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fetal neuroprotection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412496/magnesium-sulfate-mg-prevents-maternal-inflammation-induced-offspring-cerebral-injury-evident-on-mri-but-not-via-il-1%C3%AE
#1
Yuval Ginsberg, Nizar Khatib, Boaz Weiss, Shay Arison, Michael G Ross, Zeev Weiner, Ron Beloosesky
OBJECTIVE: As maternal treatment with magnesium sulfate (MG) may protect the fetal brain, we sought to assess the inflammation associated neuroprotective potential of MG and its association to interleukin 1β (IL-1β). METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 18-day gestation received i.p. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. Dams were randomized to treatment with s.c. saline (control), or MG prior to or following the i.p. injection, resulting in three groups. At the end of the treatment, fetal brain IL-1β was quantified for 18 pregnant rats (six of each group)...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391733/antenatal-magnesium-sulfate-for-both-tocolysis-and-fetal-neuroprotection-in-premature-rupture-of-the-membranes-before-32-weeks-gestation
#2
Eun Jung Jung, Jung Mi Byun, Young Nam Kim, Kyung Bok Lee, Moon Su Sung, Ki Tae Kim, Jong Beom Shin, Dae Hoon Jeong
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the impact of antenatal MgSO4 therapy given to women with PPROM before 32 weeks' gestation on latency, maternal outcomes, perinatal outcomes, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective cohort observational study of 184 singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM at 23(°)-31(6) weeks who were hospitalized and received magnesium therapy for tocolysis (MgSO4 group) or did not received tocolytic therapy (no MgSO4 group) between 2005 and 2013...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323976/protective-effects-of-fetal-zone-steroids-are-comparable-to-estradiol-in-hyperoxia-induced-cell-death-of-immature-glia
#3
Stephanie Hübner, Donna E Sunny, Christine Pöhlke, Johanna Ruhnau, Antje Vogelgesang, Bettina Reich, Matthias Heckmann
Impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants is caused by prematurity itself; however, hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, and hyperoxia contribute to the extent of impairment. Because preterm birth is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone, preliminary clinical studies have been carried out to substitute these steroids in preterm infants; however, they failed to confirm significantly improved neurological outcomes. We therefore hypothesized that the persistently high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids (mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) until term could interfere with E2-mediated protection...
March 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316773/vitamin-d-treatment-during-pregnancy-prevents-autism-related-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-immune-activation
#4
Stephanie Vuillermot, Wei Luan, Urs Meyer, Darryl Eyles
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infection is a recognized environmental risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders of developmental origins such as autism or schizophrenia. Experimental work in animals indicates that this link is mediated by maternal immune activation (MIA) involving interactions between cytokine-associated inflammatory events, oxidative stress, and other pathophysiological processes such as hypoferremia and zinc deficiency. Maternal administration of the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) in mice produces several behavioral phenotypes in adult offspring of relevance to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268471/examining-the-effect-of-mgso4-on-sharp-wave-transient-activity-in-the-hypoxic-ischemic-fetal-sheep-model
#5
Meherzad J Lakadia, Hamid Abbasi, Alistair J Gunn, Charles P Unsworth, Laura Bennet
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) due to lack of oxygen is a debilitating disorder experienced by a significant number of preterm infants during birth. Studies show that the brain undergoes different phases of injury following hypoxic insult, but the first 6-8 hours (known as a latent phase) are the key to treatment efficacy. Cerebral hypothermia is one known treatment, and for it to be effective it must be started during the latent phase and continued for several days. In order to determine the effectiveness of treatment it is important to pinpoint the time of insult...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237964/vulnerability-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-of-primary-neurons-derived-from-tg2576-alzheimer-mice-role-of-intraneuronal-abeta-accumulation-and-astrocytes
#6
Vito Antonio Baldassarro, Alessandra Marchesini, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà
Microvascular dysfunction is considered an integral part of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis, but the possible relationship between amyloid pathology, microvascular dysfunction and cell death is still unclear. In order to investigate the influence of intraneuronal Abeta (Aβ) accumulation on vulnerability to hypoxia, we isolated primary cortical neurons from Tg2576 (carrying the APPSwe mutation) and Wt fetal mice. We first demonstrated that neurons isolated from Tg2576 new-born mice show an increase in VEGFa mRNA expression and a decrease in the expression of the two VEGF receptors, i...
