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Eicosapentaenoic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027487/effect-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-on-pufa-levels-and-inflammation-in-an-animal-and-cell-model-of-hepatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#1
M Aslan, E Kıraç, Ö Yılmaz, B Ünal, E K Konuk, F Özcan, H Tuzcu
The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory response in an animal and cell model of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Rats were divided into control, tunicamycin (TM)-treated, and TM + tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)-treated groups. Hepatic ER stress was induced by TM and the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA was injected 30 min before induction of ER stress. Liver THLE-3 cells were treated with TM and TUDCA was administered in advance to decrease cytotoxic effects...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026429/markers-of-neuroprotection-of-combined-epa-and-dha-provided-by-fish-oil-are-higher-than-those-of-epa-nannochloropsis-and-dha-schizochytrium-from-microalgae-oils-in-wistar-rats
#2
Paula A Lopes, Narcisa M Bandarra, Susana V Martins, Joana Martinho, Cristina M Alfaia, Marta S Madeira, Carlos Cardoso, Cláudia Afonso, Maria C Paulo, Rui M A Pinto, José L Guil-Guerrero, José A M Prates
BACKGROUND: To overcome the current overexploitation of fish rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), microalgae have become a promising marine lipid source. The purpose of this study was to assess eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), isolated or combined from distinct marine origins, on the promotion of neuroprotective effects. METHODS: The experiment lasted for 10 weeks and involved 32 Wistar rats, divided into 4 diets (n = 8): a diet rich in milk fat was taken as control (Milk Fat) and compared to n-3 LCPUFA enriched diets, either in EPA + DHA form through fish oil (Fish Oil), or EPA through Nannochloropsis oil (Nanno), or DHA through Schizochytrium oil (Schyzo), while maintaining Milk Fat incorporation...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993963/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomised-trial-of-omega-3-supplementation-in-children-with-moderate-adhd-symptoms
#3
Catherine Cornu, Catherine Mercier, Tiphanie Ginhoux, Sandrine Masson, Julie Mouchet, Patrice Nony, Behrouz Kassai, Valérie Laudy, Patrick Berquin, Nathalie Franc, Marie-France Le Heuzey, Hugues Desombre, Olivier Revol
OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials and inconclusive meta-analyses have investigated the effects of omega-3 supplements in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We performed a randomised placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. METHODS: Children aged 6-15 years with established diagnosis of ADHD were randomised 1:1 to receive either supplements containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or a placebo for 3 months...
October 5, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992312/long-chain-fatty-acids-inhibit-human-members-of-the-aldo-keto-reductase-1c-subfamily
#4
Akira Hara, Satoshi Endo, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Midori Soda, Koji Yashiro, Ossama El-Kabbani
Four human hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, AKR1C1-AKR1C4, are involved in the metabolism of steroids and other carbonyl compounds including drugs, and altered expression of AKRs (1C1, 1C2 and/or 1C3) is related to the pathogenesis of several extrahepatic cancers. Here, we report that unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) are potent competitive inhibitors of the AKR enzymes. The sensitivities to the FAs were different among the enzymes, especially between AKR1C1 and AKR1C2...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992034/the-effect-of-energy-restriction-on-fatty-acid-profiles-of-longissimus-dorsi-and-tissue-adipose-depots-in-sheep
#5
S Z Song, J P Wu, S G Zhao, D P Casper, B He, T Liu, X Lang, X Y Gong, L S Liu
Sheep production systems in northwest China depend mostly on natural grasslands. Seasonal growth and maturity fluctuations can cause periodical restrictions in food quality and quantity. These fluctuations, in turn, result in variability in fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in different fat depots. Consequently, the study objective was to compare fat deposition, intramuscular fat (IMF) percentage and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus dorsi (LD), kidney fat (KF), tail fat (TF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) in lambs under ME restrictions similar to seasonal changes observed in the natural grasslands of northwest China...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989862/bioprospecting-north-atlantic-microalgae-with-fast-growth-and-high-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-pufa-content-for-microalgae-based-technologies
#6
Pia Steinrücken, Svein Rune Erga, Svein Are Mjøs, Hans Kleivdal, Siv Kristin Prestegard
Microalgae are considered to be an important and sustainable alternative to fish oil as a source for the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Due to their health benefits, there is an increasing interest in the commercial application of these fatty acids (FA) to health and dietary products, and to aquaculture feeds. However, FA from microalgae are still expensive to produce compared to fish or plant oils. With only a few microalgal strains being cultivated on a large scale for commercial PUFA production, prospecting for new, robust and fast-growing strains with increased PUFA content is essential in order to reduce production costs...
