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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814358/frequency-of-selective-immediate-responders-to-aminopenicillins-and-cephalosporins-in-turkish-children
#1
Emine Dibek Misirlioglu, Hakan Guvenir, Muge Toyran, Emine Vezir, Murat Capanoglu, Ersoy Civelek, Betul Buyuktiryaki, Tayfur Ginis, Can Naci Kocabas
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactam antibiotics (BLA) are the most commonly prescribed antibiotics and are responsible for the majority of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to drugs in children. Cross-reactivity is important in hypersensitivity to BLAs because these drugs all share a common beta-lactam structure and some share similar side chains. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients who are diagnosed with immediate-type BLA hypersensitivity and frequency of patients with side chain hypersensitivity, "selective responders...
September 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814344/microbial-phylogeny-determines-transcriptional-response-of-resistome-to-dynamic-composting-processes
#2
Cheng Wang, Da Dong, P J Strong, Weijing Zhu, Zhuang Ma, Yong Qin, Weixiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that pose a potential health risk globally, especially for resistance to the antibiotics commonly used in livestock production (such as tetracycline, sulfonamide, and fluoroquinolone). Currently, the effects of biological treatment (composting) on the transcriptional response of manure ARGs and their microbial hosts are not well characterized. Composting is a dynamic process that consists of four distinct phases that are distinguished by the temperature resulting from microbial activity, namely the mesophilic, thermophilic, cooling, and maturing phases...
August 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811343/comparative-genomics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-and-other-extraintestinal-infections
#3
Amit Ranjan, Sabiha Shaik, Nishant Nandanwar, Arif Hussain, Sumeet K Tiwari, Torsten Semmler, Savita Jadhav, Lothar H Wieler, Munirul Alam, Rita R Colwell, Niyaz Ahmed
Escherichia coli, an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional and genetic coordinates for ExPEC strains associated with these different types of infections have not proven conclusive...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810864/molecular-determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-raw-meat-in-addis-ababa-and-bishoftu-ethiopia
#4
Yohannes Equar Messele, Reta Duguma Abdi, Shimels Tikuye Yalew, Desiye Tesfaye Tegegne, Bezina Arega Emeru, Gebremeskel Mamu Werid
BACKGROUND: Consumption of meat contaminated by E. coli causes a serious illness and even death to affected individuals. Recently the emerging of antibiotic resistant foodborne E. coli poses serious public health risks worldwide. However, little is known about the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) status of E. coli isolated from different type of meat. METHODS: Overall 292 samples were collected from December 2015 to April 2016 from slaughterhouses to determine the prevalence and AMR of E...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808578/antibiotic-use-during-pregnancy-a-retrospective-study-of-prescription-patterns-and-birth-outcomes-at-an-antenatal-clinic-in-rural-ghana
#5
Kwesi Boadu Mensah, Kwame Opoku-Agyeman, Charles Ansah
BACKGROUND: Babies are increasingly being exposed to antibiotics intrapartum in the bid to reduce neonatal and maternal deaths. Intrapartum antibiotic exposure, including even those considered safe in pregnancy, have been associated with childhood obesity and compromised immunity. Data on the extent of antibiotic use, safety and its impact on birth outcomes and neonatal health in Sub-Saharan Africa is very limited. This study sought to ascertain the extent of antibiotic use in pregnancy and its effects on birth outcomes in a rural hospital in Ghana...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800411/antimicrobial-resistance-and-resistance-genes-in-salmonella-strains-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-along-the-slaughtering-process-in-china
#6
Yuanting Zhu, Haimei Lai, Likou Zou, Sheng Yin, Chengtao Wang, Xinfeng Han, Xiaolong Xia, Kaidi Hu, Li He, Kang Zhou, Shujuan Chen, Xiaolin Ao, Shuliang Liu
A total of 189 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 627 samples which were collected from cecal contents of broilers, chicken carcasses, chicken meat after cutting step and frozen broiler chicken products along the slaughtering process at a slaughterhouse in Sichuan province of China. The Salmonella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 10 categories of antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Those antibiotics-resistant isolates were further investigated for the occurrence of resistance genes, the presence of class 1 integron as well as the associated gene cassettes, and the mutations within the gyrA and parC genes...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799307/guiding-principles-for-the-use-of-fluroquinolones-in-out-patient-community-settings-of-india-panel-consensus
#7
Agam Vora, K Krishnaprasad
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections have been an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide that is looming large especially in context of antibiotic resistance that is confronted both by a pulmonologist as well as a general practitioner. A reflection to this trend has been the rising phenomenon of MICs as shown the respiratory pathogens towards conventional antibiotics including macrolides or β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Respiratory fluoroquinolones offer broad yet potent cover of respiratory pathogens leading to their obvious choice for empirical therapy for clinical persisters or high risk cases with prior history of antibiotics not-withstanding the clinical concerns in tropical countries...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790203/the-in-feed-antibiotic-carbadox-induces-phage-gene-transcription-in-the-swine-gut-microbiome
#8
