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Cardiac risk assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904032/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction%C3%A3-epidemiology-pathogenesis-prognosis-diagnosis-risk-factors-and-therapy
#1
Cheng Chen, Janet Wei, Ahmed AlBadri, Parham Zarrini, C Noel Bairey Merz
Angina has traditionally been thought to be caused by obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, a substantial number of patients with angina are found to not have obstructive CAD when undergoing coronary angiography. A significant proportion of these patients have coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), characterized by heightened sensitivity to vasoconstrictor stimuli and limited microvascular vasodilator capacity. With the advent of non-invasive and invasive techniques, the coronary microvasculature has been more extensively studied in the past 2 decades...
November 29, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901331/clinical-indices-and-biomarkers-for-perioperative-cardiac-risk-stratification-an-update
#2
Radmilo J Janković, Danica Z Marković, Dušan T Sokolović, Ivana Zdravković, Massimiliano Sorbello
European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/ European Society of Anesthesiology (ESA) highlighted that anesthesiologist has a leading role in perioperative cardiovascular assessment and management in the year of 2014. During cardiovascular assessment one can rely on cooperation of multi-disciplinary specialists like: other anesthesiologists, cardiologists and surgeons. For the purpose of precise systematization and decision making the Lee score or NSQUIP database can be used besides the traditionally used ASA score...
November 30, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901002/shorter-versus-longer-duration-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-undergoing-drug-eluting-stents-implantation-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
He Huang, Ya Li, Yu Chen, Guo-Sheng Fu
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher risk of thromboembolic events; however, the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) remains unclear. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of various DAPT durations in patients with DM undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. METHODS: We conducted a literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched databases including EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus up to June 2016...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900969/proteinuria-graft-outcomes-and-cardiovascular-risk-among-kidney-transplant-recipients-in-a-south-african-public-hospital
#4
Aminu Muhammad Sakajiki, Sagren Naidoo, P Manga, M S Nazir, S Naicker
Proteinuria is a marker of poor long-term graft survival and an independent risk factor for total and cardiovascular mortality in the transplant population. We investigated the prevalence of proteinuria and its relationship with graft function and cardiovascular risk factors in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Adult KTRs at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital were recruited. Patients' records were reviewed for information on their posttransplant follow-up. Echocardiography and carotid Doppler were performed for the assessment of cardiac status and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), respectively...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899855/evaluation-of-echocardiographic-epicardial-fat-thickness-as-a-sign-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-positive-exercise-test-patients
#5
Hüseyin Katlandur, Şeref Ulucan, Hüseyin Özdil, Ahmet Keser, Zeynettin Kaya, Kerem Özbek, M Sıddık Ülgen
BACKGROUND: The association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and positive exercise test results for the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases (CAD) has yet to be evaluated. This study assessed the predictive value of EFT for CAD on the angiographs of patients with positive exercise tests. METHODS: A total of 91 subjects were chosen consecutively from stable angina pectoris patients who were referred for coronary angiography due to a positive exercise test result...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898989/identifying-an-ideal-time-frame-for-staged-bilateral-total-knee-arthroplasty-to-maximize-functional-outcome
#6
Jared Ze Yang Yeh, Jerry Yongqiang Chen, Wu Chean Lee, Hwei Chi Chong, Hee Nee Pang, Darren Keng Jin Tay, Shi-Lu Chia, Ngai Nung Lo, Seng Jin Yeo
Compared with staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA), simultaneous bilateral TKA carries a higher risk of cardiac complications, pulmonary complications, and mortality, especially in patients with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease or advanced age. However, the period of time between staged TKAs that would eliminate these increased risks has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate complication rates and functional outcome in patients who underwent staged bilateral TKA and to determine an optimal time frame for the second knee...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895066/protocol-of-the-swiss-longitudinal-cohort-study-swicos-in-rural-switzerland
#7
Andreas W Schoenenberger, Franco Muggli, Gianfranco Parati, Augusto Gallino, Georg Ehret, Paolo M Suter, Renate Schoenenberger-Berzins, Therese J Resink, Paul Erne
INTRODUCTION: Increased longevity and consequent major changes in demographics and population lifestyles necessitate new approaches to reduce the burden of ageing-related diseases (including cardiovascular disease) and maintain an optimal quality of life. This study aims to examine and longitudinally follow health status and disease risk factors in a Swiss rural cohort, evaluating all health-related research and practice disciplines to assure development of new implementable and successful preventive strategies for healthy ageing...
