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Heart failure, ischemic heart disease

Cosmo Godino, Antonio Colombo, Alberto Margonato
Heart rate is an established prognostic marker for longevity and is an important contributor in the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Most ischemic episodes are triggered by an increase in heart rate, which causes an imbalance between myocardial oxygen delivery and consumption. In addition, increased heart rate is a modifiable risk factor for chronic heart failure. Ivabradine, an inhibitor of If ion channels, is an approved second-line anti-ischemic drug for the treatment of angina...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Wojciech Kosmala, Aleksandra Rojek, Monika Przewlocka-Kosmala, Leah Wright, Andrzej Mysiak, Thomas H Marwick
BACKGROUND: Impaired functional capacity is a hallmark of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Despite the association of HFpEF with reduced myocardial compliance attributed to fibrosis, spironolactone has not been shown to alter outcomes-perhaps reflecting the heterogeneity of underlying pathological mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to identify improvement in exercise capacity with spironolactone in the subset of patients with HFpEF with exercise-induced increase in ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') reflecting elevation of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Almotasembellah Aljaafareh, Jose Ruben Valle, Yu-Li Lin, Yong-Fang Kuo, Gulshan Sharma
OBJECTIVES: Long-acting bronchodilators are mainstay treatment for moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A growing body of evidence indicates an increased risk of cardiovascular events upon initiation of these medications. We hypothesize that this risk is higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who had a preexisting cardiovascular disease regardless of receipt of any cardiovascular medication. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on two outpatient visits or one inpatient visit for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification codes 491...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anastasia Mihailidou, Anthony Ashton
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial infarction (MI) continues to be a major burden of disease, despite rapid reperfusion interventions. Reperfusion of ischemic hearts (reperfusion injury) induces free radical generation, activation of early stress responses and apoptosis, which contributes to ventricular remodeling and dysfunction, which may lead to developing heart failure. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have been shown clinically to reduce blood pressure, particularly in resistant hypertension, and substantially increase survival in heart failure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Craig Anderson, Doug McEvoy, Jiguang Wang
OBJECTIVE: There is uncertainty over whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can prevent serious cardiovascular (CV) events. DESIGN AND METHOD: SAVE (NCT00738179; ACTRN12608000409370) was designed to determine whether treatment of OSA with CPAP reduces the risk of serious CV events in patients with established CV disease. Participants were centrally randomised to CPAP treatment or usual care between 2008 and 2013,with follow-up completed late 2015 and the results will be announced in August 2016...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Muhammad W Saif, Melissa Smith, Antonio Maloney
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the backbone of the chemotherapy regimens approved for treatment of many malignancies, especially colorectal cancer (CRC). The incidence of cardiotoxicity associated with 5-FU ranges between 1.5% to 18% and is most commonly manifested as anginal symptoms. Cardiomyopathy is very rarely reported with 5-FU and capecitabine. A 35-year-old Caucasian male with T3, N1, M0 rectal cancer after the initial neoadjuvant chemoradiation with 5FU/LV followed by surgical abdominoperineal resection (APR), began mFOLFOX6 in the adjuvant setting...
September 14, 2016: Curēus
Cheng Sun, Heng Zhang, Zhe Zheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The efficacy and safety of β-blockers in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure, have been well established for decades. In this article, we review the current opinions on the application of β-blockers for secondary prevention in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: As the average age of patients treated surgically for coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing, it is not uncommon to have candidates for CABG presenting with concomitant atrial fibrillation, heart failure or hypertension, most of which were caused by excessive activation of the adrenergic nervous system...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Omer Akyol, Sumeyya Akyol, Chu-Huang Chen
Endothelial cells (EC) respond to injury by releasing numerous factors, including von Willebrand factor (VWF). High circulating levels of unusually large VWF multimers (UL-VWFM) have strong procoagulant activity and facilitate platelet adhesion and aggregation by interacting with platelets after an acute event superimposed on peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease. ADAMTS13-a disintegrin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif type 1 member 13-regulates a key physiological process of coagulation in the circulation by cleaving VWF multimers into small, inactive fragments...
