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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903201/nutrition-in-the-intensive-care-unit-you-must-breathe-what-you-eat
#1
John F Cade, Daryl A Jones, Rinaldo Bellomo
The imprecision in prescribing of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients must result in occasions of overfeeding as well as underfeeding. Overfeeding could cause increased CO2 production and thus increased work of breathing and prolonged ventilator dependence. This possibility is supported by the limited relevant literature. We examined this possibility mathematically using the data in The Augmented versus Routine Approach to Giving Energy Trial (TARGET) feasibility study and in its main study protocol...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884657/the-origin-and-diversification-of-the-developmental-mechanisms-that-pattern-the-vertebrate-head-skeleton
#2
REVIEW
Tyler Square, David Jandzik, Marek Romášek, Robert Cerny, Daniel Medeiros
The apparent evolvability of the vertebrate head skeleton has allowed a diverse array of shapes, sizes, and compositions of the head in order to better adapt species to their environments. This encompasses feeding, breathing, sensing, and communicating: the head skeleton somehow participated in the evolution of all these critical processes for the last 500 million years. Through evolution, present head diversity was made possible via developmental modifications to the first head skeletal genetic program. Understanding the development of the vertebrate common ancestor's head skeleton is thus an important step in identifying how different lineages have respectively achieved their many innovations in the head...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881192/effect-of-a-ceiling-fan-ventilation-system-on-finishing-young-bulls-health-behaviour-and-growth-performance
#3
L Magrin, M Brscic, I Lora, C Rumor, L Tondello, G Cozzi, F Gottardo
This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868158/growth-and-prevalence-of-feeding-difficulties-in-children-with-robin-sequence-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Emma C Paes, Iris A C de Vries, Wouter M Penris, Karlijn H Hanny, Selma W Lavrijsen, Elselien K van Leerdam, Maaike M Rademaker, Esther S Veldhoen, Rene M J C Eijkemans, Moshe Kon, Corstiaan C Breugem
OBJECTIVES: In addition to breathing problems, patients with Robin sequence (RS) often encounter feeding difficulties (FD). Data regarding the occurrence of FD and possible influencing factors are scarce. The study aim was to elucidate these factors to improve treatment strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, consisting of 69 infants diagnosed with both RS and a cleft palate and 64 isolated cleft palate only (iCPO) infants...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830392/acoustic-and-perceptual-profiles-of-swallowing-sounds-in-children-normative-data-for-4-36-months-from-a-cross-sectional-study-cohort
#5
Thuy T Frakking, Anne B Chang, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Julie Yang, Michael David, Kelly A Weir
Limited data on cervical auscultation (CA) sounds during the transitional feeding period of 4-36 months in healthy children exist. This study examined the acoustic and perceptual parameters of swallowing sounds in children aged 4-36 months over a range of food and fluid consistencies. Using CA, swallowing sounds were recorded from a microphone as children ate or drank. Acoustic parameters of duration, peak frequency and peak intensity were determined. Perceptual parameters of swallowing/breath sounds heard pre-, during and post-swallow were rated ('present', 'absent', 'cannot be determined') for each texture...
November 9, 2016: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822241/surgical-management-of-extensive-oral-tumors-by-bilateral-rostral-mandibulectomy-in-two-dogs
#6
M Shafiuzama, M S Sabarish Babu, N Krishnaveni, P Manoj Prabhakar, S Hemalatha, N J D Souza
Two dogs of different age groups were presented with the history of oral growth, bleeding, excessive salivation, bad breath, inappetance and dysphagia. Physical examination revealed cauliflower like reddish growth in the gingiva enclosing the mandibular incisiors and canine tooth. Haematology and serum biochemical profiles were within the normal range. Plain radiography revealed extensive growth involving the lower mandible and gingiva. Hence rostral mandibulectomy was performed to excise the tumor mass. The dogs recovered uneventfully after surgery with no difficulty in feeding liquid and semisolid diet...
