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Vancomycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029278/efficacy-and-safety-of-delafloxacin-compared-with-vancomycin-plus-aztreonam-for-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-a-phase-3-double-blind-randomized-study
#1
J Pullman, J Gardovskis, B Farley, E Sun, M Quintas, L Lawrence, R Ling, S Cammarata
Background: Delafloxacin is an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone in development for oral or intravenous administration for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive (including MRSA), Gram-negative, atypical and anaerobic organisms. Objectives: To establish the non-inferiority of delafloxacin compared with vancomycin plus aztreonam for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and to compare the safety of the two antimicrobials...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029221/analysis-of-clostridium-difficile-biofilms-imaging-and-antimicrobial-treatment
#2
Garth A James, Laurent Chesnel, Laura Boegli, Elinor deLancey Pulcini, Steve Fisher, Philip S Stewart
Background: Clostridium difficile, a spore-forming Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus, is the most common causative agent of healthcare-associated diarrhoea. Formation of biofilms may protect C. difficile against antibiotics, potentially leading to treatment failure. Furthermore, bacterial spores or vegetative cells may linger in biofilms in the gut causing C. difficile infection recurrence. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of four antibiotics (fidaxomicin, surotomycin, vancomycin and metronidazole) in penetrating C...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028569/occurrence-of-transferable-antibiotic-resistances-in-commercialized-ready-to-eat-mealworms-tenebrio-molitor-l
#3
Andrea Osimani, Federica Cardinali, Lucia Aquilanti, Cristiana Garofalo, Andrea Roncolini, Vesna Milanović, Marina Pasquini, Stefano Tavoletti, Francesca Clementi
The present study aimed to assess the occurrence of transferable determinants conferring resistance to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B, vancomycin, beta-lactams, and aminoglycosides in 40 samples of commercialized edible mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) purchased from European Union (EU) and non-EU producers. A high prevalence of tet(K) was observed in all of the samples assayed, with percentages of PCR-based positivity that ranged from 80% (samples from Thailand) to 100% (samples from the Netherlands, Belgium and France)...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028568/virulence-genotypes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-arcobacter-butzleri-isolated-from-seafood-and-its-environment
#4
Srinu Rathlavath, Vandita Kohli, Asem Sanjit Singh, Manjusha Lekshmi, Gayatri Tripathi, Sanath Kumar, Binaya Bhusan Nayak
Arcobacter butzleri is an emerging pathogen isolated from animals, food and the environment. In this study, 147 A. butzleri isolated from seafood and the coastal environment were tested for the presence of ten putative virulence genes (cadF, cj1349, ciaB, mviN, pldA, tlyA, hecA, hecB, irgA, iroE) and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Majority of the isolates harbored mviN (100%), cj1349 (97.2%), ciaB (95.9%), tlyA (91.8%), pldA (91.1%) and cadF (89.7%). Lower detection rates were observed for hecA (10.8%), hecB (19%), iroE (12...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028315/nanoparticles-of-short-cationic-peptidopolysaccharide-self-assembled-by-hydrogen-bonding-with-antibacterial-effect-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#5
Zheng Hou, Yogesh Vikhe Shankar, Yang Liu, Feiqing Ding, Jothy Lachumy Subramanion, Vikashini Ravikumar, Rubí Zamudio-Vázquez, Damien Keogh, Huiwen Lim, Moon Yue Feng Tay, Surajit Bhattacharjya, Scott A Rice, Jian Shi, Hongwei Duan, Xue-Wei Liu, Yuguang Mu, Nguan Soon Tan, Kam Michael Chiu Tam, Kevin Pethe, Mary B Chan-Park
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and polymers are active against many multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria but only a limited number of these compounds are in clinical use due to their unselective toxicity. The typical strategy for achieving selective antibacterial efficacy with low mammalian cell toxicity is through balancing the ratio of cationicity to hydrophobicity. Herein, we report a cationic nanoparticle self-assembled from chitosan-graft-oligolysine (CSM5-K5) chains with ultra-low molecular weight (1450 Daltons) that selectively kills bacteria...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028276/enhancing-antibiotic-stewardship-by-tackling-spurious-penicillin-allergy
#6
Mamidipudi Thirumala Krishna, Aarnoud P Huissoon, Mark Li, Alex Richter, Devadas Ganesh Pillay, Dhinakaran Sambanthan, Sumanth C Raman, Shuaib Nasser, Siraj A Misbah
Approximately 90-99% of patients with a label of penicillin allergy (PenA) are not allergic when comprehensively investigated. An inaccurate label of PenA has major public health implications - longer hospital stay, more frequent hospital admissions, greater use of fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, cephalosporins and other expensive antibiotics resulting in significantly higher costs to the health service and predisposing to Clostridium difficile, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections and vancomycin resistant enterococcus...
