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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773978/effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-on-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-rats-beneficial-effects-of-maternal-exercise
#1
Ziyi Wu, Xingyue Li, Yi Zhang, Dongyi Tong, Lili Wang, Ping Zhao
Fetal exposure to general anesthetics may pose significant neurocognitive risks but methods to mitigate against these detrimental effects are still to be determined. We set out, therefore, to assess whether single or repeated in utero exposure to sevoflurane triggers long-term cognitive impairments in rat offspring. Since maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve cognition in offspring, we hypothesized that maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy would protect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720839/protective-effect-of-water-extracted-spirulina-maxima-on-glutamate-induced-neuronal-cell-death-in-mouse-hippocampal-ht22-cell
#2
Hyeon Yong Lee, Ga Hee Ryu, Woon Yong Choi, Woo Seung Yang, Hyeon Woo Lee, Choong Je Ma
Introduction: Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. Materials and Methods: S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography...
April 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713307/fetal-neuroprotection-by-magnesium-sulfate-from-translational-research-to-clinical-application
#3
REVIEW
Clément Chollat, Loïc Sentilhes, Stéphane Marret
Despite improvements in perinatal care, preterm birth still occurs regularly and the associated brain injury and adverse neurological outcomes remain a persistent challenge. Antenatal magnesium sulfate administration is an intervention with demonstrated neuroprotective effects for preterm births before 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Owing to its biological properties, including its action as an N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker and its anti-inflammatory effects, magnesium is a good candidate for neuroprotection...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709511/maternal-pomegranate-juice-attenuates-maternal-inflammation-induced-fetal-brain-injury-by-inhibition-of-apoptosis-neural-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-a-rat-model
#4
Yuval Ginsberg, Nizar Khatib, Noor Saadi, Michael G Ross, Zeev Weinr, Ron Beloosesky
OBJECTIVE: Maternal inflammation is a risk factor for neonatal brain injury and future neurological deficits. Pomegranates have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activities. We hypothesized that pomegranate juice (POM) may attenuate fetal brain injury in a rat model of maternal inflammation. METHODS: Pregnant rats (24 total) were randomized for i.p. LPS (100 ug/kg) or saline at time 0 at 18 days of gestation. From day 11 of gestation, 12 dams were provided ad libitum access to drinking water, and 12 dams were provided ad libitum access to drinking water with pomegranate juice (5cc per day), resulting in 4 groups of 6 dams (SAL/SAL, POM/SAL, SAL/LPS, POM/LPS)...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679679/activation-of-cyclic-gmp-dependent-protein-kinase-blocks-alcohol-mediated-cell-death-and-calcium-disruption-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons
#5
Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Ramesh C Bhalla, Nicholas J Pantazis
Alcohol during brain development leads to the widespread neuronal death observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In comparison, the mature brain is less vulnerable to alcohol. Studies into maturation-acquired alcohol resistance uncovered a protective mechanism that reduces alcohol-induced neuronal death through nitric oxide-cGMP-cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (NO-cGMP-cGK) signaling. However, the downstream processes underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Alcohol can disrupt levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) in vulnerable neuronal populations to trigger cell death in both in vivo and in vitro models of FASD...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673373/chorioamnionitis-neuroinflammation-and-injury-timing-is-key-in-the-preterm-ovine-fetus
#6
Ruth Gussenhoven, Rob J J Westerlaken, Daan R M G Ophelders, Alan H Jobe, Matthew W Kemp, Suhas G Kallapur, Luc J Zimmermann, Per T Sangild, Stanislava Pankratova, Pierre Gressens, Boris W Kramer, Bobbi Fleiss, Tim G A M Wolfs
BACKGROUND: Antenatal infection (i.e., chorioamnionitis) is an important risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after preterm birth. Destructive and developmental disturbances of the white matter are hallmarks of preterm brain injury. Understanding the temporal effects of antenatal infection in relation to the onset of neurological injury is crucial for the development of neurotherapeutics for preterm infants. However, these dynamics remain unstudied. METHODS: Time-mated ewes were intra-amniotically injected with lipopolysaccharide at 5, 12, or 24 h or 2, 4, 8, or 15 days before preterm delivery at 125 days gestational age (term ~ 150 days)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648595/progesterone-as-a-postnatal-prophylactic-agent-for-encephalopathy-caused-by-prenatal-hypoxic-ischemic-insult
#7
Yoshimasa Kawarai, Hirokazu Tanaka, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Makio Shozu
