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Eicosapentaenoic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527220/quantitative-erythrocyte-omega-3-epa-plus-dha-levels-are-related-to-higher-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-on-brain-spect
#1
Daniel G Amen, William S Harris, Parris M Kidd, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: The interrelationships between omega-3 fatty acids status, brain perfusion, and cognition are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if SPECT brain imaging of cerebral perfusion and cognition varies as a function of omega-3 fatty acid levels. METHODS: A random sample of 166 study participants was drawn from a psychiatric referral clinical for which erythrocyte quantification of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (the Omega-3 Index) was available...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526084/liver-phospholipids-fatty-acids-composition-in-response-to-different-types-of-diets-in-rats-of-both-sexes
#2
Slavica Ranković, Tamara Popović, Jasmina Debeljak Martačić, Snježana Petrović, Mirko Tomić, Đurđica Ignjatović, Gordana Tovilović-Kovačević, Maria Glibetić
BACKGROUND: Dietary intake influence changes in fatty acids (FA) profiles in liver which plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism, triacylglycerol synthesis and energy homeostasis. We investigated the effects of 4-weeks treatment with milk- and fish-based diet, on plasma biochemical parameters and FA composition of liver phospholipids (PL) in rats of both sexes. METHODS: Adult, 4 months old, Wistar rats of both sexes, were fed with different types of diets: standard, milk-based and fish-based, during 4 weeks...
May 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523372/dietary-eicosapentaenoic-acid-normalizes-hippocampal-omega-3-and-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-profile-attenuates-glial-activation-and-regulates-bdnf-function-in-a-rodent-model-of-neuroinflammation-induced-by-central-interleukin-1%C3%AE-administration
#3
Yilong Dong, Min Xu, Allan V Kalueff, Cai Song
PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-1β can activate glial cells to trigger neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Lower omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios occur in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously reported that an n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can improve memory and attenuate neurodegeneration-like changes in animal models of AD. However, whether and how EPA modulates glial cell activity and functions remains unclear...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521607/intravenous-fish-oil-and-pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-changes-in-plasma-phytosterols-cytokines-and-bile-acids-and-erythrocyte-fatty-acids
#4
Kara L Calkins, Andrea DeBarber, Robert D Steiner, Martiniano J Flores, Tristan R Grogan, Susanne M Henning, Laurie Reyen, Robert S Venick
BACKGROUND: Soybean oil (SO) emulsions are associated with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD); fish oil (FO) emulsions are used to treat IFALD. SO and FO differ with respect to their fatty acid and phytosterol content. In children with IFALD whose SO was replaced with FO, we aimed to (1) quantify changes in erythrocyte fatty acids and plasma phytosterols, cytokines, and bile acids and (2) correlate these changes with direct bilirubin (DB). DESIGN: This study enrolled IFALD children who received 6 months of FO...
May 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521474/an-%C3%AE-3-fatty-acid-desaturase-expressing-gene-attenuates-prostate-cancer-proliferation-by-cell-cycle-regulation
#5
Jinshun Pan, Sujin Zhou, Rong Xiang, Zhenggang Zhao, Shanshan Liu, Ning Ding, Sijia Gong, Yan Lin, Xiaoxi Li, Xiaoming Bai, Fanghong Li, Allan Z Zhao
Previous studies have reported that Ω-6 and Ω-3 fatty acids have opposing effects on cancer development. Consuming high levels of long-chain Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been shown to reduce prostate cancer risk and increase chemotherapy sensitivity. The sdd17 gene encodes an Ω-3 fatty acid desaturase, which converts arachidonic acid into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). However, little is known regarding the function of the sdd17 gene in tumor cells in vitro. In the present study, prostate cancer cells were infected with the msdd17 gene, which allowed the endogenous production of Ω-3 PUFAs...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515269/effect-of-omega-3-supplementation-on-neuropathy-in-type-1-diabetes-a-12-month-pilot-trial
#6
Evan J H Lewis, Bruce A Perkins, Leif E Lovblom, Richard P Bazinet, Thomas M S Wolever, Vera Bril
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that 12 months of seal oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation will stop the known progression of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: Individuals with T1DM and evidence of DSP as determined by a Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ≥1 were recruited to participate in a single-arm, open-label trial of seal oil ω-3 PUFA supplementation (10 mL·d(-1); 750 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 560 mg docosapentaenoic acid, and 1,020 mg docosahexaenoic acid) for 1 year...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515020/supplementation-with-high-dose-docosahexaenoic-acid-increases-the-omega-3-index-more-than-high-dose-eicosapentaenoic-acid
#7
Janie Allaire, William S Harris, Cécile Vors, Amélie Charest, Johanne Marin, Kristina Harris Jackson, André Tchernof, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the O3I in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation...
