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Urine Drug screen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098590/analgesia-and-sedation-requirements-in-mechanically-ventilated-trauma-patients-with-acute-preinjury-use-of-cocaine-and-or-amphetamines
#1
Bridgette Kram, Shawn J Kram, Michelle L Sharpe, Michael L James, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Mark L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanically ventilated trauma patients with a positive urine drug screen (UDS) for cocaine and/or amphetamines have different opioid analgesic and sedative requirements compared with similar patients with a negative drug screen for these stimulants. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center cohort study at a tertiary care, academic medical and level 1 trauma center in the United States included patients ≥16 years of age who were admitted to an adult intensive care unit with a diagnosis of trauma between 2009 and 2013 with a UDS documented within 24 hours of admission, and were mechanically ventilated for >24 hours...
January 16, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089738/evaluation-of-the-diuretic-activity-of-the-aqueous-and-80-methanol-extracts-of-the-root-of-euclea-divinorum-hiern-ebenaceae-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Beharu Woldemedhin, Teshome Nedi, Workineh Shibeshi, Mekonnen Sisay Shiferaw
BACKGROUND: Diuretics are drugs that increase the formation of urine and are important for the treatment of various diseases including hypertension and edema. The root decoction of Euclea divinorum has been used as a diuretic agent in the traditional medicine. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the diuretic activity of the crude extracts of the roots of Euclea divinorum in Sprague Dawley rats. METHODS: The aqueous extract (AE) and 80% methanol extract (80ME) of the plant were prepared using decoction and maceration, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079250/use-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-safety-and-tolerability
#3
Lindsey Thompson, Erin Fecske, Mohammad Salim, Ara Hall
Drug-resistant epilepsy poses a challenge in neonatal patients, especially those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), who have various secondary comorbidities. We present results of four children with a history of drug-resistant epilepsy for whom a ketogenic diet was initiated and used in the NICU. A nonfasting induction into ketosis over 1-2 weeks was utilized, with gradual increases in the ketogenic ratio every 2-3 days. Data were collected retrospectively from a database, which included medical history, daily progress notes, relevant laboratory data, and imaging and diagnostic information...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076917/multi-organ-dysfunction-due-to-bath-salts-are-we-aware-of-this-entity
#4
Rohith Valsalan, Benoj Varghese, Diya Soman, Jonathan Buckmaster, Steven Yew, David Cooper
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Physical manifestations include tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria and seizures. We report a patient who presented with severe metabolic acidosis, multi-organ dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia and seizures. This case highlights that even though a urine drug screen for routine psychostimulant drugs is negative, clinicians need to be vigilant about the adverse effects of MDPV as a possible cause of multi-organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059430/attitudes-toward-the-canadian-guideline-for-safe-and-effective-use-of-opioids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-a-qualitative-study
#5
Yaping Chang, Kan Lun Zhu, Ivan D Florez, Sung Min Cho, Nasim Zamir, Augustin Toma, Reza Donald Mirza, Gordon H Guyatt, Norman Buckley, Jason W Busse
BACKGROUND: Chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) refers to all pain disorders, not due to cancer, that persist for ≥3 months. The point prevalence of CNCP in the general population of Western countries is between 19 and 33 percent. Opioids are commonly prescribed for CNCP and are associated with both benefits and harms. The Canadian Guideline for Safe and Effective Use of Opioids for CNCP was published in 2010 to provide guidance for optimal opioid prescribing in patients with CNCP. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the attitudes toward, and use of, the Canadian Opioids Guideline among pain physicians...
November 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046138/detection-of-residues-in-urine-and-tissues-of-sheep-treated-with-trace-levels-of-dietary-ractopamine-hcl
#6
D J Smith, W L Shelver, A Marx
Qualitative assays are sometimes used as the sole basis for detecting drug residues in live animals or in animal products. Such assays have become increasingly sensitive as detection technologies have improved, yet the limitations of such assays to discriminate purposeful and accidental drug exposures remain poorly defined. A study was conducted to determine the ability of a ractopamine lateral flow assay to accurately detect incurred ractopamine residues in contaminated feeds and in sheep fed trace quantities of ractopamine HCl...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044413/identification-of-metabolites-of-palmatine-in-rats-after-oral-administration-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#7
Kun Wang, Liwei Chai, Liqin Ding, Feng Qiu
RATIONALE: Palmatine (PAL), a protopalmatine alkaloid, is an active constituent in a number of medicinal plants. In order to obtain a comprehensive and systematic metabolic profile of PAL, we investigated its metabolites in plasma, liver tissue, bile, urine, and feces samples after intragastrical administration to sprague-dawly rats with a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. METHODS: In this study, a rapid and sensitive method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF/MS), and metabolynx(TM) software with mass defect filter (MDF) technique was developed for screening and identification of the metabolites...
