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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#1
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992298/incidence-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-adverse-events-associated-with-pneumocystis-prophylaxis-in-children-receiving-glucocorticoids
#2
Matthew L Basiaga, Michelle E Ross, Jeffrey S Gerber, Alexis Ogdie
Background: Antimicrobial prophylaxis is indicated to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in profoundly immunosuppressed children. The incidence of PJP infection in children with chronic glucocorticoid exposure is unknown, and PJP prophylaxis has been associated with adverse events. We hypothesized that PJP infection is rare in children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cancer, or a transplant history who are using chronic glucocorticoids and that those exposed to PJP prophylaxis are more likely to experience a cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction or myelosuppression than unexposed patients...
July 13, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913714/high-transient-colonization-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii-between-mothers-and-newborn
#3
Cristian Vera, Yudy A Aguilar, Lázaro A Vélez, Zulma Vanessa Rueda
The aim of the study was to explore the frequency and dynamics of acquisition and colonization of Pneumocystis jirovecii among neonates, as well as the epidemiological and genotypic characteristics in mother-child binomial. In a prospective enrolled cohort of women in their third trimester of pregnancy, nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and clinical and epidemiological data were collected at four different times: 17 days, 2nd, 4th, and 6th month of life of the newborn. P. jirovecii was detected by nested-PCR for the mtLSU-rRNA gene in each NPS; the genotypes were determined amplifying four genes...
December 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881516/-effectiveness-and-safety-of-rituximab-for-children-with-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#4
Z Fu, X H Bao, Y Wu, J Zhou, Y H Zhang, Y Zhang, T Y Ji, Y Chen
Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of rituximab in Chinese children with autoimmune diseases of the nervous system. Method: An ambispective cohort study enrolled patients with refractory and(or) relapse autoimmune diseases of nervous system from June 2010 to June 2016 in Peking University First Hospital.These patients failed to respond to steroids and(or)intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were treated with rituximab and seen for follow-up visits once every 3 months.The effectiveness was assessed by modified Rankin scale (mRs) and the annualized relapse rate...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691431/low-dose-computed-tomography-in-assessment-of-pulmonary-abnormalities-in-children-with-febrile-neutropenia-suffering-from-malignant-diseases
#5
Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz, Cyprian Michal Olchowy, Mateusz Łasecki, Dąbrówka Sokołowska-Dąbek, Aleksander Pawluś, Jowita Frączkiewicz, Ewa Gorczyńska
BACKGROUND: Management of febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients is challenging. Chest X-ray and CT help to identify infective foci; however, exposure to radiation is a risk factor for development of secondary cancer. For this reason, attention is paid to reduce radiation exposure. OBJECTIVES: TTo define the role of LDCT examination in early detection of pulmonary lesions in children during oncology or autoimmune treatment complicated by neutropenia related fever...
June 27, 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575367/colonization-density-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-as-a-predictor-of-pneumonia-haemophilus-influenzae-moraxella-catarrhalis-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#6
Daniel E Park, Henry C Baggett, Stephen R C Howie, Qiyuan Shi, Nora L Watson, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Laura L Hammitt, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Dilruba Ahmed, Martin Antonio, Vicky L Baillie, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Wei Fu, Caroline W Gitahi, Emmanuel Olutunde, Melissa M Higdon, Lokman Hossain, Ruth A Karron, Abdoul Aziz Maiga, Susan A Maloney, David P Moore, Susan C Morpeth, John Mwaba, Musaku Mwenechanya, Christine Prosperi, Mamadou Sylla, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Scott L Zeger, Daniel R Feikin
Background.: There is limited information on the association between colonization density of upper respiratory tract colonizers and pathogen-specific pneumonia. We assessed this association for Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pneumocystis jirovecii. Methods.: In 7 low- and middle-income countries, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children with severe pneumonia and age-frequency matched community controls were tested using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520902/early-acquisition-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-colonization-and-potential-association-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-preterm-newborn-infants
#7
Pilar Rojas, Vicente Friaza, Elisa García, Carmen de la Horra, Sergio L Vargas, Enrique J Calderón, Antonio Pavón
Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a well-recognized lung disease of premature and malnourished babies. Even though serologic studies have shown that children are exposed to Pneumocystis jirovecii early in life, the epidemiology of human P. jirovecii infection and the host-microorganism relationship in infancy remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in preterm infants and its possible association with medical complications...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267082/guidelines-for-the-prophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pjp-in-children-with-solid-tumors
#8
Rebecca Proudfoot, Bob Phillips, Sophie Wilne
Although it is well-established that children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplants and treatment for leukemia should be offered prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, the risk for children with solid malignancies is less certain. This guideline has been developed with the aim of standardizing practice and optimizing the benefit versus risk of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. P. jirovecii pneumonia has a high mortality rate even with prompt antimicrobial treatment. Since prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole is safe, effective, and inexpensive, we suggest that all children with malignancies undergoing immunosuppressive therapy are offered prophylaxis unless there are clear contraindications...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#9
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
June 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182108/assessment-of-the-usefulness-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-tests-in-the-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-process-of-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-children-a-single-center-experience
#10
Ewelina Gowin, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Joanna Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Waldemar Bobkowski, Piotr Fichna, Paulina Sobkowiak, Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Anna Bręborowicz, Jacek Wysocki, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
The aim of the study was assessment of the usefulness of multiplex real-time PCR tests in the diagnostic and therapeutic process in children hospitalized due to pneumonia and burdened with comorbidities. Methods. The study group included 97 children hospitalized due to pneumonia at the Karol Jonscher Teaching Hospital in Poznań, in whom multiplex real-time PCR tests (FTD respiratory pathogens 33; fast-track diagnostics) were used. Results. Positive test results of the test were achieved in 74 patients (76...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161744/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-bangladesh
#11
H C Gugnani, D W Denning, R Rahim, A Sadat, M Belal, M S Mahbub
In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature...
