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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632385/fatigue-resistant-bioinspired-composite-from-synergistic-two-dimensional-nanocomponents
#1
Sijie Wan, Qi Zhang, Xiaohang Zhou, Dechang Li, Baohua Ji, Lei Jiang, Qunfeng Cheng
Portable and wearable electronics require much more flexible graphene-based electrode with high fatigue life, which could repeatedly bend, fold, or stretch without sacrificing its mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. Herein, a kind of ultrahigh fatigue resistant graphene-based nanocomposite via tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets is synthesized by introducing a synergistic effect with covalently cross-linking inspired by the orderly layered structure and abundant interfacial interactions of nacre...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631145/biaxial-mechanical-properties-of-bovine-jugular-venous-valve-leaflet-tissues
#2
Hsiao-Ying Shadow Huang, Jiaqi Lu
Venous valve incompetence has been implicated in diseases ranging from chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) to intracranial venous hypertension. However, while the mechanical properties of venous valve leaflet tissues are central to CVI biomechanics and mechanobiology, neither stress-strain curves nor tangent moduli have been reported. Here, equibiaxial tensile mechanical tests were conducted to assess the tangent modulus, strength and anisotropy of venous valve leaflet tissues from bovine jugular veins. Valvular tissues were stretched to 60% strain in both the circumferential and radial directions, and leaflet tissue stress-strain curves were generated for proximal and distal valves (i...
June 19, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630909/dynamic-fracture-of-tantalum-under-extreme-tensile-stress
#3
Bruno Albertazzi, Norimasa Ozaki, Vasily Zhakhovsky, Anatoly Faenov, Hideaki Habara, Marion Harmand, Nicholas Hartley, Denis Ilnitsky, Nail Inogamov, Yuichi Inubushi, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Tetsuo Katayama, Takahisa Koyama, Michel Koenig, Andrew Krygier, Takeshi Matsuoka, Satoshi Matsuyama, Emma McBride, Kirill Petrovich Migdal, Guillaume Morard, Haruhiko Ohashi, Takuo Okuchi, Tatiana Pikuz, Narangoo Purevjav, Osami Sakata, Yasuhisa Sano, Tomoko Sato, Toshimori Sekine, Yusuke Seto, Kenjiro Takahashi, Kazuo Tanaka, Yoshinori Tange, Tadashi Togashi, Kensuke Tono, Yuhei Umeda, Tommaso Vinci, Makina Yabashi, Toshinori Yabuuchi, Kazuto Yamauchi, Hirokatsu Yumoto, Ryosuke Kodama
The understanding of fracture phenomena of a material at extremely high strain rates is a key issue for a wide variety of scientific research ranging from applied science and technological developments to fundamental science such as laser-matter interaction and geology. Despite its interest, its study relies on a fine multiscale description, in between the atomic scale and macroscopic processes, so far only achievable by large-scale atomic simulations. Direct ultrafast real-time monitoring of dynamic fracture (spallation) at the atomic lattice scale with picosecond time resolution was beyond the reach of experimental techniques...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627765/measurement-of-surface-topography-and-stiffness-distribution-on-cross-section-of-xenopus-laevis-tailbud-for-estimation-of-mechanical-environment-in-embryo
#4
Fumiaki Murakami, Yoriko Ando, Asuka Miyagi, Shukei Sugita, Naoto Ueno, Takeo Matsumoto
The stress distribution inside a Xenopus laevis tailbud embryo was estimated to examine the cause of the straightening and elongation. The embryos were cut in the middle, yielding a cross-section perpendicular to the body axis. The section was not flat, owing to the residual stress relief. The stress needed to restore the flatness corresponded to the stress inside the embryo and was calculated using the surface topography and Young's-moduli in the section. We found the areas of the notochord (Nc), neural tube (NT), and abdominal tissue (AT) bulged in the cross-section, which revealed that compressive forces acted in these tissues...
