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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819847/negative-enrichment-and-isolation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-for-whole-genome-amplification
#1
Nisha Kanwar, Susan J Done
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a rare population of cells found in the peripheral blood of patients with many types of cancer such as breast, prostate, colon, and lung cancers. Higher numbers of these cells in blood are associated with a poorer prognosis of patients. Genomic profiling of CTCs would help characterize markers specific for the identification of these cells in blood, and also define genomic alterations that give these cells a metastatic advantage over other cells in the primary tumor. Here, we describe an immunomagnetic method to enrich CTCs from the blood of patients with breast cancer, followed by single-cell laser capture microdissection to isolate single CTCs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818382/cell-specific-expression-of-plant-nutrient-transporter-genes-in-orchid-mycorrhizae
#2
Valeria Fochi, Nicole Falla, Mariangela Girlanda, Silvia Perotto, Raffaella Balestrini
Orchid mycorrhizal protocorms and roots are heterogeneous structures composed of different plant cell-types, where cells colonized by intracellular fungal coils (the pelotons) are close to non-colonized plant cells. Moreover, the fungal coils undergo rapid turnover inside the colonized cells, so that plant cells containing coils at different developmental stages can be observed in the same tissue section. Here, we have investigated by laser microdissection (LMD) the localization of specific plant gene transcripts in different cell-type populations collected from mycorrhizal protocorms and roots of the Mediterranean orchid Serapias vomeracea colonized by Tulasnella calospora...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817612/expression-and-functional-implications-of-the-renal-apelinergic-system-in-rodents
#3
Anne-Marie O'Carroll, Sabrine Salih, Philip R Griffiths, Aarifah Bijabhai, Mark A Knepper, Stephen J Lolait
Apelin binds to the G protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJ; gene name aplnr) to modulate diverse physiological systems including cardiovascular function, and hydromineral and metabolic balance. Recently a second endogenous ligand for APJ, named apela, has been discovered. We confirm that apela activates signal transduction pathways (ERK activation) in cells expressing the cloned rat APJ. Previous studies suggest that exogenous apela is diuretic, attributable wholly or in part to an action on renal APJ. Thus far the cellular distribution of apela in the kidney has not been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816351/recent-advances-in-genomic-profiling-of-adenosquamous-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas
#4
Rebecca Marcus, Anirban Maitra, Jason Roszik
Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas (ASCP) is a mixed tumor type which contains squamous cell carcinoma and also ductal adenocarcinoma components. Due to the rarity of this malignancy, only very limited genomic profiling has been performed. A recent paper by Fang et al. published in The Journal of Pathology contributed to our knowledge of genomic alterations by performing whole genome and exome sequencing of 17 ASCP tumors. They found major genomic similarities to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; however, the p53 pathway was altered in a greater proportion of cases, while a high frequency of 3p loss was a distinct copy number alteration pattern observed in ASCP...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814945/glomerular-abundance-of-complement-proteins-characterized-by-proteomic-analysis-of-laser-captured-microdissected-glomeruli-associates-with-progressive-disease-in-iga-nephropathy
#5
Teodora Ioana Flavia Paunas, Kenneth Finne, Sabine Leh, Hans-Peter Marti, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Frode Berven, Bjørn Egil Vikse
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is variable and complement activation may predict prognosis. The present study investigated whether glomerular abundance of complement proteins associates with progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients for whom prognosis could not be predicted based on clinical variables. METHODS: Based on data from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry and the Norwegian Renal Registry, three groups were included: IgAN patients with (n = 9) or without (n = 16) progression to ESRD during 10 years, and controls (n = 15) with a normal kidney biopsy...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814279/musashi-1-is-the-candidate-of-the-regulator-of-hair-cell-progenitors-during-inner-ear-regeneration
#6
Takahiro Wakasaki, Hiroaki Niiro, Siamak Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Mitsuru Ohashi, Takashi Kimitsuki, Takashi Nakagawa, Shizuo Komune, Koichi Akashi
BACKGROUND: Hair cell loss in the cochlea is caused by ototoxic drugs, aging, and environmental stresses and could potentially lead to devastating pathophysiological effects. In adult mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and may result in hearing and balance deficits. In contrast, nonmammalian vertebrates, including birds, can regenerate hair cells through differentiation of supporting cells and restore inner ear function, suggesting that hair cell progenitors are present in the population of supporting cells...
