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Urine Drug screen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441975/seek-test-treat-substance-using-women-in-the-hiv-treatment-cascade-in-south-africa
#1
Wendee M Wechsberg, Charles van der Horst, Jacqueline Ndirangu, Irene A Doherty, Tracy Kline, Felicia A Browne, Jennifer M Belus, Robin Nance, William A Zule
BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa who use alcohol and other drugs face multiple barriers to HIV care. These barriers make it difficult for women to progress through each step in the HIV treatment cascade from diagnosis to treatment initiation and adherence. This paper examines correlates of HIV status, newly diagnosed HIV status, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Outreach workers recruited sexually active Black African women who used substances in Pretoria as part of a U...
April 26, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429063/direct-fluorescence-anisotropy-assay-for-cocaine-using-tetramethylrhodamine-labeled-aptamer
#2
Yingxiong Liu, Qiang Zhao
Development of simple, sensitive, and rapid method for cocaine detection is important in medicine and drug abuse monitoring. Taking advantage of fluorescence anisotropy and aptamer, this study reports a direct fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay for cocaine by employing an aptamer probe with tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) labeled on a specific position. The binding of cocaine and the aptamer causes a structure change of the TMR-labeled aptamer, leading to changes of the interaction between labeled TMR and adjacent G bases in aptamer sequence, so FA of TMR varies with increasing of cocaine...
April 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427112/acute-encephalopathy-in-a-2-year-old-pot-bellied-pig-following-accidental-intoxication-with-clonazepam
#3
Emilie L Setlakwe, Amy L Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of successful management of clonazepam toxicity causing encephalopathy in a pot-bellied pig. CASE SUMMARY: A 2-year-old female pot-bellied pig weighing 13.5 kg was presented for evaluation of clinical signs of acute encephalopathy. Based on the animal's history and clinical signs, a tentative diagnosis of benzodiazepine (BZP) intoxication was made. The results of a urinary drug screening test designed to detect illicit substances in human urine indicated benzodiazepine exposure...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426583/the-law-of-unintended-consequences-can-never-be-repealed-the-hazards-of-random-urine-drug-screening-of-anesthesia-providers
#4
Keith H Berge, Brian P McGlinch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417026/cardiovascular-complications-of-acute-amphetamine-abuse-cross-sectional-study
#5
Elham Bazmi, Farinaz Mousavi, Leila Giahchin, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Behnam Behnoush
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. METHODS: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414664/gonococcal-endocarditis-the-gift-that-stops-giving-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-common-disease
#6
G Olayemi, M Oferczak, A Elagizi, I El-Abbassi, M Eschete, J Crowe
INTRODUCTION: Gonorrhea is the 2nd most common sexually transmitted disease in the US with 800,000 cases of gonorrhea each year. Disseminated gonorrhea infection occurs in 0.5 percent - 3 percent of these patients and is more frequent in woman younger than 40 years of age. CASE: A 36 year old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with 10 day history of feeling generally unwell. At presentation, vitals were remarkable for tachycardia and hypotension...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393558/supraventricular-tachycardia-and-acute-confusion-following-ingestion-of-e-cigarette-fluid-containing-ab-fubinaca-and-adb-fubinaca-a-case-report-with-quantitative-analysis-of-serum-drug-concentrations
#7
Rex Pui Kin Lam, Magdalene Huen Yin Tang, Siu Chung Leung, Yeow Kuan Chong, Matthew Sik Hon Tsui, Tony Wing Lai Mak
BACKGROUND: AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA are structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids with potent CB1 receptor agonistic effects. Very little is known about their pharmacology and toxicology. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of supraventricular tachycardia and acute confusion after ingestion of e-cigarette fluid containing AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA, with quantitative analysis of the serum drug concentrations. CASE REPORT: A healthy 24-year-old man ingested two drops of e-cigarette fluid which were later found to contain AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390021/pharmaceuticals-and-illicit-drugs-in-wastewater-samples-in-north-eastern-tunisia
