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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138650/evaluation-of-antibiotic-self-medication-among-outpatients-of-the-state-university-hospital-of-port-au-prince-haiti-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Kenny Moise, Joseph Junior Bernard, Jean Hugues Henrys
In Haiti, where all drugs are available over the counter, self-medication with antibiotics appears as a common practice. Inappropriate use of beta-lactams and macrolides is likely to contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to (i) assess the extent of self-medication with antibiotics, (ii) explore the contributing factors (age, gender and educational background) and (iii) identify specific antibiotic drug classes used among patients attending the outpatient clinic of the State University Hospital of Port-au-Prince...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133211/beta-lactam-resistance-among-enterobacteriaceae-in-cambodia-the-four-year-itch
#2
REVIEW
Yannick Caron, Rattanak Chheang, Puthea Nop, Soda Meng, Sébastien Boyer, Arnaud Tarantola, Alexandra Kerléguer
Although antibiotics are too often used inappropriately in Cambodia, few data have been published on antimicrobial resistance in this country. Epidemic dissemination and the transfer of resistance genes to other bacterial species put the population at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) isolated in consecutive samples tested at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC) over a four-year period (2012-2015)...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127502/piperacillin-tazobactam-as-alternative-to-carbapenems-for-icu-patients
#3
REVIEW
Benoit Pilmis, Vincent Jullien, Alexis Tabah, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Christian Brun-Buisson
Several studies suggest that alternatives to carbapenems, and particulary beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, can be used for therapy of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE)-related infections in non-ICU patients. Little is known concerning ICU patients in whom achieving the desired plasmatic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target may be difficult. Also, in vitro susceptibility to beta-lactamase inhibitors might not translate into clinical efficacy. We reviewed the recent clinical studies examining the use of BL/BLI as alternatives to carbapenems for therapy of bloodstream infection, PK/PD data and discuss potential ecological benefit from avoiding the use of carbapenems...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119059/the-bacteriological-profile-of-the-burned-patients-in-the-center-of-burns-in-chu-mohamed-vi-marrakech-about-123-cases
#4
Yassine Benchamkha, Ouafaa Dhaidah, Adil Dahazze, Quaboul Meriem, Moulay Driss Elamrani, Salwa Ettalbi
The bacterial nosocomial infection is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for burned patient; we conducted a retrospective study of 123 patients hospitalized in the burns center CHUMED VI of Marrakechover a period of 3 years, from January 1(st), 2013 to December 31(st), 2016. The criteria for nosocomial infection were those of the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta in 1988. Incidence rates were calculated. The bacterial ecology of the department was described as also antibiotype. The predominancy of the population was male...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118173/mecc-mrsa-hiding-in-plain-sight
#5
Bradley A Ford
Previously there was scant data on the performance of laboratory testing to detect mecC-mediated beta lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Kriegeskorte and colleagues [https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00826-17; reference] report the performance of various clinical tests for the detection of mecC-MRSA, which failed to identify from zero to 41% of tested mecC-MRSA isolates. Changes in practice and new test development are necessary to address the challenge of mecC-MRSA...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116616/correction-to-continuous-infusion-versus-intermittent-bolus-of-beta-lactams-in-critically-ill-patients-with-respiratory-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Young R Lee, Pamela D Miller, Saeed K Alzghari, Delilah D Blanco, Jackson D Hager, Kailey S Kuntz
Unfortunately, ≥ was found missing between scores and 20 in conclusion section of the online published article. The original article was corrected.
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116010/multi-drug-resistance-and-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-from-chicken-meat-in-bharatpur-metropolitan-nepal
#7
Anil Shrestha, Anup Muni Bajracharya, Hemraj Subedi, Raju Shah Turha, Sachin Kafle, Saroj Sharma, Sunil Neupane, Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug resistance (MDR) and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producer Gram negative bacteria are considered as a major health problem, globally. ESBL enzyme hydrolyses the beta lactam ring of third generation cephalosporins, which alters the structure of the antibiotic. Due to the modification in structure of the antibiotic, bacteria show resistance to these antibiotics. Resistant bacterial strains are transmitted to humans from animals through consumption of uncooked meat, through contact with uncooked meat and meat surfaces...