May 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511049/the-omega-3-index-and-relative-risk-for-coronary-heart-disease-mortality-estimation-from-10-cohort-studies
#8
William S Harris, Liana Del Gobbo, Nathan L Tintle
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A recent 19-cohort meta-analysis examined the relationships between biomarkers of omega-3 fatty acids and risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). That study did not, however, report hazard ratios (HRs) specifically as a function of erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic (DHA) levels, a metric called the Omega-3 Index in which EPA + DHA content is expressed as a percent of total fatty acids. The Omega-3 Index has been used in several recent studies and is a validated biomarker of omega-3 fatty acid tissue levels, but additional data are needed to confirm (or refute) the originally-proposed clinical cut-points of <4% (higher risk) and 8%-12% (lower risk)...
May 6, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506390/assessment-of-pharmacokinetic-interaction-between-omega-3-carboxylic-acids-and-the-statins-rosuvastatin-and-simvastatin-results-of-2-phase-i-studies-in-healthy-volunteers
#9
Elliot Offman, Michael Davidson, Catarina Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) can lower triglyceride levels. OM3-CA is often prescribed concomitantly with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article was to assess the potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between OM3-CA and the statins rosuvastatin and simvastatin. METHODS: Data from 2 phase I studies (ECLIPSE III and OM-EPA-007 [NCT01486433]) were analyzed. In ECLIPSE III, 59 participants received OM3-CA 4 g once daily for 13 days, with rosuvastatin 40 mg (single dose) co-administered with the 11th dose...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503432/nutrient-patterns-and-risk-of-cataract-a-case-control-study
#10
Fatemeh Sedaghat, Matin Ghanavati, Parisa Nezhad Hajian, Sara Hajishirazi, Mehdi Ehteshami, Bahram Rashidkhani
AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and 95%CIs. RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503189/eicosapentaenoic-acid-shows-anti-inflammatory-effect-via-gpr120-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-and-attenuates-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Hodaka Yamada, Tomio Umemoto, Masafumi Kakei, Shin-Ichi Momomura, Masanobu Kawakami, San-E Ishikawa, Kazuo Hara
BACKGROUND: Saturated fatty acids have been shown to cause insulin resistance and low-grade chronic inflammation, whereas unsaturated fatty acids suppress inflammation via G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) in macrophages. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes have yet to be elucidated. Hence, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) via GPR120 in adipocytes. METHODS: We used 250 μM palmitate as a representative saturated fatty acid...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502503/the-effects-of-vitamin-d-and-omega-3-fatty-acid-co-supplementation-on-glycemic-control-and-lipid-concentrations-in-patients-with-gestational-diabetes
#12
Mehri Jamilian, Mansooreh Samimi, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Teibeh Hashemi, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Maryamalsadat Razavi, Marzieh Sanami, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipid concentrations in gestational diabetes (GDM) patients. METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was done among 140 GDM patients. Participants were randomly divided into 4 groups to receive: (1) 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids containing 360 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 240 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) twice a day + vitamin D placebo (n = 35); (2) 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks + omega-3 fatty acids placebo (n = 35); (3) 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks + 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids twice a day (n = 35), and (4) vitamin D placebo + omega-3 fatty acids placebo (n = 35) for 6 weeks...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502496/minimal-food-effect-for-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-bioavailability-from-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-with-an-advanced-lipid-technologies-tm-alt-%C3%A2-based-formulation
#13
Miguel A Lopez-Toledano, Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson, Ahmed A Daak, Kevin C Maki, Colleen Johns, Adrian L Rabinowicz, Frederick D Sancilio
BACKGROUND: The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501579/eicosapentaenoic-acid-monoglyceride-resolves-inflammation-in-an-ex-vivo-model-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell
#14
Caroline Morin, Léane Charbonneau, Nicole Ouellet, Hélène Ouellet, Pierre U Blier, France Dufresne, Samuel Fortin
Phosphorylation and activation of p38 MAPK and NFκB pathways, along with the resulting overproduction of interleukin IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFα) is a hallmark of inflammatory disorders. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementations are known to exert anti-inflammatory properties by reduction of keys cytokines and enzymes involved in inflammation. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory pathways and mediators modulated by eicosapentaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-EPA) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and stimulated, ex vivo, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495596/the-role-of-omega-3-and-omega-9-fatty-acids-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-pain-after-neurotrauma
#15
REVIEW
Iriana Galán-Arriero, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Carlos Goicoechea, Julian Taylor, Ana Velasco, Gerardo Ávila-Martín
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as Docosaexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), mediate neuroactive effects in experimental models of traumatic peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. Cellular mechanisms of PUFAs include reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, enhanced neurotrophic support, and activation of cell survival pathways. Bioactive omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, such as Oleic Acid (OA) and 2-Hydroxy Oleic Acid (2-OHOA), also show therapeutic effects in neurotrauma models...
