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Marco Piola, Matthijs Ruiter, Riccardo Vismara, Valeria Mastrullo, Marco Agrifoglio, Marco Zanobini, Maurizio Pesce, Monica Soncini, Gianfranco Beniamino Fiore
After coronary artery bypass grafting, structural modifications of the saphenous vein wall lead to lumen narrowing in response to the altered hemodynamic conditions. Here we present the design of a novel ex vivo culture system conceived for mimicking central coronary artery hemodynamics, and we report the results of biomechanical stimulation experiments using human saphenous vein samples. The novel pulsatile system used an aortic-like pressure for forcing a time-dependent coronary-like resistance to obtain the corresponding coronary-like flow rate...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Tonghua Wu, Biao Yin, Yuanchang Zhu, Guangui Li, Lijun Ye, Chunmei Chen, Yong Zeng, Desheng Liang
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion (SA) is the most common complication of pregnancy, and chromosome aberrations are the principal cause of the first trimester abortuses in natural conception (NC) The increasing use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has raised concern about chromosome abnormalities in ART-initiated pregnancies. Up to date, the literature on the risk of aneuploidy in failed pregnancies among various ART factors remain limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to explore the genetic etiology of pregnancy loss conceived from varying ART procedures...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
J E LeDoux, J Moscarello, R Sears, V Campese
Research on avoidance conditioning began in the late 1930s as a way to use laboratory experiments to better understand uncontrollable fear and anxiety. Avoidance was initially conceived of as a two-factor learning process in which fear is first acquired through Pavlovian aversive conditioning (so-called fear conditioning), and then behaviors that reduce the fear aroused by the Pavlovian conditioned stimulus are reinforced through instrumental conditioning. Over the years, criticisms of both the avoidance paradigm and the two-factor fear theory arose...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Jason R Kovac, Ryan P Smith, Miguel Cajipe, Dolores J Lamb, Larry I Lipshultz
In couples with infertility, abnormal strict morphology of 0% normal forms (NF) is a criterion to proceed rapidly to in vitro fertilization (IVF). Since no data currently exist, we investigated the outcomes for men with 0% NF to determine reproductive success without the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A cohort of 24 men with 0% NF were identified (2010-2013) with 27 randomly selected men with ≥4% NF as controls. Patient charts were reviewed with men contacted and administered an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved telephone questionnaire to ascertain outcomes...
September 30, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Chenchit Chayachinda, Thanapa Rekhawasin
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the predictors of the adverse reproductive outcomes in patients who had been hospitalised with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The retrospective cohort study was conducted by contacting all the patients admitted with PID or tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) during January 2004 and December 2011. Those who were sexually active and aged 14-40 years were included. The exclusion criteria were no intention to conceive or undergoing hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral complete or partial salpingectomy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Adriana Borriello, Ilaria Caldarelli, Debora Bencivenga, Emanuela Stampone, Silverio Perrotta, Adriana Oliva, Fulvio Della Ragione
The hope of selectively targeting cancer cells by therapy and eradicating definitively malignancies is based on the identification of pathways or metabolisms that clearly distinguish "normal" from "transformed" phenotypes. Some tyrosine kinase activities, specifically unregulated and potently activated in malignant cells, might represent important targets of therapy. Consequently, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) might be thought as the "vanguard" of molecularly targeted therapy for human neoplasias. Imatinib and the successive generations of inhibitors of Bcr-Abl1 kinase, represent the major successful examples of TKI use in cancer treatment...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Clare Barnett, Christine Hagemann, Jürgen Dinger, Thai Do Minh, Klaas Heinemann
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the real-use contraceptive effectiveness of the combined oral contraceptive containing dienogest and estradiol valerate (DNG/EV) and whether DNG/EV compared to other combined oral contraceptives (oCOC) has a negative effect on return to fertility. METHODS: Transatlantic, prospective, non-interventional cohort study conducted in the USA and seven European countries with two main exposure groups and one exposure subgroup: new users of DNG/EV and other COC (oCOC), particularly levonorgestrel-containing COCs (LNG)...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Chung-Jung Chiu, Min-Lee Chang, Allen Taylor
It is conceived that specific combinations of periodontal bacteria are associated with risk for the various forms of periodontitis. We hypothesized that such specificity is also related to human cause-specific death rates. We tested this hypothesis in a representative sample of the US population followed for a mean duration of 11 years and found that two specific patterns of 21 serum antibodies against periodontal bacteria were significantly associated with increased all-cause and/or diabetes-related mortalities...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Alexis Ogdie, William J Taylor, Tuhina Neogi, Jaap Fransen, Tim L Jansen, H Ralph Schumacher, Worawit Louthrenoo, Janitzia Vazquez-Mellado, Maxim Eliseev, Geraldine McCarthy, Lisa K Stamp, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Francisca Sivera, Hang-Korng Ea, Martijn Gerritsen, Giovanni Cagnotto, Lorenzo Cavagna, Chingtsai Lin, Yin-Yi Chou, Anne-Kathrin Tausche, Manuella Lima Gomes Ochtrop, Matthijs Janssen, Jiunn-Horng Chen, Ole Slot, Juris Lazovskis, Douglas White, Marco A Cimmino, Till Uhlig, Nicola Dalbeth
OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of ultrasound for the diagnosis of gout using presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multi-center observational cross-sectional study of consecutive subjects with at least one swollen joint who conceivably may have gout. All subjects underwent arthrocentesis; cases were subjects with MSU crystal confirmation...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
M J Davies, A R Rumbold, J L Marino, K Willson, L C Giles, M J Whitrow, W Scheil, L J Moran, J G Thompson, M Lane, V M Moore
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of maternal factors to major birth defects after in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and natural conception. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in South Australia for the period January 1986 to December 2002. SETTING: A whole of population study. POPULATION: A census of all IVF and ICSI linked to registries for births, pregnancy terminations, and birth defects (diagnosed before a child's fifth birthday)...
