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Vancomycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453429/anti-microbial-coating-innovations-to-prevent-infectious-diseases-amici-cost-action-ca15114
#1
Colum P Dunne, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola, Anne Kahru, Birgit Teunissen, Hulya Olmez, Isabel Gouveia, Luis Melo, Kazimierz Murzyn, Martina Modic, Merja Ahonen, Pete Askew, Theofilos Papadopoulos, Christian Adlhart, Francy R L Crijns
Worldwide, millions of patients are affected annually by healthcare-associated infection (HCAI), impacting up to 80,000 patients in European Hospitals on any given day. This represents not only public health risk, but also an economic burden. Complementing routine hand hygiene practices, cleaning and disinfection, antimicrobial coatings hold promise based, in essence, on the application of materials and chemicals with persistent bactericidal or -static properties onto surfaces or in textiles used in healthcare environments...
April 28, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453386/collateral-damage-during-antibiotic-treatment-of-c-difficile-infection-in-the-aged-host-insights-into-why-recurrent-disease-happens
#2
Jae Hyun Shin, Cirle A Warren
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections but an even bigger problem for the aging population. Advanced age leads to higher incidence, higher mortality, and higher recurrences. In our study, recently published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, we investigated the effect of aging on CDI using a mouse model. We were able to demonstrate that aging leads to worse clinical outcomes, as well as lead to changes in microbiota composition and lower antibody production against C...
April 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447299/vancomycin-loaded-hpmc-microparticles-embedded-within-injectable-thermosensitive-chitosan-hydrogels
#3
M Mahmoudian, F Ganji
Antibiotic use is an essential method for the treatment of bacterial infections. In certain cases, antibiotics are not effective because of the distribution problems caused by physiological barriers in the body. Such problems are thought to be minimized by development of sustained release systems which involve implantation of antibiotic loaded polymeric systems directly to the site of infection. In this work, a new composite vancomycin hydrochloride release system based on HPMC microparticles and chitosan/glycerophosphate (Ch/Gp) thermosensitive hydrogel was designed for the aim of local treatment of osteomyelitis...
April 26, 2017: Progress in biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444760/vancomycin-levels-are-frequently-subtherapeutic-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
V Bakke, H Sporsem, E Von der Lippe, I Nordøy, Y Lao, H C Nyrerød, L Sandvik, K R Hårvig, J F Bugge, E Helset
BACKGROUND: Appropriate utilization of vancomycin is important to attain therapeutic targets while avoiding clinical failure and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Our aim was to observe the use of vancomycin in an intensive care population, with the main focus on achievement of therapeutic serum concentrations (15-20 mg/l) and to evaluate how this was influenced by dose regimens, use of guidelines and therapeutic drug monitoring. METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out in the intensive care units at two tertiary hospitals in Norway...
April 25, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442909/tat-functionalized-liposomes-for-the-treatment-of-meningitis-an-in-vitro-study
#5
Caterina Bartomeu Garcia, Di Shi, Thomas J Webster
Bacterial meningitis has become a global concern, because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It has been demonstrated that liposomes can enter bacteria, thus providing a possible treatment for numerous infections, including meningitis. Fusogenic liposomes are pH-sensitive with a high capacity to fuse with the bacteria membrane and promote intracellular drug release. Moreover, this ability can be improved by using cell-penetrating peptides (such as Tat47-57, which is a peptide derived from the Tat protein of HIV)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442740/deciphering-the-mode-of-action-of-cell-wall-inhibiting-antibiotics-using-metabolic-labeling-of-growing-peptidoglycan-in-streptococcus-pyogenes
#6
Atsushi Sugimoto, Asuka Maeda, Kaori Itto, Hirokazu Arimoto
Because of the scanty pipeline of antibiotics newly obtained from nature, chemical modification of established drugs is one of the major streams of current antibacterial research. Intuitive and easy-to-use assays are critical for identifying drug candidates with novel modes of action. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolic fluorescent staining of growing cell walls is a powerful tool for mode-of-action analyses of antibiotics using Streptococcus pyogenes. A set of major cell-wall-inhibiting antibiotics (bacitracin, D-cycloserine, flavomycin, oxacillin, ramoplanin, and vancomycin) was employed to validate the potential of the assay...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440913/piperacillin-tazobactam-versus-cefepime-incidence-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-combination-with-vancomycin-and-tobramycin-in-pediatric-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#7
Lisa K LeCleir, Rebecca S Pettit
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often receive prolonged courses of broad spectrum antibiotics, such as piperacillin-tazobactam or cefepime in combination with vancomycin and tobramycin. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in AKI for pediatric CF patients receiving piperacillin-tazobactam or cefepime in combination with vancomycin and tobramycin. METHODS: IRB approval from a single CF center was obtained for this retrospective cohort study...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439680/microbiological-evaluation-of-infected-pelvic-lymphocele-after-robotic-prostatectomy-potential-predictors-for-culture-positivity-and-selection-of-the-best-empirical-antimicrobial-therapy
#8
Alaa Hamada, Catalina Hwang, Jorge Fleisher, Ingolf Tuerk
OBJECTIVES: To examine symptomatology and microbiology of infected lymphocele (LC) post-robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) and to assess for potential predictors for LC fluid culture positivity. Secondly, to provide general recommendations about use of select antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: This was a single-center, IRB-approved, retrospective, case series review conducted between October 2008 and October 2014. Data included symptomatology, microbiology of symptomatic LC in men post-robotic prostatectomy and PLND...
