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Urine Drug screen

Annelies Cannaert, Jolien Storme, Cornelius Hess, Volker Auwärter, Sarah M R Wille, Christophe P Stove
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids are the largest group of new psychoactive substances monitored by the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drug Addiction. The rapid proliferation of novel analogs makes the detection of these new derivatives challenging and has initiated considerable interest in the development of so-called "untargeted" screening strategies to detect these compounds. METHODS: We developed new, stable bioassays in which cannabinoid receptor activation by cannabinoids led to recruitment of truncated β-arrestin 2 (βarr2) to the cannabinoid receptors, resulting in functional complementation of a split luciferase, allowing readout via bioluminescence...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Gregory R Stroh, Fanglong Dong, Elizabeth Ablah, Jeanette G Ward, James M Haan
The effects of methamphetamines (MAs) on trauma patient outcomes have been evaluated, but with discordant results. The purpose of this study was to identify hospital outcomes associated with MA use after traumatic injury. Retrospective review of adult trauma patients admitted to an American College of Surgeons verified-Level I trauma center who received a urine drug screen (UDS) between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with mortality...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Huan Yi, Bingbing Xie, Ben Liu, Xuan Wang, Li Xu, Jia Liu, Min Li, Xiufeng Zhong, Fuhua Peng
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have provided new opportunities for motor neuron disease (MND) modeling, drug screening, and cellular therapeutic development. Among the various types of iPSCs, urine-derived iPSCs have become a promising source of stem cells because they can be safely and noninvasively isolated and easily reprogrammed. Here, for the first time, we differentiated urine-derived iPSCs (urine-iPSCs) into motor neurons (MNs) and compared the capacity of urine-iPSCs and cord-blood-derived iPSCs (B-iPSCs) to differentiate into MNs...
2018: Stem Cells International
Anders Helander, Katarina Stojanovic, Tomas Villén, Olof Beck
In recent time, structural variants of fentanyl ("designer fentanyls") have appeared on the recreational drug market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). These potent opioids have caused harmful intoxications and increased opioid related mortality in many countries. This work evaluated three commercial immunoassays for fentanyl screening in urine, and investigated whether they are useful also for screening of designer fentanyls. The assays examined were the Thermo DRI® Fentanyl Enzyme Immunoassay, the ARK™ Fentanyl Assay homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the Immunalysis® Fentanyl Urine SEFRIA™ Drug Screening Kit...
March 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Brooke Hall, Sarah Daly
In adults treated with opioids for chronic pain, point-of-care urine drug screens (immunoassays) for detecting opioids show a false-negative rate of 1.9%, a sensitivity of 92%, and a specificity of 93% compared with the gold-standard liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Oxycodone has the highest rate of false-negative results at 25%; methadone has the lowest rate at 4% to 6% (strength of recommendation: A, 2 blinded diagnostic accuracy studies with similar results).
March 2018: Journal of Family Practice
Robinder Bahniwal, Jarrett Sell, Abdul Waheed
OBJECTIVE: Determine patient recall, attitudes, and perceptions of their pain contract in a family medicine resident out-patient clinic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design using a telephone survey to all eligible subjects who signed a hardcopy pain contract from August 29, 2014 to May 19, 2016 at a resident outpatient clinic. SETTING: Penn State Hershey Family and Community Medicine Residency clinic. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who signed a hardcopy pain contract at the practice site who met specific inclusion criteria...
January 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Jaime Alcántara-Durán, David Moreno-González, Miriam Beneito-Cambra, Juan F García-Reyes
In this work, a sensitive nanoflow liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry screening method has been developed for the determination of multiclass drugs of abuse and sport drugs in human urine. 81 drugs belonging to different multiclass pharmaceuticals were targeted. The method is based on the use of a nanoLC column (75 µm × 150 mm, 3 µm particle size and 100 Å pore) with the nanospray emitter tip integrated so that dead volumes are significantly minimized. Data acquisition method included both full-scan and all ion fragmentation experiments using an Orbitrap analyser (Q-Exactive) operated in the positive ionization mode...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Steven T Riccoboni, Michael A Darracq
BACKGROUND: Behavioral emergencies account for a significant portion of emergency department (ED) visits in the United States. Substance abuse is common in this population and may precipitate or exacerbate preexisting psychiatric illness. Contrary to ED policy guidelines, many behavior health centers (BH) require a urine drug screen (UDS) in stable patients prior to transfer. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the role of the UDS in ED length of stay (LOS), cost, and charges to patients and inpatient psychiatric care...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Steven J Ondersma, Dace S Svikis, Casey Thacker, Ken Resnicow, Jessica R Beatty, James Janisse, Karoline Puder
BACKGROUND: Under-reporting of drug use in the perinatal period is well-documented, and significantly limits the reach of proactive intervention approaches. The Wayne Indirect Drug Use Screener (WIDUS) focuses on correlates of drug use rather than use itself. This trial tested a computer-delivered, brief intervention designed for use with indirect screen-positive cases, seeking to motivate reductions in drug use without presuming its presence. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial with 500 WIDUS-positive postpartum women recruited between August 14, 2012 and November 19, 2014...
