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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324898/breathing-and-swallowing-the-next-frontier
#1
Roxann Diez Gross, Marybeth Trapani-Hanasewych
The anatomical overlap of the pathways for air passage and nutrition necessitate precise coordination between the two vital functions. Neuroanatomic structures in the brainstem for sucking, breathing, and swallowing are also in close proximity and must swiftly coordinate the processes. In a healthy neonate, the oropharyngeal experience and stimulation of early feeding enables respiratory control during suckling to develop. Despite wide variability among the methods used to investigate breathing and swallowing coordination in infancy, a consistent finding of postswallow exhalation has been reported...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324897/neonatal-feeding-behavior-as-a-complex-dynamical-system
#2
Eugene C Goldfield, Jennifer Perez, Katherine Engstler
The requirements of evidence-based practice in 2017 are motivating new theoretical foundations and methodological tools for characterizing neonatal feeding behavior. Toward that end, this article offers a complex dynamical systems perspective. A set of critical concepts from this perspective frames challenges faced by speech-language pathologists and allied professionals: when to initiate oral feeds, how to determine the robustness of neonatal breathing during feeding and appropriate levels of respiratory support, what instrumental assessments of swallow function to use with preterm neonates, and whether or not to introduce thickened liquids...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287649/three-dimensional-structures-of-the-tracheal-systems-of-anopheles-sinensis-and-aedes-togoi-pupae
#3
Young-Ran Ha, Eunseop Yeom, Jeongeun Ryu, Sang-Joon Lee
Mosquitoes act as a vector for the transmission of disease. The World Health Organization has recommended strict control of mosquito larvae because of their "few, fixed, and findable" features. The respiratory system of mosquito larvae and pupae in the water has a weak point. As aquatic organisms, mosquito larvae and pupae inhale atmosphere oxygen. However, the mosquito pupae have a non-feeding stage, unlike the larvae. Therefore, detailed study on the tracheal system of mosquito pupae is helpful for understanding their survival strategy...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228733/maturation-of-airway-defensive-reflexes-is-related-to-development-of-feeding-behavior-during-growth-in-rabbits
#4
Laurianne Coutier-Marie, Iulia Ioan, Claude Bonabel, Bruno Demoulin, Anne-Laure Leblanc, Ludivine Debitu, Cyril Schweitzer, François Marchal, Silvia Demoulin-Alexikova
Introduction: Cough and expiration reflex are major lower airway defense mechanisms that have not been studied throughout development in relation with the feeding behavior. Aim: To describe airway defense reflexes evoked by mechanical stimulation of the trachea in developing rabbit pups. Material and Methods: Sixty one pups were allocated to 3 groups according to their feeding behavior: suckling (n = 22), weanling (n = 21) and weaning (n = 18) group. The incidence and sensitivity of defense reflexes triggered by mechanical tracheal stimulation were studied in anesthetized and tracheotomized animals...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177370/fermentation-products-as-feed-additives-mitigate-some-ill-effects-of-heat-stress-in-pigs
#5
S Kumar, B E Bass, M Bandrick, C L Loving, S L Brockmeier, T Looft, J Trachsel, D M Madson, M Thomas, T A Casey, J W Frank, T B Stanton, H K Allen
Heat stress (HS) may result in economic losses to pig producers across the USA and worldwide. Despite significant advancements in management practices, HS continues to be a challenge. In this study, an in-feed antibiotic (carbadox, CBX) and antibiotic alternatives ( [XPC], and [SGX] fermentation products) were evaluated in a standard pig starter diet as mitigations against the negative effects of HS in pigs. A total of 100 gilts were obtained at weaning (6.87 ± 0.82 kg BW, 19.36 ± 0.72 d of age) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (2 rooms/treatment, 2 pens/room, 6 to 7 pigs/pen)...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146296/nasal-intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation-nippv-versus-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-ncpap-for-preterm-neonates-after-extubation
#6
REVIEW
Brigitte Lemyre, Peter G Davis, Antonio G De Paoli, Haresh Kirpalani
BACKGROUND: Previous randomised trials and meta-analyses have shown that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is a useful method for providing respiratory support after extubation. However, this treatment sometimes 'fails' in infants, and they may require endotracheal re-intubation with its attendant risks and expense. Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) can augment NCPAP by delivering ventilator breaths via nasal prongs. Older children and adults with chronic respiratory failure benefit from NIPPV, and the technique has been applied to neonates...