April 24, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439602/antibiogram-profile-of-septic-meningitis-among-children-in-duhok-iraq
#9
Abdulrahman T Saadi, Nadir A Garjees, Aveen H Rasool
  To determine the prevalence of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the antibiogram profile in pediatric patients with suspected meningitis. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2016 in the Hevi Paediatric Teaching Hospital in Duhok, Iraq. The CSF samples were withdrawn from 432 pediatric patients suspected of meningitis. The samples were cultured, and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed.  Results: There were 33 (7.6%) culture positive cases among 432 CSF samples...
May 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439137/compatibility-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-ceftolozane-tazobactam-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-with-vancomycin-in-dextrose-5-in-water
#10
Kevin Meyer, Maressa Santarossa, Larry H Danziger, Eric Wenzler
Objectives: The compatibility of vancomycin with existing and novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors at clinically relevant concentrations in 5% dextrose in water has not been fully explored to date. Methods: Vancomycin concentrations tested ranged from 5 to 20 mg/mL. Ceftazidime-avibactam was tested at 8, 20, and 40 mg/mL, ceftolozane-tazobactam at 15 mg/mL, and piperacillin-tazobactam at 28 mg/mL. Compatibility of drug admixtures were tested via both simulated and actual y-site infusion. For the simulated y-site compatibility assessment, 1:1 mixtures of each respective drug were analyzed over 24 hours...
March 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438824/comparison-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-lock-solutions-with-and-without-heparin-against-biofilm-producing-bacteria
#11
Megan K Luther, Leonard A Mermel, Kerry L LaPlante
PURPOSE: The activity of linezolid and vancomycin lock solutions against biofilm-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis was studied. METHODS: Two strains each of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and S. epidermidis, and 1 strain of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecalis and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis were tested against vancomycin and linezolid to assess prevention of biofilm formation and eradication of these pathogens within a formed biofilm...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437097/total-syntheses-of-vancomycin-related-glycopeptide-antibiotics-and-key-analogues
#12
Akinori Okano, Nicholas A Isley, Dale L Boger
A review of efforts that have provided total syntheses of vancomycin and related glycopeptide antibiotics, their agylcons, and key analogues is provided. It is a tribute to developments in organic chemistry and the field of organic synthesis that not only can molecules of this complexity be prepared today by total synthesis but such efforts can be extended to the preparation of previously inaccessible key analogues that contain deep-seated structural changes. With the increasing prevalence of acquired bacterial resistance to existing classes of antibiotics and with the emergence of vancomycin-resistant pathogens (VRSA and VRE), the studies pave the way for the examination of synthetic analogues rationally designed to not only overcome vancomycin resistance but provide the foundation for the development of even more powerful and durable antibiotics...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436655/investigating-the-antibacterial-activity-of-biphenylthiazoles-against-methicillin-and-vancomycin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-vrsa
#13
Mohamed Hagras, Haroon Mohammad, Mohamed S Mandour, Youssef A Hegazy, Adel Ghiaty, Mohamed N Seleem, Abdelrahman S Mayhoub
Phenylthiazoles were reported previously as a new scaffold with antibacterial activity against an array of multidrug-resistant staphylococci. However, their promising antibacterial activity was hampered in large part by their short half-life due to excessive hepatic clearance. Close inspection of the structure-activity-relationships (SAR) of the phenylthiazoles revealed two important structural features necessary for antibacterial activity (a nitrogenous and a lipophilic component). Incorporating the nitrogenous part within a pyrimidine ring resulted in analogues with a prolonged half-life, while the biphenyl moiety revealed the most potent analogue 1b...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436317/endoureteral-coil-embolization-of-an-ureteral-arterial-fistula
#14
Pavel Kibrik, Justin Eisenberg, Marc A Bjurlin, Natalie Marks, Anil Hingorani, Enrico Ascher
Background Ureteral arterial fistulas are rare but potentially life threatening. We present a female who developed a ureteral arterial fistula following a right robotic nephrectomy. After several endovascular interventions to control the bleeding had failed, we approached the fistula through the right ureteral stump with coil embolization. Methods Coil embolization of the right ureteral stump was performed. We utilized a 6Fr × 45 cm sheath inserted through one of the cystoscope channels to cannulate the right ureteral orifice...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435567/role-of-antibiotic-cement-coated-nailing-in-infected-nonunion-of-tibia
#15
C Bhatia, A K Tiwari, S B Sharma, S Thalanki, A Rai
INTRODUCTION: Infected nonunion of long bones is a chronic and debilitating disorder. It is more difficult to deal with when the implant used for internal fixation itself becomes a potential media for infection because of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Traditionally, it is managed by two-stage procedure for controlling the infection first and then treating the nonunion. This study has been undertaken to explore antibiotic cement coated nailing as single stage treatment modality for treating infection and achieving stability at the same time...
