomenon and its consequences for macrophage viability are unknown. In this study, we used flow cytometry methodology in combination with cell viability markers and LysoTracker to measure PMP in J774.16 and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with C...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808900/correction-long-term-c-elegans-immobilization-enables-high-resolution-developmental-studies-in-vivo
#4
Simon Berger, Evelyn Lattmann, Tinri Aegerter-Wilmsen, Michael Hengartner, Alex Hajnal, Andrew deMello, Xavier Casadevall I Solvas
Correction for 'Long-term C. elegans immobilization enables high resolution developmental studies in vivo' by Simon Berger et al., Lab Chip, 2018, 18, 1359-1368.
May 29, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799320/factors-contributing-to-the-success-of-nih-designated-underrepresented-minorities-in-academic-and-nonacademic-research-positions
#5
Luis R Martinez, Dwayne W Boucaud, Arturo Casadevall, Avery August
We report the outcomes of a survey of underrepresented minorities (URMs) in life science academic (e.g., faculty) and nonacademic (e.g., research-related) positions seeking to ascertain variables that contribute to their success (e.g., favorable or desired outcome). Given that they had positions in research careers, all respondents were presumed to be successful, and we sought to identify shared factors that were associated with this success. As in previous studies, respondents reported that undergraduate research opportunities, performing research in small- to medium-sized laboratories, and access to mentors throughout all stages of training were important factors for success in their careers...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775480/titan-cells-formation-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-is-finely-tuned-by-environmental-conditions-and-modulated-by-positive-and-negative-genetic-regulators
#6
Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760698/mechanisms-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-mediated-host-damage
#7
REVIEW
Arturo Casadevall, Carolina Coelho, Alexandre Alanio
Cryptococcus neoformans is not usually considered a cytotoxic fungal pathogen but there is considerable evidence that this microbe can damage host cells and tissues. In this essay, we review the evidence that C. neoformans damages host cells and note that the mechanisms involved are diverse. We consider C. neoformans -mediated host damage at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level. Direct mechanisms of cytotoxicity include lytic exocytosis, organelle dysfunction, phagolysosomal membrane damage, and cytoskeletal alterations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712729/conservation-of-intracellular-pathogenic-strategy-among-distantly-related-cryptococcal-species
#8
Joudeh B Freij, Man Shun Fu, Carlos M De Leon Rodriguez, Amanda Dziedzic, Anne E Jedlicka, Quigly Dragotakes, Diego C P Rossi, Eric H Jung, Carolina Coelho, Arturo Casadevall
The genus Cryptococcus includes several pathogenic species for humans. Until recently, the two major pathogenic species were recognized as C. neoformans (Cn) and C. gattii (Cg). We compared the interaction of murine macrophages with three Cg species complex strains (WM179, R265, and WM161, representing molecular types VGI, VGIIa, and VGIII, respectively) and one Cn species complex strain (H99, molecular type VNI) to ascertain similarities and differences in the yeast intracellular pathogenic strategy. Parameters analyzed include non-lytic exocytosis frequency, phagolysosomal pH, intracellular capsular growth, phagolysosomal membrane permeabilization, and macrophage transcriptional response, assessed using time-lapse microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and gene expression microarray analysis...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707131/gene-expression-analyses-determine-two-different-subpopulations-in-kit-negative-gist-like-kngl-patients
#9
David S Moura, Rafael Ramos, Antonio Fernandez-Serra, Teresa Serrano, Julia Cruz, Ramiro Alvarez-Alegret, Rosa Ortiz-Duran, Luis Vicioso, Maria Luisa Gomez-Dorronsoro, Xavier Garcia Del Muro, Javier Martinez-Trufero, Jordi Rubio-Casadevall, Isabel Sevilla, Nuria Lainez, Antonio Gutierrez, Cesar Serrano, Maria Lopez-Alvarez, Nadia Hindi, Miguel Taron, José Antonio López-Guerrero, Javier Martin-Broto
Introduction: There are limited findings available on KIT-negative GIST-like (KNGL) population. Also, KIT expression may be post-transcriptionally regulated by miRNA221 and miRNA222. Hence, the aim of this study is to characterize KNGL population, by differential gene expression, and to analyze miRNA221/222 expression and their prognostic value in KNGL patients. Methods: KIT , PDGFRA , DOG1 , IGF1R , MIR221 and MIR222 expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704764/antibody-based-vaccine-strategies-against-intracellular-pathogens
#10
REVIEW
Arturo Casadevall
Historically, antibody-mediated immunity was considered effective against toxins, extracellular pathogens and viruses, while control of intracellular pathogens was the domain of cellular immunity. However, numerous observations in recent decades have conclusively shown that antibody can protect against intracellular pathogens. This paradigmatic shift has tremendous implications for immunology and vaccine design. For immunology the observation that antibody can protect against intracellular pathogens has led to the discovery of new mechanisms of antibody action...
April 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697770/a-therapeutic-vaccine-for-recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#11
Arturo Casadevall, Liise-Anne Pirofski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691343/acknowledgment-of-invited-editors
#12
EDITORIAL
Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652050/long-term-c-elegans-immobilization-enables-high-resolution-developmental-studies-in-vivo
#13
Simon Berger, Evelyn Lattmann, Tinri Aegerter-Wilmsen, Michael Hengartner, Alex Hajnal, Andrew deMello, Xavier Casadevall I Solvas
Live-imaging of C. elegans is essential for the study of conserved cellular pathways (e.g. EGFR/Wnt signaling) and morphogenesis in vivo. However, the usefulness of live imaging as a research tool has been severely limited by the need to immobilize worms prior to and during imaging. Conventionally, immobilization is achieved by employing both physical and chemical interventions. These are known to significantly affect many physiological processes, and thus limit our understanding of dynamic developmental processes...