September 2017: Algal research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987720/long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-are-not-associated-with-circulating-t-helper-type-1-cells-results-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#7
Naoko Sagawa, Nels C Olson, Vasudha Ahuja, Abhishek Vishnu, Margaret F Doyle, Bruce M Psaty, Nancy Swords Jenny, David S Siscovick, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Lyn M Steffen, Michael Y Tsai, Akira Sekikawa
T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells are pro-inflammatory and provide signals to immune cells. Animal models and in vitro human cell culture experiments have indicated that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs) reduce Th1 cell levels; however, the association is unknown in healthy humans. We hypothesized that circulating levels and dietary intake of LCn3PUFAs have an inverse association with circulating levels of Th1 cells and studied 895 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (age 61 ± 10 years at exam 1, 52% women, 44% white, 21% African-American, 24% Hispanic-American, 11% Chinese-American)...
October 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987719/supplementation-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-in-a-ratio-of-1-1-3-during-the-last-trimester-of-pregnancy-results-in-epa-accumulation-in-cord-blood
#8
Nihal Büyükuslu, Sema Ovalı, Şükriye Leyla Altuntaş, Saime Batırel, Pakize Yiğit, Muazzez Garipağaoğlu
Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA), specifically DHA, are associated with fetal growth and development. We aimed to determine the levels of DHA and EPA in cord serum after n-3 FA supplementation during the last trimester of pregnancy. Among 55 women, 23 were administered daily one capsule of n-3 FA supplement, involving DHA/EPA in a ratio of 1/1.3. Twenty nine women were enrolled as control group. Blood samples were collected at 22-24 weeks of gestation and at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed with the method of GC-MS...
October 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987470/potential-therapeutic-impact-of-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-inflammation-markers-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-double-blind-controlled-randomized-trial
#9
Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz, Oriana Del Rocío Cruz-Guzmán, Tomás Almeida-Becerril, Alan Donovan Solís-Serna, Salvador Atilano-Miguel, Juan Raúl Sánchez-González, Lourdes Barbosa-Cortés, Eugenia Dolores Ruíz-Cruz, Juan Carlos Huicochea, Alan Cárdenas-Conejo, Rosa Elena Escobar-Cedillo, Carlos Alberto Yam-Ontiveros, Edgar F Ricárdez-Marcial
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent dystrophy in childhood generated by a deficiency in dystrophin. DMD is a neuromuscular disease and its clinical course comprises chronic inflammation and gradual muscle weakness. Supplementation of omega-3 long chain-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3 long chain-PUFA) reduces inflammatory markers in various disorders. The goal of this research was to analyze the influence of ω-3 long chain-PUFA intake on gene expression and blood inflammatory markers in boys with DMD...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987035/the-psychoneuroimmunological-role-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#10
Ian Hunter Rutkofsky, Anser Saeed Khan, Sindhu Sahito, Vikram Kumar
Context • Psychoneuroimmunology is the interdisciplinary study that links behavioral health with the neuroendocrinal system and investigates that link's bidirectional impact on the human immune system. Mechanistic studies have shown how omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like those found in fish oil, can modulate key pathways involved in inflammation, sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factors, and inflammatory cytokine production. Objective • The research team intended to investigate the effects that PUFAs have on the brain and the immune system, including the effects of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, and their therapeutic benefits in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, either as an alternative monotherapy or a complementary adjunct treatment...
July 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975480/mechanism-of-phospholipid-hydrolysis-for-oyster-crassostrea-plicatula-phospholipids-during-storage-using-shotgun-lipidomics
#11
Qinsheng Chen, Xincen Wang, Peixu Cong, Yanjun Liu, Yuming Wang, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue
A fast and efficient shotgun lipidomics strategy was applied to analyze phospholipids (PL) in the oyster Crassostrea plicatula, including 29 species of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), 23 species of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), 11 species of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), 6 species of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), and 17 species of lysophospholipids (Lyso-PL). During storage at 4 °C for 7 days, the PL content decreased by 68.08%, but a significant increase in the FFA content was observed (from 63.11 to 318...
October 3, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974128/can-pleiotropic-effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-impact-residual-cardiovascular-risk
#12
John R Nelson, Wayne S True, Viet Le, R Preston Mason
Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk persists even in statin-treated patients with optimized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Other pathways beyond cholesterol contribute to CV risk and the key to reducing residual risk may be addressing non-cholesterol risk factors through pleiotropic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature relating to the potential role of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in reducing residual CV risk. The literature shows that EPA can robustly lower plasma triglyceride (TG) levels without raising LDL-C levels and documents EPA to have a broad range of beneficial effects on the atherosclerotic pathway, including those on lipids, lipoproteins, inflammation, oxidation, phospholipid membranes, and the atherosclerotic plaque itself...
