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Vancomycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229435/design-and-pharmacodynamics-of-recombinant-nz2114-histidine-mutants-with-improved-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Huixian Chen, Ruoyu Mao, Da Teng, Xiumin Wang, Ya Hao, Xingjun Feng, Jianhua Wang
NZ2114 is a promising candidate for therapeutic application owing to its potent activity to Staphylococcus aureus. Our objective was to identify NZ2114 derivatives with improved activity through substitution of His16 and His18 with residues Arginine and Lysine. Eight mutants were designed and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 via pPICZαA. Five of them exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against S. aureus at low minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.057-0.454 μM. Among them, H1, H2, and H3 showed ideal pharmacodynamic effects on methicillin-resistant S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228089/genotypic-characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-spp-in-tertiary-center-iran
#2
Shervin Shokouhi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Matin Rouhani, Mahdiyeh Ghasemnejad
BACKGROUND: Enterococci infection rate, mortality and morbidity has been increased in recent decades accompanied by progressive emerging antimicrobial resistance. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), important pathogen in hospitalized patients, have distinct antibiotic susceptibility to glycopeptides that varied genetically and can influence in choosing therapeutic agents. In this study, we aimed to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance according to the genotypic variations in VREs...
February 10, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226419/evaluation-of-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#3
Tonya L Scardina, Elena Kang Martinez, Neelam Balasubramanian, Mary Fox-Geiman, Scott E Smith, Jorge P Parada
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the impact of hematologic malignancies and/or conditioning regimens on the risk of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Secondary objectives were to determine if traditional CDI risk factors applied to patients undergoing HSCT and to determine the presence of CDI markers of severity of illness among this patient population. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective, case-control study...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225903/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#4
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225897/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#5
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225264/fatty-acid-comprising-lysine-conjugates-anti-mrsa-agents-that-display-in-vivo-efficacy-by-disrupting-biofilms-with-no-resistance-development
#6
Mohini Mohan Konai, Jayanta Haldar
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have developed resistance to antibiotics of last resort such as vancomycin, linezolid and daptomycin. Additionally, their biofilm forming capability has set an alarming situation in the treatment of bacterial infections. Herein we report the potency of fatty acid comprising lysine conjugates as novel anti-MRSA agents, which were not only capable of killing growing planktonic MRSA at low concentration (MIC = 3.1-6.3 µg/mL), but also displayed potent activity against non-dividing stationary phase cells...
February 22, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224769/increasing-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-fluoroquinolone-and-carbapenem-in-gram-negative-bacilli-and-the-emergence-of-carbapenem-non-susceptibility-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-analysis-of-korean-antimicrobial-resistance-monitoring-system-karms
#7
Dokyun Kim, Ji Young Ahn, Chae Hoon Lee, Sook Jin Jang, Hyukmin Lee, Dongeun Yong, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee
BACKGROUND: National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance becomes more important for the control of antimicrobial resistance and determination of treatment guidelines. We analyzed Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (KARMS) data collected from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: Of the KARMS participants, 16 secondary or tertiary hospitals consecutively reported antimicrobial resistance rates from 2013 to 2015. Data from duplicate isolates and institutions with fewer than 20 isolates were excluded...
May 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224048/wound-penetration-of-cefazolin-ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam-and-vancomycin-during-negative-pressure-wound-therapy
#8
Matthew P Rowan, Krista L Niece, Julie A Rizzo, Kevin S Akers
Objective: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) uses subatmospheric pressure as a noninvasive adjunct to treat wounds and has demonstrated clinical efficacy by accelerating healing of a variety of acute and chronic wounds. NPWT may also play a role in preventing or treating wound infections, possibly by increasing wound penetration of antibiotics. However, clinical data in patients undergoing antibiotic and NPWT treatment are limited. Approach: To evaluate the wound penetration of antibiotics in NPWT patients, we conducted a prospective, observational study of burn and trauma patients treated with NPWT and systemic antibiotics...
February 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223450/raising-the-alarmone-within-host-evolution-of-antibiotic-tolerant-enterococcus-faecium
#9
Daria Van Tyne, Michael S Gilmore
Enterococci are ancient commensal bacteria that recently emerged as leading causes of antibiotic-resistant, hospital-acquired infection. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) epitomize why drug-resistant enterococcal infections are a problem: VRE readily colonize the antibiotic-perturbed gastrointestinal (GI) tract where they amplify to large numbers, and from there, they infect other body sites, including the bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical wounds. VRE are resistant to many antimicrobials and host defenses, which facilitates establishment at the site of infection and confounds therapeutic clearance...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223383/requirement-of-the-crors-two-component-system-for-resistance-to-cell-wall-targeting-antimicrobials-in-enterococcus-faecium
#10
Stephanie L Kellogg, Jaime L Little, Jessica S Hoff, Christopher J Kristich
Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell-wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell-wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell-wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell-wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222222/linear-immunoglobulin-a-dermatosis-mimicking-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-a-case-report-of-etanercept-treatment
#11
M Prieto-Barrios, V Velasco-Tamariz, F Tous-Romero, S Burillo-Martinez, C Zarco-Olivo, J L Rodriguez-Peralto, P L Ortiz-Romero
A 65-year-old pluripathological woman attended our hospital with a cutaneous eruption of sudden appearance after vancomycin treatment. She presented targetoid lesions affecting approximately 25-30% of her body surface, large erosions, with mucosal lesions and positive Nikolsky sign. Under the initial clinical suspicion of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), and considering recent literature of its successful use in these cases, she was treated with a single dose of anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (anti-TNF) agent etanercept...
