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tensile stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451129/stress-evolution-of-ge-nanocrystals-in-dielectric-matrices
#1
Rahim Bahariqushchi, Rosario Raciti, Ahmet Emre Kasapoğlu, Emre Gür, Meltem Sezen, Eren Kalay, Salvatore Salvatore Mirabella, Atilla Aydınlı
Germanium nanocrystals (Ge NCs) embedded in single and multilayer silicon oxide and silicon nitride matrices have been synthesized using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) followed by conventional furnace annealing (CFA) or rapid thermal processing (RTP) in N2 ambient. Compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Formation of nanocrystals under suitable process conditions were observed with high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) micrographs and Raman spectroscopy...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450477/cyclic-compression-of-tissue-engineered-intervertebral-disc-constructs-composed-of-electrospinning-polycaprolactone
#2
Andrea Fotticchia, Emrah Demirci, Cristina Lenardi, Y Liu
There is lack of investigation capturing the complex mechanical interaction of tissue engineered IVD (intervertebral disc) constructs in physiologically-relevant environmental conditions. In this study, mechanical characterisation of anisotropic eletrospinning (ES) substrates made of polycaprolactone (PCL) was carried out in wet and dry conditions and viability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded within double layers of ES PCL was also studied. Cyclic compression of IVD-like constructs composed of an agarose core confined by ES PCL double-layers was implemented using a bioreactor and the cellular response to the mechanical stimulation was evaluated...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448756/ductile-crack-initiation-criterion-with-mismatched-weld-joints-under-dynamic-loading-conditions
#3
Gyubaek An, Se-Min Jeong, Jeongung Park
Brittle failure of high toughness steel structures tends to occur after ductile crack initiation/propagation. Damages to steel structures were reported in the Hanshin Great Earthquake. Several brittle failures were observed in beam-to-column connection zones with geometrical discontinuity. It is widely known that triaxial stresses accelerate the ductile fracture of steels. The study examined the effects of geometrical heterogeneity and strength mismatches (both of which elevate plastic constraints due to heterogeneous plastic straining) and loading rate on critical conditions initiating ductile fracture...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448496/mechanical-property-of-tio%C3%A2-nano-tubes-surface-based-on-the-investigation-of-residual-stress-tensile-force-and-fluid-flow-shear-stress-for-potential-application-of-cardiovascular-devices
#4
Zi-Kun He, Jing-An Li, Xiao Luo, Dan Zou, Ping Yang, An-Sha Zhao, Nan Huang
The TiO2 nanotube has been anticipated for potential application for cardiovascular implanted devices for its excellent drug loading/release function and biocompatibility. However, its mechanical behavior has rarely been studied as the cardiovascular devices. The tube length is a crucial factor which not only decides the drug loading ability but also influences the devices' mechanical behavior. Therefore, in this work, the TiO2 nanotubes with different tube length (NT2, NT4 and NT6) were fabricated, and their surface energy, residual stress, tensile tolerability and blood flow shear stress tolerability were determined, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439287/demonstration-of-improved-tissue-integration-and-angiogenesis-with-an-elastic-estradiol-releasing-polyurethane-material-designed-for-use-in-pelvic-floor-repair
#5
Sarah Shafaat, Naside Mangir, Sabiniano R Regureos, Christopher R Chapple, Sheila MacNeil
AIMS: Pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence affect 40-50% of postmenopausal women worldwide. Polypropylene meshes have been extensively used for the surgical intervention of these disorders; however, these meshes can lead to severe complications in some patients. The need for synthetic materials more suited for use in pelvic floor repair is widely accepted. This study aims to develop an electrospun 17-β-estradiol releasing polyurethane (PU) scaffold that not only provides the appropriate mechanical support but can also stimulate new extracellular matrix (ECM) production and angiogenesis...