August 16, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803842/experimental-evidence-for-hybridization-of-closely-related-lineages-in-plasmodium-relictum
#7
Vaidas Palinauskas, Rasa Bernotienė, Rita Žiegytė, Staffan Bensch, Gediminas Valkiūnas
Over 50 avian Plasmodium species have been described. However, PCR-based information shows much broader diversity of genetic lineages in these parasites. This discrepancy indicates insufficient knowledge about taxonomic diversity and boundaries of a single species in avian Plasmodium species. In recent taxonomy, most of genetically closely related lineages that share the same morphology and development patterns are attributed to the same biological species, but there is no information if these lineages are able to cross...
August 10, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802308/vitreous-amyloidosis-with-autonomic-neuropathy-of-the-digestive-tract-associated-with-a-novel-transthyretin-p-gly87arg-variant-in-a-bangladeshi-patient-a-case-report
#8
Benjamin Terrier, Magali Colombat, Caroline Beugnet, Astrid Quéant, Jonathan London, Jean-Baptiste Daudin, Claire Le Jeunne, Luc Mouthon, Dominique Monnet, Cécile Cauquil, Catherine Lacroix, David Adams, Antoine Brézin, Sophie Valleix
BACKGROUND: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, first described in families with sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. Since its first description, more than 120 amyloidogenic transthyretin mutations have been reported with various geographic distributions and associated with a wide range of phenotypes involving the peripheral nerve, the heart, the gastrointestinal tract, the eyes, the central nervous system, or the kidneys. In some cases of transthyretin amyloidosis, the first clinical manifestation is vitreous opacity...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801933/maldi-imaging-guided-microproteomic-analyses-of-heterogeneous-breast-tumors-a-pilot-study
#9
Deborah Alberts, Charles Pottier, Nicolas Smargiasso, Dominique Baiwir, Gabriel Mazzucchelli, Philippe Delvenne, Mark Kriegsmann, Daniel Kazdal, Arne Warth, Edwin De Pauw, Rémi Longuespée
PURPOSE: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging is an ideal tool to study intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) and its implication in prognostic stratification of patients. However there are some drawbacks concerning protein identification. On the other hand, laser microdissection (LMD)-based microproteomics allows retrieving thousands of protein identifications from small tissue pieces. As a proof of concept, we combined these two complementary approaches to analyze heterogeneous regions in breast tumors...
August 11, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797040/genome-wide-analysis-of-transcription-factors-during-somatic-embryogenesis-in-banana-musa-spp-cv-grand-naine
#10
Shivani, Praveen Awasthi, Vikrant Sharma, Navjot Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Pankaj Pandey, Siddharth Tiwari
Transcription factors BABY BOOM (BBM), WUSCHEL (WUS), BSD, LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC), LEAFY COTYLEDON LIKE (LIL), VIVIPAROUS1 (VP1), CUP SHAPED COTYLEDONS (CUC), BOLITA (BOL), and AGAMOUS LIKE (AGL) play a crucial role in somatic embryogenesis. In this study, we identified eighteen genes of these nine transcription factors families from the banana genome database. All genes were analyzed for their structural features, subcellular, and chromosomal localization. Protein sequence analysis indicated the presence of characteristic conserved domains in these transcription factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794908/unusual-de-novo-partial-trisomy-17p12p11-2-due-to-unbalanced-insertion-into-5p13-1-in-a-severely-affected-boy
#11
Luis Alberto Mendez-Rosado, Araceli Lantigua, Juan Galarza, Ahmed B Hamid Al-Rikabi, Monika Ziegler, Thomas Liehr
Gain of copy numbers can be due to different chromosomal rearrangements such as direct or indirect duplications, translocations, small supernumerary marker chromosomes, or insertions. In a 3-year-old boy with dysmorphic features and developmental delay, chromosome analyses revealed a derivative chromosome 5. Microdissection and reverse fluorescence in situ hybridization identified the in 5p13.1 inserted part as 17p12-p11.2 material. Thus the patient suffered from a rare combination of genomic disorder, that is, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Potocki-Lupski syndrome...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776456/the-role-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-following-cerebral-ischemia
#12
