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Eicosapentaenoic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239890/omega-3-decreases-interleukin-6-levels-in-hiv-and-hhv-8-co-infected-patients-results-from-a-randomized-supplementation-trial-in-uganda
#1
Anna E Coghill, Jeanette M Schenk, Zeina Mahkoul, Jackson Orem, Warren Phipps, Corey Casper
OBJECTIVE: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an HIV-associated malignancy caused by human herpesvirus-8 that occurs at highest incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. KS patients often present with inflammatory symptoms associated with higher mortality. DESIGN: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Uganda to test whether omega-3 (ω-3) supplementation could reduce inflammation in HIV and HHV-8 co-infected adults ≥ 18 years of age. Patients with acute illness, AIDS, or advanced KS were ineligible, as were pregnant women...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236708/genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-of-fish-and-epa-dha-consumption-in-17-us-and-european-cohorts
#2
Dariush Mozaffarian, Hassan S Dashti, Mary K Wojczynski, Audrey Y Chu, Jennifer A Nettleton, Satu Männistö, Kati Kristiansson, Mägi Reedik, Jari Lahti, Denise K Houston, Marilyn C Cornelis, Frank J A van Rooij, Maria Dimitriou, Stavroula Kanoni, Vera Mikkilä, Lyn M Steffen, Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Lu Qi, Bruce Psaty, Luc Djousse, Jerome I Rotter, Kennet Harald, Markus Perola, Harri Rissanen, Antti Jula, Fischer Krista, Evelin Mihailov, Mary F Feitosa, Julius S Ngwa, Luting Xue, Paul F Jacques, Mia-Maria Perälä, Aarno Palotie, Yongmei Liu, Nike A Nalls, Luigi Ferrucci, Dena Hernandez, Ani Manichaikul, Michael Y Tsai, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Loukianos Rallidis, Paul M Ridker, Lynda M Rose, Julie E Buring, Terho Lehtimäki, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Rozenn Lemaitre, Veikko Salomaa, Paul Knekt, Andres Metspalu, Ingrid B Borecki, L Adrienne Cupples, Johan G Eriksson, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Stefania Bandinelli, David Siscovick, Oscar H Franco, Panos Deloukas, George Dedoussis, Daniel I Chasman, Olli Raitakari, Toshiko Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Regular fish and omega-3 consumption may have several health benefits and are recommended by major dietary guidelines. Yet, their intakes remain remarkably variable both within and across populations, which could partly owe to genetic influences. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants that influence fish and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) consumption. DESIGN: We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of fish (n = 86,467) and EPA+DHA (n = 62,265) consumption in 17 cohorts of European descent from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium Nutrition Working Group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232116/two-stage-enzymatic-preparation-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enriched-fish-oil-triacylglycerols
#3
Zhen Zhang, Fang Liu, Xiang Ma, Huihua Huang, Yong Wang
Fish oil products in the form of triacylglycerols generally have relatively low contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and so it is of potential research and industrial interests to enrich related contents in commercial products. Thereby an economical and efficient two-stage preparation of EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols is proposed in this study. The first stage was the partial hydrolysis of fish oil by only 0.2 wt.‰ AY "Amano" 400SD which led to increases of EPA and DHA contents in acylglycerols from 19...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231216/aronia-citrus-juice-polyphenol-rich-juice-intake-and-elite-triathlon-training-a-lipidomic-approach-using-representative-oxylipins-in-urine
#4
Libia Alejandra García-Flores, Sonia Medina, Cristina Gómez, Craig E Wheelock, Roberto Cejuela, José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Álvaro Hernández-Sáez, Federico Ferreres, Ángel Gil-Izquierdo
In the present study, we examined whether particular urinary oxylipins (isoprostanes (IsoPs), leukotrienes (LTs), prostaglandins (PGs), and thromboxanes (TXs)) in 16 elite triathletes could alter during 145 days of training. Within this time span, 45 days were dedicated to examining the effects of the intake of a beverage rich in polyphenols (one serving: 200 mL per day) supplemented in their diet. The beverage was a mixture of citrus juice (95%) and Aronia melanocarpa juice (5%) (ACJ). Fifty-two oxylipins were analyzed in the urine...