February 13, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438431/novel-animal-model-for-achilles-tendinopathy-controlled-experimental-study-of-serial-injections-of-collagenase-in-rabbits
#6
Cesar de Cesar Netto, Alexandre Leme Godoy-Santos, Pedro Augusto Pontin, Renato Jose Mendonça Natalino, Cesar Augusto Martins Pereira, Francisco Diego de Oliveira Lima, Lucas Furtado da Fonseca, Jackson Rucker Staggers, Leonardo Muntada Cavinatto, Lew Charles Schon, Olavo Pires de Camargo, Túlio Diniz Fernandes
Our goal was to develop a novel technique for inducing Achilles tendinopathy in animal models which more accurately represents the progressive histological and biomechanical characteristic of chronic Achilles tendinopathy in humans. In this animal research study, forty-five rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups and given bilateral Achilles injections. Low dose (LD group) (n = 18) underwent a novel technique with three low-dose (0.1mg) injections of collagenase that were separated by two weeks, the high dose group (HD) (n = 18) underwent traditional single high-dose (0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436660/cartilage-intermediate-layer-protein-is-regulated-by-mechanical-stress-and-affects-extracellular-matrix-synthesis
#7
Jinyue He, Chencheng Feng, Jing Sun, Kang Lu, Tongwei Chu, Yue Zhou, Yong Pan
Lumbar disc disease (LDD) is common in aged populations, and it is primarily caused by intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Cartilage intermediate layer protein (CILP), which is specifically expressed in intervertebral discs (IVDs), is suspected to be associated with IDD. However, it remains unclear whether CILP contributes to IDD in humans. Furthermore, the regulation of CILP in human IVDs is poorly understood, especially by mechanical stimuli, which are regarded as primary factors promoting IDD. To address these issues, the present study collected nucleus pulposus (NP) cells from patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery for degenerative disc disease (DDD)...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436277/initial-load-stability-of-different-trachea-suture-techniques-tests-on-an-ex-vivo-model
#8
Andreas Kirschbaum, Helen Abing, Nikolas Mirow
Objective Tracheal anastomosis can be performed with different suture techniques. In this experimental work, the resilience of anastomotic techniques to pressure and tensile stress was studied. Study Design Ex vivo pig model. Setting Experimental. Subjects and Methods The trachea with the 2 main bronchi in freshly slaughtered pigs was isolated and intubated (CH 8.0). Both main bronchi were closed distally by a stapler. After resection of the trachea, an anastomosis (n = 15 per group) was created: group 1, single interrupted sutures; group 2, continuous running suture; group 3, mixed technique...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434519/the-role-of-frictional-contact-of-constituent-blocks-on-the-stability-of-masonry-domes
#9
Valentina Beatini, Gianni Royer-Carfagni, Alessandro Tasora
The observation of old construction works confirms that masonry domes can withstand tensile hoop stresses, at least up to a certain level. Here, such tensile resistance, rather than a priori assumed as a property of the bulk material, is attributed to the contact forces that are developed at the interfaces between interlocked blocks under normal pressure, specified by Coulomb's friction law. According to this rationale, the aspect ratio of the blocks, as well as the bond pattern, becomes of fundamental importance...
January 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434296/highly-flexible-transparent-electrodes-based-on-mesh-patterned-rigid-indium-tin-oxide
#10
Kosuke Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Kuwae, Naofumi Kobayashi, Atsuki Nobori, Shuichi Shoji, Jun Mizuno
We developed highly bendable transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes with a mesh pattern for use in flexible electronic devices. The mesh patterns lowered tensile stress and hindered propagation of cracks. Simulations using the finite element method confirmed that the mesh patterns decreased tensile stress by over 10% because of the escaped strain to the flexible film when the electrodes were bent. The proposed patterned ITO electrodes were simply fabricated by photolithography and wet etching. The resistance increase ratio of a mesh-patterned ITO electrode after bending 1000 times was at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of a planar ITO electrode...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431840/hierarchical-carbon-nanotube-composite-yarn-muscles
#11
Yanhui Song, Susheng Zhou, Kaiyun Jin, Jian Qiao, Da Li, Chao Xu, Dongmei Hu, Jiangtao Di, Min Li, Zuoguang Zhang, Qingwen Li
Hybrid smart actuators fabricated using composites of carbon fibers and shape memory polymers have been extensively studied in recent years. However, relatively slow shape recovery has combined with the reset of shape deformation during cycles to restrict their practical use. An electrothermally reversible actuator based on carbon nanotube (CNT) composite yarn containing CNT fiber and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) resin with excellent shape memory was investigated in this paper. The combination of CNT yarn and TPU resin considerably amplified the contraction and stability...
February 12, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427935/molecular-dynamics-investigation-of-the-mechanical-behavior-of-multi-layered-graphyne-and-its-family-under-tensile-loading
#12
Saeed Rouhi, Hamoon Pourmirzaagha
This paper aims to study the mechanical properties of the multi-layered graphyne and other members of the graphyne family under the uniaxial tensile loading. For this purpose, molecular dynamics simulations are used. The effects of the size and number of layers on the fracture and elastic properties are studied. It is shown that Young's modulus of the zigzag multi-layered graphyne is slightly larger than armchair one. Comparing the stress-strain curves of the multi-layered graphynes with different number of layers, it is observed that the fracture stress and strain of the nanosheets are inversely related to the number of layers...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426630/modifying-hernia-mesh-design-to-improve-device-mechanical-performance-and-promote-tension-free-repair
#13
Mohamed M Ibrahim, Luke P Poveromo, Richard R Glisson, Agustin Cornejo, Alfredo E Farjat, Ken Gall, Howard Levinson
PURPOSE: Approximately 348,000 ventral hernia repairs are performed annually in the United States and the incisional hernia recurrence rate is approximately 20% as a result of suture and mesh device failure. Device failure is related to changes at the suture/tissue interface that leads to acute or chronic suture pull-through and surgical failure. To better manage mechanical tension, we propose a modified mesh design with extensions and demonstrate its mechanical superiority. METHODS: Comparative uniaxial static tensile testing was conducted on polypropylene suture and a modified mesh...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424163/-research-progress-on-the-effects-of-the-tensile-strain-stimulation-on-proliferation-differention-and-pericellular-matrix-of-cartilage
#14
REVIEW
Ya-Xun Men, Yong-Liang Zhao, Xiang-Yun Cheng, Wan-Quan Cao, Gang Wang, Zi-Quan Yang
Mechanical stimulation widely exists in the body and participates in adjusting biological behavior of many kinds of cells. As a common stress pattern in the body, the tensile strain widely exists in many organs, such as bone and cartilage, muscle tendon, cardiac and pulmonary vessels, and so on. In recent years, with the development of the researches of biomechanics, a variety of mechanical loading devices, which are used to simulate the complex mechanical stimulation in the body to provide the tensile strain including the isometric, uniaxial and various types of mechanical waveform, came into being...
