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Vancomycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243921/extra-sugar-on-vancomycin-new-analogues-for-combating-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#1
Dongliang Guan, Feifei Chen, Lun Xiong, Feng Tang, Faridoon Faridoon, Yunguang Qiu, Naixia Zhang, Likun Gong, Jian Li, Lefu Lan, Wei Huang
Lipophilic substitution on vancomycin is an effective strategy for development of novel vancomycin analogues against drug-resistant bacteria by enhancing bacterial cell wall interaction. However, hydrophobic structures usually led to long elimination half-life and accumulative toxicity, therefore hydrophilic fragments were also introduced to the lipo-vancomycin to regulate their PK/PD properties. Here, we synthesized a series of new vancomycin analogues carrying various sugar moieties on the 7th-amino acid phenyl ring and lipophilic substitutions on vancosamine with extensive SAR analysis...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243920/novel-terminal-bipheny-based-diapophytoene-desaturases-crtn-inhibitors-as-anti-mrsa-visr-lrsa-agents-with-reduced-herg-activity
#2
Baoli Li, Shuaishuai Ni, Fei Mao, Feifei Chen, Yifu Liu, Hanwen Wei, Wenhua Chen, Jin Zhu, Lefu Lan, Jian Li
CrtN has been identified as an attractive and druggable target for treating pigmented S. aureus infections. More than 100 new compounds were synthesized that target the overwhelming the defects of the CrtN inhibitor 1. Analogs 23a-b demonstrated significant activity against pigmented S. aureus Newman and thirteen MRSA strains (IC50 = 0.02~10.5 nM), along with lower hERG inhibition (IC50 > 30 μM, ~10-fold decrease in comparison with 1). Furthermore, 23a-b were confirmed to reduce the staphylococcal load in the kidney and heart in a mice model with normal treatment deeper than pretreatment ones, comparable even with vancomycin and linezolid...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243494/does-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-clinically-important-antibiotic-induce-biofilm-production-of-enterococcus-faecium-strains
#3
Fatma Neslihan Yuksel, Neslihan Taskale Karatug, Mustafa Akcelik
Biofilm structures are the most resistant form of active microorganisms against sanitation, disinfection, and sterilization processes. One of the specific properties of biofilm is the development of antibiotic resistance that can be up to 1,000-fold greater than planktonic cells. Enterococcus faecium is a human pathogen that causes nosocomial bacteremia and at the present time, it is well known that most of the chronic infections are biofilm-based. Recent evidence suggested that subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics have an important role in the evolution of antibiotic resistance and induction on biofilm formation...
December 15, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242142/use-of-a-penicillin-allergy-screening-algorithm-and-penicillin-skin-testing-for-transitioning-hospitalized-patients-to-first-line-antibiotic-therapy
#4
Allison Ramsey, Mary L Staicu
BACKGROUND: Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported antibiotic allergy. Avoidance of β-lactam antibiotics in hospitalized patients leads to the use of second-line therapies. OBJECTIVE: The utility of a penicillin allergy history algorithm (PAHA) and subsequent penicillin skin testing (PST) in transitioning hospitalized patients from second- to first-line antibiotic therapy is described. METHODS: Through an electronic medical record report, pharmacists identified adult inpatients with penicillin allergy receiving moxifloxacin, intravenous vancomycin, aztreonam, daptomycin, or linezolid, in which a β-lactam antibiotic was preferred...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241362/simplified-teixobactin-analogues-to-target-superbugs
#5
Ishwar Singh
Ishwar Singh speaks to Benjamin Walden, Commissioning Editor. Ishwar Singh is a Senior Lecturer in biological chemistry at the School of Pharmacy, University of Lincoln. Prior to Lincoln, he had held many prestigious fellowships such as the Alexander von Humboldt fellowship, Germany; and Senior Research Fellowship, DANIDA, Denmark and CSIR, India. He is an organic chemist. He has developed bioconjugations for DNA, RNA and polymer modifications. He is currently leading research in novel antimicrobials based on rational design against clinically important resistant bacteria (such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, mycobacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), biologics delivery, peptides, sequence-selective DNA cross linking, nanoparticles modifications for drug delivery and diagnostic applications...