January 3, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043077/a-sensitive-label-free-electrochemical-detection-of-telomerase-activity-without-modification-or-immobilization
#8
Xu Liu, Min Wei, Ensheng Xu, Haitang Yang, Wei Wei, Yuanjian Zhang, Songqin Liu
Telomerase has become one of the most typical tumor marker because it is closely related to cancers. In this paper, a simple label-free electrochemical detection of telomerase activity by using methylene blue (MB) as a G-quadruplex binding probe was proposed, avoiding commonly used complex label procedures, nano-probe synthesis, complicated electrode modification, probe immobilization or signal amplification. In the presence of telomerase substrate (TS) primer, the binding of MB on primer was weak. When repeats of (TTAGGG) were extended on the TS primer under the action of telomerase, they formed multiple G-quadruplexes with the help of K(+)...
December 24, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042917/profiling-and-identification-of-epicatechin-metabolites-in-rats-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-linear-trap-orbitrap-mass-spectrometer
#9
Zhanpeng Shang, Fei Wang, Shengyun Dai, Jianqiu Lu, Xiaodan Wu, Jiayu Zhang
(-)-Epicatechin (EC), an optical antipode of (+)-catechin (C), possesses many potential significant health benefits. However, the in vivo metabolic pathway of EC has not been clarified yet. In this study, an efficient strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer was developed to profile and characterize EC metabolites in rat urine, feces, plasma, and various tissues. Meanwhile, post-acquisition data-mining methods including high-resolution extracted ion chromatogram (HREIC), multiple mass defect filters (MMDFs), and diagnostic product ions (DPIs) were utilized to screen and identify EC metabolites from HR-ESI-MS(1) to ESI-MS(n) stage...
January 2, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035035/analysis-of-u-47700-a-novel-synthetic-opioid-in-human-urine-by-lc-ms-ms-and-lc-qtof
#10
Steven W Fleming, Justin C Cooley, Leonard Johnson, C Clinton Frazee, Kristina Domanski, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Uttam Garg
The illicit drug market has rapidly evolved from synthetic cannabinoids to cathinone derivatives and now a new emerging threat of synthetic opioids. These compounds were mostly developed by pharmaceutical companies during drug discovery. The new psychoactive substances are not routinely covered in drug screening and may go undetected. Recently fentanyl analogous, AH-7921, MT-45 and now U-47700 have been encountered in clinical and forensic casework. U-47700 is gaining popularity on drug user forms as a legal alternative to heroin...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031343/screening-for-elevated-albuminuria-and-subsequently-hypertension-identifies-subjects-in-which-treatment-may-be-warranted-to-prevent-renal-function-decline
#11
Akin Özyilmaz, Paul E de Jong, Stephan J L Bakker, Sipke T Visser, Chris Thio, Ron T Gansevoort
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether initial population screening for elevated albuminuria with subsequent screening for hypertension in case albuminuria is elevated may be of help to identify subjects at risk for accelerated decline in kidney function. METHODS: We included subjects who participate in the PREVEND observational, general population-based cohort study and had two or more glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements available during follow-up. Elevated albuminuria was defined as an albumin concentration ≥20 mg/L in a first morning urine sample confirmed by an albumin excretion ≥30 mg/day in two 24-h urines...
December 28, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029366/computational-aided-design-of-magnetic-ultra-thin-dummy-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-selective-extraction-and-determination-of-morphine-from-urine-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#12
Shuangling Xi, Kai Zhang, Deli Xiao, Hua He
In this work, a novel magnetic ultra-thin dummy molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) for morphine (MO) was prepared. In order to obtain highly selective recognition cavities, the MMIP has been designed using semi-flexible docking to screen the optimal monomer and its ratio to morphine from six representative monomers. Furthermore, the dummy template was creatively screened by semi-flexible docking method from opioid drugs. The system of dihydrocodeine (DI) as dummy template, methacrylamide (MAC) as founctional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker was chosen for MO imprinting...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028717/multi-drug-resistant-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-treatment-by-chinese-medicine
#13
Shi-Wei Liu, Xiao-Yang Xu, Jie Xu, Jiu-Yun Yuan, Wei-Kang Wu, Ning Zhang, Ze-Liang Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the resistance and virulence profiles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and its treatment by Chinese medicine (CM) Fuzheng Qingre Lishi Formula (, FQLF). METHODS: UPEC strains were isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) patients. Patient sensitivities to 17 antibiotics were tested by the disk diffusion method. Virulence genes were screened by plolymerase chain reaction. A mouse model was constructed using a multi-drug resistant and virulent UPEC strain and treated with FQLF or the antibiotic imipenem...
December 27, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024169/evaluation-of-kims-immunoassays-on-a-cobas-c-501-analyzer-for-drugs-of-abuse-and-ethyl-glucuronide-testing-in-urine-for-forensic-abstinence-control
#14
Merja A Neukamm, Arsham Bahrami, Volker Auwärter, Felix M P Mehne, Eva Höss
For the medico-psychological assessment (MPA) during driving license re-granting in Germany, abstinence control including urine samples is required. In these programs, even small amounts of markers for drug or alcohol abuse have to be detected. Thus, the concentrations of the target compounds are very low, and, in consequence, the sensitivity of the applied screening method has to be much higher than for clinical use. Modified drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide immunoassays on a Roche cobas c 501 analyzer were evaluated for precision, accuracy, onboard calibration stability, cross reactivity, sensitivity and specificity using authentic urine samples...
