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Eicosapentaenoic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434130/characterization-of-extracellular-membrane-vesicles-of-an-antarctic-bacterium-shewanella-livingstonensis-ac10-and-their-enhanced-production-by-alteration-of-phospholipid-composition
#1
Fumiaki Yokoyama, Jun Kawamoto, Tomoya Imai, Tatsuo Kurihara
A cold-adapted bacterium, Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10, which produces eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as a component of its membrane phospholipids, is useful as a model to study the function of EPA and as a host for heterologous production of thermolabile proteins at low temperatures. In this study, we characterized extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) of this bacterium to examine the involvement of EPA in the biogenesis of EMVs and for the future application of EMVs to extracellular protein production. We found that this strain produced EMVs from the cell surface...
April 22, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433853/addition-of-an-extract-of-lucerne-medicago-sativa-l-to-cattle-diets-effects-on-fatty-acid-profile-meat-quality-and-eating-quality-of-the-m-longissimus-muscle
#2
Siân B MacKintosh, Ian Richardson, Eun Joong Kim, Dirk Dannenberger, Didier Coulmier, Nigel D Scollan
There is considerable interest in enhancing beneficial fatty acids, particularly 18:3n-3, conjugated linoleic acid and long chain n-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in beef to provide benefits to human health. Here, the potential to enhance these fatty acids by feeding a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich plant extract (PX) from lucerne is presented. Cattle (n=8/diet) were assigned to the following finishing diets: straw and concentrate (S-CC); straw and concentrate containing 25% PX and 2000IUvitaminE/kg PX-concentrate (S-PXC); grass silage (GS); GS plus 75gPX/kg dry matter intake (DMI) (GS-LPX) or GS plus 150g PX/kg DMI (GS-HPX)...
April 8, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433363/the-molecular-impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-hepatic-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-signaling
#3
George J Ventro, Yingkui Yang, Min Chen, Carroll M Harmon
PURPOSE: Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) develops in a subset of children receiving parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure. Omegaven™ is an omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3FA) lipid emulsion high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that can lessen PNALD. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, TGF-β) are elevated in PNALD and can decrease paraoxonase 1 protein expression (PON1). We sought to determine the effect of Omegaven™, EPA, and DHA on inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, and TGF-β via ERK1/2 and p-Smad2/3 signaling pathways as well as the changes in intracellular PON1 protein expression as a potential mechanism explaining the protective effects of Omegaven™ and Ω3FA...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431930/quantitative-proteomics-reveals-key-proteins-regulated-by-eicosapentaenoic-acid-in-endothelial-activation
#4
Lu Zhang, Kunhong Xiao, Xuyang Zhao, Xiaoli Sun, Jianshu Zhang, Xian Wang, Yi Zhu, Xu Zhang
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), has been shown to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis by attenuating endothelial activation. In this study, we used mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics to study the protective mechanisms of EPA and to identify key proteins that regulated by EPA in endothelial activation. Arachidonic acid (AA) was used as a control. HUVECs were pretreated with each of the two PUFAs, and then stimulated with TNFα as a model of endothelial activation...
April 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430821/dietary-dha-epa-ratio-affected-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-antioxidant-capacity-hematological-characteristics-and-expression-of-lipid-related-genes-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii
#5
Min Jin, Óscar Monroig, You Lu, Ye Yuan, Yi Li, Liyun Ding, Douglas R Tocher, Qicun Zhou
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (DHA/EPA) on growth performance, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of some lipid metabolism related genes of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) of initial weight 9.47 ± 0.03 g. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (45% crude protein and 14% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded DHA/EPA ratios of 0.65, 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427779/fish-oil-lc-pufas-do-not-affect-blood-coagulation-parameters-and-bleeding-manifestations-analysis-of-8-clinical-studies-with-selected-patient-groups-on-omega-3-enriched-medical-nutrition
#6
Stephanie Jeansen, Renger F Witkamp, Jossie A Garthoff, Ardy van Helvoort, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. METHODS: This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT])...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424949/aggressive-crosstalk-between-fatty-acids-and-inflammation-in-macrophages-and-their-influence-on-metabolic-homeostasis
#7
Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Tadayoshi Takeuchi, Yasu-Taka Azuma
From the immunological point of view, macrophages are required to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Recently, there has been an increased focus on the influence of macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue on the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in healthy conditions because dysregulated metabolic homeostasis causes metabolic syndrome. This review notes several types of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators in metabolic homeostasis. M1 macrophage polarization mediates inflammation, whereas M2 macrophage polarization mediates anti-inflammation...