May 1, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650539/a-call-for-more-science-in-forensic-science
#14
Suzanne Bell, Sunita Sah, Thomas D Albright, S James Gates, M Bonner Denton, Arturo Casadevall
Forensic science is critical to the administration of justice. The discipline of forensic science is remarkably complex and includes methodologies ranging from DNA analysis to chemical composition to pattern recognition. Many forensic practices developed under the auspices of law enforcement and were vetted primarily by the legal system rather than being subjected to scientific scrutiny and empirical testing. Beginning in the 1990s, exonerations based on DNA-related methods revealed problems with some forensic disciplines, leading to calls for major reforms...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648516/the-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-roflumilast-reverts-proteolysis-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-of-patients-with-copd-cachexia
#15
Esther Barreiro, Ester Puig-Vilanova, Anna Salazar-Degracia, Sergi Pascual-Guardia, Carme Casadevall, Joaquim Gea
Peripheral muscle weakness and mass loss are characteristic features in severe COPD. We hypothesized that the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast-induced cAMP may ameliorate proteolysis and metabolism in skeletal muscles of COPD patients with severe muscle wasting. In myogenic precursor cells (isolated from muscle biopsies and cultured up to obtain differentiated myotubes) from 10 severe COPD patients and 10 healthy controls, which were treated with 1 microM roflumilast N-oxide (RNO) for three time-cohorts (1h, 6h, and 24h), genes of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress marker, myogenesis and muscle metabolism, proteolysis (tyrosine release assay) and ubiquitin-proteasome system markers, autophagy, and myosin isoforms were analyzed using RT-PCR and immunoblotting...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615812/structure-function-analysis-and-therapeutic-efficacy-of-antibodies-to-fungal-melanin-for-melanoma-radioimmunotherapy
#16
J D Nosanchuk, A Jeyakumar, A Ray, E Revskaya, Z Jiang, R A Bryan, K J H Allen, R Jiao, M E Malo, B L Gómez, A Morgenstern, F Bruchertseifer, D Rickles, G B Thornton, A Bowen, A Casadevall, E Dadachova
Metastatic melanoma remains difficult to treat despite recent approvals of several new drugs. Recently we reported encouraging results of Phase I clinical trial of radiolabeled with 188 Re murine monoclonal IgM 6D2 to melanin in patients with Stage III/IV melanoma. Subsequently we generated a novel murine IgG 8C3 to melanin. IgGs are more amenable to humanization and cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practice) manufacturing than IgMs. We performed comparative structural analysis of melanin-binding IgM 6D2 and IgG 8C3...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615505/using-preprints-for-journal-clubs
#17
EDITORIAL
Arturo Casadevall, Neil Gow
Journal clubs are important mechanisms for teaching how to approach the scientific literature critically and for disseminating findings. Papers from high-impact journals often dominate journal club selections, a practice that reinforces the unscientific emphasis of placing high value on publishing venue rather than scientific content and critical analysis of the publications. We suggest improving journal clubs by including preprints rather than focusing completely on published papers. This change in practice might benefit the scientific enterprise in numerous ways, including by providing direct criticisms to preprint authors before publication, deemphasizing publishing venue, teaching students the art of reviewing papers, and making journal clubs more current by discussing unpublished data...
April 3, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568736/a-new-approach-to-evaluating-the-risk-benefit-equation-for-dual-use-and-gain-of-function-research-of-concern
#18
Michael J Imperiale, Arturo Casadevall
In the twenty-first century, biology faces a problem that has previously vexed other disciplines such as physics, namely the prospect that its knowledge domain could be used to generate biological agents with altered properties that enhanced their weapon potential. Biological weapons bring the additional dimension that these could be self-replicating, easy to manufacture and synthesized with commonly available expertise. This resulted in increasing concern about the type of research done and communicated, despite the fact that such research often has direct societal benefits, bringing the dual-use dilemma to biology...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564402/novel-antifungal-compounds-discovered-in-medicines-for-malaria-venture-s-malaria-box
#19
Eric H Jung, David J Meyers, Jürgen Bosch, Arturo Casadevall
Similarities in fungal and animal cells make antifungal discovery efforts more difficult than those for other classes of antimicrobial drugs. Currently, there are only three major classes of antifungal drugs used for the treatment of systemic fungal diseases: polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. Even in situations where the offending fungal organism is susceptible to the available drugs, treatment courses can be lengthy and unsatisfactory, since eradication of infection is often very difficult, especially in individuals with impaired immunity...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560793/extracellular-vesicles-and-vesicle-free-secretome-of-the-protozoa-acanthamoeba-castellanii-under-homeostasis-and-nutritional-stress-and-their-damaging-potential-to-host-cells
#20
Diego de Souza Gonçalves, Marina da Silva Ferreira, Susie Coutinho Liedke, Kamilla Xavier Gomes, Gabriel Afonso de Oliveira, Pedro Ernesto Lopes Leão, Gabriele Vargas Cesar, Sergio H Seabra, Juliana Reis Cortines, Arturo Casadevall, Leonardo Nimrichter, Gilberto Barbosa Domont, Magno Rodrigues Junqueira, Jose Mauro Peralta, Allan J Guimaraes
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and by contaminating medical devices such as heart valves and contact lenses, they cause a broad range of clinical presentations to humans. Although several molecules have been described to play a role in Ac pathogenesis, including parasite host-tissue invasion and escaping of host-defense, little information is available on their mechanisms of secretion. Herein, we describe the molecular components secreted by Ac, under different protein availability conditions to simulate host niches...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
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