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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267082/guidelines-for-the-prophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pjp-in-children-with-solid-tumors
#1
Rebecca Proudfoot, Bob Phillips, Sophie Wilne
Although it is well-established that children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplants and treatment for leukemia should be offered prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, the risk for children with solid malignancies is less certain. This guideline has been developed with the aim of standardizing practice and optimizing the benefit versus risk of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. P. jirovecii pneumonia has a high mortality rate even with prompt antimicrobial treatment. Since prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole is safe, effective, and inexpensive, we suggest that all children with malignancies undergoing immunosuppressive therapy are offered prophylaxis unless there are clear contraindications...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#2
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182108/assessment-of-the-usefulness-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-tests-in-the-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-process-of-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-children-a-single-center-experience
#3
Ewelina Gowin, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Joanna Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Waldemar Bobkowski, Piotr Fichna, Paulina Sobkowiak, Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Anna Bręborowicz, Jacek Wysocki, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
The aim of the study was assessment of the usefulness of multiplex real-time PCR tests in the diagnostic and therapeutic process in children hospitalized due to pneumonia and burdened with comorbidities. Methods. The study group included 97 children hospitalized due to pneumonia at the Karol Jonscher Teaching Hospital in Poznań, in whom multiplex real-time PCR tests (FTD respiratory pathogens 33; fast-track diagnostics) were used. Results. Positive test results of the test were achieved in 74 patients (76...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161744/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-bangladesh
#4
H C Gugnani, D W Denning, R Rahim, A Sadat, M Belal, M S Mahbub
In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149493/prevalence-of-colonization-and-mitochondrial-large-subunit-rrna-mutation-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-among-iranian-children
#5
Parisa Badiee, Ali Rezapour, Amin Abbasian, Hamid Reza Foroutan, Hadis Jafarian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jiroveci is an important causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia. During childhood, exposure to Pneumocystis occurs and antibody was built in early childhood. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular epidemiology of P. jiroveci in children without any respiratory syndrome and survey the distribution of different mitochondrial large subunit, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (mtLSU- rRNA) genotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mini-BAL) fluids from pediatric patients with no history of lung disorders were obtained during a 14-month period...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145162/early-use-of-corticosteroids-in-infants-with-a-clinical-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-malawi-a-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Laura Newberry, Bernadette O'Hare, Neil Kennedy, Andrew Selman, Sofia Omar, Pamela Dawson, Kim Stevenson, Yo Nishihara, Samantha Lissauer, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is the most common opportunistic infection in infants with vertically acquired HIV infection and the most common cause of death in HIV-infected infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early administration of adjuvant corticosteroids in addition to standard treatment reduces mortality in infants with vertically acquired HIV and clinically diagnosed PJP when co-infection with cytomegalovirus and other pathogens cannot be excluded...
May 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062161/-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-respiratory-infections
#7
José María Marimón, José María Navarro-Marí
Acute respiratory infections are the second cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults worldwide, being viruses, bacteria and fungi involved in their etiology. The rapid diagnosis allows for a better clinical management of the patient, for adopting public health measures and for controlling possible outbreaks. The main etiologic agents can be diagnosed within the first hours after the onset of symptoms with antigen detection techniques, primarily immunochromatography. Results are obtained in 15-30minutes, with 70-90% sensitivity and >95% specificity for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila serogroup O1 infections from urine, Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs and respiratory syncytial virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates...
February 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005039/-intrauterine-pneumocystis-infection
#8
E R Samitova, T N Ermak, I E Koltunov, A N Kislyakov, N V Karazhas, T N Rybalkina, M Yu Kornienko
Pneumocystosis is well known as an opportunistic infection that is presently most frequently registered in patients with HIV infection and in those with other immunodeficiency states. Earlier, after the Second World War, Pneumocystis pneumonia was most commonly detected in debilitated and premature children; nosocomial outbreaks of pneumocystosis were studied in detail in the 1960s and 1970s. The pathogen is transmitted through the air, but a number of references indicate that it can be transmitted through the placenta...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803824/successful-treatment-of-disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-disease-in-an-hiv-infected-child-with-a-linezolid-containing-regimen
#9
Srđan Roglić, Drusia Dickson, Branko Miše, Klaudija Višković, Vera Katalinić-Janković, George Rutherford, Josip Begovac
Upon HIV infection diagnosis, an 8-month-old boy was transferred for evaluation of worsening respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) was diagnosed; the boy also had a nonhealing ulcer at the site of vaccination with Statens Serum Institut (Danish strain) Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and associated axillary lymphadenopathy. PCP treatment resulted in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Antimycobacterial treatment was immediately attempted but was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789254/estimating-the-burden-of-invasive-and-serious-fungal-disease-in-the-united-kingdom
#10
Matthew Pegorie, David W Denning, William Welfare
BACKGROUND: The burden of fungal disease in the UK is unknown. Only limited data are systematically collected. We have estimated the annual burden of invasive and serious fungal disease. METHODS: We used several estimation approaches. We searched and assessed published estimates of incidence, prevalence or burden of specific conditions in various high risk groups. Studies with adequate internal and external validity allowed extrapolation to estimate current UK burden...