May 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488685/effect-of-diets-rich-in-either-saturated-fat-or-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-supplemented-with-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-plasma-lipoprotein-profiles
#16
C B Dias, N Amigo, L G Wood, X Correig, M L Garg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Abnormalities in lipoprotein profiles (size, distribution and concentration) play an important role in the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Dietary fat, among other factors, has been demonstrated to modulate lipoprotein profiles. We aimed to investigate if background dietary fat (saturated, SFA versus omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6PUFA) was a determinant of the effects of LCn-3PUFA supplementation on lipoprotein profiles. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical intervention trial in a parallel design was conducted...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488194/replacement-of-fish-oil-with-soybean-oil-in-diets-for-juvenile-chinese-sucker-myxocyprinus-asiaticus-effects-on-liver-lipid-peroxidation-and-biochemical-composition
#17
Deng-Hang Yu, Jia-Zhi Chang, Gui-Fang Dong, Jun Liu
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of fish oil (FO) by soybean oil (SO) on growth performance, liver lipid peroxidation, and biochemical composition in juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Fish (13.7 ± 0.2 g) in triplicate were fed five experimental diets in which 0% (FO as control), 40% (SO40), 60% (SO60), 80% (SO40), and 100% (SO100) FO were replaced by SO. The body weight gain of fish fed SO40, SO60, or SO80 diet was similar to FO group, but diets that have 100% soybean oil as dietary lipid significantly reduced fish growth (P < 0...
May 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488130/fish-consumption-intake-of-fats-and-cognitive-decline-at-middle-and-older-age-the-doetinchem-cohort-study
#18
Astrid C J Nooyens, Boukje M van Gelder, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Martin P J van Boxtel, W M Monique Verschuren
PURPOSE: To get insight in the impact of fish and fat intake in the prevention of accelerated cognitive decline with ageing, we tested associations between fish and different fat intakes and 5-year change in cognitive functions. METHODS: In 2612 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline, dietary intake (including fish consumption) and cognitive function were assessed at baseline and at 5-year follow-up. Average fish consumption (frequency) and intakes (as energy percentages) of total fat, saturated, mono unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, and a-linolenic acid (ALA), and cholesterol were averaged over baseline and follow-up...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486173/effects-of-fish-oil-supplementation-on-prostaglandins-in-normal-and-tumor-colon-tissue-modulation-by-the-lipogenic-phenotype-of-colon-tumors
#19
Zora Djuric, Muhammad Nadeem Aslam, Becky R Simon, Ananda Sen, Yan Jiang, Jianwei Ren, Rena Chan, Tanu Soni, T M Rajendiran, William L Smith, Dean E Brenner
Dietary fish oils have potential for prevention of colon cancer, and yet the mechanisms of action in normal and tumor colon tissues are not well defined. Here we evaluated the impact of the colonic fatty acid milieu on the formation of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids. Distal tumors in rats were chemically induced to model inflammatory colonic carcinogenesis. After 21 weeks of feeding with either a fish oil diet containing an eicosapentaenoic acid/ω-6 fatty acid ratio of 0.4 or a Western fat diet, the relationships between colon fatty acids and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations were evaluated...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484978/effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-essential-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-edible-bivalve-donax-trunculus
#20
Isma Merad, Sandrine Bellenger, Aziz Hichami, Naim Akhtar Khan, Noureddine Soltani
Donax trunculus is the most consumed bivalve by the local population of the Northeast Algeria for its nutritional value. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine the effects of cadmium (Cd), a known toxic metal, on the alterations in main essential omega-3 fatty acids, i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3), in male and female gonads of D. trunculus during the reproduction period at spring (before spawning). Additionally, this work seeks to describe the relation between EPA and DHA with non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) fatty acids, and explores their possible contribution of to protect against Cd stress...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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