June 19, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624880/wing-cross-veins-an-efficient-biomechanical-strategy-to-mitigate-fatigue-failure-of-insect-cuticle
#5
H Rajabi, P Bazargan, A Pourbabaei, Sh Eshghi, A Darvizeh, S N Gorb, D Taylor, J-H Dirks
Locust wings are able to sustain millions of cycles of mechanical loading during the lifetime of the insect. Previous studies have shown that cross veins play an important role in delaying crack propagation in the wings. Do cross veins thus also influence the fatigue behaviour of the wings? Since many important fatigue parameters are not experimentally accessible in a small biological sample, here we use the finite element (FE) method to address this question numerically. Our FE model combines a linear elastic material model, a direct cyclic approach and the Paris law and shows results which are in very good agreement with previously reported experimental data...
June 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623825/application-of-static-fatigue-testing-to-the-behavior-of-absorbable-sutures
#6
J L Prati, D H Kim, M J Matthewson
Absorbable sutures, since their conception, have become the dominant method for surgical wound closure and are constantly being improved. However, despite their years of service, not all aspects of their performance are fully understood. In particular, suture absorption is usually characterized by immersing the suture in a model in vitro environment under zero stress followed by measurement of the residual tensile strength as a function of immersion time. When in use, absorbable sutures are exposed to mechanical stress, which may affect the absorption rate; however, this phenomenon has not been adequately studied...
June 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620814/oil-palm-fiber-biodegradation-physico-chemical-and-structural-relationships
#7
Farah Nadia Omar, Halimatun Saadiah Hafid, Azhari Samsu Baharuddin, Mohd Afandi P Mohammed, Jaafar Abdullah
X-ray microtomography results revealed that delignification process damaged the oil palm fibers, which correlated well with reduction of lignin components and increase of the phenolic content. Biodegradation investigation of natural fibers normally focuses on physico-chemical analysis, with less emphasis on physical aspect like fiber structures affect from microbial activity. In this work, the performance of Pycnoporus sanguineus to delignify oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers through solid-state fermentation utilizing various ratio of POME sludge was reported...
June 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620014/the-tendinopathic-achilles-tendon-does-not-remain-iso-volumetric-upon-repeated-loading-insights-from-3d-ultrasound
#8
Leila Nuri, Steven J Obst, Richard Newsham-West, Rod S Barrett
Mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (MAT) alters the normal three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the Achilles tendon (AT) at rest and under a single tensile load. However, how MAT changes the 3D morphology of AT during repeated loading remains unclear. This study compared the AT longitudinal, transverse and volume strains during repeated loading in MAT with those of the contralateral tendon in people with unilateral MAT. Ten adults with unilateral MAT performed 10 successive 25 second submaximal (50%) voluntary isometric plantarflexion contractions with both legs...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616970/the-structure-and-biocompabibility-of-bioabsorbable-nanocomposites-of-aliphatic-aromatic-co-polyester-and-cellulose-nanocrystals
#9
Shahab Kashani Rahimi, Robabeh Aeinehvand, Kyoungtae Kim, Joshua U Otaigbe
Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) was first chemically modified via free radical grafting with maleic anhydride (MA) and the MA-g-PBAT graft copolymer was then used as a matrix material to obtain cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-reinforced MA-g-PBAT bio-nanocomposites via reactive extrusion process to accelerate efforts to develop functional bioabsorbable polymer nanocomposites with improved properties. The molecular structure of the PBAT after chemical modification with maleic anhydride was confirmed by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy...