Brain damage caused by hypoxic ischemic insult during the perinatal period causes hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies (HIEs). Therapeutic hypothermia is indicated for HIE, but since the therapeutic burden is large for its limited therapeutic effectiveness, another strategy is needed. Progesterone (P4) plays a neuroprotective role through the actions of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (Allo), on P4 receptor, GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)A receptors or both. We examined the therapeutic potential of P4 using a newborn rat model of HIE...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572829/time-and-sex-dependent-effects-of-magnesium-sulphate-on-post-asphyxial-seizures-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#8
Laura Bennet, Robert Galinsky, Vittoria Draghi, Christopher A Lear, Joanne O Davidson, Charles P Unsworth, Alistair J Gunn
KEY POINTS: We evaluated the effect of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 ) on seizures induced by asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep. MgSO4 did not prevent seizures, but significantly reduced the total duration, number of seizures, seizure amplitude and average seizure burden. Saline-asphyxia male fetuses had significantly more seizures than female fetuses, but male fetuses showed significantly greater reduction in seizures during MgSO4 infusion than female fetuses. A circadian profile of seizure activity was observed in all fetuses, with peak seizures seen around 04...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568190/the-protective-effect-of-different-extracts-of-three-artemisia-species-against-h-2-o-2-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pc12-neuronal-cells
#9
Leila Hosseinzadeh, Alireza Malekshahi, Farahnaz Ahmadi, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Marziyeh Hajialyani, Mahdi Mojarrab
Background: Oxidative stress causes cell damage and is involved in many neurological diseases. The antioxidant properties of plant materials for the maintenance of health and protecting against different diseases stimulated scientist to investigate different herbs. Different Artemisia species have exhibited antioxidant activity. This study aims to investigate whether different Artemisia species could protect the PC12 cells against oxidative stress mediated by H2 O2 . Methods: For this purpose, different extracts of three Artemisia species ( Artemisia aucheri , Artemisia turanica , and Artemisia turcomanica ) were prepared using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and Water: Ethanol mixture (1:1 volume ratio)...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561649/magnesium-sulfate-and-sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-and-neural-adaptations-during-normoxia-and-asphyxia-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#10
Robert Galinsky, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Christopher A Lear, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Guido Wassink, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) is recommended for preterm neuroprotection, preeclampsia and preterm labor prophylaxis. There is an important unmet need to carefully test clinical interventions in both sexes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cardiovascular and neurophysiological adaptations to MgSO4 during normoxia and asphyxia in preterm male and female fetal sheep. Fetuses were instrumented at 98{plus minus}1 days of gestation (d; term=147 d). At 104 d, unanaesthetised fetuses were randomly assigned to intravenous MgSO4 (n=12 F, 10 M) or saline (n=13 F, 10 M)...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493064/progesterone-improves-perinatal-neuromotor-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model-of-intrauterine-inflammation-via-immunomodulation-of-the-placenta
#11
Christopher M Novak, Maide Ozen, Michael McLane, Sadiq Alqutub, Ji Yeon Lee, Jun Lei, Irina Burd
To assess the fetal neuroprotective potential of progesterone using a well-validated mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine inflammation (IUI). Embryonic day 17 pregnant mouse dams (n = 69) were randomly allocated to receive 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), micronized progesterone (MP), or vehicle 1 hour prior to intrauterine injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or LPS. After 6 hours, mice were killed for the collection of placentas and fetal brains, or pregnancy continued for the evaluation of preterm birth (PTB) and offspring neuromotor function...
May 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489062/embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-have-a-superior-neuroprotective-capacity-over-fetal-mscs-in-the-hypoxic-ischemic-mouse-brain
#12
Kate E Hawkins, Michelangelo Corcelli, Kate Dowding, Anna M Ranzoni, Filipa Vlahova, Kwan-Leong Hau, Avina Hunjan, Donald Peebles, Pierre Gressens, Henrik Hagberg, Paolo de Coppi, Mariya Hristova, Pascale V Guillot
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have huge potential for regenerative medicine. In particular, the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PSC-MSCs) overcomes the hurdle of replicative senescence associated with the in vitro expansion of primary cells and has increased therapeutic benefits in comparison to the use of various adult sources of MSCs in a wide range of animal disease models. On the other hand, fetal MSCs exhibit faster growth kinetics and possess longer telomeres and a wider differentiation potential than adult MSCs...