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221837/environmental-occurrence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-profile-of-listeria-monocytogenes-at-a-slaughterhouse-raw-processing-plant-in-romania
#12
Claudia Sala, Adriana Morar, Emil Tîrziu, Ileana Nichita, Mirela Imre, Kálmán Imre
This survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in the environment of a pig slaughterhouse raw processing plant complex in western Romania. A total of 97 environmental samples from food contact (n = 60) and nonfood contact (n = 37) surfaces were examined with standard methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to 17 antimicrobial agents was determined with the VITEK 2 automated system. Overall, 25 (25.8%) samples were positive for L...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219459/reinstatement-of-reflex-testing-of-stool-samples-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-vre-resulted-in-decreased-incidence-of-hospital-associated-vre
#13
Satish Munigala, Kathleen M McMullen, Anthony J Russo, S Reza Jafarzadeh, Joan Hoppe-Bauer, Carey-Ann D Burnham, David K Warren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217115/comparison-between-flow-cytometry-and-traditional-culture-methods-for-efficacy-assessment-of-six-disinfectant-agents-against-nosocomial-bacterial-species
#14
Richard Massicotte, Akier A Mafu, Darakhshan Ahmad, Francis Deshaies, Gilbert Pichette, Pierre Belhumeur
The present study was undertaken to compare the use of flow cytometry (FCM) and traditional culture methods for efficacy assessment of six disinfectants used in Quebec hospitals including: two quaternary ammonium-based, two activated hydrogen peroxide-based, one phenol-based, and one sodium hypochlorite-based. Four nosocomial bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci faecalis, were exposed to minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) and sublethal concentrations (1/2 MLCs) of disinfectants under study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216085/occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-027-in-hospitals-of-silesia-poland
#15
Małgorzata Aptekorz, Anna Szczegielniak, Barbara Wiechuła, Celine Harmanus, Ed Kuijper, Gayane Martirosian
Clostridium difficile is an important healthcare-associated pathogen, responsible for a broad spectrum of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI), to characterize cultured C. difficile strains and to investigate the association of fecal lactoferrin with CDI. Between January 2013 and June 2014, 148 stool samples were obtained from adult diarrheal patients (C. difficile as a suspected pathogen) hospitalized in different healthcare facilities of 15 Silesian hospitals...
February 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216050/vancomycin-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-apoptosis-via-mitochondrial-cardiolipin-peroxidation-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#16
Yuya Sakamoto, Takahisa Yano, Yuki Hanada, Aki Takeshita, Fumika Inagaki, Satohiro Masuda, Naoya Matsunaga, Satoru Koyanagi, Shigehiro Ohdo
Vancomycin (VCM) is a first-line antibiotic for serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, nephrotoxicity is one of the most complaint in VCM therapy. We previously reported that VCM induced apoptosis in a porcine proximal tubular epithelial cell line (LLC-PK1), in which mitochondrial complex I may generate superoxide, leading to cell death. In the present study, VCM caused production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin that was reversed by administration of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP)...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216019/draft-genome-sequence-of-reduced-teicoplanin-susceptible-and-vancomycin-heteroresistant-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-sepsis-cases
#17
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Priyanka Babu, Elakkiya Munuswamy, Thambu David
Here we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of six methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) showing reduced susceptibility to both vancomycin and teicoplanin. The typical Indian community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) clone ST772-MRSA-V-t657 was the most common genotype (3/6; 50%), followed by ST672-MRSA-IV (2/6; 33%) and ST22-MRSA-IV (1/6; 17%). All strains harboured a mutation in the tcaRAB operon, vraSR, graSR and/or rpoB genes, which are frequently mutated determinants in a heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215026/separation-of-peptides-on-superficially-porous-particle-based-macrocyclic-glycopeptide-liquid-chromatography-stationary-phases-consideration-of-fast-separations
#18
Rasangi M Wimalasinghe, Zachary S Breitbach, Jauh T Lee, Daniel W Armstrong
Macrocyclic glycopeptide based liquid chromatography stationary phases are known for their highly selective peptide separations. Fast and ultrafast (t R < 1 min) high-efficiency separations were achieved with superficially porous particle (SPP)-based stationary phases. Separations of pharmaceutically important classes of peptides such as enkephalins and bradykinins have been achieved in less than 5 min in isocratic elution modes. Selectivity for peptides structurally similar to one another was increased with use of teicoplanin-based stationary phases compared with commercial C18 stationary phases...
February 18, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214713/comparative-analysis-of-metagenomes-of-italian-top-soil-improvers
#19
Federica Gigliucci, Gianfranco Brambilla, Rosangela Tozzoli, Valeria Michelacci, Stefano Morabito
Biosolids originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants are proposed as top soil improvers (TSI) for their beneficial input of organic carbon on agriculture lands. Their use to amend soil is controversial, as it may lead to the presence of emerging hazards of anthropogenic or animal origin in the environment devoted to food production. In this study, we used a shotgun metagenomics sequencing as a tool to perform a characterization of the hazards related with the TSIs. The samples showed the presence of many virulence genes associated to different diarrheagenic E...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214101/endophthalmitis-reduction-with-intracameral-moxifloxacin-prophylaxis-analysis-of-600%C3%A2-000-surgeries
#20
Aravind Haripriya, David F Chang, Ravilla D Ravindran
PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative endophthalmitis rate before and after initiation of intracameral (IC) moxifloxacin prophylaxis for both phacoemulsification and sutureless, manual small-incision cataract surgery (M-SICS), as well as in patients with posterior capsular rupture (PCR). DESIGN: Retrospective, clinical registry. PARTICIPANTS: All cataract surgeries (617 453) performed during the 29-month period from January 2014 to May 2016 at the 10 regional Aravind eye hospitals were included...
February 14, 2017: Ophthalmology
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