October 13, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Laura Policardo, Giuseppe Seghieri, Paolo Francesconi, Roberto Anichini, Flavia Franconi, Stefano Del Prato
OBJECTIVE: Women with diabetes have a greater excess risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than men. This study was aimed at clarifying whether this effect is lifelong or more evident in some life-periods. METHODS: The effect of diabetes and gender on the risk of first ever hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic stroke (IS), congestive heart failure (CHF), lower extremity amputations (LEA) or any of these major cardiovascular events (MACE) have been evaluated by a Cox-hazard model, over years 2008-2012 querying administrative databases of a cohort living in Tuscany, Italy...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
A T Teplyakov, E N Berezikova, S N Shilov, E V Grakova, Yu Yu Torim, A V Efremov, A A Popova, M G Pustovetova, A Yu Sabirova, K V Kop'eva
AIM: to reveal the specific features of Fas ligand-mediated ischemic myocardial remodeling and those of chronic heart failure (CHF) development during a 12-month prospective follow-up. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 94 patients with ischemic CHF were examined and divided into 3 groups according to NYHA Functional Class (FC): 1) FC II CHF in 35 patients; 2) FC III CHF in 31; 3) FC IV CHF in 28. According to the results of the 12-month follow-up, the patients were randomized into 2 groups: A) 49 patients with a favorable course of cardiovascular disease and B) 45 patients with its poor course...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
G Cortellini, A Romano, A Santucci, A Barbaud, S Bavbek, D Bignardi, M Blanca, P Bonadonna, M T Costantino, J J Laguna, C Lombardo, L Losappio, J Makowska, A Nakonechna, O Quercia, E A Pastorello, V Patella, I Terreehorst, S Testi, J R Cernadas, J Dionicio Elera, D Lippolis, S Voltolini, D Grosseto
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) constitutes a serious problem for subjects with coronary artery disease. In such subjects, physicians have to choose the more appropriate procedure between challenge and desensitization. As the literature on this issue is sparse, the present study aims to establish in these subjects clinical criteria for eligibility for an ASA challenge and/or desensitization. METHODS: Collection and analysis of data on ASA challenges and desensitizations from 10 allergy centers, as well as consensus among the related physicians and an expert panel...
October 12, 2016: Allergy
P K Agrawal, V Parmar, M D H Rahman, S Suman, A Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jan C van den Berge, Martijn K Akkerhuis, Alina A Constantinescu, Jan A Kors, Ron T van Domburg, Jaap W Deckers
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) has a poor prognosis. Patients with acute heart failure in particular have a high risk of dying. However, there is a lack of data regarding their long-term mortality and changes there-in with time. The aim of our study was to describe trends in short- and long-term mortality of patients hospitalized with acute HF in the period from 1985 through 2008. In addition, we determined the prognostic worth of the aetiology of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included a consecutive series of 1810 patients with acute HF in this prospective registry in the period of 1985 through 2008...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Faiçal Jarraya
Hypertension remains the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. If antihypertensive drugs choice is well guided today, blood pressure (BP) target still a subject of controversies. Residual risk is matter of debate and the lower- the better dogma is come back again regarding to data reported from recent trials. The J curve, reason for European Society of Hypertension Guidelines reappraisal in 2009, is criticized by recent data. The one goal (<140/90 mmHg) fit 90 mmg 90 mmHg) fit all should be adapted as a personalized goal guided by evidence generated by randomized controlled trials...
October 9, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jung Hoon Lee, Nam-Kyoo Lim, Myeong-Chan Cho, Hyun-Young Park
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart failure (HF) is an important healthcare issue because of its high mortality, morbidity, and healthcare costs. The number of HF patients is increasing worldwide as a consequence of aging of the population. However, there are limited studies on the prevalence of HF in Korea. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HF, its comorbidities, and the projected population with HF in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence and comorbidity estimates of HF were determined using data from the 2002-2013 National Sample Cohort based on the National Health Information Database...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
Lina Holmqvist, Kristina Bengtsson Boström, Thomas Kahan, Linus Schiöler, Jan Hasselström, Per Hjerpe, Björn Wettermark, Karin Manhem
We aimed to describe the prevalence, treatment, and associated comorbidity of treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). This registry-based cohort study from The Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database assessed 53,090 hypertensive patients attending primary care. Patients adherent to antihypertensive treatment measured by pharmacy fills and with proportion of days covered ≥80% were included. The prevalence of TRH was 17% when considering all current TRH definitions. Adherence to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists differed between TRH- and non-TRH patients (8 vs...
September 6, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Morten Schmidt, Sinna Pilgaard Ulrichsen, Lars Pedersen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Jens Cosedis Nielsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Long-term nationwide trends in atrial fibrillation (AF) incidence and 5-year outcomes are rare. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Danish National Patient Registry covering all Danish hospitals. We computed standardized incidence rates during 1983-2012. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of heart failure, stroke, and death within 5years, comparing 5-year calendar periods with the earliest period (1983-1987) as reference...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Gina Nicholson, Shravanthi R Gandra, Ronald J Halbert, Akshara Richhariya, Robert J Nordyke
OBJECTIVE: Robust cost estimates of cardiovascular (CV) events are required for assessing health care interventions aimed at reducing the economic burden of major adverse CV events. This review synthesizes international cost estimates of CV events. METHODS: MEDLINE database was searched electronically for English language studies published during 2007-2012, with cost estimates for CV events of interest - unstable angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and CV revascularization...
2016: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
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