February 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106628/neonatal-micrognathia-national-trends-in-early-mandibular-surgery
#7
Hillary E Jenny, Benjamin B Massenburg, E Hope Weissler, Peter J Taub
BACKGROUND: Micrognathia is a congenital anomaly that may pose breathing and feeding limitations in newborns, sometimes necessitating invasive management. The present study aims to identify the complications associated with receiving mandibular surgery during the birth stay in order to better predict which patients may benefit from early surgical intervention. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the 2000 to 2012 kids' inpatient databases. We included all live newborn infants born in the hospital through vaginal delivery or caesarean section...
March 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078839/widespread-membrane-potential-changes-and-cardiorespiratory-synchronization-involved-in-anxiety-and-sleep-wake-transitions
#8
R Jerath, S M Cearley, M Jensen
Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchronization may underlie the widespread hyperpolarization that occurs throughout the brain during slow-wave sleep...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046660/mo-fg-campus-tep3-01-a-model-of-baseline-shift-to-improve-robustness-of-proton-therapy-treatments-of-moving-tumors
#9
K Souris, A Barragan Montero, E Sterpin, D Di Perri, X Geets, J Lee
PURPOSE: The shift in mean position of a moving tumor also known as "baseline shift", has been modeled, in order to automatically generate uncertainty scenarios for the assessment and robust optimization of proton therapy treatments in lung cancer. METHODS: An average CT scan and a Mid-Position CT scan (MidPCT) of the patient at the planning time are first generated from a 4D-CT data. The mean position of the tumor along the breathing cycle is represented by the GTV contour in the MidPCT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046169/effect-of-shade-on-animal-welfare-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-in-large-pens-of-beef-cattle-fed-a-beta-agonist-in-a-commercial-feedlot
#10
J A Hagenmaier, C D Reinhardt, S J Bartle, D U Thomson
Feedlot cattle ( = 1,395; BW = 568 ± 43 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of shade on animal welfare, growth performance, and carcass quality during the summer of 2013 in a Kansas commercial feedlot. Seven lots of predominately black steers and heifers (4 and 3, respectively) visually determined to be approaching the final mo on feed were identified, randomly gate-sorted, and allocated to pens located across the feed alley from each other to receive 1 of 2 treatments: 1) Shade (mean shade area = 1.5 m/ animal) or 2) No shade...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027184/piezosurgery-an-asset-in-treatment-of-pierre-robin-sequence
#11
Divya Singh, Pushkar Gadre, Kiran Gadre, Shandilya Ramanojam
Pierre Robin sequence (formerly a syndrome) is named after the French stomatologist who, in 1923 and 1934, described the problems associated with micrognathia in newborn. It comprises mandibular micrognathia, U-shaped cleft palate, and glossoptosis. The typical symptoms are hypoxaemia, noisy breathing, snoring, stridor, cyanosis, bradycardia, feeding difficulties, and failure to thrive. Distraction osteogenesis has recently been considered as a surgical option for early intervention to lengthen the mandible and relieve respiratory problems...
March 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987514/-effects-of-breast-feeding-duration-bottle-feeding-duration-and-oral-habits-on-the-occlusal-characteristics-of-primary-dentition
#12
X X Chen, B Xia, L H Ge, J W Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and oral habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3-6-year-old children in Beijing. METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted via an examination of the occlusal characteristics of 734 children combined with a questionnaire completed by their parents/guardians. The examination was performed by a single, previously calibrated examiner and the following variables were evaluated: presence or absence of deep overbite, open bite, anterior cross bite, posterior cross bite, deep overjet, terminal plane relationship of the second primary molar, primary canine relationship, crowding and spacing...
December 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956236/new-insights-into-sucking-swallowing-and-breathing-central-generators-a-complexity-analysis-of-rhythmic-motor-behaviors
#13
Nathalie Samson, Jean-Paul Praud, Brigitte Quenet, Thomas Similowski, Christian Straus
Sucking, swallowing and breathing are dynamic motor behaviors. Breathing displays features of chaos-like dynamics, in particular nonlinearity and complexity, which take their source in the automatic command of breathing. In contrast, buccal/gill ventilation in amphibians is one of the rare motor behaviors that do not display nonlinear complexity. This study aimed at assessing whether sucking and swallowing would also follow nonlinear complex dynamics in the newborn lamb. Breathing movements were recorded before, during and after bottle-feeding...