June 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614573/finite-element-modeling-of-avascular-tumor-growth-using-a-stress-driven-model
#10
Faezeh Iranmanesh, Mohammad Ali Nazari
Tumor growth being a multi-stage process has been investigated from different aspects. In the present study, an attempt is made to represent a constitutive-structure based model of avascular tumor growth in which the effects of tensile stresses caused by collagen fibers are considered. Collagen fibers as a source of anisotropy in the structure of tissue, is taken into account using a continuous fiber distribution formulation. To this end, a finite element modeling is implemented in which a neo-Hookean hyperelastic material is assigned to the tumor and its surrounding host...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607194/solute-hydrogen-and-hydride-phase-implications-on-the-plasticity-of-zirconium-and-titanium-alloys-a-review-and-some-recent-advances
#11
REVIEW
E Conforto, I Guillot, X Feaugas
In this contribution, we propose a review of the possible implications of hydrogen on mechanical behaviour of Zr and Ti alloys with emphasis on the mechanisms of plasticity and strain hardening. Recent advances on the impact of oxygen and hydrogen on the activation volume show that oxygen content hinders creep but hydrogen partially screens this effect. Both aspects are discussed in terms of a locking-unlocking model of the screw dislocation mobility in prismatic slip. Additionally, possible extension of this behaviour is suggested for the [Formula: see text] pyramidal slip...
July 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607187/hydrogen-related-challenges-for-the-steelmaker-the-search-for-proper-testing
#12
R G Thiessen
The modern steelmaker of advanced high-strength steels has always been challenged with the conflicting targets of increased strength while maintaining or improving ductility. These new steels help the transportation sector, including the automotive sector, to achieve the goals of increased passenger safety and reduced emissions. With increasing tensile strengths, certain steels exhibit an increased sensitivity towards hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The ability to characterize the material's sensitivity in an as-delivered condition has been developed and accepted (SEP1970), but the complexity of the stress states that can induce an embrittlement together with the wide range of applications for high-strength steels make the development of a standardized test for HE under in-service conditions extremely challenging...
July 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604656/cryogenic-strength-improvement-by-utilizing-room-temperature-deformation-twinning-in-a-partially-recrystallized-vcrmnfeconi-high-entropy-alloy
#13
Y H Jo, S Jung, W M Choi, S S Sohn, H S Kim, B J Lee, N J Kim, S Lee
The excellent cryogenic tensile properties of the CrMnFeCoNi alloy are generally caused by deformation twinning, which is difficult to achieve at room temperature because of insufficient stress for twinning. Here, we induced twinning at room temperature to improve the cryogenic tensile properties of the CrMnFeCoNi alloy. Considering grain size effects on the critical stress for twinning, twins were readily formed in the coarse microstructure by cold rolling without grain refinement by hot rolling. These twins were retained by partial recrystallization and played an important role in improving strength, allowing yield strengths approaching 1 GPa...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596543/the-electromigration-effect-revisited-non-uniform-local-tensile-stress-driven-diffusion
#14
Shih-Kang Lin, Yu-Chen Liu, Shang-Jui Chiu, Yen-Ting Liu, Hsin-Yi Lee
The electromigration (EM) effect involves atomic diffusion of metals under current stressing. Recent theories of EM are based on the unbalanced electrostatic and electron-wind forces exerted on metal ions. However, none of these models have coupled the EM effect and lattice stability. Here, we performed in situ current-stressing experiments for pure Cu strips using synchrotron X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy and ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. An intrinsic and non-uniform lattice expansion - larger at the cathode and smaller at the anode, is identified induced by the flow of electrons...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594463/ultralarge-bending-strain-and-fracture-resistance-investigation-of-tungsten-carbide-nanowires
#15
Yong Sun, Yanmao Chen, Hao Cui, Jing Wang, Chengxin Wang
Hard tungsten carbide (WC) with brittle behavior is frequently applied for mechanical purposes. Here, ultralarge elastic bending deformation is reported in defect-rare WC [0001] nanowires; the tested bending strain reaches a maximum of 20% ± 3.33%, which challenges the traditional understanding of this material. The lattice analysis indicates that the dislocations are confined to the inner part of the WC nanowires. First, the high Peierls-Nabarro barrier hinders the movement of the locally formed dislocations, which causes rapid dislocation aggregation and hinders long-range glide, resulting in a dense distribution of the dislocation network...
