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Joshua M Taylor, Erik L Clarke, Kate Baker, Abigail Lauder, Dorothy Kim, Aubrey Bailey, Gary D Wu, Ronald G Collman, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, James Blanchard, Frederic D Bushman, Rudolf Bohm
Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE) is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ). The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE...
2018: PeerJ
Karthik Dwarki, Andy Dothard, Bryan Abadie, Matthew C Miles
A 26-year-old man with history of extensive tophaceous gout presented to the referring facility with decreased bilateral lower extremity sensation and motor function that began acutely 1 week prior to admission and had progressed to urinary incontinence. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit due to concern for sepsis secondary to epidural abscess. The patient was started on empiric vancomycin and cefepime. Neurosurgery did not recommend acute neurosurgical intervention given the lack of a compressive lesion...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Katarzyna Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Małgorzata Bulanda
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains have become an important hospital pathogen due to their rapid spread, high mortality rate associated with infections and limited therapeutic options. Vancomycin resistance is predominantly mediated by VanA or VanB phenotypes, which differ as regards maintaining sensitivity to teicoplanin in the VanB phenotype. The majority of VREfm cases in the United States, Europe, Korea, South America and Africa are currently caused by the VanA phenotype. However, the epidemics in Australia and Singapore are chiefly brought about by the VanB phenotype...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Chatura Prematunge, Michelle E Policarpio, Jennie Johnstone, Kwaku Adomako, Emily Nadolny, Freda Lam, Ye Li, Kevin A Brown, Gary Garber
BACKGROUND: All Ontario hospitals are mandated to self-report vancomycin-resistant enterocococi (VRE) bacteremias to Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-term Care for public reporting purposes. Independent quarterly audits of publicly reported VRE bacteremias between September 2013 and June 2015 were carried out by Public Health Ontario. VRE bacteremia case-reporting errors between January 2009 and August 2013 were identified by a single retrospective audit. METHODS: Employing a quasiexperimental pre-post study design, the relative risk of VRE bacteremia reporting errors before and after quarterly audits were modeled using Poisson regression adjusting for hospital type, case counts reported to the Ministry of Health and Long-term Care, and autocorrelation via generalized estimating equation...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Kenneth V IRolston, Ruth Reitzel, Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Samuel A Shelburne, Issam I Raad, Randall A Prince
A total of 248 Gram-positive isolates from cancer patients were tested for in-vitro susceptibility to tedizolid and 3 comparator agents using CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Tedizolid inhibited 97% of isolates at ≤0.5μg/ml. It was active against all Gram-positive species and consistently had 8 fold lower MICs than linezolid, although based on % susceptibility using CLSI breakpoints, most isolates were also susceptible to the comparators. Tedizolid was active against MRSA isolates with vancomycin MICs of ≥1...
March 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Hei Lim Koo, Doran Yoon, Ji Yun Bae, Eunyoung Lee, Joo-Hee Hwang, Kyoung-Ho Song, Wan Beom Park, Ji Hwan Bang, Eu Suk Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Sang Won Park, Myoung-Don Oh, Nam Joong Kim
BACKGROUND: Despite vancomycin use is a major risk factor for the emergence of vancomycin resistance, it is frequently inappropriately prescribed, especially as empirical treatment. We evaluated the effect of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention targeting for inappropriate continued empirical vancomycin use. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study comparing vancomycin use in a 6-month pre-intervention and 6-month intervention period. If empirical vancomycin was continued for more than 96 h without documentation of beta-lactam-resistant gram-positive microorganisms, it was considered inappropriate continued empirical vancomycin use...
April 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Priyanka Sharma, Kandasamy Nagarajan, Bihu Prasad Panda
The frequency of Bacillus subtilis infection such as pneumonia pan-opthalmitis, visceral abscess or musculoskeletal infection etc. complications following bacteremia, meningitis in children & the infection associated with majority of motor vehicle accidents associated with trauma & gun shoot injury. Antibiotics which appear especially useful in the treatment of Bacillus. infection are clindamycin and vancomycin to which vast majority of strains are susceptible in vitro. Our objective is to test the synthesized peptidomimetics with the efforts mainly directed towards the identification of antibacterial compounds against recurrent septicemia infection...