December 9, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940767/effective-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-nava-ventilation-in-a-child-with-jeune-syndrome
#14
Gianluca Cosi, Giulia Genoni, Alice Monzani, Barbara Pilan, Maria Lavrano, Federica Ferrero
Jeune syndrome (asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy) is a rare skeletal dysplasia mainly characterized by dystrophy of the thoracic cage. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a respiratory support in which pressure assistance is provided in proportion to and synchronous with the electrical activity of the diaphragm. We present the case of a 4-month-old infant with asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy and respiratory failure successfully ventilated with NAVA. In this case, NAVA improved patient-ventilator synchrony, reducing endotracheal secretion and gastric overdistention...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939541/invited-review-phenotypes-to-genetically-reduce-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-dairying
#15
Y de Haas, M Pszczola, H Soyeurt, E Wall, J Lassen
Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as well as indirect selection via indicator traits such as feed intake, milk spectral data, and rumen microbial communities. Many of these traits are expensive or difficult to record, or both, but with genomic selection, inclusion of methane emission as a breeding goal trait is feasible, even with a limited number of registrations...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903201/nutrition-in-the-intensive-care-unit-you-must-breathe-what-you-eat
#16
John F Cade, Daryl A Jones, Rinaldo Bellomo
The imprecision in prescribing of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients must result in occasions of overfeeding as well as underfeeding. Overfeeding could cause increased CO2 production and thus increased work of breathing and prolonged ventilator dependence. This possibility is supported by the limited relevant literature. We examined this possibility mathematically using the data in The Augmented versus Routine Approach to Giving Energy Trial (TARGET) feasibility study and in its main study protocol...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884657/the-origin-and-diversification-of-the-developmental-mechanisms-that-pattern-the-vertebrate-head-skeleton
#17
REVIEW
Tyler Square, David Jandzik, Marek Romášek, Robert Cerny, Daniel Meulemans Medeiros
The apparent evolvability of the vertebrate head skeleton has allowed a diverse array of shapes, sizes, and compositions of the head in order to better adapt species to their environments. This encompasses feeding, breathing, sensing, and communicating: the head skeleton somehow participated in the evolution of all these critical processes for the last 500 million years. Through evolution, present head diversity was made possible via developmental modifications to the first head skeletal genetic program. Understanding the development of the vertebrate common ancestor's head skeleton is thus an important step in identifying how different lineages have respectively achieved their many innovations in the head...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881192/effect-of-a-ceiling-fan-ventilation-system-on-finishing-young-bulls-health-behaviour-and-growth-performance
#18
L Magrin, M Brscic, I Lora, C Rumor, L Tondello, G Cozzi, F Gottardo
This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868158/growth-and-prevalence-of-feeding-difficulties-in-children-with-robin-sequence-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Emma C Paes, Iris A C de Vries, Wouter M Penris, Karlijn H Hanny, Selma W Lavrijsen, Elselien K van Leerdam, Maaike M Rademaker, Esther S Veldhoen, Rene M J C Eijkemans, Moshe Kon, Corstiaan C Breugem
OBJECTIVES: In addition to breathing problems, patients with Robin sequence (RS) often encounter feeding difficulties (FD). Data regarding the occurrence of FD and possible influencing factors are scarce. The study aim was to elucidate these factors to improve treatment strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, consisting of 69 infants diagnosed with both RS and a cleft palate and 64 isolated cleft palate only (iCPO) infants...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830392/acoustic-and-perceptual-profiles-of-swallowing-sounds-in-children-normative-data-for-4-36-months-from-a-cross-sectional-study-cohort
#20
Thuy T Frakking, Anne B Chang, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Julie Yang, Michael David, Kelly A Weir
Limited data on cervical auscultation (CA) sounds during the transitional feeding period of 4-36 months in healthy children exist. This study examined the acoustic and perceptual parameters of swallowing sounds in children aged 4-36 months over a range of food and fluid consistencies. Using CA, swallowing sounds were recorded from a microphone as children ate or drank. Acoustic parameters of duration, peak frequency and peak intensity were determined. Perceptual parameters of swallowing/breath sounds heard pre-, during and post-swallow were rated ('present', 'absent', 'cannot be determined') for each texture...
November 9, 2016: Dysphagia
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