October 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028077/urinary-kidney-injury-molecule-1-and-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-as-early-biomarkers-for-predicting-vancomycin-associated-acute-kidney-injury-a-prospective-study
#7
H-M Pang, X-L Qin, T-T Liu, W-X Wei, D-H Cheng, H Lu, Q Guo, L Jing
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) were superior to serum creatinine (Scr) in detecting acute kidney injury (AKI), but their ability to predict clinical vancomycin-associated AKI has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the abilities of uKIM-1 and uNGAL individually and in combination to predict vancomycin-associated AKI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Scr, uKIM-1, and uNGAL were measured on the day before and days 1, 2, and 3 of vancomycin therapy in a generalized adult population...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027654/pharmacokinetic-drug-drug-interactions-in-the-intensive-care-unit-single-centre-experience-and-literature-review
#8
Piotr Łój, Aleksanda Olender, Weronika Ślęzak, Łukasz J Krzych
BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions constitute a serious health hazard in everyday clinical practice in critically ill patients. Drug-drug interactions may be pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic in their nature. We aimed to investigate the quantity and quality of possible drug-drug interactions, and their possible side effects in intensive care unit patients in a 12-month period. METHODS: This retrospective study covered data on pharmacological treatment of 43 consecutive patients (11 females, 32 males) aged 62 ± 15 years, hospitalized between January 2015 and February 2016...
October 13, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026601/complications-effectiveness-and-long-term-follow-up-of-fecal-microbiota-transfer-by-nasoduodenal-tube-for-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#9
Yvette H van Beurden, Pieter F de Groot, Els van Nood, Max Nieuwdorp, Josbert J Keller, Abraham Goorhuis
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but data on procedure-related complications and long-term outcome are scarce. METHODS: All patients treated with FMT for recurrent CDI at the Academic Medical Center between July 2010 and January 2016 were included. FMT was performed according to the FECAL trial protocol: administration of fresh donor feces (related or unrelated donor) through a duodenal tube after pre-treatment with vancomycin and bowel lavage...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025325/versatility-of-targeted-antibiotic-loaded-gold-nanoconstructs-for-the-treatment-of-biofilm-associated-bacterial-infections
#10
Daniel G Meeker, Tengjiao Wang, Walter N Harrington, Vladimir P Zharov, Sarah A Johnson, Samir V Jenkins, Stephanie E Oyibo, Christopher M Walker, Weston B Mills, Mark E Shirtliff, Karen E Beenken, Jingyi Chen, Mark S Smeltzer
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that a photoactivatable therapeutic approach employing antibiotic-loaded, antibody-conjugated, polydopamine (PDA)-coated gold nanocages (AuNCs) could be used for the synergistic killing of bacterial cells within a biofilm. The approach was validated with a focus on Staphylococcus aureus using an antibody specific for staphylococcal protein A (Spa) and an antibiotic (daptomycin) active against Gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant S...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023551/a-multilayered-electrospun-graft-as-vascular-access-for-hemodialysis
#11
D Radakovic, J Reboredo, M Helm, T Weigel, S Schürlein, E Kupczyk, R G Leyh, H Walles, J Hansmann
Despite medical achievements, the number of patients with end-stage kidney disease keeps steadily raising, thereby entailing a high number of surgical and interventional procedures to establish and maintain arteriovenous vascular access for hemodialysis. Due to vascular disease, aneurysms or infection, the preferred access-an autogenous arteriovenous fistula-is not always available and appropriate. Moreover, when replacing small diameter blood vessels, synthetic vascular grafts possess well-known disadvantages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023515/a-novel-bacteriocin-from-enterococcus-faecalis-478-exhibits-a-potent-activity-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#12
Uraporn Phumisantiphong, Kanokrat Siripanichgon, Onrapak Reamtong, Pornphan Diraphat
The emergence of multidrug-resistant enterococci (MDRE) and particularly vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is considered a serious health problem worldwide, causing the need for new antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to discover and characterize bacteriocin against clinical isolates of MDRE and VRE. Over 10,000 bacterial isolates from water, environment and clinical samples were screened. E. faecalis strain 478 isolated from human feces produced the highest antibacterial activity against several MDRE and VRE strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023124/synthesis-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-fire-ant-venom-alkaloid-based-2-methyl-6-alkyl-%C3%AE-1-6-piperideines
#13
Yujie Yan, Yu An, Xiaozhong Wang, Yingqi Chen, Melissa R Jacob, Babu L Tekwani, Liyan Dai, Xing-Cong Li
The first synthesis of 2-methyl-6-pentadecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (1), a major alkaloid of the piperideine chemotype in fire ant venoms, and its analogues, 2-methyl-6-tetradecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (2) and 2-methyl-6-hexadecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (3), was achieved by a facile synthetic method starting with glutaric acid (4) and urea (5). Compound 1 showed in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans with IC50 values of 6.6 and 12.4 μg/mL, respectively, and antibacterial activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with an IC50 value of 19...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023074/bacterial-quality-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetics-of-the-population-of-ma-an-province-jordan