Gina Hadley, Ain A Neuhaus, Yvonne Couch, Daniel J Beard, Bryan A Adriaanse, Kostas Vekrellis, Gabriele C DeLuca, Michalis Papadakis, Brad A Sutherland, Alastair M Buchan
Background Cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) hippocampal neurons are resistant to global ischemia, whereas cornu ammonis (CA1) 1 neurons are vulnerable. Hamartin expression in CA3 neurons mediates this endogenous resistance via productive autophagy. Neurons lacking hamartin demonstrate exacerbated endoplasmic reticulum stress and increased cell death. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in CA1 and CA3 regions following global cerebral ischemia, and whether pharmacological modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress or autophagy altered neuronal viability ...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759311/biglycan-and-decorin-expression-and-distribution-in-palatal-adhesion
#13
I Ibrahim, M J Serrano, L B Ruest, K K H Svoboda
Previous studies demonstrated that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) on apical surfaces of palatal medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells were necessary for palatal adhesion. In this study, we identified 2 proteoglycans, biglycan and decorin, that were expressed in the palatal shelves prior to adhesion. In addition, we established that these proteoglycans were dependent on transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. Laser capture microdissection was used to collect selected palatal epithelial cells from embryonic mouse embryos at various palate development stages...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754259/inflammation-regulates-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-differentially-in-specific-compartments-of-the-gut-mucosal-immune-system
#14
Peter Ergang, Martin Vodička, Karla Vagnerová, Martin Moravec, Pavlína Kvapilová, Milan Kment, Jiří Pácha
The bioavailability of glucocorticoids is modulated by enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1), which catalyzes the conversion of inactive 11-oxo-glucocorticoids to active 11-hydroxy-glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone and is regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our aim was to assess the effect of colitis on the expression of 11HSD1 in specific microanatomical compartments of the mucosal immune system. Using qRT-PCR we quantified the expression of 11HSD1 and cytokines in the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen of mice with colitis...
July 25, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751446/gene-copy-number-estimation-from-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-prostate-cancer-biopsies-analytic-validation-and-clinical-qualification
#15
George Seed, Wei Yuan, Joaquin Mateo, Suzanne Carreira, Claudia Bertan, Maryou Lambros, Gunther Boysen, Roberta Ferraldeschi, Susana Miranda, Ines Figueiredo, Ruth Riisnaes, Mateus Crespo, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Eric Talevich, Dan R Robinson, Lakshmi P Kunju, Yi-Mi Wu, Robert Lonigro, Shahneen Sandhu, Arul Chinnayan, Johann S de Bono
Abstract <p>Purpose</p> <p>Precise detection of copy number aberrations (CNAs) from tumor biopsies is critically important to the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. The use of targeted panel next generation sequencing (NGS) is inexpensive, high throughput and easily feasible, allowing single nucleotide variant calls, but CNA estimation from this remains challenging..</p> <p>Experimental Design</p> <p>We evaluated CNVkit for CNA identification from amplicon-based targeted NGS in a cohort of 110 fresh castration resistant prostate cancer biopsies, and used capture based whole exome sequencing (WES), array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to explore the viability of this approach...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750401/a-practical-approach-to-tumor-heterogeneity-in-clinical-research-and-diagnostics
#16
Giorgio Stanta, Serena Bonin
This Pathobiology issue tries to better define the complex phenomenon of intratumor heterogeneity (ITH), mostly from a practical point of view. This topic has been chosen because ITH is a central issue in tumor development and has to be investigated directly in patient tissue and immediately applied in the treatment of the presenting patient. Different types of ITH should be considered: clonal genetic and epigenetic evolution, morphological heterogeneity, and tumor sampling, heterogeneity resulting from microenvironmental autocrine and paracrine interaction, and stochastic plasticity related to different functional cell efficiencies...
