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Juan Román, Antonio Castillo, Luis Cottet, Andrea Mahn
Myrosinase is a glycosylated enzyme present in the Brassicaceae family that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin to yield sulforaphane, recognized as a health-promoting compound found in cruciferous foods. Broccoli myrosinase has been poorly characterized. In this work, the enzyme was purified from broccoli florets and its kinetic behaviour was analyzed. The cDNA of broccoli myrosinase was isolated and sequenced to obtain the amino acids sequence of the enzyme. A three-dimensional structural model of a broccoli myrosinase subunit was built and used to perform molecular docking simulations with glucoraphanin and other glucosinolates...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Teresa Oliviero, Simone Lamers, Edoardo Capuano, Matthijs Dekker, Ruud Verkerk
SCOPE: Optimization of bioavailability of dietary bioactive health-beneficial compounds is as important as increasing their concentration in foods. The aim of this study was to explore the change in bioavailability of isothiocyanates in broccoli sprouts incorporated in protein, fibre and lipid gels. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five participants took part in a cross-over study and collected timed urine samples before up to 24-hours after consumption of proteins, dietary fibres and lipids gels containing broccoli spouts powder...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Hanna Bessler, Meir Djaldetti
The favourable properties of broccoli on human health are due to their abundant content of vitamins, minerals and isothiocyanates, the sulforaphane (SFN) being the most important. SFN is created from its precursor glucoraphanin and it is released by myrosinase enzymes produced during crushing of the plant. SFN has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The aim of the study was to determine if SFN may affect the immune dialogue between human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and HT-29 and RKO human colon cancer cells lines...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Sun Young Kim, Jai-Eok Park, Eun Ok Kim, Sue Ji Lim, Eui Jeong Nam, Ji Ho Yun, GyHye Yoo, Sang-Rok Oh, Hyoung Seok Kim, Chu Won Nho
A plant factory is a closed cultivation system that provides a consistent and modified environment for plant growth. We speculated that treatment of kale (Brassica oleracea) grown in a plant factory with NaCl, Na2 SeO3 , or both would increase the bioactive phytochemical levels including glucosinolates (GLSs) and isothiocyanates (ITCs), the key molecules in cancer prevention. The kale was harvested and analysed after treatment with NaCl and Na2 SeO3 alone or in combination for 1 or 2 weeks. Exposure to NaCl alone but not Na2 SeO3 increased plant root growth...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
E D Mohammed, R N El-Naga, R A Lotfy, A A Al-Gendy, E El-Demerdash
The present study is the first one to investigate the glucosinolates (GLS) profile and anti-fibrotic effect of isothiocyanates (ITCs) rich fraction of Matthiola arabica (Brassicaceae) using an experimental model of liver fibrosis in rats. Five GLS (ethyl glucosinolate, gluconapin, glucodehydroerucin, glucoerucin and glucoraphanin) were identified by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (GLC-MS) analysis of their hydrolysis products, produced by the natural autolysis and exogenous myrosinase hydrolysis using one and two units of the enzyme...