December 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223736/transepithelial-transfer-of-phenanthrene-but-not-of-benzo-a-pyrene-is-inhibited-by-fatty-acids-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#5
Stefan de Gelder, Henrik Sundh, Thamar N M Pelgrim, Josef D Rasinger, Lotte van Daal, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
The inclusion of vegetable oils in aquafeeds introduces contaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in salmonids. Since lipophilic PAHs solubilize in micelles composed of lipids, bile salts and fatty acids, dietary lipid composition can alter intestinal transepithelial PAH transfer. We studied the uptake of two PAHs, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine. We also investigated the effects of two fatty acids, viz. fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and vegetable oil-derived oleic acid (18:1n-9) on intestinal uptake...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221817/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-plasma-at-8%C3%A2-years-and-subsequent-allergic-disease
#6
Jessica Magnusson, Sandra Ekström, Inger Kull, Niclas Håkansson, Sara Nilsson, Magnus Wickman, Erik Melén, Ulf Risérus, Anna Bergström
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are hypothesized to modulate the risk of allergic disease. However, evidence from previous studies is inconclusive, and limited longitudinal data exist using circulating biomarkers of PUFA intake and metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations between n-3 and n-6 PUFAs at age 8 years and asthma, rhinitis, and aeroallergen sensitization at age 16 years. METHODS: Proportions of n-3 PUFAs (very long-chain n-3 [VLC n-3; sum of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid] and α-linolenic acid) and n-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid and arachidonic acid [AA]) in blood samples at age 8 years were measured for 940 children from the prospective Swedish birth cohort BAMSE (Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218228/similar-adverse-events-from-two-disparate-agents-implicate-lipid-inflammatory-mediators-for-a-role-in-anxiety-states
#7
Gordon C McCarter, Lauren B Blanchard
We recently reported a case in which a 54-year-old male experienced maintenance insomnia, generalized anxiety and panic symptoms associated with consumption of a fish oil supplement enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). We report here that the same patient has experienced identical but more severe symptoms in response to the use of the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast, in accordance with other cases reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Since omega-3 fatty acids like EPA are precursors for the biosynthesis of eicosanoids including leukotrienes, a common factor to these psychiatric adverse events may be perturbations in this highly complex system of lipid inflammatory mediators...
November 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218019/dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-late-pregnancy-and-postpartum-depressive-symptom-among-japanese-women
#8
Minatsu Kobayashi, Kohei Ogawa, Naho Morisaki, Yukako Tani, Reiko Horikawa, Takeo Fujiwara
Background: The use of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) in preventive or therapeutic modalities for postpartum depression, especially long-chain types such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is of considerable interest. High n-3PUFA consumption has been reported among pregnant Japanese women. Therefore, analysis of this group could provide important insights into the relationship between postpartum depression and dietary n-3PUFA consumption. To further examine the relationship between the risk of postpartum depression and n-3PUFA consumption, we conducted a prospective hospital-based birth cohort study in Japan...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211867/effects-of-corn-dried-distillers-grains-with-solubles-on-performance-egg-quality-yolk-fatty-acid-composition-and-oxidative-status-in-laying-ducks
#9
D Ruan, A M Fouad, Q L Fan, W Chen, W G Xia, S Wang, Y Y Cui, Y Wang, L Yang, C T Zheng
The study investigated the effects of increasing content of corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diets of laying ducks on oxidative status, laying performance, egg quality, and egg yolk fatty acid composition. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 17 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted corn DDGS for soybean meal and wheat bran and a small reduction of corn...
