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Vancomycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458157/clostridium-innocuum-is-a-vancomycin-resistant-pathogen-that-may-cause-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea
#1
Ju-Hsin Chia, Ting-Shu Wu, Tsu-Lan Wu, Chyi-Liang Chen, Chih-Hsien Chuang, Lin-Hui Su, Hong-Jyun Chang, Chia-Chen Lu, An-Jing Kuo, Hsin-Chih Lai, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium innocuum can cause extra-intestinal infection in patients with underlying diseases. The role of C. innocuum in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) remains unknown. METHODS: Clinical information of 103 patients in which C. innocuum was isolated from was reviewed. We carried out cellular and animal experiments to examine the pathogenic potential of C. innocuum in AAD. RESULTS: Eighty-eight percent (91/103) of the 103 patients received antibiotics within 2 weeks of diarrhea onset...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457402/-clinical-study-on-negative-pressure-closed-drainage-combined-with-vancomycin-loaded-calcium-sulfate-and-autogenous-bone-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-osteomyelitis
#2
Qiang Li, Shi-Feng Song, Wei Zhang, Guo-Zhi Wu, Li-Zhu Liu
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical effects of negative pressure closed drainage combined with vancomycin loaded calcium sulfate and autogenous bone in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. METHODS: From June 2013 to December 2016, there were 35 cases of chronic osteomyelitis patients in our department, including 23 males and 12 females, ranging in age from 11 to 65 years old, with an average of 34 years old. The course of disease ranged from 8 to 46 months, with an average of 26 months...
November 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456789/novel-modifications-of-glycopeptide-antibiotics-via-total-synthesis
#3
EDITORIAL
David J Newman
Although vancomycin has been in clinical use since the late 1950s, resistance due to alteration in the target microbe's peptidoglycan can vary significantly, reducing its activity. Total synthesis of derivatives has now led to a molecule with very significant activity against resistant strains.
February 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455521/self-assembly-of-binuclear-cu-ii-histidine-complex-for-absolute-configuration-and-enantiomeric-excess-determination-of-naproxen-by-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Xiangying Yu, Man-Chu Chau, Wai Kit Tang, Chi-Kit Siu, Zhong-Ping Yao
Naproxen is one of the most consumed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and marketed as S-naproxen since R-naproxen is hepatotoxic. In this study, chiral recognition of naproxen has been investigated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Among all diastereomeric complexes formed between naproxen and the examined chiral selectors, including cyclodextrins (α/β/γ-CD), modified phenylalanines (N-acetyl-phenylalanine, N-t-butoxycarbonyl-phenylalanine, N-9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine), amino acids (Trp, Phe, Tyr, His), glucose, tartaric acid and vancomycin, a novel binuclear metal bound diastereomeric complexes [(M(II))2 (S/R-Naproxen)(L-His)2 -3H]+ (M = Cu, Ni or Co with Cu being the best) could allow effective identification of the absolute configuration of naproxen and determination of its enantiomeric excess (ee) through MS/MS analysis...
February 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454983/old-and-new-glycopeptide-antibiotics-from-product-to-gene-and-back-in-the-post-genomic-era
#5
REVIEW
Giorgia Letizia Marcone, Elisa Binda, Francesca Berini, Flavia Marinelli
Glycopeptide antibiotics are drugs of last resort for treating severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. First-generation glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are produced by soil-dwelling actinomycetes. Second-generation glycopeptides (dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin) are semi-synthetic derivatives of the progenitor natural products. Herein, we cover past and present biotechnological approaches for searching for and producing old and new glycopeptide antibiotics...
