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Xin-Li An, Qing-Lin Chen, Dong Zhu, Jian-Qiang Su
Struvite recovered from wastewater is promising for recycling phosphorus into soil as fertilizers. However, struvite application may prompt the proliferation of antibiotic resistance in soil and plant. This study examined the impacts of struvite application and biochar amendment on integrons abundance and gene cassette contexts in rhizosphere soil and phyllosphere using quantitative PCR and clone library analysis. Microcosm experiments revealed that class 1 integron was the most prevalent in all samples, with higher concentration and higher relative abundance in rhizosphere than those in phyllosphere...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Aliakbar Rezaei, Hossein Fazeli, Mehdi Moghadampour, Mehrdad Halaji, Jamshid Faghri
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important bacterial species with the ability to produce OXA-type carbapenemases. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of OXA-type carbapenemases among clinical isolates of A. baumannii in three major hospitals of Isfahan. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 153 non-repeated strains of A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Al-Zahra, Imam Mousa Kazem, and Shariati hospitals from October 2015 to October 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline was performed using the disk diffusion method...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Mohammed Frikh, Lemnouer Abdelhay, Kasouati Jalal, Yaagoubi Imad, Benlahlou Yassine, Belfquih Bouchra, Maleb Adil, Elouennass Mostafa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to assess the epidemiological profile and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolates in burn patients hospitalized from 2007 to 2015 in a Moroccan hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 627 samples, 451 wounds, 126 blood cultures, and 50 catheter samples were analyzed. A total of 610 microorganisms were isolated from a total of 108 patients. RESULTS: The most prevalent isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18...
January 26, 2018: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
Nobuo Saito, Noriko Takamura, Grace P Retuerma, Carina H Frayco, Paul S Solano, Cherlyn D Ubas, Arianne V Lintag, Maricel R Ribo, Rontgene M Solante, Alexis Q Dimapilis, Elizabeth O Telan, Winston S Go, Motoi Suzuki, Koya Ariyoshi, Christopher M Parry
The widespread unregulated use of antibiotics without medical consultation contributes to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Southeast Asian countries. This study investigated antibiotic use before hospital consultation. In a prospective observational study from February 2, 2015, to July 2, 2015, we enrolled febrile patients attending the emergency room in San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, the Philippines. A urine sample was collected and a bioassay was used to detect antibiotic activity in urine using Bacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC7953), Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), and Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC19615)...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nathaniel J Rhodes, Caroline E Cruce, J Nicholas O'Donnell, Richard G Wunderink, Alan R Hauser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are frequent causes of infection among critically ill patients. VAP is the most common hospital-acquired bacterial infection among mechanically ventilated patients. Unfortunately, many of the nosocomial Gram-negative bacteria that cause VAP are increasingly difficult to treat. Additionally, the evolution and dissemination of multi- and pan-drug resistant strains leave clinicians with few treatment options. VAP patients represent a dynamic population at risk for antibiotic failure and under-dosing due to altered antibiotic pharmacokinetic parameters...
March 6, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Xavier Argemi, Chimène Nanoukon, Dissou Affolabi, Daniel Keller, Yves Hansmann, Philippe Riegel, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Gilles Prévost
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, majorly resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, and may transfer several mobile genetic elements among the members of its own species, as well as to Staphylococcus aureus ; however, a genetic exchange from S. aureus to S. epidermidis remains controversial. We recently identified two pathogenic clinical strains of S. epidermidis that produce a staphylococcal enterotoxin C3-like (SEC) similar to that by S. aureus pathogenicity islands. This study aimed to determine the genetic environment of the SEC-coding sequence and to identify the mobile genetic elements...
February 25, 2018: Toxins
Ashok Mahashur
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a broad terminology which includes acute bronchitis, pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/chronic bronchitis (AECB), and acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis. Acute LRTIs (ALRTIs) are one of the common clinical problems in community and hospital settings. Management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and AECB may pose challenges because of diagnostic difficulty in differentiating infections caused by typical and atypical microorganisms and rising rates of antimicrobial resistance...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Yoel Gil, Yonit Well-Weiner, Tod Zalut, Reuven Friedmann, Amos M Yinnon, Eli Ben-Chetrit
Blood cultures' contamination (BCC) is associated with unnecessary processing of cultures, higher cost, and occasionally, unjustified antibiotic treatment. We aimed to reduce the rate of BCC by educational intervention. In parallel, we also strove to expand the use of aminoglycosides (AMG) and reduce the utilization of beta-lactam antibiotics. The rate of BCC was assessed prospectively in the study department - the Emergency Department (ED) and in control departments - Medical Departments A, B and Geriatrics...
February 2018: Harefuah
Katharina Schaufler, Kathrin Nowak, Ariane Düx, Torsten Semmler, Laura Villa, Laye Kourouma, Karim Bangoura, Lothar H Wieler, Fabian H Leendertz, Sebastian Guenther
High-risk ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) have been described in wild birds and rodents worldwide. Rats are of special interest not only due to their indicator role for environmental pollution with multi-resistant bacteria but also as possible infection source. Data on the presence of high-risk ESBL-E in urban wildlife from Africa remain scarce, however. Twenty-nine animals from three different rat ( Rattus ) species were captured in the city of Conakry (Guinea, West Africa) in 2015. Rectal swabs were analyzed for ESBL-E using selective media...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Madhumanti Halder, Subham Mookerjee, Prasenjit Batabyal, Anup Palit
Diarrhoea remains a global public health enigma raising deep concerns for the health planners since contaminated potable water often spoils the community health structure. We hereby report a 6-year odd continuing outbreak surveillance report based on potable water indices, during which 264 water samples were screened from different districts of West Bengal, India. Samples were analysed for the presence of different enteropathogenic bacterial species by conventional molecular tools and their sensitivity to antibiotics...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Anouk E Muller, Benedikt Huttner, Angela Huttner
Antibiotics are among the medications most frequently administered to the critically ill, a population with high levels of intra- and inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. Our knowledge of the relationships among antibiotic dosing, exposure and clinical effect in this population has increased in recent decades. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of serum antibiotic concentrations is the most practical means of assessing adequate antibiotic exposure, though until recently, it has been underutilised for this end...