November 29, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209405/retroconversion-is-a-minor-contributor-to-increases-in-eicosapentaenoic-acid-following-docosahexaenoic-acid-feeding-as-determined-by-compound-specific-isotope-analysis-in-rat-liver
#10
Adam H Metherel, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Marc-Olivier Trépanier, R J Scott Lacombe, Richard P Bazinet
Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally plausible. In this study, 21-day old Long Evans rats were weaned onto an ALA only or DHA + ALA diet for 12 weeks. Afterwards, livers were collected and the natural abundance 13C-enrichment was determined by compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of liver EPA by isotope ratio mass-spectrometry and compared to dietary ALA and DHA 13C-enrichment...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207553/determination-of-the-relative-efficacy-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-for-anti-cancer-effects-in-human-breast-cancer-models
#11
REVIEW
Laura VanderSluis, Vera C Mazurak, Sambasivarao Damaraju, Catherine J Field
Epidemiological studies have associated high fish oil consumption with decreased risk of breast cancer (BC). n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish and fish oils exert anti-cancer effects. However, few studies have examined the relative efficacy of EPA and DHA alone and in mixtures on BC subtypes. This was the objective of the present review, as this research is a necessity for the translation of findings to human health and disease...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206907/a-novel-bioactive-derivative-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-suppresses-intestinal-tumor-development-in-apc%C3%AE-14-mice
#12
Masako Nakanishi, Matthew P Hanley, Ruochen Zha, Yuichi Igarashi, Mark A Hull, Gary Mathias, Frank Sciavolino, James J Grady, Daniel W Rosenberg
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of hundreds of polyps throughout the colon. Without prophylactic colectomy, most individuals with FAP develop colorectal cancer at an early age. Treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the free fatty acid form (EPA-FFA) has been shown to reduce polyp burden in FAP patients. Since high-purity EPA-FFA is subject to rapid oxidation, a stable form of EPA compound has been developed in the form of magnesium l-lysinate bis-eicosapentaenoate (TP-252)...
December 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199200/age-stratification-and-impact-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-to-arachidonic-acid-ratios-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#13
Yuji Ueno, Ryota Tanaka, Kazuo Yamashiro, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Kenichiro Hira, Naohide Kurita, Mayu Sakurai, Takao Urabe, Kazunori Shimada, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Daida, Nobutaka Hattori
AIM: We focused on the ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and explored the significance of these ratios relative to clinical characteristics by age in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: We enrolled patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent radiological investigations and laboratory examinations, including measurement of serum EPA, DHA, and AA levels, and controls. Patients were classified according to age (<65, 65-74, and ≥ 75 years) and the tertile of EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios, and clinical aspects were compared with these factors...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198266/influence-of-batch-specific-biochemical-egg-characteristics-on-embryogenesis-and-hatching-success-in-farmed-pikeperch
#14
F J Schaefer, J L Overton, A Krüger, W Kloas, S Wuertz
Low and variable egg quality remains a major issue in aquaculture impeding a reliable and continuous supply of larvae, particularly in emerging species, such as pikeperch, Sander lucioperca. We assessed the influence of batch-specific egg parameters (fatty acid (FA) profiles, cortisol content) on embryo life-stages until hatching (survival at 2, 24, 48, 72 h post fertilization (hpf), hatching rate) in an integrated study under commercial hatchery conditions (44 egg batches). Embryo mortality was elevated until 48 hpf (average 9...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197660/metabolomic-markers-of-fatigue-association-between-circulating-metabolome-and-fatigue-in-women-with-chronic-widespread-pain
#15
Maxim B Freidin, Helena R R Wells, Tilly Potter, Gregory Livshits, Cristina Menni, Frances M K Williams
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a sensation of unbearable tiredness that frequently accompanies chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) and inflammatory joint disease. Its mechanisms are poorly understood and there is a lack of effective biomarkers for diagnosis and onset prediction. We studied the circulating metabolome in a population sample characterised for CWP to identify biomarkers showing specificity for fatigue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Untargeted metabolomic profiling was conducted on fasting plasma and serum samples of 1106 females with and without CWP from the TwinsUK cohort...