November 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894787/safety-and-efficacy-of-liraglutide-treatment-in-japanese-type-2-diabetes-patients-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-non-randomized-interventional-pilot-trial
#8
Masataka Kajiwara, Atsushi Tanaka, Tomohiro Kawasaki, Koichi Nakao, Tomohiro Sakamoto, Shigeru Toyoda, Teruo Inoue, Nobuhiko Koga, Koichi Node
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs are expected to exert a cardio-protective action due to their effective glucose-lowering action and favorable potency on multifactorial metabolic pathways. However, the safety and tolerability of liraglutide treatment after a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have yet to be fully established. METHODS: A total of eight T2DM patients were recruited within 2 weeks after the onset of a ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) followed by successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894284/proarrhythmic-risk-and-determinants-of-cardiac-autonomic-dysfunction-in-collagen-induced-arthritis-rats
#9
Ting-Tse Lin, Yen-Ling Sung, Chih-En Wu, Hong Zhang, Yen-Bin Liu, Shien-Fong Lin
BACKGROUNDS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), which is two-fold higher than general population. The driving cause of SCD was considered due to lift-threatening arrhythmia where systemic inflammation acts as the pathophysiological basis linking RA to autonomicdysfunction. METHODS: To assess the sympathetic over-activity of "inflammatory reflex", we measured heart rate variability (HRV) in a rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, whose arthritis is induced in Lewis rats by intradermal injection of emulsion of type II collagen...
November 29, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894250/pathological-interactions-between-the-endothelin-1-and-the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-among-tunisian-coronary-patients
#10
Abdelkader Chalghoum, Yosri Noichri, Azza Dandana, Bruno Baudin, Abdelhédi Miled, Salima Ferchichi
BACKGROUND: The correct understanding of the biochemical and metabolic interactions between coronary risk factors contribute to the exploration of cardiovascular pathophysiology and improves therapeutic care. The aim of this study was to explore the endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity among Tunisian patients with coronary heart disease, and to investigate the metabolic relationships between these two markers,… and to assess the possible relationship between them and the different risk factors...
November 29, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894069/association-between-left-atrial-dilatation-and-invasive-hemodynamics-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-asymptomatic-aortic-stenosis
#11
Nicolaj Lyhne Christensen, Jordi Sanchez Dahl, Rasmus Carter-Storch, Rine Bakkestrøm, Kurt Jensen, Flemming Hald Steffensen, Eva Vad Søndergaard, Lars Videbæk, Jacob Eifer Møller
BACKGROUND: Transition from an asymptomatic to symptomatic state in severe aortic stenosis is often difficult to assess. Identification of a morphological sign of increased hemodynamic load may be important in asymptomatic aortic stenosis to identify patients at risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area <1 cm(2), peak jet velocity >3.5 m/s) underwent exercise testing with simultaneous invasive hemodynamic monitoring and Doppler echocardiography...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893526/effect-of-oxygen-therapy-on-myocardial-salvage-in-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-the-randomized-soccer-trial
#12
Ardavan Khoshnood, Marcus Carlsson, Mahin Akbarzadeh, Pallonji Bhiladvala, Anders Roijer, David Nordlund, Peter Höglund, David Zughaft, Lizbet Todorova, Arash Mokhtari, Håkan Arheden, David Erlinge, Ulf Ekelund
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that administration of O2 in patients with acute myocardial infarction may have negative effects. With the use of cardiac MRI (CMR), we evaluated the effects of supplemental O2 in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) accepted for acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a randomized-controlled trial conducted at two university hospitals in Sweden. Normoxic STEMI patients were randomized in the ambulance to either supplemental O2 (10 l/min) or room air until the conclusion of the PCI...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893176/desmopressin-for-treatment-of-platelet-dysfunction-and-reversal-of-antiplatelet-agents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#13
M J R Desborough, K A Oakland, G Landoni, M Crivellari, C Doree, L J Estcourt, S J Stanworth
BACKGROUND: Platelet dysfunction, including that caused by antiplatelet agents, increases the risk of perioperative bleeding. The optimal management of patients with platelet dysfunction undergoing surgery is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether desmopressin reduces perioperative allogeneic red cell transfusion and bleeding for patients with platelet dysfunction. PATIENTS/METHODS: We searched for randomised controlled trials in The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, the Transfusion Evidence Library and ISI Web of Science to 7(th) July 2016...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891172/vortex-analysis-of-intra-aneurismal-flow-in-cerebral-aneurysms
