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Colistin in childrens

Simon C Langton Hewer, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs in most people with cystic fibrosis. Once chronic infection is established, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is virtually impossible to eradicate and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Early infection may be easier to eradicate.This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006, 2009 and 2014. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotic treatment of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children and adults with cystic fibrosis eradicates the organism, delays the onset of chronic infection, and results in clinical improvement...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Manju Raj Purohit, Salesh Chandran, Harshada Shah, Vishal Diwan, Ashok J Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an escalating grim menace to global public health. Our aim is to phenotype and genotype antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) from humans, animals, and water from the same community with a 'one-health' approach. The samples were collected from a village belonging to demographic surveillance site of Ruxmaniben Deepchand (R.D.) Gardi Medical College Ujjain, Central India. Commensal coliforms from stool samples from children aged 1-3 years and their environment (animals, drinking water from children's households, common source- and waste-water) were studied for antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid-encoded resistance genes...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Candela Solé-Lleonart, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Stijn Blot, Garyfallia Poulakou, Jean Chastre, Lucy B Palmer, Matteo Bassetti, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Jose M Pereira, Jordi Riera, Tim Felton, Jayesh Dhanani, Tobias Welte, Jose M Garcia-Alamino, Jason A Roberts, Jordi Rello
BACKGROUND: Nebulization of antiinfective agents is a common but unstandardized practice in critically ill patients. METHODS: A systematic review of 1,435 studies was performed in adults receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. Two different administration strategies (adjunctive and substitute) were considered clinically relevant. Inclusion was restricted to studies using jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating-mesh nebulizers. Studies involving children, colonized-but-not-infected adults, and cystic fibrosis patients were excluded...
May 2017: Anesthesiology
Eren Çağan, Evrim Kıray Baş, Hüseyin Selim Asker
BACKGROUND The emergence of infections related to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) reintroduced the use of colistin, an antibiotic that was previously abandoned due to adverse effects. However, because of its limited use in neonatal intensive care units, there is very little data about the effectiveness and safety of colistin in children and newborns. In this study, which will be the largest case study in the literature, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of colistin in full-term and preterm newborns...
January 30, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Setareh Mamishi, Reza Habibi, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Mahmoud Khodabandeh
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in the past decades. Due to the prevalence of A. baumannii across the world, suitable typing methods to investigate the epidemiological distribution of the organism have been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and molecular diversity of A. baumannii strains isolated from nosocomial infections of hospitalized children in Children Medical Center Hospital (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital, in Tehran, Iran...
January 13, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Ayşe Karaaslan, Eren Çağan, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Serkan Atıcı, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, Mustafa Bakır
BACKGROUND: The emergence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) has led to the resurrection of colistin use. The data on colistin use and drug-related adverse effects in children are scarce. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of colistin use in critically ill pediatric patients. STUDY DESIGN: This study has a retrospective study design. METHODS: Sixty-one critically ill children were identified through the department's patient files archive during the period from January 2011 to November 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Roderick P Venekamp, Faisal Javed, Thijs Ma van Dongen, Angus Waddell, Anne Gm Schilder
BACKGROUND: Ear discharge (otorrhoea) is common in children with grommets (ventilation/tympanostomy tubes); the proportion of children developing discharge ranges from 25% to 75%. The most common treatment strategies include oral broad-spectrum antibiotics, antibiotic eardrops or those containing a combination of antibiotic(s) and a corticosteroid, and initial observation. Important drivers for one strategy over the other are concerns over the side effects of oral antibiotics and the potential ototoxicity of antibiotic eardrops...
November 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Oliver Ombeva Malande, Annerie Du Plessis, Diane Rip, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: There are no paediatric reports of invasive infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) from Africa. OBJECTIVES: To document a series of cases of CRE infections at a tertiary children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, describing the clinical and microbiological findings in these children. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study was completed using data from a series of children with invasive CRE infection between 2010 and 2015, sourced from their clinical notes and microbiology results...
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ngai Kien Le, Wertheim Hf, Phu Dinh Vu, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hai Thanh Le, Bich Thi Ngoc Hoang, Vu Thanh Vo, Yen Minh Lam, Dung Tien Viet Vu, Thu Hoai Nguyen, Tung Quang Thai, Lennart E Nilsson, Ulf Rydell, Kinh Van Nguyen, Behzad Nadjm, Louise Clarkson, Håkan Hanberger, Mattias Larsson
There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year.A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christopher Alan Moxon, Stéphane Paulus
Multi-drug resistance in Gram negative bacteria, particularly in Enterobacteriaceae, is a major clinical and public health challenge. The main mechanism of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is linked to the production of beta-lactamase hydrolysing enzymes such as extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), AmpC beta-lactamases and carbapenemases (Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE)). ESBL and CPE resistance genes are located on plasmids, which can be transmitted between Enterobacteriaceae, facilitating their spread in hospitals and communities...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Infection
Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Cihangul Bayhan, Banu Sancak, Eda Karadag Oncel, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
The increasing incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extremely drug-resistant (XDR) gram-negative organisms has led to the reemergence of colistin use. Clinical and demographic data were collected on 94 pediatric patients diagnosed with MDR or XDR gram-negative infections and treated with either a colistin-containing regimen (colistin group) or at least one antimicrobial agent other than colistin (noncolistin group). The overall clinical response rates were 65.8% in the colistin group and 70...