October 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Akiko Matsuura, Tamaki Ishima, Yuko Fujita, Yoshimi Iwayama, Shunsuke Hasegawa, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Motoko Maekawa, Manabu Toyoshima, Yusuke Ushida, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Satoshi Kida, Takeo Yoshikawa, Masaomi Iyo, Kenji Hashimoto
Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in adult offspring, although the molecular mechanisms underlying MIA-induced behavioral changes remain unclear. Here we demonstrated that dietary intake of glucoraphanin (GF), the precursor of a natural antioxidant sulforaphane, during juvenile and adolescent stages prevented cognitive deficits and loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult offspring after MIA. Gene set enrichment analysis by RNA sequencing showed that MIA caused abnormal expression of centrosome-related genes in the PFC and hippocampus of adult offspring, and that dietary intake of GF improved these abnormal gene expressions...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tânia Martins, Bruno Colaço, Carlos Venâncio, Maria J Pires, Paula A Oliveira, Eduardo Rosa, Luís M Antunes
Obesity is linked to the onset of many diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, among others. The prevalence of obesity nearly doubled worldwide between 1980 and 2014. Simultaneously, in the last decade, the effects of sulforaphane as a potential treatment for obesity has been investigated, demonstrating promising results. Fruits and vegetables and their processed agri-food co-products are good sources of natural promoting health compounds. Brassica crops are among the most produced crops in the world and are a good source of glucoraphanin, which following hydrolysis releases sulforaphane...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Minty Thomas, Ashraf Badr, Yves Desjardins, Andre Gosselin, Paul Angers
The agrifood industry produces tons of waste and substandard products that are discarded at great expense. Valorization of industrial residues curbs issues related to food security and environmental problems. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is associated with varied beneficial health effects, but its production yields greater than 25% rejects. We aimed to characterize and quantify industrial broccoli by-products for their glucosinolate and polyphenol contents as a first step towards industrial bio-refining...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Jed W Fahey, Rumen V Kostov, Thomas W Kensler
Background: Since the re-discovery of sulforaphane in 1992 and the recognition of the bioactivity of this phytochemical, many studies have examined its mode of action in cells, animals and humans. Broccoli, especially as young sprouts, is a rich source of sulforaphane and broccoli-based preparations are now used in clinical studies probing efficacy in health preservation and disease mitigation. Many putative cellular targets are affected by sulforaphane although only one, KEAP1-NRF2 signaling, can be considered a validated target at this time...
November 2017: Trends in Food Science & Technology
Verena Jeschke, Emily E Kearney, Katharina Schramm, Grit Kunert, Anton Shekhov, Jonathan Gershenzon, Daniel G Vassão
Multiple lepidopteran larvae feed successfully on plants containing glucosinolates despite the diverse array of toxic and deterrent breakdown products, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), formed upon plant damage. While much is known about how specialist lepidopterans metabolize and tolerate glucosinolates, there is little information about the metabolic fate of these plant defense compounds in specialized herbivores. Employing13 C- and14 C-labeled 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), we identified and quantified the major detoxification products of glucosinolates and ITCs in selected specialized and generalist larvae...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Han Yang, Feixia Liu, Yin Li, Bo Yu
Epidemiological data confirmed a strong correlation between regular consumption of cruciferous vegetables and lower cancer risk. This cancer preventive property is mainly attributed to the glucosinolate products, such as glucoraphanin found in broccoli that is derived from methionine. Here we report the first successful reconstruction of the complete biosynthetic pathway of glucoraphanin from methionine in Escherichia coli via gene selection, pathway design, and protein engineering. We used branched-chain amino transferase 3 to catalyze two transamination steps to ensure the purity of precursor molecules and used cysteine as a sulfur donor to simplify the synthesis pathway...
January 19, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez, Vimal Nair, Jorge Benavides, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, Daniel A Jacobo-Velázquez
Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting phytochemicals that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV) or phytohormones. The separate and combined effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), UVA, or UVB lights on glucosinolate, phenolic, carotenoid, and chlorophyll profiles were assessed in broccoli sprouts. Seven-day-old broccoli sprouts were exposed to UVA (9.47 W/m²) or UVB (7.16 W/m²) radiation for 120 min alone or in combination with a 25 µM MJ solution, also applied to sprouts without UV supplementation...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paweł Paśko, Mirosław Krośniak, Ewelina Prochownik, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Maria Fołta, Renata Francik, Jakub Sikora, Mateusz Malinowski, Paweł Zagrodzki
Broccoli sprouts may exert a negative influence on thyroid function as they are a rich source of glucosinolates, in particular glucoraphanin. Under the study in a long-term experiment broccoli sprouts were tested as an element of rats diet, combined with deficient iodine, or sulfadimethoxine ingestion - two models of hypothyroidism. Evaluations were performed for serum TSH and thyroid hormones completed with analyzes of selected haematological, biochemical and immunological (IL-6, IL-10) parameters, as well as cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin reductase (TR) in the thyroid, and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX3)...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lucia Giorgetti, Gianluca Giorgi, Edoardo Cherubini, Pier Giovanni Gervasi, Clara Maria Della Croce, Vincenzo Longo, Lorenza Bellani
We report the spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols, flavonoids, glucosinolates and antioxidant activity in seeds, seedlings and leaves of Tuscan black kale. The highest content of phytochemicals was observed in 10 days sprouts and antioxidant activity was maximum in 2, 4 days seedlings. Identification and characterisation of phytochemicals were performed by mass spectrometry (MS), high resolution and tandem MS with electrospray ionisation mode. Low-molecular-weight metabolites were evidenced in seeds while metabolites at high m/z range were detected in cotyledons and leaves...