February 24, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226644/examining-the-effect-of-mgso4-on-sharp-wave-transient-activity-in-the-hypoxic-ischemic-fetal-sheep-model
#7
Meherzad J Lakadia, Hamid Abbasi, Alistair J Gunn, Charles P Unsworth, Laura Bennet, Meherzad J Lakadia, Hamid Abbasi, Alistair J Gunn, Charles P Unsworth, Laura Bennet, Laura Bennet, Hamid Abbasi, Alistair J Gunn, Meherzad J Lakadia, Charles P Unsworth
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) due to lack of oxygen is a debilitating disorder experienced by a significant number of preterm infants during birth. Studies show that the brain undergoes different phases of injury following hypoxic insult, but the first 6-8 hours (known as a latent phase) are the key to treatment efficacy. Cerebral hypothermia is one known treatment, and for it to be effective it must be started during the latent phase and continued for several days. In order to determine the effectiveness of treatment it is important to pinpoint the time of insult...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215296/neurotrophins-in-the-brain-interaction-with-alcohol-exposure-during-development
#8
K E Boschen, A Y Klintsova
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a result of the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the developing fetus. Decades of research examining both individuals with FASDs and animal models of developmental alcohol exposure have revealed the devastating effects of alcohol on brain structure, function, behavior, and cognition. Neurotrophic factors have an important role in guiding normal brain development and cellular plasticity in the adult brain. This chapter reviews the current literature showing that alcohol exposure during the developmental period impacts neurotrophin production and proposes avenues through which alcohol exposure and neurotrophin action might interact...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132012/use-of-magnesium-sulfate-before-32%C3%A2-weeks-of-gestation-a-european-population-based-cohort-study
#9
H T Wolf, L Huusom, T Weber, A Piedvache, S Schmidt, M Norman, J Zeitlin
OBJECTIVES: The use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in European obstetric units is unknown. We aimed to describe reported policies and actual use of MgSO4 in women delivering before 32 weeks of gestation by indication. METHODS: We used data from the European Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe (EPICE) population-based cohort study of births before 32 weeks of gestation in 19 regions in 11 European countries. Data were collected from April 2011 to September 2012 from medical records and questionnaires...
January 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111188/the-emergence-of-functional-architecture-during-early-brain-development
#10
Kristin Keunen, Serena J Counsell, Manon J N L Benders
Early human brain development constitutes a sequence of intricate processes resulting in the ontogeny of functionally operative neural circuits. Developmental trajectories of early brain network formation are genetically programmed and can be modified by epigenetic and environmental influences. Such alterations may exert profound effects on neurodevelopment, potentially persisting throughout the lifespan. This review focuses on the critical period of fetal and early postnatal brain development. Here we collate findings from neuroimaging studies, with a particular focus on functional MRI research that interrogated early brain network development in both health and high-risk or disease states...
January 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106777/neuroprotection-by-caffeine-in-hyperoxia-induced-neonatal-brain-injury
#11
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Evelyn Strauß, Anja Schlör, Marco Sifringer, Till Scheuer, Christoph Bührer, Thomas Schmitz
Sequelae of prematurity triggered by oxidative stress and free radical-mediated tissue damage have coined the term "oxygen radical disease of prematurity". Caffeine, a potent free radical scavenger and adenosine receptor antagonist, reduces rates of brain damage in preterm infants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of caffeine on oxidative stress markers, anti-oxidative response, inflammation, redox-sensitive transcription factors, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062893/prenatal-alcohol-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-rat-brain-cerebral-cortex-protective-effect-of-folic-acid-and-betaine
#12
Ibrahim Sogut, Onur Uysal, Aysegul Oglakci, Ferruh Yucel, Kazim Kartkaya, Gungor Kanbak
PURPOSE: Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the infant. This study aims to investigate prenatal alcohol exposure related neuroapoptosis on the cerebral cortex tissues of newborn rats and possible neuroprotective effects of betaine, folic acid, and combined therapy. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into five experimental groups: control, ethanol, ethanol + betaine, ethanol + folic acid, and ethanol + betaine + folic acid combined therapy groups...
