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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231690/downregulation-of-hur-inhibits-the-progression-of-esophageal-cancer-through-interleukin-18
#1
Xiaohui Xu, Cheng Song, Zhihua Chen, Chenxiao Yu, Yi Wang, Yiting Tang, Judong Luo
Purpose: To investigate the effect of HuR downregulation and the potential target genes of HuR on the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Materials and Methods: In this study, a proteomics assay was used to detect the expression of proteins after HuR downregulation, and a luciferase assay was used to detect the potential presence of a HuR binding site on the 3'-UTR of IL-18. In addition, colony formation assay, MTT, EdU incorporation assay, Western blot, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, transwell invasion assay and wound healing assay were used...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231055/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicle-micrornas-in-cancer-biology
#2
Ryou-U Takahashi, Marta Prieto-Vila, Ai Hironaka, Takahiro Ochiya
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20-22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Multiple studies report that miRNAs are involved in homeostatic maintenance and that aberrant expression of miRNAs is often observed in various types of diseases, including cancer. In cancer biology, miRNAs exert functional roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance, and metastasis. MiRNAs are also secreted through small vesicles called exosomes, which are endosome-derived vesicles derived from various cell types including immune and tumor cells...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230930/in-silico-design-of-optimal-dissolution-kinetics-of-fe-doped-zno-nanoparticles-results-in-cancer-specific-toxicity-in-a-preclinical-rodent-model
#3
Bella B Manshian, Suman Pokhrel, Uwe Himmelreich, Kaido Tämm, Lauri Sikk, Alberto Fernández, Robert Rallo, Tarmo Tamm, Lutz Mädler, Stefaan J Soenen
Cancer cells have unique but widely varying characteristics that have proven them difficult to be treated by classical therapeutics and calls for novel and selective treatment options. Nanomaterials (NMs) have been shown to display biological effects as a function of their chemical composition, and the extent and exact nature of these effects can vary between different biological environments. Here, ZnO NMs are doped with increasing levels of Fe, which allows to finely tune their dissolution rate resulting in significant differences in their biological behavior on cancer or normal cells...
February 23, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230866/oridonin-induces-autophagy-via-inhibition-of-glucose-metabolism-in-p53-mutated-colorectal-cancer-cells
#4
Zhuo Yao, Fuhua Xie, Min Li, Zirui Liang, Wenli Xu, Jianhua Yang, Chang Liu, Hongwangwang Li, Hui Zhou, Liang-Hu Qu
The Warburg effect is an important characteristic of tumor cells, making it an attractive therapeutic target. Current anticancer drug development strategies predominantly focus on inhibitors of the specific molecular effectors involved in tumor cell proliferation. These drugs or natural compounds, many of which target the Warburg effect and the underlying mechanisms, still need to be characterized. To elucidate the anticancer effects of a natural diterpenoid, oridonin, we first demonstrated the anticancer activity of oridonin both in vitro and in vivo in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230858/ngs-based-transcriptome-profiling-reveals-biomarkers-for-companion-diagnostics-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-blocker-galunisertib-in-hcc
#5
Yuan Cao, Rahul Agarwal, Francesco Dituri, Luigi Lupo, Paolo Trerotoli, Serena Mancarella, Peter Winter, Gianluigi Giannelli
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling has gained extensive interest in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The small molecule kinase inhibitor galunisertib, targeting the TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI), blocks HCC progression in preclinical models and shows promising effects in ongoing clinical trials. As the drug is not similarly effective in all patients, this study was aimed at identifying new companion diagnostics biomarkers for patient stratification. Next-generation sequencing-based massive analysis of cDNA ends was used to investigate the transcriptome of an invasive HCC cell line responses to TGF-β1 and galunisertib...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230855/simvastatin-induced-cell-cycle-arrest-through-inhibition-of-stat3-skp2-axis-and-activation-of-ampk-to-promote-p27-and-p21-accumulation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#6
Sin-Ting Wang, Hsiu J Ho, Jaw-Town Lin, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chun-Ying Wu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by a poor prognosis and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, which decreases cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting mevalonate pathways and is widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Simvastatin exhibits anticancer effects against several malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of simvastatin on HCC are still not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated simvastatin-induced G0/G1 arrest by inducing p21 and p27 accumulation in HepG2 and Hep3B cells...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230778/caffeic-acid-expands-anti-tumor-effect-of-metformin-in-human-metastatic-cervical-carcinoma-htb-34-cells-implications-of-ampk-activation-and-impairment-of-fatty-acids-de-novo-biosynthesis
#7
Malgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Pawel Konieczny, Marcin Majka