February 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Osamu Ichii, Taro Horino
Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs with approximately 18-25 bases, and their sequences are highly conserved among animals. miRNAs act as posttranscriptional regulators by binding mRNAs, and their main function involves the degradation of their target mRNAs. Recent studies revealed altered expression of miRNAs in the kidneys during the progression of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans and experimental rodent models by using high-throughput screening techniques including microarray and small RNA sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Jessica M Downes, Donald G Klepser, Jennifer Foster, Maggie Nelson
PURPOSE: The implementation of a chronic pain protocol (CPP) and its effects on the management of long-term opioid therapy are described. SUMMARY: The CPP used at a federally qualified health center and primary care clinic was updated in 2015 and included a prescribing ceiling in morphine equivalent dose (MED) per day and standardized the prescribing of chronic opioids. Intermittent urine drug screening performed at least once annually was added as a requirement of the pain management contract between the provider and the patient...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
M Viljanto, L Hillyer, P Hincks, C Pearce, S W Paine
Medication control and doping control have been established in horse racing to ensure the integrity of the sport and the welfare of the horses. This ensures that horses do not compete under the influence of any drugs, including omeprazole, a therapeutic medication used to treat equine gastric ulcer syndrome. In this study, pharmacokinetic data were produced in equine plasma and urine following an oral administration of 4 mg/kg of generic buffered formulation of omeprazole to six Thoroughbred horses in five daily doses to determine an appropriate screening limit and detection time in equine plasma and to assess whether the current detection time of 72 hr in equine urine would be applicable when an alternative omeprazole product is administered...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Stephanie Basiliere, Kelsie Bryand, Sarah Kerrigan
Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a psychoactive plant that has recently emerged as a recreational drug. Mitragyna alkaloids are not within the scope of traditional forensic toxicology screening methods, which may contribute to under-reporting. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS) were used to identify five alkaloids in urine. Target analytes included the two known psychoactive compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in addition to speciociliatine, speciogynine, and paynantheine...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Nafiseh Maleki, Zahra Tahanasab, Sina Mobasherizadeh, Aliakbar Rezaei, Jamshid Faghri
Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing is a significant resistant mechanism to β-lactams in Enterobacteriaceae , especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae . The main objectives of this study were to genetically characterize urinary clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae through the investigating of blaTEM , blaCTX-M and using molecular typing by Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) method. We also determined the frequency of antibiotic resistance of K...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Christina Grumann, Volker Auwärter
Synthesis of positional isomers of designer drugs is a common way of bypassing legal restrictions. For forensic case work, and especially for legal assessment of cases, there is a need for screening methods capable of the unequivocal identification of positional isomers. The presented LC-ESI-MS/MS method is capable of separating positional isomers of nine 2-phenetylamine-derived designer drugs in different matrices including seized materials, hair, serum, and urine specimens. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a biphenyl phase using gradient elution with a total runtime of 26 minutes...
February 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Emmanuel A Oga, Erica N Peters, Kathleen Trocin, Bartosz Koszowski, Katrina Mark
INTRODUCTION: Prescription-drug use in the USA has increased by more than 60% in the last three decades. Prevalence of prescription-drug use among pregnant women is currently estimated around 50%. Prevalence of illicit drug use in the USA is 14.6% among pregnant adolescents, 8.6% among pregnant young adults and 3.2% among pregnant adults. The first step in identifying problematic drug use during pregnancy is screening; however, no specific substance-use screener has been universally recommended for use with pregnant women to identify illicit or prescription-drug use...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Earl B Ettienne, Edwin Chapman, Mary Maneno, Adaku Ofoegbu, Bradford Wilson, Beverlyn Settles-Reaves, Melissa Clarke, Georgia Dunston, Kevin Rosenblatt
Introduction: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use leading to clinically-significant impairment or distress. Opioid agonist treatment is an integral component of OUD management, and buprenorphine is often utilized in OUD management due to strong clinical evidence for efficacy. However, interindividual genetic differences in buprenorphine metabolism may result in variable treatment response, leaving some patients undertreated and at increased risk for relapse...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Gregory W Vandergrift, Arden J Hessels, Jan Palaty, Erik T Krogh, Chris G Gill
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl is a potent, synthetic opioid at the centre of an international health crisis that has seen thousands of fatal overdoses. Most analytical methods focus on the detection of fentanyl in blood and/or urine (i.e., post-drug use). Harm reduction (including pre-screening before drug use) may be an effective strategy against fentanyl overdoses. METHOD: Paper spray-mass spectrometry (PS-MS) is an inexpensive, direct sampling strategy where a small volume of sample (<10 μL) is spotted onto a piece of paper that is then wetted and connected to high voltage...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Simuli L Wabuyele, Jennifer M Colby, Gwendolyn A McMillin
Maternal substance abuse during pregnancy is a growing problem with major public health and legal concerns. In utero substance exposure may adversely affect neonatal development, pregnancy outcome and the long term behavioral, cognitive and developmental abilities of the child. Also, serious legal implications are associated with substance abuse during pregnancy, including charges of child abuse and neglect which may result in removal of the neonate from parental care and loss of custodial rights. Timely detection of in utero drug exposure is necessary for early identification and effective management of exposed newborns...
February 5, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Jennifer A Fulcher, Steven Shoptaw, Solomon B Makgoeng, Julie Elliott, F Javier Ibarrondo, Amy Ragsdale, Ron Brookmeyer, Peter A Anton, Pamina M Gorbach
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use increases the risk of HIV-1 infection among seronegative users, and can exacerbate disease progression in HIV-positive users. The biological mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. In this cross-sectional pilot study, we examine the associations between recent methamphetamine use and inflammation in the rectal mucosa and peripheral blood compartments in HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: HIV-seronegative and seropositive MSM participants were enrolled (N=24)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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