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treatment in pneumonia in Children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146662/comparative-effectiveness-of-injectable-penicillin-versus-a-combination-of-penicillin-and-gentamicin-in-children-with-pneumonia-characterised-by-indrawing-in-kenya-a-retrospective-observational-study
#1
Lucas Malla, Rafael Perera-Salazar, Emily McFadden, Mike English
OBJECTIVES: Kenyan guidelines for antibiotic treatment of pneumonia recommended treatment of pneumonia characterised by indrawing with injectable penicillin alone in inpatient settings until early 2016. At this point, they were revised becoming consistent with WHO guidance after results of a Kenyan trial provided further evidence of equivalence of oral amoxicillin and injectable penicillin. This change also made possible use of oral amoxicillin for outpatient treatment in this patient group...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#2
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133034/cpap-treatment-for-children-with-pneumonia-in-low-resource-settings
#3
Eric D McCollum, Andrew G Smith, Michelle Eckerle, Tisungane Mvalo, Katherine L O'Brien, Abdullah H Baqui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132465/-application-of-flexible-bronchoscopy-in-children-with-respiratory-diseases
#4
Li-Ping Wang, Shou-Ping Chen, Yu-Ying Huang, Fang-Fang Qin, Wen Ou, Hong-Dong Liu, Xiao-Fang Deng, Lei Lou, Jing Tao, Yu-Xia Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the significance of flexible bronchoscopy in children with respiratory diseases. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 80 children who were hospitalized due to respiratory diseases (including severe pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with atelectasis/lung consolidation/local emphysema, protracted pneumonia, coughing and wheezing of unknown cause, chronic cough of unknown cause, and laryngeal stridor) and who underwent flexible bronchoscopy/alveolar lavage...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115456/microrna%C3%A2-20a-promotes-inflammation-via-the-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-pediatric-pneumonia
#5
Zhihong Liu, Haiying Yu, Qiuye Guo
Pneumonia is a common respiratory disease worldwide, which is preventable and treatable; however, it is recognized as a leading cause of mortality in children. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of microRNA (miR)‑20a in inflammation in pediatric pneumonia. Clinical serum samples were collected from children with pneumonia and healthy children. Initially, the serum expression levels of miR‑20a were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, A549 cells were randomly divided into four groups: Control group; lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 µg/ml) group; LPS + miR‑20a group; and LPS + miR‑20a + pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; 100 mmol/l) group...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097818/dapsone-treatment-is-efficient-against-persistent-cutaneous-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-children-with-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#6
Jana Volejnikova, Jaroslav Horacek, Frantisek Kopriva
BACKGROUND: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic disorder characterized by leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving the capillaries and by the deposition of IgA immune complexes. An association between HSP and atypical bacteria is uncommon in children. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report three cases of children, aged 5, 4 and 16 years, who were diagnosed with HSP associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. In all presented cases, persistent cutaneous manifestations and abdominal pain were resistant to antibiotics and corticosteroids, but resolved during 48 h after the introduction of dapsone...
November 2, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097339/comparable-outcomes-among-trial-and-non-trial-participants-in-a-clinical-trial-of-antibiotics-for-childhood-pneumonia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Ambrose Agweyu, Jacquie Oliwa, David Gathara, Naomi Muinga, Elizabeth Allen, Richard J Lilford, Mike English
OBJECTIVE: We compared characteristics and outcomes of children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing oral amoxicillin and benzyl penicillin for the treatment of chest indrawing pneumonia versus children who received routine care to determine the external validity of the trial results. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children aged 2 - 59 months admitted in six Kenyan hospitals. Data for non-trial participants were extracted from inpatient records upon conclusion of the RCT...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091912/diabetes-mellitus-increases-the-susceptibility-to-encephalitozoonosis-in-mice
#8
Aldo Francisco Neto, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Elizabeth Christina Perez, José Guilherme Xavier, Giovani Bravin Peres, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Maria Anete Lallo
Microsporidiosis are diseases caused by opportunistic intracellular fungi in immunosuppressed individuals, as well as in transplanted patients, the elderly and children, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and decreased T cell response, neutrophil function, humoral immunity failure, increasing the susceptibility to infections. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic and/or immunosuppressed mice to encephalitozoonosis by Encephalitozoon cuniculi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091886/downregulation-of-p300-alleviates-lps-induced-inflammatory-injuries-through-regulation-of-rhoa-rock-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-a549-cells
#9
Qiang Liu, Hui Yang, Shengnan Xu, Xuemei Sun
Infantile pneumonia is a common disease in children, which affects cardiopulmonary function and even threats to life. Therefore, overall analysis about the mechanism of pathogenesis may be provided a new slight for the treatment of infantile pneumonia. This study aimed to investigate the role of p300 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injuries in A549 cells. MTT, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and western blot assays were used to assess the effect of p300 on A549 cells viability, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines expressions...