2016: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788200/physiological-morphological-and-behavioural-responses-of-self-feeding-precocial-chicks-copying-with-contrasting-levels-of-water-salinity-during-development
#7
Afonso R Rocha, Rita Silva, Auxiliadora Villegas, Juan M Sánchez-Guzmán, Jaime A Ramos, José A Masero
Combined physiological and behavioural responses to salt loads during development have rarely been studied in air-breathing vertebrates able to inhabit hypersaline habitats, but they may be of particular importance in understanding, for example, the differences among species in patterns of habitat use or ontogenetic diet switches. Here, we compared the physiological and behavioural responses of self-feeding precocial chicks developed in contrasting levels of water salinity. The model species was the Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) a precocial shorebird that breeds in a range of habitats from freshwater to hypersaline wetlands...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683588/aspirating-and-nonaspirating-swallow-sounds-in-children-a-pilot-study
#8
Thuy Frakking, Anne Chang, Kerry O'Grady, Michael David, Kelly Weir
BACKGROUND: Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. AIM: To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. METHODS: Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study...
December 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677575/mitral-valve-replacement-in-neonatal-endocarditis-time-to-discuss-prevention-strategies-for-group-b-streptococcus-disease
#9
Sormeh Salehian, Abhinav Rastogi, Olivier Ghez, Margarita Burmester
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is recognised as one of the leading organisms in early-onset neonatal sepsis but is also a cause of late-onset GBS septicaemia, meningitis and rarely, infective endocarditis (IE). We report a case of a healthy term neonate who developed GBS septicaemia and meningitis having presented with parental concern and poor feeding. Subsequent identification and treatment of GBS resulted in the requirement for long-line intravascular access in order to administer antibiotic therapy. One week later, after repeated parental concern and symptoms of shortness of breath, the neonate presented to Accident and Emergency and subsequently a Paediatric Cardiorespiratory Intensive Care Unit where emergency resuscitation procedures were required and diagnosis of severe IE affecting the mitral valve was made...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648934/satiety-effects-of-lentils-in-a-calorie-matched-fruit-smoothie
#10
Jennifer Erickson, Joanne Slavin
The food environment is changing, with consumers being more health conscious and concerned about the wholesomeness of their food than ever before. Consumers are looking for nutritious whole food alternatives to fill their plates and stomachs. Pulse grains, rich in both protein and fiber, may be the ideal candidate to promote satiety at meals. In a crossover feeding study, participants consumed calorie-matched fruit smoothies prepared with either an ice cream base or pureed red lentils. Self-reported satiety, blood glucose response, and ad libitum food intake at a secondary meal were all measured along with breath hydrogen and methane and gastrointestinal tolerance...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574987/flat-feline-faces-is-brachycephaly-associated-with-respiratory-abnormalities-in-the-domestic-cat-felis-catus
#11
Mark J Farnworth, Ruoning Chen, Rowena M A Packer, Sarah M A Caney, Danièlle A Gunn-Moore
There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563574/breathomics-for-gastric-cancer-classification-using-back-propagation-neural-network
#12
D Arul Pon Daniel, K Thangavel
Breathomics is the metabolomics study of exhaled air. It is a powerful emerging metabolomics research field that mainly focuses on health-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since the quantity of these compounds varies with health status, breathomics assures to deliver noninvasive diagnostic tools. Thus, the main aim of breathomics is to discover patterns of VOCs related to abnormal metabolic processes occurring in the human body. Classification systems, however, are not designed for cost-sensitive classification domains...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545716/preventing-newborn-deaths-due-to-prematurity
#13
Kishwar Azad, Jiji Mathews
Preterm births (PTBs), defined as births before 37 weeks of gestation account for the majority of deaths in the newborn period. Prediction and prevention of PTB is challenging. A history of preterm labour or second trimester losses and accurate measurement of cervical length help to identify women who would benefit from progesterone and cerclage. Fibronectin estimation in the cervicovaginal secretions of a symptomatic woman with an undilated cervix can predict PTB within 10 days of testing. Antibiotics should be given to women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes but tocolysis has a limited role in the management of preterm labour...