July 28, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747659/porcine-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-model-enables-systematic-analysis-of-early-events-in-adenoma-progression
#17
Tatiana Flisikowska, Monika Stachowiak, Hongen Xu, Alexandra Wagner, Alejandra Hernandez-Caceres, Christine Wurmser, Carolin Perleberg, Hubert Pausch, Anna Perkowska, Konrad Fischer, Dmitrij Frishman, Ruedi Fries, Marek Switonski, Alexander Kind, Dieter Saur, Angelika Schnieke, Krzysztof Flisikowski
We compared gene expression in low and high-grade intraepithelial dysplastic polyps from pigs carrying an APC (1311) truncating mutation orthologous to human APC (1309) , analysing whole samples and microdissected dysplastic epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed differential expression of gene sets similar to human normal mucosa versus T1 stage polyps. Transcriptome analysis of whole samples revealed many differentially-expressed genes reflecting immune infiltration. Analysis of microdissected dysplastic epithelium was markedly different and showed increased expression in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of several genes known to be involved in human CRC; and revealed possible new roles for GBP6 and PLXND1...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747361/metabolic-acidosis-stimulates-the-production-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-in-rabbit-urine
#18
Hu Peng, Jeffrey M Purkerson, Andrew L Schwaderer, George J Schwartz
Intercalated cells of the collecting duct (CD) are critical for acid-base homeostasis and innate immune defense of the kidney. Little is known about the impact of acidosis on innate immune defense in the distal nephron. Urinary tract infections are mainly due to Escherichia coli and are an important risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease. While the effect of urinary pH on growth of E. coli is well established, in this study we demonstrate that acidosis increases urine antimicrobial activity due, at least in part, to induction of cathelicidin expression within the CD...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738408/cgas-surveillance-of-micronuclei-links-genome-instability-to-innate-immunity
#19
Karen J Mackenzie, Paula Carroll, Carol-Anne Martin, Olga Murina, Adeline Fluteau, Daniel J Simpson, Nelly Olova, Hannah Sutcliffe, Jacqueline K Rainger, Andrea Leitch, Ruby T Osborn, Ann P Wheeler, Marcin Nowotny, Nick Gilbert, Tamir Chandra, Martin A M Reijns, Andrew P Jackson
DNA is strictly compartmentalized within the nucleus to prevent autoimmunity; despite this, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), a cytosolic sensor of double-stranded DNA, is activated in autoinflammatory disorders and by DNA damage. Precisely how cellular DNA gains access to the cytoplasm remains to be determined. Here, we report that cGAS localizes to micronuclei arising from genome instability in a mouse model of monogenic autoinflammation, after exogenous DNA damage and spontaneously in human cancer cells. Such micronuclei occur after mis-segregation of DNA during cell division and consist of chromatin surrounded by its own nuclear membrane...
July 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735518/the-possible-prognostic-role-of-histone-deacetylase-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-in-high-grade-gliomas-treated-by-radio-chemotherapy-a-preliminary-immunohistochemical-study
#20
Roberta Sferra, Simona Pompili, Claudio Festuccia, Francesco Marampon, Giovanni L Gravina, Luca Ventura, Ernesto Di Cesare, Sara Cicchinelli, Eugenio Gaudio, Antonella Vetuschi
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive tumor of the central nervous system. Unfortunately, patients affected by this disease have a very poor prognosis, due to high level of invasiveness and resistance to standard therapies. Although the molecular profile of GBM has been extensively investigated, the events responsible for its pathogenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) dependent epigenetic modifications and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad pathway seem to play an important role in GBM tumorigenesis, resistance to common therapies and poor clinical outcome...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
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