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fetal neuroprotection

Christopher M Novak, Maide Ozen, Michael McLane, Sadiq Alqutub, Ji Yeon Lee, Jun Lei, Irina Burd
To assess the fetal neuroprotective potential of progesterone using a well-validated mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine inflammation (IUI). Embryonic day 17 pregnant mouse dams (n = 69) were randomly allocated to receive 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), micronized progesterone (MP), or vehicle 1 hour prior to intrauterine injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or LPS. After 6 hours, mice were killed for the collection of placentas and fetal brains, or pregnancy continued for the evaluation of preterm birth (PTB) and offspring neuromotor function...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Kate E Hawkins, Michelangelo Corcelli, Kate Dowding, Anna M Ranzoni, Filipa Vlahova, Kwan-Leong Hau, Avina Hunjan, Donald Peebles, Pierre Gressens, Henrik Hagberg, Paolo de Coppi, Mariya Hristova, Pascale V Guillot
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have huge potential for regenerative medicine. In particular, the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PSC-MSCs) overcomes the hurdle of replicative senescence associated with the in vitro expansion of primary cells and has increased therapeutic benefits in comparison to the use of various adult sources of MSCs in a wide range of animal disease models. On the other hand, fetal MSCs exhibit faster growth kinetics and possess longer telomeres and a wider differentiation potential than adult MSCs...
February 28, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Natasha Catlin, Suramya Waidyanatha, Eve Mylchreest, Lutfiya Miller-Pinsler, Helen Cunny, Paul Foster, Vicki Sutherland, Barry McIntyre
Dietary supplement and natural product use is increasing within the United States, resulting in growing concern for exposure in vulnerable populations, including young adults and women of child-bearing potential. Vinpocetine is a semisynthetic derivative of the Vinca minor extract, vincamine. Human exposure to vinpocetine occurs through its use as a dietary supplement for its purported nootropic and neuroprotective effects. To investigate the effects of vinpocetine on embryo-fetal development, groups of 25 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and 8 pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were orally administered 0, 5, 20, or 60 mg vinpocetine/kg and 0, 25, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg daily from gestational day (GD) 6-20 and GD 7-28, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Nancy Medley, Borna Poljak, Silvia Mammarella, Zarko Alfirevic
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) endorse multiple strategies to prevent or manage preterm birth (PTB). OBJECTIVES: To summarise CPG recommendations for PTB and identify areas of international consensus. SEARCH STRATEGY: In June 2017 we searched for all CPG relavant to PTB without language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: CPG were eligible if the following criteria were met. i.The guideline was published or current from June 2013...
February 20, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Nazeer Muhammad, Muhammad Sharif, Javeria Amin, Riffat Mehboob, Syed Amir Gilani, Nargis Bibi, Hasnain Javed, Naseer Ahmed
Sudden unexpected perinatal collapse is a major trauma for the parents of victims. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is unexpected and mysterious death of an apparently healthy neonate from birth till 1 year of age without any known causes, even after thorough postmortem investigations. However, the incidence of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS) is seven times higher as compared with SIDS. This observation is approximated 40-80%. Stillbirth is defined as death of a fetus after 20th week of gestation or just before delivery at full term without a known reason...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Lesley M McCowan, Francesc Figueras, Ngaire H Anderson
Small for gestational age is usually defined as an infant with a birthweight <10th centile for a population or customized standard. Fetal growth restriction refers to a fetus that has failed to reach its biological growth potential because of placental dysfunction. Small-for-gestational-age babies make up 28-45% of nonanomalous stillbirths, and have a higher chance of neurodevelopmental delay, childhood and adult obesity, and metabolic disease. The majority of small-for-gestational-age babies are not recognized before birth...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joseph Y Ting, John C Kingdom, Prakesh S Shah
A diagnosis of fetal growth restriction and subsequent preterm birth is associated with increased risks of adverse perinatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes and potentially long-lasting effects to adulthood. Most such cases are associated with placental insufficiency and the fetal response to chronic intrauterine hypoxemia and nutrient deprivation leads to substantial physiological and metabolic adaptations. The management of such pregnancies, especially with respect to perinatal interventions and birth mode, remains an unresolved dilemma...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
L Story, J Hutter, T Zhang, A H Shennan, M Rutherford
Preterm birth, defined as birth occurring prior to 37 weeks gestation is a common obstetric complication affecting 8% of pregnancies and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Infection/inflammation has been implicated in both the aetiology of preterm birth itself and associated neonatal pulmonary and neurological morbidity. Treatment options are currently limited to prolongation of the pregnancy using cervical cerclage, pessaries or progesterone or administration of drugs including steroids to promote lung maturity and neuroprotective agents such as magnesium sulphate, the timing of which are highly critical...
March 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Wenxiang Fan, Xiang Li, Liangliang Huang, Shucheng He, Zhicheng Xie, Yuxin Fu, Weirong Fang, Yunman Li
Ischemic stroke, the main reason for severe disabilities in the world, is associated with a high incidence of sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we use the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model in rats and oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in fetal rat primary cortical neurons to investigate whether and how S-oxiracetam (S-ORC) protect brain injury from ischemic stroke. The results revealed that S-ORC reduced brain infarct size and lessened neurological dysfunction after stroke...
