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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638846/the-pandemic-h30-subclone-of-sequence-type-131-st131-as-the-leading-cause-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-infections-in-the-united-states-2011-2012
#1
James R Johnson, Stephen Porter, Paul Thuras, Mariana Castanheira
BACKGROUND: Extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections are increasingly challenging due to emerging antimicrobial resistance, including resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones. Sequence type 131 (ST131) is a leading contributor. METHODS: Three hundred sixty E. coli clinical isolates from across the United States (2011-2012), selected randomly from the SENTRY collection within 3 resistance categories (extended-spectrum cephalosporin [ECS]-reduced susceptibility [RS]; fluoroquinolone-resistant, ESC-susceptible; and fluoroquinolone-susceptible, ESC-susceptible) were typed for phylogroup, sequence type complex (STc), subsets thereof, virulence genotype, O type, and beta-lactamase genes...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634829/potential-inhibitory-effect-of-indolizine-derivatives-on-the-two-enzymes-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-and-beta-lactamase-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#2
Beata Szefler, Przemysław Czeleń
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferases (NAMPT) are enzymes that play a role in targeting cancer metabolism, while beta lactamases are involved in bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Many protein inhibitors exhibit such property which is often correlated with their cellular potency. In order to understand such a phenomenon, the present article conducts an analysis of the dynamic behavior of complexes formed by the inhibitors, that is indolizine derivatives, with the studied enzymes. Both docking and molecular dynamics led to identification of their interactions and showed the mechanism of inhibition of the two studied enzymes...
July 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632991/uncovering-the-repertoire-of-fungal-secondary-metabolites-from-fleming-s-lab-to-the-international-space-station
#3
Tomasz Boruta
Fungi produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SMs), low-molecular weight compounds associated with many potentially useful biological activities. The examples of biotechnologically relevant fungal metabolites include penicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. The discovery of pharmaceutical lead compounds within the microbial metabolic pools relies on the selection and biochemical characterization of promising strains. Not all SMs are produced under standard cultivation conditions, hence the uncovering of chemical potential of investigated strains often requires the use of induction strategies to awake the associated biosynthetic genes...
June 20, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630187/cumulative-effect-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-rapid-diagnostic-testing-bundle-on-early-streamlining-of-antimicrobial-therapy-in-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections
#4
P B Bookstaver, E B Nimmich, T J Smith, J A Justo, J Kohn, K L Hammer, C Troficanto, H A Albrecht, M N Al-Hasan
OBJECTIVES: The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) enhances antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) interventions in optimization of antimicrobial therapy. This quasi-experimental cohort study evaluates the combined impact of an ASP/RDT bundle on appropriateness of empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) and time to de-escalation of broad-spectrum agents (BSAA) in gram-negative bloodstream infections (GNBSI). METHODS: ASP/RDT bundle consisted of a system-wide GNBSI treatment guidelines, prospective stewardship monitoring, and sequential introduction of two RDTs, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) and FilmArray® Blood Culture Identification (BCID) panel...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625995/novel-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-from-agricultural-soil-exposed-to-antibiotics-widely-used-in-human-medicine-and-animal-farming
#5
Calvin Ho-Fung Lau, Kalene van Engelen, Stephen Gordon, Justin Renaud, Edward Topp
Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624864/the-clinical-significance-of-pneumonia-in-patients-with-respiratory-specimens-harbouring-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-5-year-retrospective-study-following-5667-patients-in-four-general-icus
#6
B Borgatta, S Gattarello, C A Mazo, A T Imbiscuso, M N Larrosa, M Lujàn, J Rello
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs), with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains posing a serious threat. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical relevance of MDR Pseudomonas isolates in respiratory clinical specimens. A 5-year retrospective observational study in four medical-surgical ICUs from a referral hospital was carried out. Of 5667 adults admitted to the ICU, 69 had MDR-PA in respiratory samples: 31 were identified as having pneumonia (HAP/VAP): 21 ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and ten hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620153/premature-labor-and-neonatal-septicemia-caused-by-capnocytophaga-ochracea
#7
Abdullah A Alhifany, Thamer A Almangour, Deanne E Tabb, David H Levine
BACKGROUND Capnocytophaga ochracea is a gram-negative anaerobic organism commonly found in human oral flora. It is characteristically sensitive to beta-lactams and resistant to aminoglycosides. CASE REPORT A 23-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain and was admitted for premature labor at 24-weeks of gestation. At presentation, the cervix was closed and the membrane was intact; however, contractions continued, the membrane subsequently ruptured before receiving any steroids or magnesium, and the mother gave birth to a 540-gram female baby...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614923/-serum-levels-of-periostin-and-their-influencing-factors-in-the-beta-lactam-antibiotic-enterprise-workers
#8
S S Gao, Z S Song, Q Jia, X Li, C L Li, X W Chen, C B Zheng
Objective: To observe serum levels of periostin, ECP, IgE in the antibiotic enterprise workers, and study the role of periostin, ECP, IgE in the development of allergic inflammation. Methods: 90 cases with asthma or rhinitis were enrolled as disease group, another 117 workers exposed to 7-ACA、6-APA dust without suffering from allergic illness, are chosen as group of dust exposed, and 192 healthy workers who didn't contact dust were chosen as control group. Questionnaires were used to learn their basic information...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606364/cefotaxime-resistant-e-coli-in-dairy-and-beef-cattle-farms-joint-analyses-of-two-cross-sectional-investigations-in-germany
#9
Katja Hille, Inga Ruddat, Annette Schmid, Johanna Hering, Maria Hartmann, Christiane von Münchhausen, Bettina Schneider, Ute Messelhäusser, Anika Friese, Rolf Mansfeld, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Uwe Roesler, Lothar Kreienbrock
Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics is of major concern for animal and human health. Knowledge of the prevalence of resistant bacteria in primary production is an important element to estimate transmission along the stages in the food production chain and the exposure of the human population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant commensal E. coli in dairy and beef cattle production units throughout Germany. Secondarily, the association between management factors and the presence of cefotaxime resistance was investigated...
