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pneumocystis in children's

Sean Wasserman, Mark E Engel, Rulan Griesel, Marc Mendelson
BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence data and clinical studies in children suggest that the burden of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in Africa may be underestimated. We performed a systematic review to determine the prevalence and attributable mortality of PCP amongst HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Africa-Wide: NiPAD and CINAHL, from Jan 1 1995 to June 1 2015, for studies that reported the prevalence, mortality or case fatality of PCP in HIV-infected adults living in sub-Saharan African countries...
September 9, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
John Abuga Guto, Christine C Bii, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. METHODOLOGY: We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Johan Maertens, Simone Cesaro, Georg Maschmeyer, Hermann Einsele, J Peter Donnelly, Alexandre Alanio, Philippe M Hauser, Katrien Lagrou, Willem J G Melchers, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Olga Matos, Stéphane Bretagne, Catherine Cordonnier
The 5th European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) meeting aimed to establish evidence-based recommendations for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients with an underlying haematological condition, including allogeneic HSCT recipients. Recommendations were based on the grading system of the IDSA. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole given 2-3 times weekly is the drug of choice for the primary prophylaxis of PCP in adults ( A-II: ) and children ( A-I: ) and should be given during the entire period at risk...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Matthew Bates, Aaron Shibemba, Victor Mudenda, Charles Chimoga, John Tembo, Mwila Kabwe, Moses Chilufya, Michael Hoelscher, Markus Maeurer, Sylvester Sinyangwe, Peter Mwaba, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla
BACKGROUND: Autopsy studies are the gold standard for determining cause-of-death and can inform on improved diagnostic strategies and algorithms to improve patient care. We conducted a cross-sectional observational autopsy study to describe the burden of respiratory tract infections in inpatient children who died at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: Gross pathology was recorded and lung tissue was analysed by histopathology and molecular diagnostics...
2016: BMC Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Kjeld Schmiegelow, Andishe Attarbaschi, Shlomit Barzilai, Gabriele Escherich, Thomas Leth Frandsen, Christina Halsey, Rachael Hough, Sima Jeha, Motohiro Kato, Der-Cherng Liang, Torben Stamm Mikkelsen, Anja Möricke, Riitta Niinimäki, Caroline Piette, Maria Caterina Putti, Elizabeth Raetz, Lewis B Silverman, Roderick Skinner, Ruta Tuckuviene, Inge van der Sluis, Ester Zapotocka
Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group...
June 2016: Lancet Oncology
Yaxsier de Armas, Virginia Capó, Jorge E Pérez, Arturo Plascencia, Enrique Calderón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Chen Ling, Suyun Qian, Quan Wang, Jiansheng Zeng, Xinlei Jia, Jun Liu, Zheng Li
BACKGROUND: Pneumocytis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening disease in non-HIV infected children. However, there have been few studies that have examined the clinical characteristics associated with PCP and outcomes for these pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: A retrospective review was performed over a 10-year period to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcome of non-HIV children diagnosed with PCP at Beijing Children's Hospital in China. RESULTS: A total of 60 non-HIV children diagnosed with PCP were included in the study...
February 15, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
R Parkes-Ratanshi, B Achan, R Kwizera, A Kambugu, D Meya, D W Denning
The HIV epidemic in Uganda has highlighted Cryptococcus and Candida infections as important opportunistic fungal infections. However, the burden of other fungal diseases is not well described. We aimed to estimate the burden of fungal infections in Uganda. All epidemiological papers of fungal diseases in Uganda were reviewed. Where there is no Ugandan data, global or East African data were used. Recurrent vaginal candidiasis is estimated to occur in 375 540 Uganda women per year; Candida in pregnant women affects up to 651,600 women per year...
October 2015: Mycoses
David W Denning, Harish C Gugnani
The information on the prevalence of fungal infections in the Caribbean region including Trinidad and Tobago (population 1,339,000 million) is scanty. Tinea capitis is common in children, being predominant in those of African descent, with no definitive estimate. Asthma is also common affecting 77,000-139,000 adults with an estimated 1927-3491 affected by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 2544-4608 with severe asthma and fungal sensitisation (SAFS). An estimated 23,763 women have ≥4 attacks of vaginal candidiasis annually...
October 2015: Mycoses
Aida S Badiane, Daouda Ndiaye, David W Denning
Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1...