March 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434930/enhancing-targeted-antibiotic-therapy-via-ph-responsive-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-from-an-acid-cleavable-lipid
#16
Rahul S Kalhapure, Dhiraj R Sikwal, Sanjeev Rambharose, Chunderika Mocktar, Sanil Singh, Linda Bester, Jung Kwon Oh, Jwala Renukuntla, Thirumala Govender
An acid cleavable lipid (SA-3 M) was synthesized and used to develop pH-responsive solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to deliver vancomycin base (VM-FB) to acidic infection sites. The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of VM-FB_SA-3 M_SLNs were 132.9±9.1nm, 0.159±0.01 and -26±4.4mV respectively, with 57.80±1.1% encapsulation efficiency. VM-FB release was significantly faster at pH6.5 than pH7.4. In vitro antibacterial activity against methicillin-susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) revealed that SLNs had enhanced activity at pH6...
April 18, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434695/the-influence-of-a-failed-irrigation-and-debridement-on-the-outcomes-of-a-subsequent-2-stage-revision-knee-arthroplasty
#17
Scott R Nodzo, Keely K Boyle, Allina A Nocon, Michael W Henry, David J Mayman, Geoffrey H Westrich
BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested a failed irrigation and debridement (I&D) before a 2-stage exchange negatively impacts the outcome of the subsequent 2-stage revision. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 132 patients who underwent a 2-stage exchange without prior I&D (2-Stage), and 45 patients had a failed I&D before their 2-stage exchange (I&D+2Stage) between April 2009 and April 2015. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics, presenting inflammatory laboratory values, type of antibiotic spacer used, surgical details, microbiology data, length of postoperative antibiotic treatment, and reoperation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434558/resistance-profiles-and-risk-factors-of-resistant-microorganisms-in-bacteraemia-of-abdominal-origin
#18
J Martín Jaramago, R Armero Ibáñez, J J Camarena Miñana, M Morales Suárez-Varela
OBJECTIVE: The presence of resistant microorganisms is a major cause of failure in initial empirical antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the resistance profile of microorganisms that cause bacteraemia of abdominal origin and to identify whether the previous use of antibiotics and the place of acquisition of bacteraemia are risk factors associated with the presence of resistant organisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical, observational, epidemiological, retrospective cohort study was conducted with all the adult patients admitted to a university hospital from 2011-2013...
April 20, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432878/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-to-vancomycin-daptomycin-linezolid-and-tedizolid
#19
Johanna Marcela Vanegas Múnera, Ana María Ocampo Ríos, Daniela Montoya Urrego, Judy Natalia Jiménez Quiceno
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remains as a clinical challenge due to emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone, recently approved for skin and soft tissues infections. We conducted a study to determine in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tedizolid in MRSA clinical isolates from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methicillin-resistant S...
April 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431897/failure-renal-aetiology-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-the-role-of-antibiotics
#20
Miguel Ángel Goenaga Sánchez, Xabier Kortajarena Urkola, Emilio Bouza Santiago, Patricia Muñoz García, Eduardo Verde Moreno, M Carmen Fariñas Álvarez, Ramón Teira Cobo, Juan Manuel Pericás Pulido, Arístides de Alarcón González, Dolores Sousa Regueiro, Josefa Ruiz Morales, Regino José Rodríguez-Álvarez, Isabel Antorrena Miranda, José Antonio Iribarren Loyarte
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The possible renal toxicity of certain antibiotics (AB) is well known. The objective of our work is to know the possible effect of AB treatments in the development of renal failure (RF) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Collection from a national multi-centre registry of collection on renal function, both prior and its impairment, if any, during the treatment of IE and in relation to possible causative factors, including the use of AB...
April 18, 2017: Medicina Clínica
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