December 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195971/effects-of-dietary-replacement-of-fishmeal-by-mealworm-meal-on-muscle-quality-of-farmed-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#16
Roseane L Panini, Stephanie S Pinto, Renata O Nóbrega, Felipe N Vieira, Débora M Fracalossi, Richard I Samuels, Elane S Prudêncio, Carlos P Silva, Renata D M C Amboni
This study investigated the muscle quality of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed on a diet containing different proportions of mealworm meal (MW) (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) as a substitute for fishmeal, which is the normal diet used in shrimp commercial production. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile, colour and texture of the shrimps were evaluated. Moisture, protein, and ash content of shrimp muscle were not significantly altered when fishmeal was replaced by MW (p>0.05). However, the replacement resulted in a linear increase in lipid content (p<0...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195136/oxidized-ldl-triggers-changes-in-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-human-macrophages
#17
Oscar J Lara-Guzmán, Ángel Gil-Izquierdo, Sonia Medina, Edison Osorio, Rafael Álvarez-Quintero, Natalia Zuluaga, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Katalina Muñoz-Durango
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a well-recognized proatherogenic particle that functions in atherosclerosis. In this study, we established conditions to generate human oxLDL, characterized according to the grade of lipid and protein oxidation, particle size and oxylipin content. The induction effect of the cellular proatherogenic response was assessed in foam cells by using an oxLDL-macrophage interaction model. Uptake of oxLDL, reactive oxygen species production and expression of oxLDL receptors (CD36, SR-A and LOX-1) were significantly increased in THP-1 macrophages...
November 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195133/effects-of-fish-oils-on-ex-vivo-b-cell-responses-of-obese-subjects-upon-bcr-tlr-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#18
William Guesdon, Rasagna Kosaraju, Patricia Brophy, Angela Clark, Steve Dillingham, Shahnaz Aziz, Fiona Moyer, Kate Willson, James R Dick, Shivajirao Prakash Patil, Nicholas Balestrieri, Michael Armstrong, Nichole Reisdroph, Saame Raza Shaikh
The long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil have immunomodulatory properties. B cells are a poorly studied target of EPA/DHA in humans. Therefore, in this pilot study, we tested how n-3 LC-PUFAs influence B-cell responses of obese humans. Obese men and women were assigned to consume four 1-g capsules per day of olive oil (OO, n=12), fish oil (FO, n=12) concentrate or high-DHA-FO concentrate (n=10) for 12 weeks in a parallel design...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191085/effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-anxiety-like-behavior-in-socially-isolated-rats
#19
Yasuyo Oshima, Tasuku Watanabe, Shun Endo, Shuichi Hata, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Kyoichi Osada, Asako Takenaka
The effects of fish oil for improving mental health have been reported. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on anxiety-like behavior using a rat model. Experimental diets enriched in EPA or DHA as glycerides were prepared. Rats were exposed to social isolation stress and fed the experimental diet for 14 days. The results of behavioral tests revealed that rats fed the EPA-enriched diet exhibited less anxiety-like behavior than rats fed the control or DHA-enriched diets...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188048/effects-of-cooking-techniques-on-fatty-acid-and-oxylipin-content-of-farmed-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#20
Katrina Flaskerud, Michael Bukowski, Mikhail Golovko, LuAnn Johnson, Stephen Brose, Ashrifa Ali, Beth Cleveland, Matthew Picklo, Susan Raatz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various cooking techniques on the fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout. Rainbow trout is an excellent source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have beneficial health effects. Fillets of 2-year-old farmed rainbow trout were baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in corn (CO), canola (CaO), peanut (PO), or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acids and oxidized lipids were extracted from these samples and their respective raw fillet samples...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
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