January 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612639/burden-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Sean Wasserman, Mark E Engel, Rulan Griesel, Marc Mendelson
BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence data and clinical studies in children suggest that the burden of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in Africa may be underestimated. We performed a systematic review to determine the prevalence and attributable mortality of PCP amongst HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Africa-Wide: NiPAD and CINAHL, from Jan 1 1995 to June 1 2015, for studies that reported the prevalence, mortality or case fatality of PCP in HIV-infected adults living in sub-Saharan African countries...
September 9, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580321/estimated-burden-of-fungal-infections-in-kenya
#12
John Abuga Guto, Christine C Bii, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. METHODOLOGY: We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550992/ecil-guidelines-for-preventing-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-and-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#13
REVIEW
Johan Maertens, Simone Cesaro, Georg Maschmeyer, Hermann Einsele, J Peter Donnelly, Alexandre Alanio, Philippe M Hauser, Katrien Lagrou, Willem J G Melchers, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Olga Matos, Stéphane Bretagne, Catherine Cordonnier
The 5th European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) meeting aimed to establish evidence-based recommendations for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients with an underlying haematological condition, including allogeneic HSCT recipients. Recommendations were based on the grading system of the IDSA. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole given 2-3 times weekly is the drug of choice for the primary prophylaxis of PCP in adults ( A-II: ) and children ( A-I: ) and should be given during the entire period at risk...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363601/burden-of-respiratory-tract-infections-at-post-mortem-in-zambian-children
#14
Matthew Bates, Aaron Shibemba, Victor Mudenda, Charles Chimoga, John Tembo, Mwila Kabwe, Moses Chilufya, Michael Hoelscher, Markus Maeurer, Sylvester Sinyangwe, Peter Mwaba, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla
BACKGROUND: Autopsy studies are the gold standard for determining cause-of-death and can inform on improved diagnostic strategies and algorithms to improve patient care. We conducted a cross-sectional observational autopsy study to describe the burden of respiratory tract infections in inpatient children who died at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: Gross pathology was recorded and lung tissue was analysed by histopathology and molecular diagnostics...
July 1, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316915/french-intensive-care-society-international-congress-r%C3%A3-animation-2016
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299279/consensus-definitions-of-14-severe-acute-toxic-effects-for-childhood-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-treatment-a-delphi-consensus
#16
REVIEW
Kjeld Schmiegelow, Andishe Attarbaschi, Shlomit Barzilai, Gabriele Escherich, Thomas Leth Frandsen, Christina Halsey, Rachael Hough, Sima Jeha, Motohiro Kato, Der-Cherng Liang, Torben Stamm Mikkelsen, Anja Möricke, Riitta Niinimäki, Caroline Piette, Maria Caterina Putti, Elizabeth Raetz, Lewis B Silverman, Roderick Skinner, Ruta Tuckuviene, Inge van der Sluis, Ester Zapotocka
Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group...
June 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071017/apparent-absence-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-colonization-in-cuban-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#17
LETTER
Yaxsier de Armas, Virginia Capó, Jorge E Pérez, Arturo Plascencia, Enrique Calderón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878193/pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-children-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#18
Chen Ling, Suyun Qian, Quan Wang, Jiansheng Zeng, Xinlei Jia, Jun Liu, Zheng Li
BACKGROUND: Pneumocytis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening disease in non-HIV infected children. However, there have been few studies that have examined the clinical characteristics associated with PCP and outcomes for these pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: A retrospective review was performed over a 10-year period to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcome of non-HIV children diagnosed with PCP at Beijing Children's Hospital in China. RESULTS: A total of 60 non-HIV children diagnosed with PCP were included in the study...
February 15, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449512/cryptococcal-disease-and-the-burden-of-other-fungal-diseases-in-uganda-where-are-the-knowledge-gaps-and-how-can-we-fill-them
#19
REVIEW
R Parkes-Ratanshi, B Achan, R Kwizera, A Kambugu, D Meya, D W Denning
The HIV epidemic in Uganda has highlighted Cryptococcus and Candida infections as important opportunistic fungal infections. However, the burden of other fungal diseases is not well described. We aimed to estimate the burden of fungal infections in Uganda. All epidemiological papers of fungal diseases in Uganda were reviewed. Where there is no Ugandan data, global or East African data were used. Recurrent vaginal candidiasis is estimated to occur in 375 540 Uganda women per year; Candida in pregnant women affects up to 651,600 women per year...
October 2015: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449511/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#20
David W Denning, Harish C Gugnani
The information on the prevalence of fungal infections in the Caribbean region including Trinidad and Tobago (population 1,339,000 million) is scanty. Tinea capitis is common in children, being predominant in those of African descent, with no definitive estimate. Asthma is also common affecting 77,000-139,000 adults with an estimated 1927-3491 affected by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 2544-4608 with severe asthma and fungal sensitisation (SAFS). An estimated 23,763 women have ≥4 attacks of vaginal candidiasis annually...
October 2015: Mycoses
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