#8
Bilel Moslah, Evroula Hapeshi, Amel Jrad, Despo Fatta-Kassinos, Abderrazek Hedhili
Pharmaceutically active substances (PhACs) and drugs of abuse (DAs) are two classes of contaminants of emerging concern that have attracted great concern and interest by the scientific community during the last two decades. Numerous studies have revealed their presence in treated urban wastewaters. This is mainly due to the fact that some compounds are not efficiently removed during wastewater treatment processes, and are thus able to reach the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge and reuse practices...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376067/seizures-systemic-inflammatory-response-and-rhabdomyolysis-associated-with-laboratory-confirmed-2c-i-and-25-i-exposure
#9
Stephen L Thornton, Sarah Hoehn, Roy R Gerona
The 2C drugs are hallucinogenic phenethylamines. They and their n-benzyloxymethyl analogs have become popular as "legal highs," and significant toxicity has been attributed to their use. We report on a case of seizures, systemic inflammatory response, and rhabdomyolysis associated with laboratory-confirmed 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine and 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-(2-methoxybenzyl) phenethylamine exposure. A 17-year-old male teenager developed seizures after taking "2 strips of acid." The seizures resolved with midazolam, but he became apneic and was intubated...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371411/generation-of-integration-free-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-urine-derived-cells-isolated-from-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#10
Young M Lee, Bruna L Zampieri, Jonah J Scott-McKean, Mark W Johnson, Alberto C S Costa
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by trisomy 21 (T21). Over the past two decades, the use of mouse models has led to significant advances in the understanding of mechanisms underlying various phenotypic features and comorbidities secondary to T21 and even informed the design of clinical trials aimed at enhancing the cognitive abilities of persons with DS. In spite of its success, this approach has been plagued by all the typical limitations of rodent modeling of human disorders and diseases. Recently, several laboratories have succeeded in producing T21 human induced pluripotent stem cells (T21-iPSCs) from individuals with DS, which is emerging as a promising complementary tool for the study of DS...
March 28, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363609/maternal-fetal-monitoring-of-opioid-exposed-pregnancies-analysis-of-a-pilot-community-based-protocol-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Gareth Ryan, Joe Dooley, Rory Windrim, Megan Bollinger, Lianne Gerber Finn, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVES: To describe/analyse a novel, community-based prenatal monitoring protocol for opioid-exposed pregnancies developed by our centre in 2014 to optimize prenatal care for this population. A literature review of published monitoring protocols for this population is also presented. METHODS: Retrospective comparison of pre-protocol (n = 215) and post-protocol (n = 251) cohorts. Medline and Embase were searched between 2000-2016 using MeSH terms: [fetal monitoring OR prenatal care] AND [opioid-related disorders OR substance-related disorders] in Medline and [fetal monitoring OR prenatal care] AND [opiate addiction OR substance abuse] in Embase, producing 518 results...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361803/illicit-drugs-in-emergency-department-patients-injured-in-road-traffic-accidents
#12
Pietro Papa, Loretta Rocchi, Laura Maria Rolandi, Marcello Di Tuccio, Marco Biffi, Antonella Valli
Urine and blood samples from 1730 drivers involved in road accidents (July 2012 - December 2015) were analyzed for the evaluation of driving under influence of drug of abuse according to the Lombardia Region guideline. The 22.5% (95% CI 20.5 to 24.5) of urine screenings tested positive for at least one class of drugs. 10.6% (95% CI 9.2 to 12.1) of the 1730 drivers were under the influence of drug, being blood concentration above the cut-off limit for at least one active substance; the proportion of illicit drugs in blood was cocaine 5...
