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Colistin in childrens

Oliver Ombeva Malande, Annerie Du Plessis, Diane Rip, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: There are no paediatric reports of invasive infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) from Africa. OBJECTIVES: To document a series of cases of CRE infections at a tertiary children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, describing the clinical and microbiological findings in these children. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study was completed using data from a series of children with invasive CRE infection between 2010 and 2015, sourced from their clinical notes and microbiology results...
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ngai Kien Le, Wertheim Hf, Phu Dinh Vu, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hai Thanh Le, Bich Thi Ngoc Hoang, Vu Thanh Vo, Yen Minh Lam, Dung Tien Viet Vu, Thu Hoai Nguyen, Tung Quang Thai, Lennart E Nilsson, Ulf Rydell, Kinh Van Nguyen, Behzad Nadjm, Louise Clarkson, Håkan Hanberger, Mattias Larsson
There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year.A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christopher Alan Moxon, Stéphane Paulus
Multi-drug resistance in Gram negative bacteria, particularly in Enterobacteriaceae, is a major clinical and public health challenge. The main mechanism of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is linked to the production of beta-lactamase hydrolysing enzymes such as extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), AmpC beta-lactamases and carbapenemases (Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE)). ESBL and CPE resistance genes are located on plasmids, which can be transmitted between Enterobacteriaceae, facilitating their spread in hospitals and communities...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Infection
Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Cihangul Bayhan, Banu Sancak, Eda Karadag Oncel, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
The increasing incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extremely drug-resistant (XDR) gram-negative organisms has led to the reemergence of colistin use. Clinical and demographic data were collected on 94 pediatric patients diagnosed with MDR or XDR gram-negative infections and treated with either a colistin-containing regimen (colistin group) or at least one antimicrobial agent other than colistin (noncolistin group). The overall clinical response rates were 65.8% in the colistin group and 70...
June 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Elias Iosifidis, Asimenia Violaki, Evangelia Michalopoulou, Elena Volakli, Elisavet Diamanti, Dimitrios Koliouskas, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Vasiliki Drossou-Agakidou, Maria Sdougka, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: Emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) bacteria has forced clinicians to use off-label antimicrobial agents such as tigecycline. We present our experience on salvage use of tigecycline for the treatment of infections caused by XDR Gram-negative bacteria in critically ill children and review published cases. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review in pediatric departments of a tertiary level hospital from January 2009 to May 2014. Patients were identified using pharmacy database...
March 21, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
D F Florescu, C Mindru, M A Keck, F Qiu, A C Kalil
BACKGROUND: The clinical experience with colistin therapy for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in solid organ transplantation is limited. METHODS: Patients transplanted from January 2003 to July 2011 and treated with intravenous or nebulized colistin were included. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patients' characteristics and Kaplan-Meier curves for survival analysis. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were included: 10 adults (median age, 54...
January 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
J Zhu, L Sun, B Ding, Y Yang, X Xu, W Liu, D Zhu, F Yang, H Zhang, F Hu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in Shanghai Children's Hospital in China. Twenty-two non-duplicate CRKP strains were collected from pediatric patients between March and June in 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by the agar dilution method. Beta-lactamases were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The transferability of bla NDM-1 was investigated by conjugation experiment...
April 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Alejandro Díaz, Diana Cristina Ortiz, Mónica Trujillo, Carlos Garcés, Fabian Jaimes, Andrea Victoria Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections represent a growing problem and a serious global threat. Data in children are scarce. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) are the most common mechanism of resistance this organism has developed. We report the clinical characteristics and outcomes from a cohort of children infected or colonized with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp) at a tertiary care center in Medellín, Colombia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all pediatric cases from whom CRKp isolates were obtained from 2008 to 2013...
March 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Francesco Raimondi, Claudio Veropalumbo, Clara Coppola, Sergio Maddaluno, Teresa Ferrara, Giancarlo Cangiano, Letizia Capasso
We present the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with diffuse gingival noma, initially misdiagnosed as thrush. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was cultured and treated with systemic and local colistin with complete healing. Noma neonatorum from multidrug-resistant pathogens may appear in neonatal intensive care units. Old antibiotics may help.Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to destruction of facial tissue with significant morbidity and mortality in children and young adults...
September 2015: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
M Pobiega, J Maciag, M Pomorska-Wesolowska, A Chmielarczyk, D Romaniszyn, G Ziolkowski, P B Heczko, J Wojkowska-Mach, M Bulanda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze antibiotic resistance and virulence patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAR) isolates from urinary tract infections among children in Southern Poland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study comprised consecutive, non-repetitive PAR isolates sent from two collaborative laboratories. The study group consisted of children aged up to 17 years from Southern Poland with culture-proven PAR UTIs. Relevant information about patients with UTIs, such as age, sex, and type of infection (polymicrobial or monomicrobial), was collected...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
A V Lazareva, L K Katosova, O A Kryzhanovskaya, O A Ponomarenko, O V Karaseva, A L Gorelik, N A Mayanskiy
Nosocomial infections and their rational antibiotic treatment represent a major challenge for the healthcare nowadays. In this context, gramnegative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterobacteriaceae spp. are etiologically important and characterized by a significant level of antibiotic resistance. To examine dynamics of the respiratory tract colonization by hospital flora, tracheal aspirates obtained at three time points from 69 children with severe craniocerebral trauma during their stay in ICU were analysed...