July 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601833/targeted-simplification-versus-antipseudomonal-broad-spectrum-beta-lactams-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-due-to-enterobacteriaceae-simplify-a-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-open-label-phase-iii-randomised-controlled-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#10
Luis Eduardo López-Cortés, Clara Rosso-Fernández, María Núñez-Núñez, Lucía Lavín-Alconero, José Bravo-Ferrer, Ángel Barriga, Mercedes Delgado, Carmen Lupión, Pilar Retamar, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
INTRODUCTION: Within the context of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy is one of the proposed strategies for reducing the unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA). The empirical treatment of nosocomial and some healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) frequently includes a beta-lactam with antipseudomonal activity as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs, so there is a great opportunity to optimise the empirical therapy based on microbiological data...
June 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585900/strategies-for-the-screening-of-antibiotic-residues-in-eggs-comparison-of-the-validation-of-classical-microbiological-method-with-an-immunobiosensor-method
#11
Valérie Gaudin, Annie Rault, Celine Hedou, Christophe Soumet, Eric Verdon
Efficient screening methods are needed to control antibiotic residues in eggs. A microbiological kit (Explorer® 2.0 test (Zeu Inmunotech, Spain)) and an immunobiosensor kit (Microarray II (AM® II) on the Evidence Investigator™ system (Randox, UK)) have been evaluated and validated for screening of antibiotic residues in eggs, according to Decision EC/2002/657 (2002) and to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods (Crl 2010). The e-reader™ system, a new automatic incubator/reading system, was coupled to the Explorer® 2...
June 6, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578254/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-beta-lactam-antibiotics-influence-of-sample-stability-on-the-analysis-of-piperacillin-meropenem-ceftazidime-and-flucloxacillin-by-hplc-uv
#12
Nadine Pinder, Thorsten Brenner, Stefanie Swoboda, Markus A Weigand, Torsten Hoppe-Tichy
INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a useful tool to optimize antibiotic therapy. Increasing interest in alternative dosing strategies of beta-lactam antibiotics, e.g. continuous or prolonged infusion, require a feasible analytical method for quantification of these antimicrobial agents. However, pre-analytical issues including sample handling and stability are to be considered to provide valuable analytical results. METHODS: For the simultaneous determination of piperacillin, meropenem, ceftazidime and flucloxacillin, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method including protein precipitation was established utilizing ertapenem as internal standard...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577308/empirical-antibiotics-targeting-gram-positive-bacteria-for-the-treatment-of-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Ofrat Beyar-Katz, Yaakov Dickstein, Sara Borok, Liat Vidal, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: The pattern of infections among neutropenic patients with cancer has shifted in the last decades to a predominance of gram-positive infections. Some of these gram-positive bacteria are increasingly resistant to beta-lactams and necessitate specific antibiotic treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of empirical anti-gram-positive (antiGP) antibiotic treatment for febrile neutropenic patients with cancer in terms of mortality and treatment failure...