April 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424185/very-long-chain-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-supplements-and-adipose-tissue-functions-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Kazanna C Hames, Maria Morgan-Bathke, Debra A Harteneck, Lendia Zhou, John D Port, Ian R Lanza, Michael D Jensen
Background: Increased omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption is reported to benefit patients with metabolic syndrome, possibly due to improved adipose tissue function.Objective: We tested the effects of high-dose, very-long-chain ω-3 fatty acids on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin regulation of lipolysis.Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared 6 mo of 3.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/d (4.2 g total ω-3/d; n = 12) with a placebo (4.2 g oleate/d; n = 9) in insulin-resistant adults...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421438/analysis-of-fatty-acid-composition-revealed-differences-in-the-diets-of-tadpoles-of-two-amphibian-species
#9
Yu Yu Dgebuadze, N N Sushchik, I V Bashinskiy, O N Makhutova, G S Kalacheva, V V Osipov, M I Gladyshev
The study of the composition of fatty acid markers of tadpoles of cohabiting amphibian species for the first time revealed differences in their diets: the moor frog Rana arvalis prefers bacteria not associated with plant detritus, whereas the diet of the common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus is based on cyanobacteria, green algae, diatoms, and possibly higher plants. Major differences in the fatty acid composition are determined by the difference in the percentage of eicosapentaenoic and myristic acids.
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411052/selective-enrichment-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-20-5n-3-in-n-oceanica-casa-cc201-by-natural-auxin-supplementation
#10
Aswathy Udayan, Muthu Arumugam
The present study aims to evaluate the effect of different concentration of natural auxin, Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) on growth, lipid yield, PUFA and EPA accumulation in Nannochloropsis oceanica CASA CC201. It was observed that the, treatment with 10ppm concentration of IAA resulted in high cell number 579.5×10(6)cells/ml than the control (215.5×10(6)cells/ml). Treatment with IAA at a concentration of 40ppm gives the highest cellular lipid accumulation of 60.9% DCW than the control 31.05% DCW). Lipid yield is also found to be increased by the addition of 40ppm IAA (319...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410668/lipid-correlates-of-antidepressant-response-to-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-a-pilot-study
#11
Licinia Ganança, Hanga C Galfalvy, Maria A Oquendo, Adrienne Hezghia, Thomas B Cooper, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are seen in major depression. We examined effects of six weeks of fish oil supplementation on clinical characteristics in 16 patients with symptomatic major depressive disorder, and tested plasma phospholipid levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as correlates of clinical response. Depression symptoms improved after supplementation (p=0.007). The reduction in depression severity was not predicted by baseline PUFA levels but did exhibit a relationship with endpoint PUFAs, correlating negatively with DHA as a percentage of plasma phospholipids (DHA%; R(2)=0...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410627/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-perinatal-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Pao-Yen Lin, Cheng-Ho Chang, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Helen Chen, Kuan-Pin Su
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 (or n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are promising antidepressant treatments for perinatal depression (PND) because of supporting evidence from clinical trials, the advantage in safety, and their anti-inflammatory and neuroplastic effects. Although several observational studies have shown n-3 PUFA deficits in women with PND, the results of individual PUFAs from different studies were inconsistent. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to compare the levels of PUFA indices, including eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, total n-3, total n-6, and the n-6/n-3 ratio between women with PND and healthy control subjects...
March 9, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410617/treatment-with-high-dose-n-3-pufas-has-no-effect-on-platelet-function-coagulation-metabolic-status-or-inflammation-in-patients-with-atherosclerosis-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
Malgorzata Poreba, Magdalena Mostowik, Aleksander Siniarski, Renata Golebiowska-Wiatrak, Krzysztof Piotr Malinowski, Maciej Haberka, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler, Anetta Undas, Grzegorz Gajos
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous studies on cardioprotective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), there is limited evidence for n-3 PUFA-mediated effects, especially at its higher dose, on cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and established atherosclerosis. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of daily treatment with a higher dose (2 g) of n-3 PUFAs on platelet function, coagulation parameters, fibrin clot properties, markers of systemic inflammation and metabolic status, in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease and DM2 who receive optimal medical therapy...