April 16, 2018: Drug Research
Estelle Moulin, Vanessa Deggim-Messmer, Véronique Erard, Laurent Christin, Christiane Petignat, Dominique S Blanc, Laurence Senn
Limiting the emergence and spread of multi-resistant bacteria is a global concern and the management of colonized patient represents a real challenge, especially in the hospital setting, where risks of acquisition and transmission are increased. Switzerland is not protected from undesirable trends : for instance, recent outbreaks of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been reported in several hospitals in western Switzerland. Since 2011, more than 250 patients have been tested positive during these outbreak episodes and the molecular analysis of the documented strains shows an unexpected diversity, including both sporadic and epidemic strains...
April 11, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Sahar Rastiyani, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Seyed Fazlullah Mousavi
Objectives: We sought to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of antibiotics resistance and virulence factors genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains from clinical samples taken in west Iran. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using 100 MRSA and 100 MSSA samples isolated from clinical specimens. We used biochemical methods to identify the isolates, which were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay...
March 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Stephen A Parada, K Aaron Shaw, Josef K Eichinger, Monica J Stadecker, Laurence D Higgins, Jon J P Warner
Introduction: Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder arthroplasty remains a source of morbidity. Determining practices amongst shoulder surgeons is the first step in developing infection-prevention best-practices. Methods: A survey was sent to a shoulder fellowship alumni group to determine their arthroplasty infection prevention methods. Results: 74% completed the survey. Cefazolin (90%), vancomycin (50%) and clindamycin (18%) were the most commonly used antibiotics, 61% utilized more than one antibiotic...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
James X Liu, Dalibel Bravo, John Buza, Thorsten Kirsch, Oran Kennedy, Andrew Rokito, Joseph D Zuckerman, Mandeep S Virk
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of topical vancomycin on cell migration and survival of tissue healing cells. Human osteoblasts, myoblasts and fibroblasts were exposed to vancomycin at concentrations of 1, 3, 6, or 12 mg/cm2 for either a 1-h or 48-h (continuous) duration. Continuous exposure to all vancomycin concentrations significantly reduced cell survival (<22% cells survived) and migration in osteoblasts and myoblasts (P < 0.001). 1-h vancomycin exposure reduced osteoblast and myoblast survival and migration only at 12 mg/cm2 (P < 0...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
John R Burger, Benjamin J Hansen, Emily V Leary, Ajay Aggarwal, James A Keeney
BACKGROUND: We performed this study to compare prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and renal toxicity rates following hip and knee total joint arthroplasty (TJA) when a first-generation cephalosporin was administered either alone or in combination with a single preoperative vancomycin dose, whether vancomycin administration timing potentially influenced dual-antibiotic PJI prophylaxis approach effectiveness, and whether single-dose vancomycin use increased risk of renal impairment. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 1977 consecutive primary TJAs (1871 patients) treated with cefazolin alone (1044 TJAs) or cefazolin with single-dose vancomycin (953 TJAs)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Thais Larrainzar-Coghen, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Carles Pigrau, Carmen Ferrer, Virginia Rodríguez, Rosa Bartolomé, David Campany, Benito Almirante
OBJECTIVE: Describe secular trends in the epidemiology and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: All consecutive primary CDI episodes in adults (January 2006-December 2015) were included. CDI was diagnosed on the presence of diarrhoea and a positive stool test for C. difficile toxin A and/or B. To define trends, a time-series analysis was performed using yearly data on demographics, clinical characteristics, management, antimicrobial treatment, and outcome of CDI...