June 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575226/point-of-care-beta-lactam-allergy-skin-testing-by-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-a-pragmatic-multicenter-prospective-evaluation
#14
Jerome A Leis, Lesley Palmay, Grace Ho, Sumit Raybardhan, Suzanne Gill, Tiffany Kan, Jackie Campbell, Alex Kiss, Janine B McCready, Pavani Das, Brian Minnema, Jeff E Powis, Sandra A N Walker, Heather Ferguson, Benny Wong, Elizabeth Weber
Background: Beta-lactam allergy skin testing (BLAST) is recommended by antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) guidelines, yet few studies have systematically evaluated its impact when delivered at point-of-care. Methods.: We conducted a pragmatic multicenter prospective evaluation of the use of point-of-care BLAST by ASPs. In staggered 3-month intervals, ASP teams at three hospitals received training by allergists to offer BLAST for eligible patients with infectious diseases receiving non-preferred beta-lactam therapy due to severity of their allergy...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574718/calibration-of-1-2-4-triazole-3-thione-an-original-zn-binding-group-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-validation-of-a-polarizable-mm-md-potential-by-quantum-chemistry
#15
Karolina Kwapien, Mirna Damergi, Serge Nader, Léa El Khoury, Zeina Hobaika, Richard G Maroun, Jean-Philip Piquemal, Laurent Gavara, Dorothée Berthomieu, Jean-François Hernandez, Nohad Gresh
In the context of the SIBFA polarizable molecular mechanics/dynamics (PMM/PMD) procedure, we report the calibration and a series of validation tests for the 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione (TZT) heterocycle. TZT acts as the chelating group of inhibitors of dizinc metallo-β-lactamases (MBL), an emerging class of Zn-dependent bacterial enzymes, which by cleaving the β-lactam bond of most β-lactam antibiotics are responsible for the acquired resistance of bacteria to these drugs. Such a study is indispensable prior to performing PMD simulations of complexes of TZT-based inhibitors with MBL's, on account of the anchoring role of TZT in the dizinc MBL recognition site...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572795/cephalosporin-glycopeptide-combinations-for-use-against-clinical-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-enhanced-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity
#16
Hung-Jen Tang, Chih-Cheng Lai, Chi-Chung Chen, Chun-Cheng Zhang, Tzu-Chieh Weng, Wen-Liang Yu, Hung-Jui Chen, Yu-Hsin Chiu, Wen-Chien Ko, Yin-Ching Chuang
The empirical combination of both a beta-lactam and glycopeptide to counter potential staphylococcal pathogens may improve the clinical outcomes for cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. We reported comparative in vitro studies of combination effects of different cephalosporins (i.e., cefazolin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, and cefepime) combined with glycopeptides for 34 randomly selected methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates by three methods, including the checkerboard, time-killing, and combination MIC measurement methods...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553623/productive-and-penicillin-stressed-chlamydia-pecorum-infection-induces-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-activation-and-interleukin-6-secretion-in-vitro
#17
Cory A Leonard, Robert V Schoborg, Nicole Borel
Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) is an inflammatory transcription factor that plays an important role in the host immune response to infection. The potential for chlamydiae to activate NFκB has been an area of interest, however most work has focused on chlamydiae impacting human health. Given that inflammation characteristic of chlamydial infection may be associated with severe disease outcomes or contribute to poor overall fitness in farmed animals, we evaluated the ability of porcine chlamydiae to induce NFκB activation in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553271/molecular-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-china
#18
Haishen Kong, Fei Yu, Weili Zhang, Xuefen Li, Hongxia Wang
Analysis of the genotypic characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is essential for the control and treatment of diseases caused by this important pathogen. In this study, MRSA isolates obtained from a tertiary caret hospital in China were subjected to spa typing, SCCmec typing, multiple locus sequence typing (MLST), and PCR targeting of the genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The disk diffusion method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to 10 non-beta-lactam antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551334/structure-and-dimerization-of-ireb-a-negative-regulator-of-cephalosporin-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecalis
#19
Cherisse L Hall, Betsy L Lytle, Davin Jensen, Jessica S Hoff, Francis C Peterson, Brian F Volkman, Christopher J Kristich
Enterococcus faecalis, a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, exhibits intrinsic resistance to most cephalosporins, which are antibiotics in the beta-lactam family that target cell-wall biosynthesis. A comprehensive understanding of the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance in E. faecalis is lacking. We previously determined that a transmembrane serine-threonine kinase (IreK) and its cognate phosphatase (IreP) reciprocally regulate cephalosporin resistance in E...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548661/co-evolution-with-staphylococcus-aureus-leads-to-lipopolysaccharide-alterations-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Mikael Tognon, Thilo Köhler, Bartosz G Gdaniec, Youai Hao, Joseph S Lam, Marie Beaume, Alexandre Luscher, Angus Buckling, Christian van Delden
Detrimental and beneficial interactions between co-colonizing bacteria may influence the course of infections. In cystic fibrosis (CF) airways, Staphylococcus aureus prevails in childhood, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa progressively predominates thereafter. While a range of interactions has been identified, it is unclear if these represent specific adaptations or correlated responses to other aspects of the environment. Here, we investigate how P. aeruginosa adapts to S. aureus by evolving P. aeruginosa in the presence and absence of S...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
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