June 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Elias Iosifidis, Asimenia Violaki, Evangelia Michalopoulou, Elena Volakli, Elisavet Diamanti, Dimitrios Koliouskas, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Vasiliki Drossou-Agakidou, Maria Sdougka, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: Emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) bacteria has forced clinicians to use off-label antimicrobial agents such as tigecycline. We present our experience on salvage use of tigecycline for the treatment of infections caused by XDR Gram-negative bacteria in critically ill children and review published cases. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review in pediatric departments of a tertiary level hospital from January 2009 to May 2014. Patients were identified using pharmacy database...
March 21, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
D F Florescu, C Mindru, M A Keck, F Qiu, A C Kalil
BACKGROUND: The clinical experience with colistin therapy for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in solid organ transplantation is limited. METHODS: Patients transplanted from January 2003 to July 2011 and treated with intravenous or nebulized colistin were included. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patients' characteristics and Kaplan-Meier curves for survival analysis. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were included: 10 adults (median age, 54...
January 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
J Zhu, L Sun, B Ding, Y Yang, X Xu, W Liu, D Zhu, F Yang, H Zhang, F Hu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in Shanghai Children's Hospital in China. Twenty-two non-duplicate CRKP strains were collected from pediatric patients between March and June in 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by the agar dilution method. Beta-lactamases were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The transferability of bla NDM-1 was investigated by conjugation experiment...
April 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Alejandro Díaz, Diana Cristina Ortiz, Mónica Trujillo, Carlos Garcés, Fabian Jaimes, Andrea Victoria Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections represent a growing problem and a serious global threat. Data in children are scarce. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) are the most common mechanism of resistance this organism has developed. We report the clinical characteristics and outcomes from a cohort of children infected or colonized with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp) at a tertiary care center in Medellín, Colombia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all pediatric cases from whom CRKp isolates were obtained from 2008 to 2013...
March 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Francesco Raimondi, Claudio Veropalumbo, Clara Coppola, Sergio Maddaluno, Teresa Ferrara, Giancarlo Cangiano, Letizia Capasso
We present the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with diffuse gingival noma, initially misdiagnosed as thrush. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was cultured and treated with systemic and local colistin with complete healing. Noma neonatorum from multidrug-resistant pathogens may appear in neonatal intensive care units. Old antibiotics may help.Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to destruction of facial tissue with significant morbidity and mortality in children and young adults...
September 2015: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
M Pobiega, J Maciag, M Pomorska-Wesolowska, A Chmielarczyk, D Romaniszyn, G Ziolkowski, P B Heczko, J Wojkowska-Mach, M Bulanda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze antibiotic resistance and virulence patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAR) isolates from urinary tract infections among children in Southern Poland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study comprised consecutive, non-repetitive PAR isolates sent from two collaborative laboratories. The study group consisted of children aged up to 17 years from Southern Poland with culture-proven PAR UTIs. Relevant information about patients with UTIs, such as age, sex, and type of infection (polymicrobial or monomicrobial), was collected...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
A V Lazareva, L K Katosova, O A Kryzhanovskaya, O A Ponomarenko, O V Karaseva, A L Gorelik, N A Mayanskiy
Nosocomial infections and their rational antibiotic treatment represent a major challenge for the healthcare nowadays. In this context, gramnegative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterobacteriaceae spp. are etiologically important and characterized by a significant level of antibiotic resistance. To examine dynamics of the respiratory tract colonization by hospital flora, tracheal aspirates obtained at three time points from 69 children with severe craniocerebral trauma during their stay in ICU were analysed...
2014: Antibiotiki i Khimioterapii︠a︡, Antibiotics and Chemoterapy [sic]
Meltem Polat, Soner Sertan Kara, Anıl Tapısız, Hasan Tezer, Gökhan Kalkan, Anıl Dolgun
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of inhaled plus intravenous (IV) colistin with that of IV colistin alone in critically ill children with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to colistin-only susceptible (COS) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: This retrospective cohort study included critically ill children aged 1 month to 18 years with culture-documented monomicrobial VAP due to COS GNB. RESULTS: Fifty patients were included, and 32 patients received IV colistin alone, whereas 18 patients received inhaled plus IV colistin...
August 2015: Paediatric Drugs
Thijs M A van Dongen, Anne G M Schilder, Roderick P Venekamp, G Ardine de Wit, Geert J M G van der Heijden
BACKGROUND: Acute otorrhea is a common problem in children with tympanostomy tubes. We recently demonstrated that treatment with antibiotic-glucocorticoid eardrops is clinically superior to oral antibiotics and initial observation. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of these three common treatment strategies for this condition. METHODS: We performed an open-label pragmatic trial in which 230 children with acute uncomplicated tympanostomy-tube otorrhea were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 3 treatments: hydrocortisone-bacitracin-colistin eardrops, oral amoxicillin-clavulanate suspension, and initial observation (no assigned medication prescription to fill)...
May 2015: Pediatrics
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