May 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460393/embryo-fetal-development-studies-with-the-dietary-supplement-vinpocetine-in-the-rat-and-rabbit
#13
Natasha Catlin, Suramya Waidyanatha, Eve Mylchreest, Lutfiya Miller-Pinsler, Helen Cunny, Paul Foster, Vicki Sutherland, Barry McIntyre
Dietary supplement and natural product use is increasing within the United States, resulting in growing concern for exposure in vulnerable populations, including young adults and women of child-bearing potential. Vinpocetine is a semisynthetic derivative of the Vinca minor extract, vincamine. Human exposure to vinpocetine occurs through its use as a dietary supplement for its purported nootropic and neuroprotective effects. To investigate the effects of vinpocetine on embryo-fetal development, groups of 25 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and 8 pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were orally administered 0, 5, 20, or 60 mg vinpocetine/kg and 0, 25, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg daily from gestational day (GD) 6-20 and GD 7-28, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460323/clinical-guidelines-for-prevention-and-management-of-preterm-birth-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
N Medley, B Poljak, S Mammarella, Z Alfirevic
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) endorse multiple strategies to prevent or manage preterm birth (PTB). OBJECTIVES: To summarise CPG recommendations for PTB and identify areas of international consensus. SEARCH STRATEGY: In May 2017 we searched for all CPG relevant to PTB without language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: CPG were eligible if the following criteria were met: (1) the guideline was published or current from June 2013; (2) the guideline recommended practices for the prevention or management of PTB relevant to our prespecified clinical questions for screening, medications or surgery and other interventions; (3) publications on methods of guideline development for eligible CPG were included to enable quality assessment...
February 20, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423392/neurochemical-alterations-in-sudden-unexplained-perinatal-deaths-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Nazeer Muhammad, Muhammad Sharif, Javeria Amin, Riffat Mehboob, Syed Amir Gilani, Nargis Bibi, Hasnain Javed, Naseer Ahmed
Sudden unexpected perinatal collapse is a major trauma for the parents of victims. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is unexpected and mysterious death of an apparently healthy neonate from birth till 1 year of age without any known causes, even after thorough postmortem investigations. However, the incidence of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS) is seven times higher as compared with SIDS. This observation is approximated 40-80%. Stillbirth is defined as death of a fetus after 20th week of gestation or just before delivery at full term without a known reason...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422214/evidence-based-national-guidelines-for-the-management-of-suspected-fetal-growth-restriction-comparison-consensus-and-controversy
#16
REVIEW
Lesley M McCowan, Francesc Figueras, Ngaire H Anderson
Small for gestational age is usually defined as an infant with a birthweight <10th centile for a population or customized standard. Fetal growth restriction refers to a fetus that has failed to reach its biological growth potential because of placental dysfunction. Small-for-gestational-age babies make up 28-45% of nonanomalous stillbirths, and have a higher chance of neurodevelopmental delay, childhood and adult obesity, and metabolic disease. The majority of small-for-gestational-age babies are not recognized before birth...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422213/antenatal-glucocorticoids-magnesium-sulfate-and-mode-of-birth-in-preterm-fetal-small-for-gestational-age
#17
REVIEW
Joseph Y Ting, John C Kingdom, Prakesh S Shah
A diagnosis of fetal growth restriction and subsequent preterm birth is associated with increased risks of adverse perinatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes and potentially long-lasting effects to adulthood. Most such cases are associated with placental insufficiency and the fetal response to chronic intrauterine hypoxemia and nutrient deprivation leads to substantial physiological and metabolic adaptations. The management of such pregnancies, especially with respect to perinatal interventions and birth mode, remains an unresolved dilemma...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408744/the-use-of-antenatal-fetal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-patients-at-high-risk-of-preterm-birth
#18
REVIEW
L Story, J Hutter, T Zhang, A H Shennan, M Rutherford
Preterm birth, defined as birth occurring prior to 37 weeks gestation is a common obstetric complication affecting 8% of pregnancies and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Infection/inflammation has been implicated in both the aetiology of preterm birth itself and associated neonatal pulmonary and neurological morbidity. Treatment options are currently limited to prolongation of the pregnancy using cervical cerclage, pessaries or progesterone or administration of drugs including steroids to promote lung maturity and neuroprotective agents such as magnesium sulphate, the timing of which are highly critical...
March 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355569/s-oxiracetam-ameliorates-ischemic-stroke-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-through-up-regulating-%C3%AE-7-nachr-and-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signal-pathway-in-rats
#19
Wenxiang Fan, Xiang Li, Liangliang Huang, Shucheng He, Zhicheng Xie, Yuxin Fu, Weirong Fang, Yunman Li
Ischemic stroke, the main reason for severe disabilities in the world, is associated with a high incidence of sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we use the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model in rats and oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in fetal rat primary cortical neurons to investigate whether and how S-oxiracetam (S-ORC) protect brain injury from ischemic stroke. The results revealed that S-ORC reduced brain infarct size and lessened neurological dysfunction after stroke...
May 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346266/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-melatonin-during-fetal-development
#20
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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