July 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422605/microstructure-and-phases-of-deposited-metal-of-super304h-steel-under-high-temperature-persistent-stress
#15
Yanchang Qi, Zhiquan Wu, Xin Zhang, Chengyong Ma
In order to investigate the high temperature rupture property of deposited metal of SUPER304H steel, the high temperature tensile test was carried out, and the microstructure transformation of deposited metal of SUPER304H steel under high temperature persistent stress were studied. Most of the solidification subgrain boundaries dissolve. The effect of the high temperature enduring on the microstructure is not obvious. Temperature and time are the main factors that influence the change of microstructure. Under the action of high temperature stress, the corrosion resistance of austenite decreases significantly due to the occurrence of chromium deficiency...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422224/development-of-a-novel-anatomical-thin-titanium-mesh-plate-with%C3%A2-reduction-guidance-and-fixation-function-for-asian-zygomatic-orbitomaxillary-complex-fracture
#16
Yu-Tzu Wang, Chih-Hao Chen, Po-Fang Wang, Chun-Li Lin
For this study we developed an anatomical thin titanium mesh (ATTM) plate for Asian zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture repair with reduction guidance and fixation function. The ATTM plate profile was designed as an L-shape to fix at the anterior maxilla and lateral buttress of the ZMC. Computer-aided stamping analysis was performed on four screw-hole patterns in the ATTM plate - a control without screw-holes, square screw-holes, double screw-holes, and large-diameter, double screw-holes - using upper/lower dies of averaged ZMC reconstruction models...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416315/comparison-of-corneal-biomechanics-after-myopic-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-compared-to-lasik-an-ex-vivo-study
#17
Anastasios John Kanellopoulos
Purpose: To investigate ex vivo potentially different corneal biomechanical properties after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) versus LASIK for myopic correction. Methods: Thirty human donor corneas were subjected to either myopic SMILE or femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK. Donor corneas were assigned to six investigative groups: Group A, -3.00 D (diopters) SMILE; Group B, -8.00 D SMILE; Group C, -3.00 D LASIK; and Group D, -8.00 D LASIK. Additionally, two control groups were formed: Group E, SMILE and Group F, LASIK...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415713/a-phosphoinositide-map-at-the-shoot-apical-meristem-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Thomas Stanislas, Matthieu Pierre Platre, Mengying Liu, Léa E S Rambaud-Lavigne, Yvon Jaillais, Olivier Hamant
BACKGROUND: In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) has two main functions, involving the production of all aerial organs on the one hand and self-maintenance on the other, allowing the production of organs during the entire post-embryonic life of the plant. Transcription factors, microRNA, hormones, peptides and forces have been involved in meristem function. Whereas phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) have been involved in almost all biological functions, including stem cell maintenance and organogenesis in animals, the processes in meristem biology to which PIPs contribute still need to be delineated...
February 7, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414596/the-different-distribution-of-enzymatic-collagen-cross-links-found-in-adult-and-children-bone-result-in-different-mechanical-behavior-of-collagen
#19
Baptiste Depalle, Andre G Duarte, Imke A K Fiedler, Laurent Pujo-Menjouet, Markus J Buehler, Jean-Philippe Berteau
Enzymatic collagen cross-linking has been shown to play an important role in the macroscopic elastic and plastic deformation of bone across ages. However, its direct contribution to collagen fibril deformation is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine how covalent intermolecular connections from enzymatic collagen cross-links contribute to collagen fibril elastic and plastic deformation of adults and children's bone matrix. We used ex vivo data previously obtained from biochemical analysis of children and adults bone samples (n = 14; n = 8, respectively) to create 22 sample-specific computational models of cross-linked collagen fibrils...
February 1, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412223/effect-on-adhesion-of-a-nanocapsules-loaded-adhesive-system
#20
Bruna Genari, Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune, Denise Soledade Jornada, Bibiana Rocha Aldrigui, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Sílvia Stanisçuaski Guterres, Susana Maria Werner Samuel, Fabrício Mezzomo Collares
This study aimed to evaluate the in situ degree of conversion, contact angle, and immediate and long-term bond strengths of a commercial primer and an experimental adhesive containing indomethacin- and triclosan-loaded nanocapsules (NCs). The indomethacin- and triclosan-loaded NCs, which promote anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects through controlled release, were incorporated into the primer at a concentration of 2% and in the adhesive at concentrations of 1, 2, 5, and 10%. The in situ degree of conversion (DC, n=3) was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy...
February 1, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
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