Timothy A Johnson, Torey Looft, Andrew J Severin, Darrell O Bayles, Daniel J Nasko, K Eric Wommack, Adina Howe, Heather K Allen
Carbadox is a quinoxaline-di-N-oxide antibiotic fed to over 40% of young pigs in the United States that has been shown to induce phage DNA transduction in vitro; however, the effects of carbadox on swine microbiome functions are poorly understood. We investigated the in vivo longitudinal effects of carbadox on swine gut microbial gene expression (fecal metatranscriptome) and phage population dynamics (fecal dsDNA viromes). Microbial metagenome, transcriptome, and virome sequences were annotated for taxonomic inference and gene function by using FIGfam (isofunctional homolog sequences) and SEED subsystems databases...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789974/beta-lactam-combination-therapy-for-treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-enterococcus-species-bacteremias-a-summary-and-appraisal-of-the-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Rachel Bartash, Priya Nori
Staphylococcal and Enterococcal bacteremias are prevalent in hospitalized, or recently instrumented patients, and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. They are often difficult to treat due to the pathogenicity of the organisms, poor response to antibiotics, and increasing development of multidrug resistance. Therefore, there has been increasing interest in combination therapy for treatment of these infections. This review aims to summarize and assess the evidence supporting combination beta-lactam therapy for both Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species blood stream infections...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783909/an-underappreciated-hotspot-of-antibiotic-resistance-the-groundwater-near-the-municipal-solid-waste-landfill
#10
Qing-Lin Chen, Hu Li, Xin-Yuan Zhou, Yi Zhao, Jian-Qiang Su, Xian Zhang, Fu-Yi Huang
Landfills are so far the most common practice for the disposals of municipal solid waste (MSW) worldwide. Since MSW landfill receives miscellaneous wastes, including unused/expired antibiotics and bioactive wastes, it gradually becomes a huge potential bioreactor for breeding antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in landfill can flow to the environment through leakage of landfill leachate and pose a risk to public health. Using high throughput quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (HT-qPCR), we investigated the prevalence, diversity of ARGs and its association with various mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in MSW landfill groundwater...
July 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777819/infection-stage-adjusted-dose-of-beta-lactams-for-parsimonious-and-efficient-antibiotic-treatments-a-pasteurella-multocida-experimental-pneumonia-in-mice
#11
Maleck V Vasseur, Marlene Z Lacroix, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Alain Bousquet-Melou, Aude A Ferran
In this study, the impact of infection stage on clinically and microbiologically efficacious doses and on antibiotic consumption was assessed during a naturally evolving infectious disease, using an original mouse model of pulmonary infection produced by air-borne contamination. When Pasteurella multocida was administered as pathogenic agent to immunocompetent mice, 60% of the animals exhibited clinical symptoms of pneumonia 2 to 4 days after bacterial contamination of the lungs. Two beta-lactam antibiotics were evaluated: amoxicillin and cefquinome, a fourth generation cephalosporin developed for food animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776100/dalbavancin-for-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-a%C3%A2-returning-traveller-proposal-for-novel-treatment-indications
#12
Johannes Mischlinger, Heimo Lagler, Nicole Harrison, Michael Ramharter
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most common health problems in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical countries. Importantly, the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, the most common pathogen for purulent SSTIs, with specific drug resistance, such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and those expressing virulence genes, such as Panton-Valentine-leukocidin is higher in tropical regions than in most high resource settings. This poses challenges for the empirical antimicrobial treatment of SSTIs in returning travellers...
August 3, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776045/whole-genome-sequencing-of-human-clinical-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-reveals-misidentification-and-misunderstandings-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-klebsiella-variicola-and-klebsiella-quasipneumoniae
#13
S Wesley Long, Sarah E Linson, Matthew Ojeda Saavedra, Concepcion Cantu, James J Davis, Thomas Brettin, Randall J Olsen
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major threat to public health, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The emergence of highly drug-resistant strains is particularly concerning. There has been a recognition and division of Klebsiella pneumoniae into three distinct phylogenetic groups: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella variicola, and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae have often been described as opportunistic pathogens that have less virulence in humans than K. pneumoniae does...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760891/influence-of-beta-lactam-infusion-strategy-on-acute-kidney-injury
#14
Sarah E Cotner, W Cliff Rutter, Donna R Burgess, Katie L Wallace, Craig A Martin, David S Burgess
Background Limited literature is available assessing nephrotoxicity with prolonged beta-lactam infusions. This study compared the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with a prolonged beta-lactam infusion (PI) or an intermittent infusion.Methods. This was a retrospective, matched cohort study at an academic medical center from July 2006 to September 2015. Adult patients who received piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP), cefepime (FEP), or meropenem (MEM) for at least 48 hours were evaluated. Patients were excluded for pre-existing renal dysfunction or pregnancy...