June 8, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591765/corticotomy-affects-both-the-modus-and-magnitude-of-orthodontic-tooth-movement
#16
Carlalberta Verna, Paolo Maria Cattaneo, Michel Dalstra
Objective: To analyze whether the decreased bone density due to the manipulation of bone remodeling rate has an influence on the type of the planned tooth movement. Materials and methods: A finite element model of a lower incisor has been developed. The density of the alveolar bone surrounding the tooth has been assumed to simulate the one occurring after corticotomy to increase tooth movement rate. Moment-to-force ratios corresponding to three different types of movements have been simulated; uncontrolled tipping, translation, and root movement...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588298/statistical-study-of-ductility-dip-cracking-induced-plastic-deformation-in-polycrystalline-laser-3d-printed-ni-based-superalloy
#17
Dan Qian, Jiawei Xue, Anfeng Zhang, Yao Li, Nobumichi Tamura, Zhongxiao Song, Kai Chen
Ductility-dip cracking in Ni-based superalloy, resulting from heat treatment, is known to cause disastrous failure, but its mechanism is still not completely clear. A statistical study of the cracking behavior as a function of crystal orientation in a laser 3D-printed DL125L Ni-based superalloy polycrystal is investigated here using the synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction. The dislocation slip system in each of the forty crystal grains adjacent to the 300 μm long crack has been analyzed through Laue diffraction peak shapes...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587986/angle-ply-biomaterial-scaffold-for-annulus-fibrosus-repair-replicates-native-tissue-mechanical-properties-restores-spinal-kinematics-and-supports-cell-viability
#18
Ryan Borem, Allison Madeline, Joshua Walters, Henry Mayo, Sanjitpal Gill, Jeremy Mercuri
Annulus fibrosus (AF) damage commonly occurs due to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration/herniation. The dynamic mechanical role of the AF is essential for proper IVD function and thus it is imperative that biomaterials developed to repair the AF withstand the mechanical rigors of the native tissue. Furthermore, these biomaterials must resist accelerated degradation within the proteolytic environment of degenerate IVDs while supporting integration with host tissue. We have previously reported a novel approach for developing collagen-based, multi-laminate AF repair patches (AFRPs) that mimic the angle-ply architecture and basic tensile properties of the human AF...
June 3, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585313/ultrastiff-hydrogels-prepared-by-schiff-s-base-reaction-of-bis-p-formylphenyl-sebacate-and-pillar-5-arene-appended-with-multiple-hydrazides
#19
Huaqiang Ju, Fengbo Zhu, Hao Xing, Zi Liang Wu, Feihe Huang
Herein a facile method is reported to prepare polymer gels based on the formation of acylhydrazone bond under mild conditions. A pillar[5]arene derivative appended with ten hydrazide groups provides multiple sites for the reaction with the aldehyde groups of bis(p-formylphenyl) sebacate in the presence of a small amount of HCl as the catalyst in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), producing transparent polymer organogels. The mechanical properties of gels can be easily tuned by the molar ratio of the reactant compounds...
June 6, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583671/biomechanical-behaviour-of-craniofacial-sutures-during-distraction-an-evaluation-all-over-the-entire-craniofacial-skeleton
#20
Fabio Savoldi, James K H Tsoi, Corrado Paganelli, Jukka P Matinlinna
OBJECTIVE: Sutures are fibrous joints connecting the bones of the head. Despite the fundamental role played by sutures in dentofacial orthopaedics, their biomechanical properties are not completely understood. This study evaluated anatomy, biomechanics, and acoustic emission (AE) during distraction of the sutural ligament (SL). METHODS: Seventy-two suture samples were removed from a twelve-months-old swine (Sus scrofa) head. Each volume was acquired using micro-computed tomography (μCT), and the linear interdigitation index was calculated on both planes (LIICOR and LIISAG)...
June 2, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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