#14
Kevin Sunderland, Christopher Haferman, Gouthami Chintalapani, Jingfeng Jiang
This study aims to develop an alternative vortex analysis method by measuring structure ofIntracranial aneurysm (IA) flow vortexes across the cardiac cycle, to quantify temporal stability of aneurismal flow. Hemodynamics were modeled in "patient-specific" geometries, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Modified versions of known λ2 and Q-criterion methods identified vortex regions; then regions were segmented out using the classical marching cube algorithm. Temporal stability was measured by the degree of vortex overlap (DVO) at each step of a cardiac cycle against a cycle-averaged vortex and by the change in number of cores over the cycle...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891164/a-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-decreases-lean-mass-and-impairs-cardiac-function-in-pair-fed-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#15
Jessica Nilsson, Madelene Ericsson, Masoumeh Motamedi Joibari, Fredrick Anderson, Leif Carlsson, Stefan K Nilsson, Anna Sjödin, Jonas Burén
BACKGROUND: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890980/bmi-is-a-better-indicator-of-cardiac-risk-factors-as-against-elevated-blood-pressure-in-apparently-healthy-female-adolescents-and-young-adult-students-results-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-tripura
#16
Surajit Debnath
BACKGROUND: Anthropometric measures are used as indicators of elevated blood pressure, but reported to have variable sensitivity among populations. This study was undertaken to identify the better indicator of Cardiac-risk factors by statistical comparison of BMI, Waist circumference, and Waist to Height (WtHr) ratio in apparently healthy adolescents and young adult female students of Tripura. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a resource limited setup on 210 apparently healthy female adolescents and young adult students in Tripura...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887619/the-prognostic-value-of-measurement-of-high-sensitive-cardiac-troponin-t-for-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#17
Anke Neukamm, Gunnar Einvik, Arne Didrik Høiseth, Vidar Søyseth, Nils Henrik Holmedahl, Natalia Kononova, Torbjørn Omland
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cardiac troponin (cTn) elevation, indicating myocardial injury, is frequent during acute COPD exacerbations and associated with increased mortality. The prognostic value of circulating cTnT among COPD patients in the stable state of the disease is still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association between circulating cTnT measured by a high sensitive assay (hs-cTnT) and all-cause mortality among patients with stable COPD without overt CVD...
November 25, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886617/transcatheter-versus-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement-in-low-to-intermediate-risk-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-and-observational-studies
#18
Yijiang Zhou, Yanwei Wang, Yutao Wu, Jianhua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become the treatment of choice for patients with aortic stenosis and the preferred alternative for high surgical risk patients. However, TAVR's suitability for patients at low to intermediate risk still remains controversial. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE and Clinical trials were systematically searched for randomized control trials and observational cohort studies which reported the clinical outcomes of TAVR versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients at low to intermediate surgical risk...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886577/high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-therapy-vs-conventional-oxygen-therapy-in-cardiac-surgical-patients-a-meta-analysis
#19
Youfeng Zhu, Haiyan Yin, Rui Zhang, Jianrui Wei
INTRODUCTION: The use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) for the treatment of many diseases has gained increasing popularity. In the present meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of HFNCs compared with conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in adult postextubation cardiac surgical patients. METHOD: We reviewed the Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Wanfang databases, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Two investigators independently collected the data and assessed the quality of each study...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884380/association-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cytotoxin-associated-gene-a-positive-helicobacter-pylori-in-patients-with-cardiac-syndrome-x
#20
Yousef Rasmi, Hadi Rouhrazi, Ebrahim Khayati-Shal, Alireza Shirpoor, Ehsan Saboory
BACKGROUND: Existence of coronary endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). In addition, Helicobacter pylorus (H. pylori) has been associated with CSX. We aimed to assess the possible association of endothelial dysfunction and cytotoxin-associated gene A-positive H. pylori (CagA+) infection in CSX patients. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with CSX (23 male/33 female; age: 51.25 ± 8.86 years) who were anti-H. pylori IgG-positive [H...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
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