February 23, 2018: Drugs
Xin-Li An, Qing-Lin Chen, Dong Zhu, Yong-Guan Zhu, Michael R Gillings, Jian-Qiang Su
The integron platform allows the acquisition, expression, and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes within gene cassettes. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains abundant resistance genes; however, the knowledge about the impacts of wastewater treatment on integrons and their gene cassettes is limited. Here, by using clone library analysis and high-throughput sequencing, we investigated the abundance of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons and their corresponding gene cassettes in three urban WWTPs. Our results showed that class 1 integrons were most abundant in WWTPs and wastewater treatment significantly reduced the abundance of all integrons...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kacie E Clark, Mary E Briand, Om Kapoor, Ameen Pirasteh
METHODS: This quasi-experimental study compared the aztreonam utilization in patients with self-reported beta-lactam allergies admitted to an inpatient service between two study periods (pre- and post-implementation). Post-implementation followed the initiation of a standardized beta-lactam allergy questionnaire, a student pharmacist-driven performance improvement project for beta-lactam allergy documentation. Interviews clarified the allergy, reaction history, and any previous tolerance of beta-lactams...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
M N Islam, D Ahmed, M A Hossain, C R Ahsan, M Yasmin
Antimicrobial drug resistance, a global concern, has been increasing unpredictably in microorganism causing human infections specially among Gram negative non-fermenting Pseudomonas spp. Carbapenems, a beta lactam antibiotics, are the most potent and effective drug usually kept reserved for treating the multi-drug resistant Psedomonas spp and other infections caused by organisms producing Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC. Clinical utility of carbapenem will reduce when resistant bacteria evolve due to production of carbapenem hydrolyzing Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) which confers high-level resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics except aztreonam...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Oriel Spierer, Darlene Miller, Terrence P O'Brien
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are emerging corneal pathogens, which are closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and have intrinsic resistance to many commonly available antimicrobials. The purpose of this study is to compare the in vitro efficacy of 12 antimicrobial agents against A. xylosoxidans , S. maltophilia and P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from clinical cases of keratitis. METHODS: Recovered corneal isolates (n=58) were identified and extracted from the Microbiology Data Bank of the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
A R Domínguez-Alegría, V Pintado, I Barbolla
Invasive pneumococcal disease is a severe infection that mainly affects patients with associated comorbidity. The paediatric conjugate vaccination has resulted in a change in the adult vaccination strategy. The antibiotic resistance of pneumococcus is not currently a severe problem. Nevertheless, the World Health Organisation has included pneumococcus among the bacteria whose treatment requires the introduction of new drugs, such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole. Although the scientific evidence is still limited, the combination of beta-lactams and macrolides is recommended as empiric therapy for bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia...
February 12, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
Beatríz Quintero Moreno, María Araque
We analyzed genetics mechanisms of antibiotics resistance, clonal composition and pili in forty eight MDR-pneumococci isolated from healthy children in Mérida, Venezuela. Intermediate resistance to penicillin was related to variations on pbp2b and pbp2x genes. High-level resistance to penicillin, low susceptibility to cephalosporins and carbapenems were associated with alterations on pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x genes. Non-beta-lactam resistance was associated with Tn3872, Tn5253, Tn6002, Tn2010 transposons. Macrolide-resistant strains carried ermB or mefE, but not the mefA gene...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Eva De Backer, Heidi Hannon
Objective and importance Flucloxacillin is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic with activity against penicillinase producing staphylococci and streptococci. Severe hypokalaemia is an uncommon, but serious adverse effect in patients treated with penicillin derivates. Clinical presentation We report a case of severe hypokalaemia in a patient treated with high dose intravenous flucloxacillin. Conclusion This case report highlights the importance of monitoring electrolytes during treatment with high dose flucloxacillin...
February 15, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Xiaoquan Li, Shujuan Fan, Xiaojie Lin, Li Liu, Jie Zheng, Xihui Zhou, Axel Heep
RATIONALE: Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis (EGM) is rarely found in normal adults and even rarer in children. To our knowledge, EGM in neonate has not been reported previously. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Here we reported the first case of EGM in neonate. Prolonged fever was the only manifestation for the case after admission. DIAGNOSES: Cerebrospinal fluid cultures showed that the isolate was Enterococcus gallinarum and sensitive to linezolid. INTERVENTIONS: Ceftriaxone, beta lactam type, and vancomycin were used respectively, but not effective...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mathias W Pletz, Sebastian Weis, Christina Forstner, Florian Wagenlehner
Urosepsis is defined as a severe disease due to organ failure caused by a urinary tract infection. An empirical antibiotic therapy should be instigated within the first hour after diagnosis. Urine cultures and blood cultures should be performed before antibiotic treatment. Further diagnostics should be carried out at an early stage to enable an interventional focus control in the case of urinary tract obstruction or abscess formation, if necessary. Gram-negative pathogens are most frequently isolated. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) forming bacteria as a cause of urosepsis are increasing...
February 7, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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