January 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358755/patients-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-regular-alcohol-urine-screening-a-survey-study
#13
Pablo Barrio, Lídia Teixidor, Lluisa Ortega, Mercè Balcells, Eduard Vieta, Antoni Gual
BACKGROUND: Despite its wide implementation, there is a paucity of data supporting the effectiveness of regular alcohol urine screening (RAUS) in maintaining abstinence. This study aims at investigating if RAUS serves other purposes, what attitudes patients display towards it, and patients' technical knowledge about basic screening notions. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among adults with alcohol dependence, attending outpatient alcohol-dependence treatment...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358754/open-label-study-of-injectable-extended-release-naltrexone-xr-ntx-in-healthcare-professionals-with-opioid-dependence
#14
Paul H Earley, Jacqueline Zummo, Asli Memisoglu, Bernard L Silverman, David R Gastfriend
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) with opioid dependence are at risk for relapse and death, particularly in the first year of recovery; however, maintenance treatment with opioid agonists is controversial in this safety-sensitive group. We evaluated long-term safety, tolerability, and treatment outcomes of injectable, intramuscular, extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) in opioid-dependent HCPs. METHODS: This single-arm, multisite, open-label study was conducted in opioid-dependent HCPs who had been detoxified from opioids for at least 2 weeks...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358330/analysis-of-dna-methylation-status-in-bodily-fluids-for-early-detection-of-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Keigo Yokoi, Keishi Yamashita, Masahiko Watanabe
Epigenetic alterations by promoter DNA hypermethylation and gene silencing in cancer have been reported over the past few decades. DNA hypermethylation has great potential to serve as a screening marker, a prognostic marker, and a therapeutic surveillance marker in cancer clinics. Some bodily fluids, such as stool or urine, were obtainable without any invasion to the body. Thus, such bodily fluids were suitable samples for high throughput cancer surveillance. Analyzing the methylation status of bodily fluids around the cancer tissue may, additionally, lead to the early detection of cancer, because several genes in cancer tissues are reported to be cancer-specifically hypermethylated...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357892/suspected-synthetic-cannabinomimetic-intoxication
#16
Regan A Baum, Abby Bailey, Ryan Chan, Karen Blumenschein
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to retrospectively review patient cases presenting to the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center (UKCMC) emergency department (ED) with symptoms of suspected synthetic cannabinomimetic (SC) intoxication. These drugs, currently undetected by standard urine drug screen tests, comprise a structurally diverse group of compounds designed to mimic the psychoactive effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325505/clinical-interpretation-of-urine-drug-tests-what-clinicians-need-to-know-about-urine-drug-screens
#17
REVIEW
Karen E Moeller, Julie C Kissack, Rabia S Atayee, Kelly C Lee
Urine drug testing is frequently used in clinical, employment, educational, and legal settings and misinterpretation of test results can result in significant adverse consequences for the individual who is being tested. Advances in drug testing technology combined with a rise in the number of novel misused substances present challenges to clinicians to appropriately interpret urine drug test results. Authors searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify published literature written in English between 1946 and 2016, using urine drug test, screen, false-positive, false-negative, abuse, and individual drugs of abuse as key words...
March 18, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295913/identification-and-characterization-of-fluvastatin-metabolites-in-rats-by-uhplc-q-tof-ms-ms-and-in-silico-toxicological-screening-of-the-metabolites
#18
Balasaheb B Chavan, Pradipbhai D Kalariya, Rakesh D Nimbalkar, Prabha Garg, R Srinivas, M V N Kumar Talluri
The present study reports the in vivo and in vitro identification and characterization of metabolites of fluvastatin (FLU), the HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In vitro studies were conducted by incubating the drug with human liver microsomes (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). In vivo studies were carried out by administration of the drug in the form of suspension to the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats followed by collection of urine, faeces and blood at different time points upto 24 h...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279691/-use-of-urine-drug-screening-in-the-emergency-department-of-a-paediatric-hospital
#19
Núria Ferrer Bosch, Lidia Martínez Sánchez, Victoria Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Jesús Velasco Rodríguez, Elsa García González, Carles Luaces Cubells
OBJECTIVE: To describe the situations in which urine drug screening is used in a Paediatric Emergency Department (ED). An analysis is also made on its potential usefulness on whether it changes the patient management, and if the results are confirmed by using specific techniques. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study was conducted on patients under the age of 18 attended in the ED during 2014 and in whom urine drug screening was requested. Depending on the potential capacity of the screening result to change patient management, two groups were defined (potentially useful and not potentially useful)...
March 6, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275295/investigation-of-mitigating-effect-of-colon-specific-prodrugs-of-boswellic-acid-on-2-4-6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-induced-colitis-in-wistar-rats-design-kinetics-and-biological-evaluation
#20
Ajinkya Sarkate, Suneela S Dhaneshwar
AIM: To develop a colon-targeting bioreversible delivery system for β-boswellic acid (BBA) and explore utility of its prodrugs in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: Synthesis of 4 co-drugs of BBA with essential amino acids was achieved by CDI coupling, followed by their spectral characterization. In vitro kinetics were studied by HPLC in aqueous buffers, homogenates of gastrointestinal tract and fecal matter. In vivo kinetic studies were performed in Wistar rat plasma, urine and feces...
February 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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