December 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017186/carvedilol-does-not-reduce-cocaine-use-in-methadone-maintained-cocaine-users
#15
Mehmet Sofuoglu, James Poling, Theresa Babuscio, Kishorchandra Gonsai, Kevin Severino, Charla Nich, Kathleen M Carroll
INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study was too test the efficacy of carvedilol (CAR), an adrenergic blocker, for reducing cocaine use in individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD). We conducted a 17-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial with 3 treatment arms: 25mg CAR, 50mg CAR, and placebo. METHODS: One hundred and six treatment-seeking opioid and cocaine-dependent participants, who were also maintained on methadone during study participation, were randomized to placebo (n=34), 25mg/day CAR (n=37) or 50mg/day CAR (n=35)...
February 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012825/detection-of-the-antipsychotic-drug-quetiapine-in-the-blood-urine-and-hair-samples-of-the-victim-of-a-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault
#16
Sys Stybe Johansen
A drug rape facilitated with the sedative antipsychotic drug quetiapine is presented here. A teenage girl and her girlfriend went to the home of an adult couple they had met at a bar. Here, the teenage girl (victim) felt tired after consuming some alcoholic drinks and fell asleep. While she was asleep, the others left her at the house alone and returned to the bar. Later, the girl woke up to witness the adult male having intercourse with her, but she was not able to resist the attack. She fell asleep again and slept through the next day and a half, after which she left the house...
December 15, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012112/rapid-analysis-of-cocaine-and-metabolites-in-urine-using-microextraction-in-packed-sorbent-and-gc-ms
#17
Tiago Rosado, Alexandra Gonçalves, Cláudia Margalho, Mário Barroso, Eugenia Gallardo
Cocaine is still one of the most abused drugs worldwide and, as such, it is often screened for in driving-under-the-influence or workplace drug - testing scenarios. A large number of samples have usually to be processed in those situations, and this requires fast and simple extraction procedures for the detection and quantification of the drugs. The present work describes an ultrafast and fully validated procedure for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cocaine and its two main metabolites, ecgonine methyl ester and benzoylecgonine, in urine using microextraction by packed sorbent and GC-MS...
December 23, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980029/risk-stratification-for-opioid-misuse-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-quality-improvement-project
#18
Rachel Thienprayoon, Kelly Porter, Michelle Tate, Marshall Ashby, Mark Meyer
BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Palliative and Comfort Care Team (PACT) at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) provides opioids to a large population of patients in the ambulatory setting. Before this project, PACT had no reliable system to risk stratify patients for opioid misuse. METHODS: The global aim was safe opioid prescribing by the palliative care team. The specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timely aim was as follows: "In patients who present for follow up with PACT, we will use the "opioid bundle" to increase risk stratification for opioid misuse from 0% to 90% over 5 months...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964869/relapse-to-opioid-use-in-opioid-dependent-individuals-released-from-compulsory-drug-detention-centres-compared-with-those-from-voluntary-methadone-treatment-centres-in-malaysia-a-two-arm-prospective-observational-study
#19
Martin P Wegman, Frederick L Altice, Sangeeth Kaur, Vanesa Rajandaran, Sutayut Osornprasop, David Wilson, David P Wilson, Adeeba Kamarulzaman
BACKGROUND: Detention of people who use drugs into compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) is common throughout East and Southeast Asia. Evidence-based pharmacological therapies for treating substance use disorders, such as opioid agonist treatments with methadone, are generally unavailable in these settings. We used a unique opportunity where CDDCs coexisted with voluntary drug treatment centres (VTCs) providing methadone in Malaysia to compare the timing and occurrence of opioid relapse (measured using urine drug testing) in individuals transitioning from CDDCs versus methadone maintenance in VTCs...
December 7, 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958381/a-polymorphism-in-the-oprm1-3-untranslated-region-is-associated-with-methadone-efficacy-in-treating-opioid-dependence
#20
R C Crist, G A Doyle, E C Nelson, L Degenhardt, N G Martin, G W Montgomery, A J Saxon, W Ling, W H Berrettini
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is the primary target of methadone and buprenorphine. The primary neuronal transcript of the OPRM1 gene, MOR-1, contains a ~13 kb 3' untranslated region with five common haplotypes in European-Americans. We analyzed the effects of these haplotypes on the percentage of opioid positive urine tests in European-Americans (n=582) during a 24-week, randomized, open-label trial of methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone) for the treatment of opioid dependence. A single haplotype, tagged by rs10485058, was significantly associated with patient urinalysis data in the methadone treatment group...
December 13, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
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