December 15, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240935/letter-the-use-of-vancomycin-powder-for-surgical-prophylaxis-following-craniotomy
#6
Hitesh Gurjar, Varidh Katiyar, Ravi Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240776/microbiological-profile-and-risk-factors-for-in-hospital-mortality-of-infective-endocarditis-in-tertiary-care-hospitals-of-south-vietnam
#7
Hoang M Tran, Vien T Truong, Tam M N Ngo, Quoc P V Bui, Hoang C Nguyen, Trung T Q Le, Wojciech Mazur, Eugene Chung, John M Cafardi, Khanh P N Pham, Hoang H N Duong, Thach Nguyen, Vu T Nguyen, Vinh N Pham
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the microbiological characteristics and risk factors for mortality of infective endocarditis in two tertiary hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, south Vietnam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 189 patients (120 men, 69 women; mean age 38 ± 18 years) with the diagnosis of probable or definite infective endocarditis (IE) according to the modified Duke Criteria admitted to The Heart Institute or Tam Duc Hospital between January 2005 and December 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240697/cymantrenyl-nucleobases-synthesis-anticancer-antitrypanosomal-and-antimicrobial-activity-studies
#8
Artur Jabłoński, Karolina Matczak, Aneta Koceva-Chyła, Kamil Durka, Dietmar Steverding, Katarzyna Jakubiec-Krześniak, Jolanta Solecka, Damian Trzybiński, Krzysztof Woźniak, Vanesa Andreu, Gracia Mendoza, Manuel Arruebo, Krzysztof Kochel, Barbara Krawczyk, Dominik Szczukocki, Konrad Kowalski
The synthesis of four cymantrene-5-fluorouracil derivatives (1-4) and two cymantrene-adenine derivatives (5 and 6) is reported. All of the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods and the crystal structure of two derivatives (1 and 6), together with the previously described cymantrene-adenine compound C was determined by X-ray crystallography. While the compounds 1 and 6 crystallized in the triclinic P-1 space group, compound C crystallized in the monoclinic P2₁/m space group. The newly synthesized compounds 1-6 were tested together with the two previously described cymantrene derivatives B and C for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against seven cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MCF-7/DX, MDA-MB-231, SKOV-3, A549, HepG2m and U-87-MG), five bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive, methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, including clinical isolates of S...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240639/absorbable-antibiotic-beads-prophylaxis-in-immediate-breast-reconstruction
#9
Denise M Kenna, Busayo Irojah, Kimber Lee Mudge, Kendra Eveler
BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction with tissue expander is the most common mode of reconstruction following mastectomy. Infection necessitating tissue expander removal is a significant complication leading to patient distress as well as increased health care costs. METHODS: Over 3 years, 127 breast reconstructions with tissue expanders were performed by a single surgeon. Fifty-nine of these reconstructions were performed using a standardized protocol in which patients washed with chlorhexidine several days prior to surgery and received intravenous antibiotics preoperatively...
December 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238458/bacteriocinogenic-potential-and-virulence-traits-of-enterococcus-faecium-and-e-faecalis-isolated-from-human-milk
#10
Soodabeh Khalkhali, Naheed Mojgani
Background and Objectives: Human milk is a continuous supply of Lactic Acid bacteria (LAB), including enterococci with probiotic potentials. The aim of this study was to analyze two Enterococcus species, isolated from human milk for their probiotic potential, bacteriocin producing ability and virulence traits. Materials and Methods: Enterococcus faecium TA0033 and E. faecalis TA102 were tested for acid and bile tolerance, survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238455/in-vitro-activity-of-recombinant-lysostaphin-in-combination-with-linezolid-vancomycin-and-oxacillin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Nagalakshmi Narasimhaswamy, Indira Bairy, Gautham Shenoy, Laxminarayana Bairy
Background and Objectives: The antimicrobial combination with synergistic mechanism is recommended to provide broad-spectrum coverage, and prevent the emergence of resistant mutants. In the present study, the synergistic activity of lysostaphin with linezolid, oxacillin and vancomycin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates was determined. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three MRSA isolates collected from clinical specimens were tested, for in vitro synergistic activity of lysostaphin with linezolid, vancomycin and oxacillin, by checkerboard assay...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238110/intrawound-vancomycin-powder-as-the-prophylaxis-of-surgical-site-infection-after-invasive-spine-surgery-with-a-high-risk-of-infection
#12
Tetsuro Hida, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Shunsuke Kanbara, Sadayuki Ito, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most serious complications in spine surgery. We investigated the efficacy of locally administered vancomycin (VCM) powder for prophylaxis on SSI after invasive spine surgery. We retrospectively studied 174 consecutive patients who underwent spine surgery. In patients of the VCM group (n = 81), VCM powder was administered in the wound before closing wound. Patients who did not receive VCM treatment were set as a control group (n = 93). We compared the patients' background, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, usage of implants, presence of deep SSI, and side effects between the two groups...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237512/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-vre-in-the-intensive-care-unit-in-a-nonoutbreak-setting-identification-of-potential-reservoirs-and-epidemiological-associations-between-patient-and-environmental-vre
#13
Hélène McDermott, Mairead Skally, James O'Rourke, Hilary Humphreys, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes
OBJECTIVE Among nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by enterococcal species, Ireland has the highest proportion caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Europe at 45.8%. The contribution of the near-patient environment to VRE transmission outside of outbreaks was investigated. DESIGN A prospective observational study was conducted during 7 sampling periods. METHODS Recovery of VRE isolates by swabbing the near-patient environment and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) was conducted to identify reservoirs, clinical and molecular epidemiological associations, and the success of active surveillance cultures (ASCs)...