April 12, 2018: Anaerobe
Seung Joon Chin, Grant A Moore, Mei Zhang, Henry D Clarke, Mark J Spangehl, Simon W Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for periprosthetic joint infections after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In obese patients, a larger dose of prophylactic vancomycin based on actual body weight is required to reach therapeutic concentrations. It is unclear how tissue concentrations are affected when intraosseous regional administration (IORA) is used in this population. This study compared tissue concentrations of low-dose vancomycin via IORA vs actual body weight-adjusted systemic intravenous (IV) dose in primary TKA...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Brenda Zylbersztajn, Marlon Barraza, Juan P Torres, Jorge Morales
This review summarizes recommendations of therapeutic monitoring of three antimicrobials based in regional data: vancomycin, amikacin and voriconazole in pediatric population. Regional evidence agrees with international literature regarding the requirement of higher daily doses than 40 mg/kg/day of vancomycin, as well as with the possibility of use one daily doses of amikacin and to recommend higher doses of voriconazole compared to the initially recommended doses of 8 mg/kg/day. Local data on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior of various antimicrobials in pediatrics are of great value for dosing adjustment in our pediatric population...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Szabolcs Vigvári, Dávid Sipos, Ágnes Kappéter, Zsófia Feiszt, Beáta Kovács, Zoltán Péterfi
In the past decade, Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have become a major public health challenge. Their epidemiology has radically changed with a significant rise in the number of cases and an increase in severe episodes. Recurrence and failure of conventional treatments are very common. Furthermore, a spread of CDI has emerged in general population without the usual risk factors (unexposed to antibiotic treatment, young people, etc.). The conventional treatments (metronidazole and vancomycin) are still effective and are the first-line antibiotics with new recommendations...
April 13, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Sierra Bowden, Christine Joseph, Shengzhuang Tang, Jayme Cannon, Emily Francis, Michelle Zhou, James R Baker, Seok Ki Choi
Despite its potent antibacterial activities against drug-resistant Gram(+) pathogens, oritavancin remains partially understood in its primary mode of hydrogen bond interaction with a cell-wall peptide regarding the role of its lipophilic 4'-chlorobiphenyl moiety. Here we report a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) study performed in two cell-wall model surfaces, each prepared by immobilization with a vancomycin-susceptible Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala or vancomycin-resistant Lys-D-Ala-D-Lac peptide. Analysis of binding kinetics performed in the peptide surface showed that oritavancin bound ~100 to 1000-fold more tightly than vancomycin in each model surface...
April 13, 2018: Biochemistry
Jesus Ruiz, Ana García-Robles, María R Marqués, Maria J Company, Antonio Solana, Jose L Poveda
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of hospital-acquired bacteremia in paediatrics patients. Vancomycin is the drug of choice for the treatment of methicillin-resistant strains, although treatment failure is frequently observed. Area under the curve (AUC) of plasma concentrations over the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) has been proposed as the best index to predict treatment response, although information about its clinical impact on paediatric patients is scarce...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Brianne Zapata, Danya N Alvarez, Sabrina Farah, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Maria, Jose M Miro, George Sakoulas, Arnold S Bayer, Nagendra N Mishra
Among the viridans group streptococci, S. mitis-oralis strains are frequently resistant to multiple β-lactams and tolerant to vancomycin (VAN). This scenario has led to the proposed clinical use of newer agents, like daptomycin (DAP) for such S. mitis-oralis strains. However, recent recognition of the rapid and durable emergence of high-level DAP-resistance (DAP-R; DAP MICs > 256 µg/ml) induced by DAP exposures in vitro and in vivo has dampened enthusiasm for such approaches. In this study, we evaluated a broad range of DAP combination regimens in vitro for their capacity to prevent emergence of high-level DAP-R in a prototype S...
April 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
Chi-Lien Hou, Ying-Hao Lu, Shun-Ching Chien, Hsu-Hui Chen, Chung-Yu Chen
In this descriptive, retrospective study, we analyzed the types of questions posed by healthcare professionals to drug counselors at a medical center and the types of provision of pharmaceutical advice solicited to improve pharmaceutical care quality and establish clear directions for clinical pharmacist training. We collected 8,558 questions posed by healthcare professionals (physicians, 38%; pharmacists, 39%; nurses, 23%) from the electronic drug information record system from May 2013 to April 2015 in one medical center...
2018: BioMed Research International
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