March 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056569/maternal-side-effects-fetal-neuroprotection-according-to-body-mass-index-after-magnesium-sulfate-in-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Gustavo Vilchez, Jing Dai, Moraima Lagos, Robert J Sokol
OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports the need of dose-adjustment of several drugs according to body mass index (BMI) to prevent toxicity in the underweight, and ensure efficacy in obese women. However, for MgSO4 neuroprotection, the effect of BMI on maternal toxicity and fetal neuroprotection is understudied. We analyze the effect of BMI on maternal/infant outcomes after MgSO4. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a clinical trial that studied MgSO4 neuroprotection. Maternal side effects, magnesium cord levels, and offspring cerebral palsy/death were analyzed along BMI strata using ANOVA and chi-square test...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018896/factors-influencing-neurodevelopment-after-cardiac-surgery-during-infancy
#14
REVIEW
Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich
Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008305/magnesium-sulfate-prevents-placental-ischemia-induced-increases-in-brain-water-content-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytokines-in-pregnant-rats
#15
Linda W Zhang, Junie P Warrington
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most widely used therapy in the clinic to prevent the progression of preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, to eclampsia. Eclampsia, manifested as unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum, accounts for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. While MgSO4 continues to be used in the clinic, the mechanisms by which it exerts its protective actions are not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MgSO4 protects against placental ischemia-induced increases in brain water content and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926461/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-regulation-of-ppars-signaling-relationship-to-tissue-development-and-aging
#16
REVIEW
Francisca Echeverría, Macarena Ortiz, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that function as ligand-dependent transcription factors that can be activated by different types of fatty acids (FAs). Three isoforms of PPARs have been identify, namely, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, which are able to bind long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFAs), n-3 LCPUFAs being bound with greater affinity to achieve activation. FA binding induces a conformational change of the nuclear receptors, triggering the transcription of specific genes including those encoding for various metabolic and cellular processes such as FA β-oxidation and adipogenesis, thus representing key mediators of lipid homeostasis...
November 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878553/magnesium-sulfate-provides-neuroprotection-in-eclampsia-like-seizure-model-by-ameliorating-neuroinflammation-and-brain-edema
#17
Xiaolan Li, Xinjia Han, Jinying Yang, Junjie Bao, Xiaodan Di, Guozheng Zhang, Huishu Liu
Eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that is defined by the new onset of grand mal seizures on the basis of preeclampsia and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide. Presently, magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most effective treatment, but the mechanism by which MgSO4 prevents eclampsia has yet to be fully elucidated. We previously showed that systemic inflammation decreases the seizure threshold in a rat eclampsia-like model, and MgSO4 treatment can decrease systemic inflammation...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851901/exposure-to-ambient-ultrafine-particulate-matter-alters-the-expression-of-genes-in-primary-human-neurons
#18
Parrisa Solaimani, Arian Saffari, Constantinos Sioutas, Stephen C Bondy, Arezoo Campbell
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the onset of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. To gain insight into this neurotoxicity, this study sought to examine global gene expression changes caused by exposure to ambient ultrafine PM. Microarray analysis was performed on primary human neurons derived from fetal brain tissue after a 24h exposure to 20μg/mL of ambient ultrafine particles. We found a majority of the changes in noncoding RNAs, which are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thereby could impact the expression of several other protein coding gene targets...
November 13, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821206/the-neurodevelopmental-implications-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-in-the-fetus
#19
David F A Lloyd, Mary A Rutherford, John M Simpson, Reza Razavi
As survival after cardiac surgery continues to improve, an increasing number of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are reaching school age and beyond, with growing recognition of the wide range of neurodevelopmental challenges many survivors face. Improvements in fetal detection rates, coupled with advances in fetal ultrasound and MRI imaging, are contributing to a growing body of evidence that abnormal brain architecture is in fact present before birth in hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients, rather than being solely attributable to postnatal factors...
March 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764015/progesterone-as-a-tocolytic-agent-for-preterm-labor-a-systematic-review
#20
Reshama Navathe, Vincenzo Berghella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tocolytic agents have been used for over 60 years in the fight against preterm labor, which ultimately can lead to preterm birth. Currently, clinicians can choose from a variety of drug classes to achieve the primary goal of delaying delivery by 48 h, thereby allowing time for administration of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity, and if appropriate, starting magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection. However, there are currently no known therapies to maintain the tocolytic effect beyond those initial 48 h...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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