November 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109700/exploring-the-genome-and-phenotype-of-multi-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-of-clinical-origin
#8
João Anes, Daniel Hurley, Marta Martins, Séamus Fanning
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important nosocomial pathogen with an extraordinary resistant phenotype due to a combination of acquired resistant-elements and efflux mechanisms. In this study a detailed molecular characterization of 11 K. pneumoniae isolates of clinical origin was carried out. Eleven clinical isolates were tested for their susceptibilities, by disk diffusion and broth microdilution and interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Efflux activity was determined by measuring the extrusion of ethidium bromide and biofilm formation was assessed following static growth in Müeller-Hinton and minimal media M9 broths at two temperatures and time points...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104098/stigmasterol-an-adjuvant-for-beta-lactam-antibiotics-against-beta-lactamase-positive-clinical-isolates
#9
Tong Woei Yenn, Muhammad Arslan Khan, Nur Amiera Syuhada, Leong Chean Ring, Darah Ibrahim, Wen-Nee Tan
The emergence of beta lactamase producing bacterial strains eliminated the use of beta lactam antibiotics as chemotherapeutic alternative. Beta lactam antibiotics can be coupled with non-antibiotic adjuvants to combat these multidrug resistant strains. We study the synergistic antibiotic effect of stigmasterol as adjuvant of ampicillin against clinical isolates. Ampicillin was used in this study as a beta lactam antibiotic model. All test bacteria were beta lactamase producing clinical isolates. The combination showed significantly better antibiotic activity on all bacteria tested...
November 7, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100867/the-combined-utility-of-ex%C3%A2-vivo-ifn-%C3%AE-release-enzyme-linked-immunospot-assay-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-skin%C3%A2-testing-in-patients-with-antibiotic-associated-severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions
#10
Jason A Trubiano, Kaija Strautins, Alec J Redwood, Rebecca Pavlos, Katherine C Konvinse, Ar Kar Aung, Monica A Slavin, Karin A Thursky, M Lindsay Grayson, Elizabeth J Phillips
BACKGROUND: For severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) associated with multiple antibiotics dosed concurrently, clinical causality is challenging and diagnostic approaches are limited, leading to constricted future antibiotic choices. OBJECTIVE: To examine the combined utility of in vivo and ex vivo diagnostic approaches at assigning drug causality in a cohort of patients with antibiotic-associated (AA)-SCARs. METHODS: Patients with AA-SCARs were prospectively recruited between April 2015 and February 2017...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098663/antibiotics-reduce-retinal-cell-survival-in-vitro
#11
Amy E Lindsey, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Antibiotics such as gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) and penicillin (a beta-lactam antibiotic) are routinely used in retinal cell and explant cultures. In many cases, these in vitro systems are testing parameters regarding photoreceptor transplantation or preparing cells for transplantation. In vivo, milligram doses of gentamicin are neurotoxic to the retina. However, little is known about the effects of antibiotics to retina in vitro and whether smaller doses of gentamicin are toxic to retinal cells. To test toxicity, retinal cells were dissociated from tiger salamander, placed in culture, and treated with either 20 μg/ml gentamicin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 100 U/ml antibiotic/antimycotic, 0...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096171/considerations-for-effect-site-pharmacokinetics-to-estimate-drug-exposure-concentrations-of-antibiotics-in-the-lung
#12
REVIEW
Keith A Rodvold, William W Hope, Sara E Boyd
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and microdialysis have become the most reliable and relevant methods for measuring lung concentrations of antibiotics, with the majority of BAL studies involving either healthy adult subjects or patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy. Emphasis on the amount of drug that reaches the site of infection is increasingly recognized as necessary to determine whether a dose selection will translate to good clinical outcomes in the treatment of patients with pneumonia. Observed concentrations and/or parameters of exposure (e...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080413/a-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-piperacillin-and-tazobactam-in-plasma-total-and-unbound-urine-and-renal-replacement-therapy-effluent
#13
Saiyuri Naicker, Yarmarly C Guerra Valero, Jenny L Ordenez Meija, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts, Steven C Wallis, Suzanne L Parker
Piperacillin-tazobactam is a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase combination antibiotic used in patients with moderate to severe infection. Dosing of piperacillin-tazobactam requires an understanding of this patient group to maximise the effectiveness of this antibiotic and limit a further emergence of resistant pathogens. This is the first method that measures piperacillin and tazobactam simultaneously, across this range of clinically-relevant biological matrices. The calibration line was linear across the concentration range of 0...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079617/staphylococcus-edaphicus-sp-nov-isolated-in-antarctica-harbours-mecc-gene-and-genomic-islands-with-suspected-role-in-adaptation-to-extreme-environment
#14
Roman Pantůček, Ivo Sedláček, Adéla Indráková, Veronika Vrbovská, Ivana Mašlaňová, Vojtěch Kovařovic, Pavel Švec, Stanislava Králová, Lucie Krištofová, Jana Kekláková, Petr Petráš, Jiří Doškař
