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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109165/melatonin-and-sirtuins-a-not-so-unexpected-relationship
#1
Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Pedro González Menéndez, Vanesa Cepas, Dun-Xian Tan, Russel J Reiter
Epigenetic modifications, including methylation or acetylation as well as posttranscriptional modifications are mechanisms used by eukaryotic cells to increase the genome diversity in terms of differential gene expression and protein diversity. Among these modifying enzymes, sirtuins, a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are of particular importance. Sirtuins regulate the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell survival and apoptosis, thus having important roles in normal and cancer cells. Sirtuins can also regulate metabolic pathways by changing preference for glycolysis under aerobic conditions as well as glutaminolysis...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109144/-interferon-regulatory-factor-5-irf5-regulates-the-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-in-mice
#2
Kang Sun, Jianguo Qu, Jixiang Chen, Shengchun Dang, Songbing He, Jin Zhang, Rong Xie, Yun Wang, Jianxin Zhang
Objective To investigate the expression differences of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) between M1 and M2 macrophages derived from mouse bone marrow and the effects of small interfering RNA targeting IRF5 gene (IRF5 siRNA) on macrophage differentiation. Methods With the treatment of IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages were differentiated into M1 macrophages; while with the treatment of IL-4, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages were differentiated into M2 macrophages...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109136/therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-rational-and-progress
#3
Afsane Bahrami, Forouzan Amerizadeh, Soodabeh ShahidSales, Majid Khazaei, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Mina Maftouh, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Amir Avan
Wnt/β-catenin pathway is one of the main/frequent dysregulated pathways in several tumor types, including colon cancer. Aberrant activation of this pathway is associated with cell proliferation, invasive behaviors and cell resistance, suggesting its potential value as a therapeutic target in treatment of CRC. Several agents have been developed for targeting of this pathway (e.g, natural agents: curcumin, 3,3-diindolylmethane, phytoestrogen; Synthetic/small Wnt inhibitors: Rofecoxib; PRI-724, CWP232291; and monoclonal antibody against frizzled receptors, Vanituctumab...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109079/silencing-of-ribosomal-protein-l34-rpl34-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-esophageal-cancer-cells
#4
Huijie Fan, Jing Li, Yongxu Jia, Jingjing Wu, Long Yuan, Mingjun Li, Jiangqi Wei, Benling Xu
Ribosomal protein L34 (RPL34) belongs to the L34E family of ribosomal proteins and contains a zinc finger motif. Aberrant expression of RPL34 has been reported in several human malignancies. However, the precise role and potential underlying mechanisms of RPL34 in human esophageal cancer remain largely unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of RPL34 in esophageal cancer progression. Our results showed that the expression of RPL34 at both mRNA and protein levels was frequently up-regulated in esophageal cancer cell lines...
January 20, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109075/knockdown-of-tacc3-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-human-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells
#5
Feng Guo, Yaquan Liu
Transforming acidic coiled-coil protein 3 (TACC3) is a member of the TACC family and plays an important role in regulating cell mitosis, transcription and tumorigenesis. However, the expression pattern and roles of TACC3 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TACC3 in RCC. We demonstrated overexpression of TACC3 in human RCC cell lines at both RNA and protein levels. Moreover, knockdown of TACC3 repressed RCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion <em>in vitro</em>...
January 20, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109073/cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-3-promotes-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-tumorigenesis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-targeting-p27
#6
Huimin Wang, Hexin Chen, Hang Zhou, Wenfa Yu, Zhenmin Lu
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common head and neck malignancy with high invasion which arises from the nasopharynx epithelium. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) belongs to the dual-specificity protein phosphatase family which plays a key role in regulating cell division. Abnormal expression of CDKN3 has been found in numerous types of cancer. In the current study, we explored the possible role of CDKN3 in cell proliferation, invasion ability and radiosensitivity in NPC cells. We reported that CDKN3 was upregulated and P27 was downregulated in NPC tissues and associated with worse patient prognosis...
January 20, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108988/blood-brain-barrier-closure-time-after-controlled-ultrasound-induced-opening-is-independent-of-opening-volume
#7
Meaghan A O'Reilly, Olivia Hough, Kullervo Hynynen
OBJECTIVES: Microbubble-mediated focused ultrasound (US) opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has shown promising results for the treatment of brain tumors and conditions such as Alzheimer disease. Practical clinical implementation of focused US treatments would aim to treat a substantial portion of the brain; thus, the safety of opening large volumes must be investigated. This study investigated whether the opened volume affects the time for the BBB to be restored after treatment...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108950/t-cell-receptor-engineered-t-cells-for-cancer-treatment-current-status-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
Yu Ping, Chaojun Liu, Yi Zhang
T-cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells are a novel option for adoptive cell therapy used for the treatment of several advanced forms of cancer. Work using TCR-engineered T cells began more than two decades ago, with numerous preclinical studies showing that such cells could mediate tumor lysis and eradication. The success of these trials provided the foundation for clinical trials, including recent clinical successes using TCR-engineered T cells to target New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (NY-ESO-1)...