April 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409336/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-differentially-alter-oxylipin-profiles-in-mouse-periuterine-adipose-tissue
#14
Yuriko Adkins, Benjamin J Belda, Theresa L Pedersen, Dawn M Fedor, Bruce E Mackey, John W Newman, Darshan S Kelley
Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting...
April 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403941/obesity-is-positively-associated-with-arachidonic-acid-derived-5-and-11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-hete
#15
Charles Austin Pickens, Lorraine M Sordillo, Chen Zhang, Jenifer I Fenton
BACKGROUND: Oxylipids are oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites that are responsible for the onset and resolution of the inflammatory response. Enzymatic oxygenation through the lipoxygenase (LOX) or cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways can form oxylipids that have either proinflammatory or proresolving functions depending on the type of PUFA substrate and degree of metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine how PUFA substrates and their corresponding oxylipids are associated with obesity...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403232/an-oil-containing-epa-and-dha-from-transgenic-camelina-sativa-to-replace-marine-fish-oil-in-feeds-for-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-effects-on-intestinal-transcriptome-histology-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-and-plasma-biochemistry
#16
Mónica B Betancor, Keshuai Li, Matthew Sprague, Tora Bardal, Olga Sayanova, Sarah Usher, Lihua Han, Kjell Måsøval, Ole Torrissen, Johnathan A Napier, Douglas R Tocher, Rolf Erik Olsen
New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35%) and fish oil (10%), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400162/mammalian-alox15-orthologs-exhibit-pronounced-dual-positional-specificity-with-docosahexaenoic-acid
#17
Laura Kutzner, Kateryna Goloshchapova, Dagmar Heydeck, Sabine Stehling, Hartmut Kuhn, Nils Helge Schebb
Mammalian lipoxygenases (LOX) have been implicated in cell differentiation and in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, hyperproliferative and neurological diseases. Although the reaction specificity of mammalian LOX with n-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid) has been explored in detail little information is currently available on the product patterns formed from n-3 polyenoic fatty acids, which are of particular nutritional importance and serve as substrate for the biosynthesis of pro-resolving inflammatory mediators such as resolvins and maresins...
April 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395666/hydroxytyrosol-prevents-reduction-in-liver-activity-of-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-6-desaturases-oxidative-stress-and-depletion-in-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-in-different-tissues-of-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#18
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Francisca Echeverria, Macarena Ortiz, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Alejandra Espinosa, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Paola Illesca, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues...
April 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394282/thermo-oxidative-stability-evaluation-of-bullfrog-rana-catesbeiana-shaw-oil
#19
Renata Rutckeviski, Francisco H Xavier-Júnior, Andreza R V Morais, Éverton N Alencar, Lucas Amaral-Machado, Julieta Genre, Amanda D Gondim, Eryvaldo S T Egito
Bullfrog oil (BO), a natural product obtained from recycling of adipose tissue from the amphibian Rana catesbeiana Shaw, has been recently evaluated as a therapeutic activity ingredient. This work aimed to evaluate the long-term and accelerated thermal oxidative stabilities of this product, which is a promising raw material for emulsion technology development. BO was extracted from amphibian adipose tissue at 70 °C with a yield of 60% ± 0.9%. Its main fatty acid compounds were oleic (30.0%) and eicosapentaenoic (17...
April 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392405/prostaglandin-synthases-molecular-characterization-and-involvement-in-prostaglandin-biosynthesis
#20
REVIEW
Min-Ju Seo, Deok-Kun Oh
Prostaglandins (PGs) belong to a subclass of eicosanoids and are classified based on the structures of the cyclopentane ring and their number of double bonds in their hydrocarbon structures. PGs are important lipid mediators that are involved in inflammatory response. The biosynthesis of diverse PGs from unsaturated C20 fatty acids containing at least three double bonds such as dihomo-γ-linoleic acid (20:3(Δ8Z,11Z,14Z)), arachidonic acid (20:4(Δ5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(Δ5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)) is enables by various PG synthases, including prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS), 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-HPGD), PGES, PGDS, PGFS, PGIS, and thromboxane A synthase (TXAS)...
April 6, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
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