October 2015: Mycoses
Kenji Yamada, Hironori Kobayashi, Ryosuke Bo, Tomoo Takahashi, Yuki Hasegawa, Makoto Nakamura, Nobuyuki Ishige, Seiji Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Sivelestat sodium (sivelestat), a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, is used to treat acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We report two cases that developed elevated C5-acylcarnitine (C5-AC) levels following treatment with sivelestat. Case 1 was a 14-day-old female infant born at 25 weeks and 1 day of gestation who was treated with sivelestat for the prophylaxis of Wilson-Mikity syndrome soon after birth. Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) was suspected based on a newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
November 2015: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
H C Gugnani, D W Denning
OBJECTIVE: Jamaica is one of the largest countries in the Caribbean with a population of 2 706 500. Prevalence of human immunodificency virus (HIV) in Jamaica is high, while that of tuberculosis (TB) is recorded to be low. In this study, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal infections and some other mycoses in Jamaica. METHODS: All published papers reporting on rates of fungal infections in Jamaica and the Caribbean were identified through extensive search of the literature...
June 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Igho J Onakpoya, Gail Hayward, Carl J Heneghan
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in young children account for 1.4 million deaths annually worldwide. Antibiotics could be beneficial in preventing LRTIs in high-risk children, and may also help prevent school absenteeism and work days missed by children and/or carers. While it is well documented that the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for RTIs decreases over time, there are no reviews that describe the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent LRTIs in high-risk children aged 12 years and under...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Heather E Machen, Zondiwe V Mwanza, Jocelyn K Brown, Kondwani M Kawaza, Laura Newberry, Rebecca R Richards-Kortum, Z Maria Oden, Elizabeth M Molyneux
OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes of infants and young children with respiratory distress when treated with a novel, low-cost, stand-alone bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (bCPAP) system in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: A non-randomized, convenience sample study in a pediatric unit in Blantyre, Malawi, 2013. Patients weighing ≤10 kg with respiratory distress were eligible. We compared outcomes for patients with bronchiolitis, pneumonia and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) after treatment with bCPAP...
December 2015: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
M Lanaspa, C O'Callaghan-Gordo, S Machevo, L Madrid, T Nhampossa, S Acácio, C de la Horra, V Friaza, E Campano, P L Alonso, E J Calderón, A Roca, Q Bassat
We aimed to describe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) prevalence and features in children from sub-Saharan Africa and to investigate PCP-associated risk factors. During 2006-2007 we used molecular methods to test children younger than 5 years old admitted with severe pneumonia to a hospital in southern Mozambique for Pneumocystis infection. We recruited 834 children. PCP prevalence was 6.8% and HIV prevalence was 25.7%. The in-hospital and delayed mortality were significantly higher among children with PCP (20...
November 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Olga Zajac-Spychała, Ewelina Gowin, Piotr Fichna, Jacek Wysocki, Marta Fichna, Arleta Kowala-Piaskowska, Iwona Mozer-Lisewska, Jerzy Nowak, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic pathogen causing pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a life-threatening infection, in immunocompromised patients. In this study, retrospective analysis of the presence of P. jirovecii DNA in different samples collected from children with suspected PCP was carried out. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred and six specimens [152 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, 80 blood specimens, 18 bronchial secretions (BS), 34 induced sputum samples, 10 endotracheal aspirates (ETA), and 12 other type samples] obtained from patients with suspected PCP were examined by real-time PCR...
2015: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Aleksandra Szczawińska-Popłonyk, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Lidia Ossowska, Anna Bręborowicz, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Jacek Wachowiak
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by the absence of functional T lymphocytes and impairment of adaptive immunity. While heterogeneity of the genetic background in SCID leads to the variability of immune phenotypes, most of affected newborns appear healthy but within the first few months they develop life-threatening opportunistic respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections. The objective of the study was to define the presenting features and etiology of infections in children with SCID...
2014: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Suellen Moli Yin, Ronald M Ferdman, Larry Wang, M Louise Markert, Jonathan S Tam
PURPOSE: Complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS) describes a subset of patients with DiGeorge syndrome that have thymic aplasia, and thus are at risk for severe opportunistic infections. Patients with cDGS and mycobacterial infection have not previously been described. We present this case to illustrate that patients with cDGS are at risk for nontuberculous mycobacterial infections and to discuss further antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to thymic transplantation. METHODS: A 13-month old male was identified as T cell deficient by the T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay on newborn screening, and was subsequently confirmed to have cDGS...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Birgit C P Koch, Sabina R Zabirova, Bart C H van der Nagel, Lidwien M Hanff
BACKGROUND: Sulfonamides in combination with trimethoprim are frequently used antibiotics. They work synergistic. In infections with Pneumocystis jiroveci or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, higher dosages are indicated than in other infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is warranted to assure the efficacy while limiting toxicity. Although trimethoprim in combination with sulfamethoxazole is the most common combination with established TDM target concentrations, the intravenous formulation is not suited for children because of its additives ethanol and propylene glycol to increase solubility...
October 2015: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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