2014: Antibiotiki i Khimioterapii︠a︡, Antibiotics and Chemoterapy [sic]
Meltem Polat, Soner Sertan Kara, Anıl Tapısız, Hasan Tezer, Gökhan Kalkan, Anıl Dolgun
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of inhaled plus intravenous (IV) colistin with that of IV colistin alone in critically ill children with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to colistin-only susceptible (COS) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: This retrospective cohort study included critically ill children aged 1 month to 18 years with culture-documented monomicrobial VAP due to COS GNB. RESULTS: Fifty patients were included, and 32 patients received IV colistin alone, whereas 18 patients received inhaled plus IV colistin...
August 2015: Paediatric Drugs
Thijs M A van Dongen, Anne G M Schilder, Roderick P Venekamp, G Ardine de Wit, Geert J M G van der Heijden
BACKGROUND: Acute otorrhea is a common problem in children with tympanostomy tubes. We recently demonstrated that treatment with antibiotic-glucocorticoid eardrops is clinically superior to oral antibiotics and initial observation. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of these three common treatment strategies for this condition. METHODS: We performed an open-label pragmatic trial in which 230 children with acute uncomplicated tympanostomy-tube otorrhea were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 3 treatments: hydrocortisone-bacitracin-colistin eardrops, oral amoxicillin-clavulanate suspension, and initial observation (no assigned medication prescription to fill)...
May 2015: Pediatrics
V I Zakharevich, P S Shabunia, S A Fatykhova, P V Kurman, V V Dmitriev
The prevalence of hospital strains of P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae characterizing by multiple drug resistance to overwhelming majority of antibiotics anew evoked an increased interest to colistin. However, until now there is not enough information concerning pharmacokinetics of colistin to optimize dosage of this pharmaceutical. The study was carried out to analyze pharmacokinetics of both colistin and sodium colistimitate in children with chemically induced neutropenia. To quantitatively detect colistin in blood serum the technique of highly effective fluid chromatography with mass spectrometry was applied...
January 2015: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
M Marzouk, A Ferjani, M Haj Ali, J Boukadida
INTRODUCTION: We present recent data on the bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogenic bacteria isolated in children and newborns in our region over the past 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study on the positive urine cultures from pediatric and neonatal populations during 2012-2013. Bacteria were identified using conventional methods. Susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted as recommended by the committee of the susceptibility of the French Society of Microbiology (CA-SFM)...
May 2015: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Özlem Özgür Gündeşlioğlu, Tülin Güven Gökmen, Özden Özgür Horoz, Necmi Aksaray, Fatih Köksal, Akgün Yaman, Rıza Dinçer Yıldızdaş, Emre Alhan, Emine Kocabaş, Derya Alabaz
The aim of the present study is to investigate the types of healthcare-associated infections (HC-AIs) caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and the related antibiotic susceptibility patterns as well as the genotypic characteristics of the Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from our center. Sixty-nine Acinetobacter baumannii isolates originating from various samples collected from 69 pediatric patients during their hospital stays were included in the study. The types of healthcare-associated infections caused by these isolates were evaluated, and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the genotypic characteristics of the isolates were determined using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method...
July 2014: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Kapil Kapoor, Sumidha Jain, Mamta Jajoo, Swati Dublish, Vikas Dabas, Vikas Manchanda
OBJECTIVE: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important emerging cause for extensively-drug resistant (XDR) hospital associated infections (HAIs) in pediatric intensive care units (PICU). The study was done to evaluate the risk factors, outcome, antibiotic sensitivity pattern, and predictors of mortality in critically ill children with XDR A. baumannii infection. METHODS: Retrospective case control study, done in the PICU of a tertiary care pediatric hospital of India from April 2010 to March 2012...
October 2014: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Poddutoor Preetham Kumar, Swapnil Rameshwar Giri, Farhan A R Shaikh, Nalinikant Panigrahy, Dinesh Chirla
OBJECTIVE: To observe the safety and efficacy of Colistimethate sodium in children infected with gram-negative bacteria, susceptible only to colistimethate sodium. METHODS: This prospective observational study done over 2 years observed children who received colistin for >48 h, for renal failure as defined by p-RIFLE criteria. RESULTS: Out of 68 children, 52 (76.5%) survived. There were three children with evidence of acute kidney injury and none had neurotoxicity...
February 2015: Indian Pediatrics
Warunee Punpanich Vandepitte, Josef Berge, Rune Andersson
BACKGROUND: A relentless increase in the rate of carbapenem-resistant among Acinetobacter baumannii has substantially reduced the access to effective antimicrobial regimens. Currently limited information is available regarding the prognosis or outcomes of children with blood stream infection caused by carbapenem resistant A. baumanii. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical outcomes and predictors for fatality among children with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) bloodstream infection (BSI)...
November 2014: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Hsiu-Mei Wei, Yu-Lung Hsu, Hsiao-Chuan Lin, Tsung-Hsueh Hsieh, Ting-Yu Yen, Hung-Chih Lin, Bai-Horng Su, Kao-Pin Hwang
BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) infection in neonates. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for mortality in neonates with MDRAB infection. METHODS: This retrospective case-series study was conducted at the Children's Hospital of China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. All patients hospitalized between January 2010 and December 2013 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with MDRAB infections were reviewed...
October 2015: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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