The efficacy of cancer treatments is often limited and associated with substantial toxicity. Appropriate combination of drug targeting specific mechanisms may regulate metabolism of tumor cells to reduce cancer cell growth and to improve survival. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anti-diabetic drug Metformin (Met) and a natural compound caffeic acid (trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) alone and in combination to treat an aggressive metastatic human cervical HTB-34 (ATCC CRL-1550) cancer cell line...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230773/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-tumor-expression-is-associated-with-a-better-prognosis-and-diabetic-disease-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients
#8
Gerardo Botti, Francesca Collina, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Federica Rao, Valentina Peluso, Rossella De Cecio, Michela Piezzo, Gabriella Landi, Michelino De Laurentiis, Monica Cantile, Maurizio Di Bonito
Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC) subtype is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. The only treatment available is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a trans-membrane protein expressed on a wide variety of cells including immune cells, epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Recently, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway signaling was described as an adaptive immune resistance mechanism enacted by the tumor cells to evade the immune response. Its presence on tumor cell membranes, acquired for this reason, through time, is an important prognostic value...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230738/clinical-implications-of-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-in-the-kidney-liver-lung-and-brain-an-emerging-therapeutic-target
#9
REVIEW
Osama H Elshenawy, Sherif M Shoieb, Anwar Mohamed, Ayman O S El-Kadi
Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) is an important pathway for the formation of eicosanoids. The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. In the current review, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in the kidney, liver, lung, and brain during physiological and pathophysiological states. Moreover, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in tumor formation, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In the kidney, 20-HETE is involved in modulation of preglomerular vascular tone and tubular ion transport...
February 20, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230287/therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-rational-and-progress
#10
Afsane Bahrami, Majid Khazaei, Malihe Hasanzadeh, Soodabeh ShahidSales, Mona Joudi Mashhad, Marjaneh Farazestanian, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Majid Rezayi, Mina Maftouh, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Amir Avan
PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is one of the key dysregulated pathways in different tumor types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Activation of this pathway is shown to be related with cellular transformation, tumor progression, cell survival and drug resistance. There is growing body of data evaluating the value of PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors in CRC (e.g., BEZ235, NVP-BEZ235, OSI-027, everolimus, MK-2206, KRX-0401, BYL719 and BKM120). This report summarizes the current knowledge about PI3K/AKT pathway and its cross talk with ERK/MAPK and mTOR pathways with particular emphasis on the value of targeting this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in treatment of colorectal cancer...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230015/screening-of-gene-mutations-associated-with-bone-metastasis-in-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Kun Zhang, Min Zhang, Jinlong Zhu, Wang Hong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the gene mutation of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with bone metastasis using next-generation sequencing (NGS), and screen for the driver genes which are associated with bone metastasis of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight clinicopathologic samples from advanced NSCLC combined with bone metastasis patients were collected. Exome sequencing was conducted within 483 tumor-associated genes using Hiseq 2000_PE75 NGS platform...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230005/current-mechanism-of-acquired-resistance-to-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-and-updated-therapy-strategies-in-human-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Kaixian Zhang, Qianqian Yuan
Lung cancer continues to be a major health problem and the most common cancer-related mortality worldwide with about 80%-85% patients suffering from nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). More than 80% of NSCLC cases are often diagnosed as advanced stage and harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutation. Although great success in initial response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are found in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, acquired resistance usually occurs on the continuous treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229402/next-generation-sequencing-to-guide-treatment-of-advanced-melanoma
#13
Klaus G Griewank, Bastian Schilling
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has provided significant insights into the pathogenesis of human malignancies. In advanced melanoma, two therapeutic avenues have appeared and have immediately become the standard of care, i.e. targeted therapy with small molecule inhibitors, and immune checkpoint blockade. Sequencing has always been essential for determining which patients may benefit from targeted therapies (e.g. the presence of BRAF mutations). While sequencing does not currently help recognize which patients might benefit from immune checkpoint blockade, recent data suggest that this may change...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229393/mechanisms-of-therapeutic-resistance-in-prostate-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Mary Nakazawa, Channing Paller, Natasha Kyprianou