June 24, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544855/assessing-heat-load-in-drylot-dairy-cattle-refining-on-farm-sampling-methodology
#14
Grazyne Tresoldi, Karin E Schütz, Cassandra B Tucker
Identifying dairy cattle experiencing heat stress and adopting appropriate mitigation strategies can improve welfare and profitability. However, little is known about how cattle use heat abatement resources (shade, sprayed water) on drylot dairies. It is also unclear how often we need to observe animals to measure high heat load, or the relevance of specific aspects of this response, particularly in terms of panting. Our objectives were to describe and determine sampling intervals to measure cattle use of heat abatement resources, respiration rate (RR) and panting characteristics (drooling, open mouth, protruding tongue), and to evaluate the relationship between the latter 2...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536353/the-current-status-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-management-and-prevention-in-children-under-5-years-of-age-in-india-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Krishna Kumar Yadav, Shally Awasthi
India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491362/synthesis-of-breathing-metallopolymer-hollow-spheres-for-redox-controlled-release
#16
Daniel Scheid, Moritz von der Lühe, Markus Gallei
A convenient synthetic approach for the preparation of uniform metallopolymer-containing hollow spheres based on 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl ferrocenecarboxylate (FcMA) as monomer by sequential starved feed emulsion polymerization is described. Core/shell particles consisting of a noncrosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate) core and a slightly crosslinked ferrocene-containing shell allows for the simple dissolution of core material and, thus, monodisperse metallopolymer hollow spheres are obtained. Since PFcMA is incorporated in the particle shell, herein investigated hollow spheres can be addressed by external triggers, i...
October 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476581/the-effect-of-camicinal-gsk962040-a-motilin-agonist-on-gastric-emptying-and-glucose-absorption-in-feed-intolerant-critically-ill-patients-a-randomized-blinded-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Marianne J Chapman, Adam M Deane, Stephanie L O'Connor, Nam Q Nguyen, Robert J L Fraser, Duncan B Richards, Kimberley E Hacquoil, Lakshmi S Vasist Johnson, Matthew E Barton, George E Dukes
BACKGROUND: The promotility agents currently available to treat gastroparesis and feed intolerance in the critically ill are limited by adverse effects. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of single doses of the novel gastric promotility agent motilin agonist camicinal (GSK962040) in critically ill feed-intolerant patients. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, study was performed in mechanically ventilated feed-intolerant patients [median age 55 (19-84), 73 % male, APACHE II score 18 (5-37) with a gastric residual volume ≥200 mL]...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465497/pivotal-debates-and-controversies-on-the-structure-and-function-of-the-avian-respiratory-system-setting-the-record-straight
#18
John N Maina
Among the extant air-breathing vertebrates, the avian respiratory system is structurally the most complex and functionally the most efficient gas exchanger. Having been investigated for over four centuries, some aspects of its biology have been extremely challenging and highly contentious and others still remain unresolved. Here, while assessing the most recent findings, four notable aspects of the structure and function of the avian respiratory system are examined critically to highlight the questions, speculations, controversies and debates that have arisen from past research...
July 28, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437249/acute-respiratory-infections-among-under-five-age-group-children-at-urban-slums-of-gulbarga-city-a-longitudinal-study
#19
Vinod K Ramani, Jayashree Pattankar, Suresh Kuralayanapalya Puttahonnappa
INTRODUCTION: Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. AIM: To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421239/diving-physiology-of-seabirds-and-marine-mammals-relevance-challenges-and-some-solutions-for-field-studies
#20
Russel D Andrews, Manfred R Enstipp
To fully understand how diving seabirds and marine mammals balance the potentially conflicting demands of holding their breath while living their lives underwater (and maintaining physiological homeostasis during exercise, feeding, growth, and reproduction), physiological studies must be conducted with animals in their natural environments. The purpose of this article is to review the importance of making physiological measurements on diving animals in field settings, while acknowledging the challenges and highlighting some solutions...
July 12, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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