#14
Ali Al-Asoufi, Ali Khlaifat, Amjad Al Tarawneh, Khalid Alsharafa, Muhamad Al-Limoun, Khaled Khleifat
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have malfunction in bladder which prompt urine accumulation in its pool which serves a decent situation to the microbes to be develop and cause Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). The UTI is the most infectious disease that affects both males and females. This study was designed to detect the bacterial species responsible for UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients in Ma'an province, Jordan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred sixteen urine samples were investigated to determine UTI-causing bacteria...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022913/mbd2-upregulates-mir-301a-5p-to-induce-kidney-cell-apoptosis-during-vancomycin-induced-aki
#15
Juan Wang, Huiling Li, Shuangfa Qiu, Zheng Dong, Xudong Xiang, Dongshan Zhang
Despite DNA methylation occurred in acute kidney injury (AKI), how it influenced progression of AKI remains unclear. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2), a protein readers of methylation, was used to analyze the impact of DNA methylation on vancomycin (VAN)-induced AKI. Here, in cultured human kidney tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), we show that knockdown of MBD2 by siRNA attenuated VAN-induced apoptosis, caspase activity, and the expression of BAX and cleaved caspase 3. Interestingly, knockdown of MBD2 by siRNA was associated with the suppression of miR-301a-5p...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021472/pneumothorax-secondary-to-septic-pulmonary-emboli-in-a-long-term-hemodialysis-patient-with-psoas-abscess
#16
Masahiro Okabe, Kenji Kasai, Takashi Yokoo
Pneumothorax secondary to septic pulmonary embolism (SPE) is rare but life-threatening. We herein report a long-term hemodialysis patient with psoas abscess caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, associated with other muscle and splenic abscesses and SPE. Intravenous vancomycin treatment and percutaneous drainage of the psoas abscess rapidly improved her condition. However, the SPE lesions continued to increase, and right-sided pneumothorax occurred 10 days after treatment. The pneumothorax resolved after two months and SPE and all abscesses after four months of treatment...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021140/fulminant-bacillus-cereus-septicaemia-with-multiple-organ-ischaemic-haemorrhagic-complications-in-a-patient-undergoing-chemotherapy-for-acute-myelogenous-leukaemia
#17
Yusuke S Hori, Satoshi Kodera, Yurie Nagai, Yoshio Suzuki
Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming rod widely found in the environment and is thought to be a frequent source of contamination. This micro-organism is reportedly a significant pathogenic agent among immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, multiple cases of fulminant septicaemia have been reported among individuals receiving chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukaemia. In some cases, B. cereus septicaemia was associated with multiple haemorrhages. We, herein, describe a patient with an extremely acute course of B...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020920/first-identification-of-gordonia-sputi-in-a-post-traumatic-endophthalmitis-patient-a-case-report-and-literatures-review
#18
Wei Fang, Jiuke Li, Hu-Shan Cui, Xiaohong Jin, Jing Zhai, Yuanmin Dai, Yumin Li
BACKGROUND: We present a case of post-traumatic endophthalmitis with relatively good prognosis caused by Gordonia sputi, which, to our knowledge is the first case in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24 year old man, who underwent an intraocular foreign body extraction half a month before presentation in the left eye, was referred to us complaining of blurred vision and slight pain for 5 days. His first presentation showed moderate intracameral and intravitreous purulent inflammation with a best corrected vision of counting fingers...
October 11, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020310/levofloxacin-prophylaxis-during-induction-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#19
Joshua Wolf, Li Tang, Patricia M Flynn, Ching-Hon Pui, Aditya H Gaur, Yilun Sun, Hiroto Inaba, Tracy Stewart, Randall T Hayden, Hana Hakim, Sima Jeha
Background: Infection is the most important cause of treatment-related morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although routine in adults with leukemia, antibacterial prophylaxis is controversial in pediatrics because of insufficient evidence for its efficacy or antibiotic choice and concerns about promoting antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Methods: This was a single-center, observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed ALL, comparing prospectively collected infection-related outcomes in patients who received no prophylaxis, levofloxacin prophylaxis, or other prophylaxis during induction therapy on the total XVI study...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020249/increasing-evidence-of-the-nephrotoxicity-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-and-vancomycin-combination-therapy-what-is-the-clinician-to-do
#20
Richard R Watkins, Stan Deresinski
Early and appropriate empiric antibiotics are essential for achieving the best possible outcomes in sepsis. Yet, the choice of antibiotic therapy has become more challenging due to recent reports of nephrotoxicity with the combination of vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam, the "workhorse" regimen at many institutions. In this article we assess the evidence for nephrotoxicity and its possible mechanisms, provide recommendations for risk mitigation, address the advantages and disadvantages of alternative antibiotic choices, and suggest areas for future research...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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