October 9, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966307/low-serum-levels-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-are-risk-factors-for-cardiogenic-syncope-in-patients-with-brugada-syndrome
#13
Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Ken-Ichi Aihara, Daiju Fukuda, Takayuki Ise, Muneyuki Kadota, Sachiko Bando, Tomomi Matsuura, Takeshi Tobiume, Koji Yamaguchi, Kenya Kusunose, Hirotsugu Yamada, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masashi Akaike, Masataka Sata
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have antiarrhythmic effects, possibly via modulation of the cardiac ion channels. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether low serum levels of n-3 PUFAs are risk factors for ventricular fibrillation in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). We retrospectively reviewed data from 62 men with BrS and evaluated their serum levels of EPA and DHA, and the risk factors for sudden cardiac death, including a history of cardiogenic syncope...
September 30, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965211/fatty-acid-composition-and-contents-of-seven-commercial-fish-species-of-genus-coregonus-from-russian-subarctic-water-bodies
#14
Michail I Gladyshev, Nadezhda N Sushchik, Olesia N Makhutova, Larisa A Glushchenko, Anastasia E Rudchenko, Alexander A Makhrov, Elena A Borovikova, Yury Y Dgebuadze
In several Russian northern lakes and rivers, Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis, least cisco C. sardinella, peled C. peled, tugun C. tugun, broad whitefish C. nasus, whitefish C. lavaretus and vendace C. albula were sampled in periods of officially permitted commercial fishery. Special attention was paid to contents (mg g(-1) of wet weight) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in muscle tissues (filets), which are essential for human nutrition. The highest values of EPA + DHA content in semi-anadromous fish and freshwater fish were recorded for C...
September 30, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964873/marine-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#15
REVIEW
Trevor A Mori
Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA)...
September 28, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962884/lipid-accumulation-oxidative-stress-and-immune-related-molecules-affected-by-tributyltin-exposure-in-muscle-tissues-of-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#16
Jiliang Zhang, Chunnuan Zhang, Dongdong Ma, Min Liu, Shuntao Huang
Tributyltin (TBT) is reported to induce adipogenesis in fish, which might affect nutritional qualities and health status. Muscle tissues account for the majority of body mass, and have been described as a major site of fat deposition and an immunologically active organ. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate whether chronic exposures of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ng/L, affects lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune status in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)...
September 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962160/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-pitavastatin-on-electrophysiology-and-anticoagulant-gene-expression-in-mice-with-rapid-atrial-pacing
#17
Maoqing Tong, Jiewen Wang, Yunxin Ji, Xiaomin Chen, Jieru Wang, Shuangshuang Wang, Liemin Ruan, Hanbin Cui, Ying Zhou, Qingyu Zhang, Eiichi Watanabe
Atrial remodeling is considered to be any persistent change in atrial structure or function, and is responsible for the development and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Oxidative stress and intracellular pH regulation may also be linked to AF; however it remains unclear whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or statins have beneficial therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of EPA and pitavastatin on the electrophysiology of and gene expressions in mice with rapidly-paced atria...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958564/characterization-of-lipids-in-three-species-of-sea-urchin
#18
Xin Zhou, Da-Yong Zhou, Ting Lu, Zhong-Yuan Liu, Qi Zhao, Yu-Xin Liu, Xiao-Pei Hu, Jiang-Hua Zhang, Fereidoon Shahidi
Sea urchin gonad has been regarded as a "healthy" food. Although previous studies have suggested that sea urchin gonad might serve as a potential rich source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) enriched phospholipid (PL), the molecular species profile of its PL has rarely been reported. In this study, about 200 molecular species of glycerophospholipid (GP), including glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, glycerophosphoserine, glycerophosphoinositol, lysoglycerophosphocholine and lysoglycerophosphoethanolamine, in gonads from three species of sea urchin (Glyptocidaris crenularis, Strongylocentrotus intermedius and Strongylocentrotus nudus) were characterized using tandem mass spectrometry...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956662/leptin-alone-and-in-combination-with-interleukin-1-beta-induced-cartilage-degradation-potentially-inhibited-by-epa-and-dha
#19
Thanyaluck Phitak, Kanchanit Boonmaleerat, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Dumnoensun Pruksakorn, Prachya Kongtawelert
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. Obesity has been believed to be an important risk factor for OA development and the progression of not only load-bearing joints, but low-load-bearing joints as well. Increased leptin has been the focus of a link between obesity and OA. In this study, the effects of pathological (100ng/ml) or supra-pathological (10μg/ml) concentrations of leptin alone or in combination with IL1β on cartilage metabolisms were studied in porcine cartilage explant. The involved mechanisms were examined in human articular chondrocytes (HACs)...
September 28, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956299/total-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acid-intake-and-food-sources-in-the-united-states-compared-to-recommended-intakes-nhanes-2003-2008
#20
Chesney K Richter, Kate J Bowen, Dariush Mozaffarian, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Ann C Skulas-Ray
The American Heart Association recommends consuming fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week, which would provide ≈ 0.5 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Previous analyses indicate that this recommendation is not being met; however, few studies have assessed different ethnicities, subpopulations requiring additional n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., children and pregnant and/or lactating women), or deciles of intake...
September 27, 2017: Lipids
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