January 19, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alessandro Ieraci, Daniel G Herrera
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the principal preventable cause of mental retardation in the western countries resulting from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Ethanol-induced massive neuronal cell death occurs mainly in immature neurons during the brain growth spurt period. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that are most sensitive to ethanol neurotoxicity. Currently, there is no effective treatment that targets the causes of these disorders and efficient treatments to counteract or reverse FASD are desirable...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
Dane A De Silva, Anne R Synnes, Peter von Dadelszen, Tang Lee, Jeffrey N Bone, Laura A Magee
BACKGROUND: Evidence supports magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) for women at risk of imminent birth at < 32-34 weeks to reduce the likelihood of cerebral palsy in the child. MAGnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection to prevent Cerebral Palsy (MAG-CP) was a multifaceted knowledge translation (KT) strategy for this practice. METHODS: The KT strategy included national clinical practice guidelines, a national online e-learning module and, at MAG-CP sites, educational rounds, focus group discussions and surveys of barriers and facilitators...
January 11, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Hsin-Jung Ho, Hitoshi Shirakawa, Puspo E Giriwono, Asagi Ito, Michio Komai
Isoprenoids play widely differing roles in various physiological processes in animals and plants. Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is an isoprenoid found in plants, and is an important metabolic derivative in the isoprenoid/cholesterol synthesis pathway. Earlier studies focused on GGOH's ability to improve the side effects of bisphosphonate therapy by regulating the mevalonate pathway. More recently, the mevalonate pathway-independent effects of GGOH have been described, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and neuroprotective activities...
January 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Terrie Lockridge
Preterm birth interrupts the precise process of fetal maturation, forcing critical neurologic growth to continue within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Concern for the impact of the NICU experience on the developing brain led to a unit-based Quality Improvement (QI) project to promote best outcomes for our graduates. The objective was to implement a standard of care for neonatal neuroprotection in a large urban tertiary center. A multidisciplinary committee researched and developed the Neonatal Neuroprotective Best Practice Guidelines to identify optimal interventions, as well as provide physiologic rationales to reinforce importance of these practices...
December 19, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Katie M Groom, Anna L David
Fetal growth restriction and related placental pathologies such as preeclampsia, stillbirth, and placental abruption are believed to arise in early pregnancy when inadequate remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries leads to persistent high-resistance and low-flow uteroplacental circulation. The consequent placental ischaemia, reperfusion injury, and oxidative stress are associated with an imbalance in angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors. Many interventions have centered on the prevention and/or treatment of preeclampsia with results pertaining to fetal growth restriction and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy often included as secondary outcomes because of the common pathophysiology...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lei Zhou, Zeyong Yang, Xianfu Lu, Xingxing Li, Xiaohu An, Jing Chai, Qiling Yang, Shikai Yan, Yuanhai Li
Isoflurane can provide both neuroprotection and neurotoxicity in various culture models and in rodent developing brains. Emulsified Isoflurane (EI) is an emulsion formulation of isoflurane, while its underlying molecular mechanism of developemental nerve toxicity largely remains unclear. We hypothesized that EI induced fetal neural stem cells (FNSCs) apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. FNSCs were isolated from the cortex of SD rats during 14 days of gestation...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
Leila Hosseinzadeh, Hoda Monaghash, Farahnaz Ahmadi, Nastaran Ghiasvand, Yalda Shokoohinia
Objective: Parkinson's disease, a slowly progressive neurological disease, is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The main aspects of researches are the protection of normal neurons against degeneration. Fatty acids (FAs), the key structural elements of dietary lipids, are carboxylic straight chains and notable parameters in nutritional and industrial usefulness of a plant. Materials and Methods: Black cumin, a popular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant food seasoning, contains nonpolar constituents such as FAs which were extracted using hexane...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Sarah R Murray, Sarah J Stock, Jane E Norman
Globally, preterm birth rates are rising and have a significant impact on neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preterm birth remains difficult to prevent and a number of strategies for preterm birth prevention (progesterone, cervical pessaries, cervical cerclage, tocolytics, and antibiotics) have been identified. While some of these show more promise, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the long-term effects of these strategies on childhood outcomes. Strategies used to improve the health of babies if born preterm, such as antenatal magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection and antenatal corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation, show evidence of short-term benefit but lack large-scale follow-up data of long-term childhood outcomes...
December 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
Tammy Z Movsas, Rebecca L Weiner, M Banks Greenberg, David M Holtzman, Rafael Galindo
Introduction: Though the human fetus is exposed to placentally derived human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) throughout gestation, the role of hCG on the fetal brain is unknown. Review of the available literature appears to indicate that groups of women with higher mean levels of hCG during pregnancy tend to have offspring with lower cerebral palsy (CP) risk. Given that newborn cerebral injury often precedes the development of CP, we aimed to determine whether hCG may protect against the neurodegenerative effects of neonatal brain injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Sergio Davinelli, Flavia Chiosi, Roberto Di Marco, Ciro Costagliola, Giovanni Scapagnini
Citicoline and homotaurine are renowned compounds that exhibit potent neuroprotective activities through distinct molecular mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate whether cotreatment with citicoline and homotaurine affects cell survival in primary retinal cultures under experimental conditions simulating retinal neurodegeneration. Primary cultures were obtained from the retina of fetal rats and exposed to citicoline plus homotaurine (100  μ M). Subsequently, neurotoxicity was induced using excitotoxic levels of glutamate and high glucose concentrations...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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