June 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149493/prevalence-of-colonization-and-mitochondrial-large-subunit-rrna-mutation-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-among-iranian-children
#12
Parisa Badiee, Ali Rezapour, Amin Abbasian, Hamid Reza Foroutan, Hadis Jafarian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jiroveci is an important causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia. During childhood, exposure to Pneumocystis occurs and antibody was built in early childhood. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular epidemiology of P. jiroveci in children without any respiratory syndrome and survey the distribution of different mitochondrial large subunit, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (mtLSU- rRNA) genotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mini-BAL) fluids from pediatric patients with no history of lung disorders were obtained during a 14-month period...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145162/early-use-of-corticosteroids-in-infants-with-a-clinical-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-malawi-a-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Laura Newberry, Bernadette O'Hare, Neil Kennedy, Andrew Selman, Sofia Omar, Pamela Dawson, Kim Stevenson, Yo Nishihara, Samantha Lissauer, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is the most common opportunistic infection in infants with vertically acquired HIV infection and the most common cause of death in HIV-infected infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early administration of adjuvant corticosteroids in addition to standard treatment reduces mortality in infants with vertically acquired HIV and clinically diagnosed PJP when co-infection with cytomegalovirus and other pathogens cannot be excluded...
May 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062161/-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-respiratory-infections
#14
José María Marimón, José María Navarro-Marí
Acute respiratory infections are the second cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults worldwide, being viruses, bacteria and fungi involved in their etiology. The rapid diagnosis allows for a better clinical management of the patient, for adopting public health measures and for controlling possible outbreaks. The main etiologic agents can be diagnosed within the first hours after the onset of symptoms with antigen detection techniques, primarily immunochromatography. Results are obtained in 15-30minutes, with 70-90% sensitivity and >95% specificity for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila serogroup O1 infections from urine, Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs and respiratory syncytial virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates...
February 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005039/-intrauterine-pneumocystis-infection
#15
E R Samitova, T N Ermak, I E Koltunov, A N Kislyakov, N V Karazhas, T N Rybalkina, M Yu Kornienko
Pneumocystosis is well known as an opportunistic infection that is presently most frequently registered in patients with HIV infection and in those with other immunodeficiency states. Earlier, after the Second World War, Pneumocystis pneumonia was most commonly detected in debilitated and premature children; nosocomial outbreaks of pneumocystosis were studied in detail in the 1960s and 1970s. The pathogen is transmitted through the air, but a number of references indicate that it can be transmitted through the placenta...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803824/successful-treatment-of-disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-disease-in-an-hiv-infected-child-with-a-linezolid-containing-regimen
#16
Srđan Roglić, Drusia Dickson, Branko Miše, Klaudija Višković, Vera Katalinić-Janković, George Rutherford, Josip Begovac
Upon HIV infection diagnosis, an 8-month-old boy was transferred for evaluation of worsening respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) was diagnosed; the boy also had a nonhealing ulcer at the site of vaccination with Statens Serum Institut (Danish strain) Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and associated axillary lymphadenopathy. PCP treatment resulted in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Antimycobacterial treatment was immediately attempted but was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789254/estimating-the-burden-of-invasive-and-serious-fungal-disease-in-the-united-kingdom
#17
Matthew Pegorie, David W Denning, William Welfare
BACKGROUND: The burden of fungal disease in the UK is unknown. Only limited data are systematically collected. We have estimated the annual burden of invasive and serious fungal disease. METHODS: We used several estimation approaches. We searched and assessed published estimates of incidence, prevalence or burden of specific conditions in various high risk groups. Studies with adequate internal and external validity allowed extrapolation to estimate current UK burden...
January 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612639/burden-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Sean Wasserman, Mark E Engel, Rulan Griesel, Marc Mendelson
BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence data and clinical studies in children suggest that the burden of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in Africa may be underestimated. We performed a systematic review to determine the prevalence and attributable mortality of PCP amongst HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Africa-Wide: NiPAD and CINAHL, from Jan 1 1995 to June 1 2015, for studies that reported the prevalence, mortality or case fatality of PCP in HIV-infected adults living in sub-Saharan African countries...
September 9, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580321/estimated-burden-of-fungal-infections-in-kenya
#19
John Abuga Guto, Christine C Bii, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. METHODOLOGY: We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550992/ecil-guidelines-for-preventing-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-and-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#20
Johan Maertens, Simone Cesaro, Georg Maschmeyer, Hermann Einsele, J Peter Donnelly, Alexandre Alanio, Philippe M Hauser, Katrien Lagrou, Willem J G Melchers, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Olga Matos, Stéphane Bretagne, Catherine Cordonnier
The 5th European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) meeting aimed to establish evidence-based recommendations for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients with an underlying haematological condition, including allogeneic HSCT recipients. Recommendations were based on the grading system of the IDSA. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole given 2-3 times weekly is the drug of choice for the primary prophylaxis of PCP in adults ( A-II: ) and children ( A-I: ) and should be given during the entire period at risk...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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