January 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108861/in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-investigating-the-development-of-experimental-brain-metastases-due-to-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#9
Amanda M Hamilton, Paula J Foster
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), when associated with poor outcome, is aggressive in nature with a high incidence of brain metastasis and the shortest median overall patient survival after brain metastasis development compared to all other breast cancer subtypes. As therapies that control primary cancer and extracranial metastatic sites improve, the incidence of brain metastases is increasing and the management of patients with breast cancer brain metastases continues to be a significant clinical challenge...
January 21, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108836/smad-dependent-signaling-plays-a-detrimental-role-in-a-fly-model-of-smarcb1-deficiency-and-the-biology-of-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors
#10
Astrid Jeibmann, Jacqueline Schulz, Kristin Eikmeier, Pascal D Johann, Katharina Thiel, Isabel Tegeder, Oliver Ambrée, Michael C Frühwald, Stefan M Pfister, Marcel Kool, Werner Paulus, Martin Hasselblatt
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are highly malignant brain tumors arising in young children. The majority of ATRT is characterized by inactivation of the chromatin remodeling complex member SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5). Little is known, however, on downstream pathways involved in the detrimental effects of SMARCB1 deficiency which might also represent targets for treatment. Using Drosophila melanogaster and the Gal4-UAS system, modifier screens were performed in order to identify the role of SMAD dependent signaling in the lethal phenotype associated with knockdown of snr1, the fly homolog of SMARCB1...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108630/macropinocytosis-of-nab-paclitaxel-drives-macrophage-activation-in-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Jane E Cullis, Despina Siolas, Antonina Avanzi, Sugata Barui, Anirban Maitra, Dafna Bar-Sagi
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease that is largely refractory to currently available treatment strategies. Therapeutic resistance is partially attributed to the dense stromal reaction of PDAC tumors that includes a pervasive infiltration of immunosuppressive (M2) macrophages. Nab-paclitaxel (trade name Abraxane) is a nanoparticle albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel that, in combination with gemcitabine, is currently the first line treatment for pancreatic cancer. Here, we show that macrophages internalized nab-paclitaxel via macropinocytosis...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108626/a-new-role-for-er%C3%AE-silencing-via-dna-methylation-of-basal-stem-cell-and-emt-genes
#12
Eric A Ariazi, John C Taylor, Michael A Black, Emmanuelle Nicolas, Michael J Slifker, Diana J Azzam, Jeff Boyd
: Resistance to hormonal therapies is a major clinical problem in the treatment of estrogen receptor α-positive (ERα(+)) breast cancers. Epigenetic marks, namely DNA methylation of cytosine at specific CpG sites (5mCpG), are frequently associated with ERα(+) status in human breast cancers. Therefore, ERα may regulate gene expression in part via DNA methylation. This hypothesis was evaluated using a panel of breast cancer cell line models of antiestrogen resistance. Microarray gene expression profiling was used to identify genes normally silenced in ERα(+) cells but derepressed upon exposure to the demethylating agent decitabine, derepressed upon long-term loss of ERα expression, and resuppressed by gain of ERα activity/expression...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108623/tumor-induced-stromal-stat1-accelerates-breast-cancer-via-deregulating-tissue-homeostasis
#13
Victoria R Zellmer, Patricia M Schnepp, Sarah L Fracci, Xuejuan Tan, Erin N Howe, Siyuan Zhang
: The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a dynamic tissue space in which the tumor exists, plays a significant role in tumor initiation, and is a key contributor in cancer progression; however, little is known about tumor-induced changes in the adjacent tissue stroma. Herein, tumor-induced changes in the TME were explored at the morphological and molecular level to further understand cancer progression. Tumor-adjacent mammary glands (TAGs) displayed altered branching morphology, expansion of myofibroblasts, and increased mammosphere formation, broadly suggesting a tumor-induced field effect...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108511/biomarker-based-pet-imaging-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-in-mouse-models
#14
Susanne Kossatz, Brandon Carney, Melanie E Schweitzer, Giuseppe Carlucci, Vesselin Miloushev, Uday B Maachani, Prajwal Rajappa, Kayvan Keshari, David J Pisapia, Wolfgang A Weber, Mark M Souweidane, Thomas Reiner
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a childhood brainstem tumor with a universally poor prognosis. Here, we characterize on a positron emission tomography (PET) probe for imaging DIPG in vivo. In human histological tissues, the probes target, poly(ADP)ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1), was highly expressed in DIPG compared to normal brain. PET imaging allowed for the sensitive detection of DIPG in a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM), and probe uptake correlated to histologically determined tumor infiltration...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108510/bone-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer-can-be-therapeutically-targeted-at-the-tbx2-wnt-signaling-axis