February 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454592/effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-cost-effective-utilization-of-telavancin-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hospital-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
James A McKinnell, Shelby Corman, Dipen Patel, Grace H Leung, Lynne M Gordon, Thomas P Lodise
PURPOSE: Clinicians and stewardship programs are challenged with positioning of novel, higher priced antibiotic agents for the treatment of clinical infections. We developed a decision-analytic model to describe costs, including drug, total treatment costs, and health care outcomes, associated with telavancin (TLV) compared with vancomycin (VAN) for patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP). METHODS: This decision-analytic model assessed the treatment of SA-HABP with TLV versus VAN...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454049/emergence-of-vancomycin-intermediate-and-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-isolated-from-clinical-specimens-in-the-northwest-of-iran
#7
Maryam Ghahremani, Nima Hosseini Jazani, Yaeghob Sharifi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the frequency, the, phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin- resistant, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), from clinical specimens at three university teaching hospitals in Urmia-North West of Iran (2012- 2015). METHODS: After identification of the isolates, the antibiotic, susceptibility, the presence of mecA, vanA, pvl genes and staphylococcal, cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were evaluated...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452993/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-tedizolid-implications-for-the-treatment-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#8
Pierre Delpech, Muna ALeryan, Brian Jones, Curtis Gemmell, Sue Lang
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are among the most commonly occurring infections and evidence suggests that these are increasing world-wide. The aetiology is diverse, but Staphylococcus aureus predominate and these are often resistant to antimicrobials that were previously effective. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone-class antibacterial indicated for the treatment of adults with SSTI caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of tedizolid in comparison to other clinically used antibacterials against antibiotic sensitive- and resistant-staphylococci, grown in planktonic cultures and as biofilms reflecting the growth of the microorganism during episodes of SSTI...
January 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451938/the-management-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-after-anterior-cervical-decompression-surgery
#9
Jiliang Zhai, Ripul R Panchal, Ye Tian, Shujie Wang, Lijuan Zhao
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a rare but potentially troublesome and occasionally catastrophic complication after anterior cervical decompression surgery. There is limited literature describing this complication, and the management of CSF leak varies. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the treatment of cases with CSF leak and develop a management algorithm. A series of 14 patients with CSF leak from January 2011 to May 2016 were included in this study. Their characteristics, management of CSF leak, and outcomes were documented...
February 16, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451449/letter-to-the-editor-the-efficacy-of-local-vancomycin-for-reducing-surgical-site-infections-after-cranioplasty
#10
Ravi Sharma, Manoj Phalak, Varidh Katiyar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451132/synthesis-of-photothermal-nanocomposites-and-their-application-to-antibacterial-assays
#11
Ning Yang, Chun Wang, Xiaoyu Wang, Lidong Li
In this work, we report a novel gold nanorod- (AuNR-) based nanocomposite that shows strong binding to bacterium and high antibacterial efficiency. The AuNRs were used as a photothermal material to transform near-infrared radiation (NIR) into heat. We selected poly(acrylic acid) to modify the surface of the AuNRs based on a simple self-assembly method. After conjugation of the bacterium-binding molecule vancomycin, the nanocomposites were capable of efficiently gathering on the cell walls of bacteria. The nanocomposites exhibited a high bacterial inhibition capability owing to NIR-induced heat generation in situ...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449171/changes-in-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-commonly-clinically-significant-isolates-before-and-after-the-interventions-on-surgical-prophylactic-antibiotics-spas-in-shanghai
#12
Su Wang, Li-Zhong Han, Yu-Xing Ni, Yi-Bo Zhang, Qun Wang, Da-Ke Shi, Wen-Hui Li, Yi-Chen Wang, Chen-Rong Mi
Surveillances and interventions on antibiotics use have been suggested to improve serious drug-resistance worldwide. Since 2007, our hospital have proposed many measures for regulating surgical prophylactic antibiotics (carbapenems, third gen. cephalosporins, vancomycin, etc.) prescribing practices, like formulary restriction or replacement for surgical prophylactic antibiotics and timely feedback. To assess the impacts on drug-resistance after interventions, we enrolled infected patients in 2006 (pre-intervention period) and 2014 (post-intervention period) in a tertiary hospital in Shanghai...
February 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446256/using-a-vancomycin-pbpk-model-in-special-populations-to-elucidate-case-based-clinical-pk-observations
#13
Chie Emoto, Trevor N Johnson, Brooks T McPhail, Alexander A Vinks, Tsuyoshi Fukuda
Simultaneous changes in several physiological factors may contribute to the large pharmacokinetic (PK) variability of vancomycin. This study was designed to systematically characterize the effects of multiple physiological factors to the altered PK of vancomycin observed in special populations. A vancomycin physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed as a PK simulation platform to quantitatively assess the effects of changes in physiologies to the PK profiles. The developed model predicted the concentration-time profiles in healthy adults and diseased patients...