July 31, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754229/-hypersensitivity-reactions-to-beta-lactam-antibiotics
#15
E Amsler, A Soria
Allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics is a common condition and about 10% of patients report being allergic to penicillin. However, this diagnosis is largely overestimated. Two types of allergy should be distinguished and include immediate hypersensitivity that can lead to anaphylactic shock and delayed hypersensitivity, ranging from the most common maculopapular exanthema to severe bullous toxidermia or life-threatening DRESS. Allergy challenge with oriented skin tests according to the clinical features, supplemented with oral challenge in the absence of contraindication, will confirm or invalidate the diagnosis of beta-lactam allergy and will help to identify if necessary safe alternatives to beta-lactams...
July 25, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752367/update-on-quinolone-allergy
#16
REVIEW
Inmaculada Doña, Esther Moreno, Natalia Pérez-Sánchez, Inmaculada Andreu, Dolores Hernández Fernandez de Rojas, María José Torres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quinolones are a group of synthetic antibiotics widely use as first-line treatment for many infections. There has been an increase in the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to quinolones in recent years, likely due to increased prescription. The purpose of this review is to summarize the clinical pictures, the methods used for diagnosing and the management of allergic reactions to quinolones. RECENT FINDINGS: Allergic reactions to quinolones can be immediate or delayed, being anaphylaxis and maculopapular exanthema respectively the most frequent clinical entities...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750653/bacteraemic-urinary-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-japan-the-epidemiology-of-community-acquired-infections-and-the-role-of-non-carbapenem-therapy
#17
Momoko Mawatari, Kayoko Hayakawa, Yoshihiro Fujiya, Kei Yamamoto, Satoshi Kutsuna, Nozomi Takeshita, Norio Ohmagari
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of bacteraemic urinary tract infections (UTIs), especially those that were community-acquired (i.e., with no discernible healthcare-associated exposure) and caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE). We also evaluated and compared empirical antimicrobial treatments [carbapenem (CBP) vs. non-carbapenem beta-lactam (non-CBPBL)] for bacteraemic UTIs. Finally, we reviewed the published literature on the effectiveness of non-CBP compared to CBP treatments for UTIs caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms...
July 27, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749999/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-the-progenitor-of-a-new-class-of-cephalosporin-analogues-with-a-particular-focus-on-structure-based-computational-analysis
#18
Anna Verdino, Giovanni Vigliotta, Deborah Giordano, Ivana Caputo, Annunziata Soriente, Margherita De Rosa, Anna Marabotti
We present the synthesis and biological evaluation of the prototype of a new class of cephalosporins, containing an additional isolated beta lactam ring with two phenyl substituents. This new compound is effective against Gram positive microorganisms, with a potency similar to that of ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin widely used in clinics and taken as a reference, and with no cytotoxicity against two different human cell lines, even at a concentration much higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749938/the-mecillinam-resistome-reveals-a-role-for-peptidoglycan-endopeptidases-in-stimulating-cell-wall-synthesis-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Ghee Chuan Lai, Hongbaek Cho, Thomas G Bernhardt
Bacterial cells are typically surrounded by an net-like macromolecule called the cell wall constructed from the heteropolymer peptidoglycan (PG). Biogenesis of this matrix is the target of penicillin and related beta-lactams. These drugs inhibit the transpeptidase activity of PG synthases called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), preventing the crosslinking of nascent wall material into the existing network. The beta-lactam mecillinam specifically targets the PBP2 enzyme in the cell elongation machinery of Escherichia coli...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744267/the-staphylococcus-aureus-%C3%AE-acetolactate-synthase-als-confers-resistance-to-nitrosative-stress
#20
Sandra M Carvalho, Anne de Jong, Tomas G Kloosterman, Oscar P Kuipers, Lígia M Saraiva
Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that colonizes the human nasal cavity and is a major cause of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In the nasal cavity, S. aureus thrives with high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) produced by the innate immune effectors and has available for growth slow-metabolizing free hexoses, such as galactose. Here, we have used deep sequencing transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq) and (1)H-NMR to uncover how S. aureus grown on galactose, a major carbon source present in the nasopharynx, survives the deleterious action of NO...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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