#15
Srinivas Nandana, Manisha Tripathi, Peng Duan, Chia-Yi Chu, Rajeev Mishra, Chunyan Liu, Renjie Jin, Hironobu Yamashita, Majd Zayzafoon, Neil A Bhowmick, Haiyen E Zhau, Robert J Matusik, Leland W K Chung
Identification of factors that mediate visceral and bone metastatic spread and subsequent bone remodeling events is highly relevant to successful therapeutic intervention in advanced human prostate cancer (PCa). TBX2, a T-box family transcription factor that negatively regulates cell cycle inhibitor p21, plays critical roles during embryonic development, and recent studies have highlighted its role in cancer. Here we report that TBX2 is overexpressed in human PCa specimens and bone metastases from xenograft mouse models of human PCa...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108460/enhancer-remodeling-during-adaptive-bypass-to-mek-inhibition-is-attenuated-by-pharmacological-targeting-of-the-p-tefb-complex
#16
Jon S Zawistowski, Samantha M Bevill, Daniel R Goulet, Timothy J Stuhlmiller, Adriana S Beltran, Jose F Olivares-Quintero, Darshan Singh, Noah Sciaky, Joel S Parker, Naim U Rashid, Xin Chen, James S Duncan, Martin C Whittle, Steven P Angus, Sara Hanna Velarde, Brian T Golitz, Xiaping He, Charlene Santos, David B Darr, Kristalyn Gallagher, Lee M Graves, Charles M Perou, Lisa A Carey, H Shelton Earp, Gary L Johnson
Targeting the dysregulated BRaf-MEK-ERK pathway in cancer has increasingly emerged in clinical trial design. Despite clinical responses in specific cancers using inhibitors targeting BRaf and MEK, resistance develops often involving non-genomic adaptive bypass mechanisms. Inhibition of MEK1/2 by trametinib in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients induced dramatic transcriptional responses, including upregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) comparing tumor samples before and after one week of treatment...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108100/three-dimensional-quality-assurance-of-imrt-prostate-plans-using-gel-dosimetry
#17
M A Silveira, J F Pavoni, O Baffa
Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the most modern radiation therapy treatment techniques. Although IMRT can deliver high and complex conformational doses to the tumor volume, its implementation requires rigorous quality assurance (QA) procedures that include a dosimetric pre-treatment verification of individual patient planning. This verification usually involves measuring a small volume of absolute dose with an ionization chamber and checking bi-dimensional fluency with an array of detectors...
January 17, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107698/the-natural-flavonoid-apigenin-sensitizes-human-cd44-prostate-cancer-stem-cells-to-cisplatin-therapy
#18
Suat Erdogan, Kader Turkekul, Rıza Serttas, Zeynep Erdogan
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common type of cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death among men. Development of chemoresistance, tumor relapse and metastasis remain major barriers to effective treatment and all been identified to be associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs). Natural flavonoids such as apigenin have been shown to have the ability to improve the therapeutic efficacy of common chemotherapy agents through CSCs sensitization. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of apigenin with cisplatin on CD44(+) PCa stem cell growth and migration...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107608/the-increased-expression-of-tcf3-is-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-in-chinese-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#19
Xiaohe Shen, Jizhao Yuan, Mengjie Zhang, Wenhua Li, Bing Ni, Yuzhang Wu, Li Jiang, Weiping Fan, Zhiqiang Tian
OBJECTIVES: Regulatory factors controlling stem cell identity and self-renewal are often active in aggressive cancers and are thought to promote cancer growth and progression. B-cell-specific transcription factor 3 (TCF3/E2A) is a member of the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factor family that is central to regulating epidermal and embryonic stem cell identity. It has been reported that TCF3 was connected with the development and progression of a number of human cancers...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107584/targeting-of-tumor-growth-and-angiogenesis-underlies-the-enhanced-antitumor-activity-of-lenvatinib-in-combination-with-everolimus
#20
Masahiro Matsuki, Yusuke Adachi, Yoichi Ozawa, Takayuki Kimura, Taisuke Hoshi, Kiyoshi Okamoto, Osamu Tohyama, Kaoru Mitsuhashi, Atsumi Yamaguchi, Junji Matsui, Yasuhiro Funahashi
The combination of lenvatinib-a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor-plus everolimus-a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-significantly improved clinical outcomes versus everolimus monotherapy in a phase 2 clinical study of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, we investigated potential mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of the combination treatment in preclinical RCC models. Lenvatinib plus everolimus showed greater antitumor activity than either monotherapy in 3 human RCC xenograft mouse models (A-498, Caki-1, and Caki-2)...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Science
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