December 14, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237024/comparative-analysis-of-neutropenia-in-patients-receiving-prolonged-treatment-with-ceftaroline
#14
R Brigg Turner, D Erin Wilson, Henry Saedi-Kwon, Eric Chang, Regina Won, Dominic Chan, Jacqueline Schwartz
Objectives: Ceftaroline is often used in durations greater than that studied in clinical trials. Several retrospective, non-comparative studies have suggested a higher than anticipated incidence of neutropenia in patients receiving prolonged treatment with ceftaroline. We sought to determine if ceftaroline was associated with neutropenia by comparing the incidence with ceftaroline treatment with treatment with several comparative antibiotics. Methods: Patients receiving 14 or more consecutive days of treatment with ceftaroline were compared with patients receiving cefazolin, daptomycin, linezolid, nafcillin or vancomycin (control group)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235661/association-of-higher-daptomycin-dose-%C3%A2-7-mg-kg-with-improved-survival-in-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#15
Tristan T Timbrook, Aisling R Caffrey, Megan K Luther, Vrishali Lopes, Kerry L LaPlante
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines recommend higher daptomycin doses than the daptomycin label dose of 6 mg/kg for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia; however, the evidence supporting this recommendation is from in vitro and cases series studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the daptomycin label dose versus higher daptomycin doses in patients with MRSA bacteremia. DESIGN: Retrospective national cohort study...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232858/novel-effective-small-molecule-antibacterials-against-enterococcus-strains
#16
Kerolos Ashraf, Kaveh Yasrebi, Tobias Hertlein, Knut Ohlsen, Michael Lalk, Andreas Hilgeroth
Enterococcus species cause increasing numbers of infections in hospitals. They contribute to the increasing mortality rates, mostly in patients with comorbidities, who suffer from severe diseases. Enterococcus resistances against most antibiotics have been described, including novel antibiotics. Therefore, there is an ongoing demand for novel types of antibiotics that may overcome bacterial resistances. We discovered a novel class of antibiotics resulting from a simple one-pot reaction of indole and o-phthaldialdehyde...
December 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232034/antibiotic-algae-by-chemical-surface-engineering
#17
Isabel Kerschgens, Karl Gademann
Chemical cell surface engineering is a valuable tool for modifying and altering cellular functions. Herein we report the introduction of an antibiotic phenotype to the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by chemically modifying its cell surface. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies demonstrated that a hybrid of the antibiotic vancomycin and a 4-hydroxyproline oligomer binds reversibly to the cell wall without affecting the viability and motility of the cells. The modified cells were used to inhibit bacterial growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis cultures...
December 12, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230489/-potential-of-allogeneic-bone-grafts-as-antibiotic-carriers-effect-of-different-preparation-processes-on-efficacy
#18
REVIEW
D C Coraça-Huber, M Nogler, K-D Kühn
BACKGROUND: The rising number of primary joint replacements worldwide is causing an increase of endoprosthetic revision surgery due bacterial infection. Revision surgery using non-cemented implants seems beneficial for the long-term outcome, and the use of antibiotic-impregnated bone grafts might control the infection and provide a good support for the implant. In this study, we evaluated the release of antibiotics from fresh-frozen and lyophilized allogeneic bone grafts. METHODS: Heat-treated, lyophilized and fresh frozen cryopreserved bone chips were impregnated with gentamicin sulphate, gentamicin palmitate and vancomycin, and calcium carbonate/calcium sulphate treated with antibiotics...
December 11, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229674/efficacy-and-safety-of-linezolid-compared-with-other-treatments-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-a-meta-analysis
#19
Yan Li, Wei Xu
Linezolid with other treatments for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) has been evaluated in several studies. However, the conclusions remain controversial. By searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate linezolid and other treatments for skin and soft tissue infections. The study was summarized, and the risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Eleven related articles were included in the meta-analysis.  Our results revealed that linezolid was associated with a significantly better clinical (RR=1...
December 11, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229640/adverse-effects-of-intravenous-vancomycin-based-prophylaxis-during-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#20
Yilun Sun, Rachael L Huskey, Li Tang, Hiroto Inaba, Aditya H Gaur, Raul Ribeiro, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Joshua Wolf
Background Children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at risk of life-threatening bacterial infection, especially with viridans group streptococci. Primary antibacterial prophylaxis with vancomycin-based regimens reduces this risk, but might increase risk of renal or liver toxicity, or Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).Methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients treated for newly diagnosed AML at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from 2002 to 2008. Nephrotoxicity was classified according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) criteria, and hepatotoxicity according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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