October 23, 2017: Natural Product Research
Luke Bell, Carol Wagstaff
Glucosinolates (GSLs) and isothiocyanates (ITCs) produced by Brassicaceae plants are popular targets for analysis due to the health benefits associated with them. Breeders aim to increase the concentrations in commercial varieties; however, there are few examples of this. The most well-known is Beneforté broccoli, which has increased glucoraphanin/sulforaphane concentrations compared to those of conventional varieties. It was developed through traditional breeding methods with considerations for processing, consumption, and health made throughout this process...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Young-Sang Lee, Kang-Mo Ku, Talon M Becker, John A Juvik
Floret, leaf, and root tissues were harvested from broccoli and collard cultivars and extracted to determine their glucosinolate and hydrolysis product profiles using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromotography. Quinone reductase inducing bioactivity, an estimate of anti-cancer chemopreventive potential, of the extracts was measured using a hepa1c1c7 murine cell line. Extracts from root tissues were significantly different from other tissues and contained high levels of gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin...
2017: PloS One
Noelia Castillejo, Ginés Benito Martínez Hernández, Antonio José Lozano Guerrero, Juan Luis Pedreño Molina, Perla A Gómez, Encarna Aguayo, Francisco Artés, Francisco Artés Hernández
BACKGROUND: The heating of a green smoothie during an innovative semi-continuous microwave treatment (MW; 9 kW for 15 s) was modelled. Thermal and dielectric properties of the samples were previously determined. Furthermore, the heating effect on the main chemopreventive compounds of the smoothie and during its subsequent storage up to 30 days at 5 or 15 °C were studied. Such results were compared to conventional pasteurization (CP; 90 °C for 45 s) while unheated fresh blended samples were used as control (CTRL)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hongying Cui, Litao Guo, Shaoli Wang, Wen Xie, Xiaoguo Jiao, Qingjun Wu, Youjun Zhang
The performance of herbivorous insects is greatly affected by host chemical defenses and nutritional quality. Some herbivores have developed the ability to manipulate plant defenses via signaling pathways. It is currently unclear, however, whether a herbivore can benefit by simultaneously reducing plant defenses and enhancing plant nutritional quality. Here, we show that the better performance of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1; formerly the "B" biotype) than Mediterranean (MED; formerly the "Q" biotype) on cabbage is associated with a suppression of glucosinolate (GS) content and an increase in amino acid supply in MEAM1-infested cabbage compared with MED-infested cabbage...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Mohammad Rashed Hossain, Jong-In Park, Hye R Kim, Ill-Sup Nou
Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L., is a devastating pest of cabbage worldwide whose feeding attributes are influenced by glucosinolate profiles of the plant. Identifying the specific glucosinolates associated with plants' resistance mechanism can provide cues to novel points of intervention in developing resistant cultivars. We studied the DBM larval feeding preference and extent of damage on cabbage leaves via controlled glass-house and in vitro multiple- and two-choice feeding tests. These feeding attributes were associated with the individual glucosinolate profiles, analyzed by HPLC, of each of the eight cabbage genotypes using multivariate analytical approach to identify the glucosinolates that may have roles in resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alessandra Ferramosca, Mariangela Di Giacomo, Vincenzo Zara
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinicopathological condition, encompassing a range of conditions caused by lipid deposition within liver cells. To date, no approved drugs are available for the treatment of NAFLD, despite the fact that it represents a serious and growing clinical problem in the Western world. Identification of the molecular mechanisms leading to NAFLD-related fat accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative balance impairment facilitates the development of specific interventions aimed at preventing the progression of hepatic steatosis...
June 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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