Two Gram-stain-positive, coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains were isolated from abiotic sources, stone fragments and sandy soil in James Ross Island, Antarctica. Here we describe properties of novel species of the genus Staphylococcus that has near identical 16S rRNA gene sequence to Staphylococcus saprophyticus However, compared to S. saprophyticus and the next closest relatives, the new species demonstrates considerable phylogenetic distance at whole genome level, average nucleotide identity <85 %, and inferred DNA-DNA hybridization <30%...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076442/-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-netherlands-unnoticed-spread-to-several-regions
#15
T Leenstra, T Bosch, A L Vlek, M J M Bonten, I M van der Lubben, S C de Greeff
- Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), including Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, are only sporadically seen in the Netherlands and then mainly in patients who have been transferred from foreign hospitals.- CPE are resistant to virtually all beta-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, e.g., meropenem and imipenem. Several genes, e.g., OXA-48, KPC and NDM-1, code for carbapenemase enzymes that deactivate carbapenems.- Control of CPE focuses on timely identification of patients who are infected or are carriers and the application of preventive measures to prevent spread...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062960/proteome-wide-alterations-in-an-industrial-clavulanic-acid-producing-strain-of-streptomyces-clavuligerus
#16
Eser Ünsaldı, Aslıhan Kurt-Kızıldoğan, Birgit Voigt, Dörte Becher, Gülay Özcengiz
The usefulness of genetic/metabolic engineering for further improvement of industrial strains is subject of discussion because of the general lack of knowledge on genetic alterations introduced by iterative cycles of random mutagenesis in such strains. An industrial clavulanic acid (CA)-overproducer Streptomyces clavuligerus DEPA was assessed to understand proteome-wide changes that have occurred in a local industrial CA overproducer developed through succesive mutagenesis programs. The proteins that could be identified corresponded to 33 distinct ORFs for underrepresented ones and 60 ORFs for overrepresented ones...
March 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062329/dissemination-and-genetic-support-of-broad-spectrum-beta-lactam-resistant-escherichia-coli-strain-isolated-from-two-tunisian-hospitals-during-2004-2012
#17
Khaoula Ayari, Amel Bourouis, Hela Chihi, Sihem Mahrouki, Thierry Naas, Omrane Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria presented a great concern worldwide. Gram-negative organisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most frequently isolated pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate and to follow the emergence of resistance and the characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) among broad-spectrum beta-lactam-Escherichia coli clinical isolates recovered from the military hospital and Habib Thameur hospital in Tunisia...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058340/molecular-typing-and-occurrence-of-beta-lactam-resistance-genes-of-shigella-sonnei-strains-isolated-during-1983-2014-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-in-brazil
#18
Amanda Ap Seribelli, Miliane R Frazão, Marta I Cazentini Medeiros, Eliana G Stehling, Juliana P Falcão
Shigella sonnei is generally associated with dysentery in developed countries; but it has recently emerged in developing countries. Specifically, in Brazil there are few published studies that molecularly characterized this species. The aims of this study were to analyze the efficacy of the MLVA typing method, to study the phylogeny by MLST and to assess the presence of some beta-lactam resistance genes in S. sonnei strains isolated from human diarrhoeic faeces in the São Paulo State in Brazil between 1983-2014...
October 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050757/ionophore-a23187-shows-anti-tuberculosis-activity-and-synergy-with-tebipenem
#19
Wei Huang, Julien Briffotaux, Xinwei Wang, Lili Liu, Pei Hao, Mena Cimino, Maria Virginia Buchieri, Amine Namouchi, Jose-Antonio Ainsa, Brigitte Gicquel
The objective of this study was to find molecules with anti-mycobacterial activity from a natural compounds library, investigate their mechanisms of resistance, and assess their synergy with antibiotics. We screened a library of 2582 natural compounds with Mycobacterium aurum with the aim of identifying molecules with anti-mycobacterial activity. The hits with the lowest MICs in M. aurum were also tested for their antimicrobial activity in other mycobacterial species including M. tuberculosis complex strains...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047169/non-immediate-reading-skin-tests-and-prolonged-challenges-in-non-immediate-hypersensitivity-to-beta-lactams-in-children
#20
G Lezmi, F Alrowaishdi, A Bados-Albiero, P Scheinmann, J de Blic, C Ponvert
BACKGROUND: A minority of children reporting non-immediate reactions to beta-lactams (BLs) are allergic. Allergy workup usually includes late-reading (48-72h) skin tests (ST) and short (1-3 days) drug provocation tests (DPT), regardless of the chronology of the index reaction. The sensitivity of hyper-late-reading (≥ 6-7 days) ST and of prolonged DPT for the diagnosis of non-immediate hypersensitiviy to BLs are yet to be determined. OBJECTIVES: To establish the diagnostic values of late- and hyper-late-reading ST and of prolonged DPT in children reporting non-immediate reactions to BLs...
October 19, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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