October 17, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Liat Lerner-Geva, Valentina Boyko, Shelley Ehrlich, Shlomo Mashiach, Ariel Hourvitz, Jigal Haas, Ehud Margalioth, David Levran, Ilan Calderon, Raoul Orvieto, Adrian Ellenbogen, Joseph Meyerovitch, Raphael Ron-El, Adel Farhi
BACKGROUND: Among children conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART), increased risk of adverse birth outcomes has been observed, including multiple births, preterm births, and congenital malformations. Regarding cancer among ART-conceived children, findings are discrepant. METHODS: This is a historical cohort of 9,042 ART-conceived children and 211,763 spontaneously conceived (SC) children born from 1997 through 2004. The median duration of follow-up was 10...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Jeniffer V Quijada, Nicholas Daniel Schmitt, Joseph P Salisbury, Jared R Auclair, Jeffrey Neil Agar
Stable isotope labeling techniques for quantitative top-down proteomics face unique challenges. These include unpre-dictable mass shifts following isotope labeling, which impedes analysis of unknown proteins and complex mixtures; and exponen-tially greater susceptibility to incomplete isotope incorporation, manifesting as broadening of labeled intact protein peaks. Like pop-ular bottom-up isotope labeling techniques, most top-down labeling methods are restricted to defined media/feed as well as amino acid auxotrophic organisms...
October 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
K N Anderson, J J Connor, A F Koerner, M A Rueter
STUDY QUESTION: Compared to families with IVF singletons, what are parental depressive, parent-adolescent interaction and adolescent adjustment outcomes in families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins? SUMMARY ANSWER: No differences were detected for any measured outcome between families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins and those with IVF singletons, despite high statistical power. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: When IVF twins are younger than 5-years-old, parents tend to have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child interactions relative to IVF singletons...
October 15, 2016: Human Reproduction
Blazej Palat, Françoise Paran, Patricia Delhomme
Based on an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Ajzen, 1985, 1991), we conducted surveys in order to explain and predict violations at a railroad crossing, among pedestrians (n=153) and car drivers (n=151). Measures were made with respect to three chronologically related railroad crossing situations that varied in risk level. The situations were described in scenarios and depicted on photographs. The participants were recruited in the suburbs of Paris, at two automated railroad crossings with four half-barriers...
October 13, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Lucilla Poston, Rishi Caleyachetty, Sven Cnattingius, Camila Corvalán, Ricardo Uauy, Sharron Herring, Matthew W Gillman
Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
C L Roberts, C S Algert, J B Ford, T A Nippita, J M Morris
STUDY QUESTION: After an initial midtrimester loss, is the interval to the next conception associated with the risk of a recurrent loss? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who had a pregnancy loss at 14-19 weeks gestation, conception at least 3 months after this initial loss was associated with a reduced risk of a recurrent loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been thought to increase risk but recent studies of pregnancy after a loss have found no effect; however, these studies have been based almost entirely on an initial first trimester (<14 weeks) loss...
October 14, 2016: Human Reproduction
Figen Sisman Nayal, Aydin Mammadov, Nilgun Ciliz
While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Houlin Tang, Zunyou Wu, Yurong Mao, Javier Cepeda, Jamie Morano
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and condom use have been proven to reduce the risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among HIV sero-different couples, but its full implementation remains a challenge. This study aims to assess HIV seroconversion rate of HIV-negative spouse and its associated risk factors among HIV sero-different couples in rural China. METHODS: An open cohort of HIV sero-different couples enrolled in 30 counties in China between October 1, 2010, and September 30, 2012, and followed-up to December 31, 2012, was constructed retrospectively...
2016: PloS One
Monica Adhiambo Onyango, Gillian Burkhardt, Jennifer Scott, Shada Rouhani, Sadia Haider, Ashley Greiner, Katherine Albutt, Colleen Mullen, Michael VanRooyen, Susan Bartels
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has experienced nearly two decades of civil conflict in the Eastern regions of North and South Kivu. This conflict has been notorious for the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war, leading in many cases to pregnancy after rape. The objectives of this analysis were: 1) to describe patterns of sexual violence-related pregnancy (SVRP) disclosure; 2) to consider why survivors chose to disclose to particular individuals; and 3) to examine the dialogue around SVRPs between women with SVRPs and their confidants...
2016: PloS One
Teresa N Sparks, Mary E Norton, Monica Flessel, Sara Goldman, Robert J Currier
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the observed incidence of Down syndrome in twins compared with that expected based on maternal age-matched singletons, which is the current clinical approach. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of California Prenatal Screening Program participants with expected delivery dates between July 1995 and December 2012. Cases confirmed prenatally or postnatally with a genetic imbalance leading to phenotypic Down syndrome (trisomy 21, mosaic trisomy 21, or translocations) were included...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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