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA. The challenge in managing castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) stems not from the lack of therapeutic options but from the limited duration of clinical and survival benefit offered by treatments in this setting due to primary and acquired resistance. The remarkable molecular heterogeneity and tumor adaptability in advanced prostate cancer necessitate optimization of such treatment strategies. While the future of CRPC management will involve newer targeted therapies in deliberately biomarker-selected patients, interventions using current approaches may exhibit improved clinical benefit if employed in the context of optimal sequencing and combinations...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229371/overall-survival-and-metastasis-resections-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-using-electronic-medical-records
#15
Eetu Heervä, Maija Lavonius, Panu Jaakkola, Heikki Minn, Raija Ristamäki
PURPOSE: Treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer is chemotherapy commonly combined with monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor (bevacizumab) or epidermal growth factor receptor (cetuximab or panitumumab), the efficacy of which has been proven in randomized controlled trials. The objective of the current retrospective study was to analyze the impact of targeted therapy, adverse events, and dose reduction on overall survival (OS) and metastasis resection rates...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229367/inhibition-of-mtor-pathway-by-rapamycin-decreases-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-spontaneous-seizures-in-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#16
Xiaosa Chi, Cheng Huang, Rui Li, Wei Wang, Mengqian Wu, Jinmei Li, Dong Zhou
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been demonstrated to mediate multidrug resistance in various tumors by inducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. Here, we investigated the correlation between the mTOR pathway and P-gp expression in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Temporal cortex specimens were obtained from patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and age-matched controls who underwent surgeries at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between June 2014 and May 2015. We established a rat model of epilepsy kindled by coriaria lactone (CL) and screened pharmacoresistant rats (non-responders) using phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229253/the-biology-of-uveal-melanoma
#17
Adriana Amaro, Rosaria Gangemi, Francesca Piaggio, Giovanna Angelini, Gaia Barisione, Silvano Ferrini, Ulrich Pfeffer
Uveal melanoma (UM), a rare cancer of the eye, is distinct from cutaneous melanoma by its etiology, the mutation frequency and profile, and its clinical behavior including resistance to targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockers. Primary disease is efficiently controlled by surgery or radiation therapy, but about half of UMs develop distant metastasis mostly to the liver. Survival of patients with metastasis is below 1 year and has not improved in decades. Recent years have brought a deep understanding of UM biology characterized by initiating mutations in the G proteins GNAQ and GNA11...
February 22, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229220/overexpression-of-hepacam-inhibits-bladder-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-viability-through-the-akt-foxo-pathway
#18
Min Tang, Yan Zhao, Nanjing Liu, E Chen, Zhen Quan, Xiaohou Wu, Chunli Luo
PURPOSE: HepaCAM, an N-linked glycoprotein that encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, has been reported to be a tumor suppressor gene that mediates diverse cellular bio-functions. Recent studies have shown that the FoxO transcription factors play a pivotal role during cancer progression. Here, we explored the correlation between HepaCAM and the FoxO family via regulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. METHODS: HepaCAM and FoxO3 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry staining...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228152/cardiac-metastasis-from-colon-cancer-effectively-treated-with-5-fluorouracil-leucovorin-and-oxaliplatin-modified-folfox6-plus-panitumumab-a-case-report
#19
Yoshiki Tsujii, Yoshito Hayashi, Akira Maekawa, Tetsuji Fujinaga, Kengo Nagai, Shunsuke Yoshii, Akihiko Sakatani, Satoshi Hiyama, Shinichiro Shinzaki, Hideki Iijima, Tetsuo Takehara
BACKGROUND: Cardiac metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare. There is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of chemotherapy, and standard therapy for metastatic cardiac tumors has not been established. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old woman presented with a right ventricle tumor that was detected incidentally on screening cardiac ultrasonography. The initial computed tomography (CT) scan showed the cardiac tumor, which was approximately 40 mm in size, and multiple pulmonary nodules...
February 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228150/a-comparative-study-of-dose-distribution-of-pbt-3d-crt-and-imrt-for-pediatric-brain-tumors
#20
Daichi Takizawa, Masashi Mizumoto, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Yoshiko Oshiro, Hiroko Fukushima, Takashi Fukushima, Toshiyuki Terunuma, Toshiyuki Okumura, Koji Tsuboi, Hideyuki Sakurai
INTRODUCTION: It was reported that proton beam therapy (PBT) reduced the normal brain dose compared with X-ray therapy for pediatric brain tumors. We considered whether there was not the condition that PBT was more disadvantageous than intensity modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT) and 3D conventional radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for treatment of pediatric brain tumors about the dose reduction for the normal brain when the tumor location or tumor size were different. METHODS: The subjects were 12 patients treated with PBT at our institute, including 6 cases of ependymoma treated by local irradiation and 6 cases of germinoma treated by irradiation of all four cerebral ventricles...
February 22, 2017: Radiation Oncology
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