February 15, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446057/in-vitro-evaluation-of-probiotic-potential-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-yunnan-de-ang-pickled-tea
#14
Zhenhui Cao, Hongbin Pan, Shijun Li, Chongying Shi, Sifan Wang, Fuyi Wang, Pengfei Ye, Junjing Jia, Changrong Ge, Qiuye Lin, Zhiyong Zhao
This study aimed to investigate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from De'ang pickled tea, a traditional food consumed by the De'ang nationality of Yunnan, China. Twenty-six LAB strains isolated from De'ang pickled tea were subjected to identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Twenty-four belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum, one belonged to Enterococcus casseliflavus, and one belonged to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Eighteen out of 26 LAB strains which showed a higher capability to tolerate simulated gastrointestinal juices were chosen to further evaluate their probiotic properties...
February 14, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445884/acute-kidney-injury-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-critically-ill-patients-16-25-years-of-age-treated-in-an-adult-intensive-care-unit
#15
Dana Y Fuhrman, Sandra Kane-Gill, Stuart L Goldstein, Priyanka Priyanka, John A Kellum
BACKGROUND: Most studies of acute kidney injury (AKI) have focused on older adults, and little is known about AKI in young adults (16-25 years) that are cared for in an adult intensive care unit (ICU). We analyzed data from a large single-center ICU database and defined AKI using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. We stratified patients 16-55 years of age into four age groups for comparison and used multivariable logistic regression to identify associations of potential susceptibilities and exposures with AKI and mortality...
February 14, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445637/virulence-determinants-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-different-sources-in-southwest-iran
#16
Maniya Arshadi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Moloud Sadat Motahar, Saber Soltani, Mohammad Reza Pourmand
Background: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from different sources in southwest Iran from Mar to Sep 2015. Methods: Overall, 120 E. faecium isolates (80 VRE and 40 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci [VSE] isolates) were obtained from four hospitals. The resistance of the VRE isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect the virulence genes carried by the E...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444303/the-utility-of-vancomycin-powder-in-reducing-surgical-site-infections-in-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#17
Ryan B Kochanski, Pouya Nazari, Sepehr Sani
BACKGROUND: The impact of vancomycin powder on reducing postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) in spine surgery has been studied extensively and is considered standard of care at many institutions. More recently, vancomycin powder has been shown to reduce SSI in cranial neurosurgery; however, limited studies have been performed assessing its impact in reducing SSIs in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of vancomycin powder as an adjunct to the current antibiotic prophylaxis regimen in DBS surgery in a large cohort of patients...
February 10, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443752/the-first-case-report-of-enterococcus-gallinarum-meningitis-in-neonate-a-literature-review
#18
Xiaoquan Li, Shujuan Fan, Xiaojie Lin, Li Liu, Jie Zheng, Xihui Zhou, Axel Heep
RATIONALE: Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis (EGM) is rarely found in normal adults and even rarer in children. To our knowledge, EGM in neonate has not been reported previously. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Here we reported the first case of EGM in neonate. Prolonged fever was the only manifestation for the case after admission. DIAGNOSES: Cerebrospinal fluid cultures showed that the isolate was Enterococcus gallinarum and sensitive to linezolid. INTERVENTIONS: Ceftriaxone, beta lactam type, and vancomycin were used respectively, but not effective...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442717/fabrication-of-a-novel-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-sodium-alginate-poly-d-l-lactic-acid-composite-microsphere-and-its-drug-releasing-property
#19
Xiaonan Liu, Youkui Zhang, Kun Xiong, Minhao Yan
Bone repair microspheres have been widely studied due to their convenience during clinical operations. In this study, beta tricalcium phosphate/sodium alginate/poly(D,L-lactic acid) (β-TCP/SA/PDLLA) composite microspheres were successfully prepared using the liquid droplet method. Then, β-TCP/SA/PDLLA composite microspheres were soaked in simulated body fluids (SBF) for 7 days, and tested in an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The results indicated that sodium alginate (SA) and poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) are not limiting factors for the transformation of β-TCP to HA...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442542/comparison-of-the-nephrotoxicity-of-vancomycin-in-combination-with-cefepime-meropenem-or-piperacillin-tazobactam-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#20
Brandon P Mullins, C Joseph Kramer, Billie J Bartel, Jennifer S Catlin, Richard E Gilder
BACKGROUND: Patients often receive broad-spectrum antibiotics for nosocomial infections commonly with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Previous retrospective and/or single-center studies have suggested that the combination of vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam might be associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving intravenous vancomycin in combination with cefepime, meropenem, or piperacillin/tazobactam...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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