October 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084336/effectiveness-of-%C3%AE-lactam-monotherapy-vs-macrolide-combination-therapy-for-children-hospitalized-with-pneumonia
#10
Derek J Williams, Kathryn M Edwards, Wesley H Self, Yuwei Zhu, Sandra R Arnold, Jonathan A McCullers, Krow Ampofo, Andrew T Pavia, Evan J Anderson, Lauri A Hicks, Anna M Bramley, Seema Jain, Carlos G Grijalva
Importance: β-Lactam monotherapy and β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy are both common empirical treatment strategies for children hospitalized with pneumonia, but few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of these 2 treatment approaches. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of β-lactam monotherapy vs β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy among a cohort of children hospitalized with pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: We analyzed data from the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study, a multicenter, prospective, population-based study of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations conducted from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012, in 3 children's hospitals in Nashville, Tennessee; Memphis, Tennessee; and Salt Lake City, Utah...
October 30, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081927/atelectasis-in-pediatrics-a-case-of-carcinoid-tumor
#11
Cláudia Vaz Guerreiro, Paula Ornelas, Luísa Pereira, Nuno Abecasis, Maria Teresa Almodovar
Carcinoid pulmonary tumors occur in the fourth to sixth decades of life. Usually, typical carcinoid arise a decade earlier when compared to atypical carcinoid (45 years and 55 years, respectively). Typical carcinoid tumors are the most common primary lung neoplasm in children and late adolescents, but there are less than 40 cases described in the literature. The clinical presentation is nonspecific and usually the symptoms are due to bronchial obstruction, sometimes with recurrent pneumonia. Its rarity may delay diagnosis but in most cases a favorable course after treatment is observed...
October 3, 2017: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078810/improving-oxygen-therapy-for-children-and-neonates-in-secondary-hospitals-in-nigeria-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial
#12
Hamish R Graham, Adejumoke I Ayede, Ayobami A Bakare, Oladapo B Oyewole, David Peel, Amy Gray, Barbara McPake, Eleanor Neal, Shamim Qazi, Rasa Izadnegahdar, Adegoke G Falade, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: Oxygen is a life-saving, essential medicine that is important for the treatment of many common childhood conditions. Improved oxygen systems can reduce childhood pneumonia mortality substantially. However, providing oxygen to children is challenging, especially in small hospitals with weak infrastructure and low human resource capacity. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial will evaluate the implementation of improved oxygen systems at secondary-level hospitals in southwest Nigeria...
October 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073137/integration-of-enteric-fever-surveillance-into-the-who-coordinated-invasive-bacterial-vaccine-preventable-diseases-ib-vpd-platform-a-low-cost-approach-to-track-an-increasingly-important-disease
#13
Senjuti Saha, Maksuda Islam, Mohammad J Uddin, Shampa Saha, Rajib C Das, Abdullah H Baqui, Mathuram Santosham, Robert E Black, Stephen P Luby, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Lack of surveillance systems and accurate data impede evidence-based decisions on treatment and prevention of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi. The WHO coordinates a global Invasive Bacterial-Vaccine Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) surveillance network but does not monitor enteric fever. We evaluated the feasibility and sustainability of integrating enteric fever surveillance into the ongoing IB-VPD platform. METHODOLOGIES: The IB-VPD surveillance system uses WHO definitions to enroll 2-59 month children hospitalized with possible pneumonia, sepsis or meningitis...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072176/premature-coronary-artery-disease-due-to-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-a-12-year-old-girl
#14
Filiz Ekici, Salih Özçobanoğlu, Fırat Kardelen
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare inherited metabolic disease, caused by low-density lipoprotein receptor abnormality. Patients with HoFH have an increased risk for cardiovascular complication (CVC) that usually occurs in the first decade of life. We report a twelve years-old girl with unpredicted presentation for coronary artery disease (CAD) and she was found to have HoFH. CASE REPORT: A 12 years old girl was admitted to our unit with syncope...
October 26, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059253/a-novel-electronic-algorithm-using-host-biomarker-point-of-care-tests-for-the-management-of-febrile-illnesses-in-tanzanian-children-e-poct-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kristina Keitel, Frank Kagoro, Josephine Samaka, John Masimba, Zamzam Said, Hosiana Temba, Tarsis Mlaganile, Willy Sangu, Clotilde Rambaud-Althaus, Alain Gervaix, Blaise Genton, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: The management of childhood infections remains inadequate in resource-limited countries, resulting in high mortality and irrational use of antimicrobials. Current disease management tools, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm, rely solely on clinical signs and have not made use of available point-of-care tests (POCTs) that can help to identify children with severe infections and children in need of antibiotic treatment. e-POCT is a novel electronic algorithm based on current evidence; it guides clinicians through the entire consultation and recommends treatment based on a few clinical signs and POCT results, some performed in all patients (malaria rapid diagnostic test, hemoglobin, oximeter) and others in selected subgroups only (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, glucometer)...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058249/a-2-year-step-down-withdrawal-from-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-asthmatic-children-receiving-immunotherapy
#16
Chun-Hui He, Xing Li, Jun-Hong Lin, Qiang Xiao, Jia-Lu Yu, Ying-Fen Liu, Wen-Hui Jiang, Chen Chen, Li Deng, Jie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) for treating asthma are controversial because of their negative effects on the growth of asthmatic children and without clearly defined withdrawal strategy. A 2-year ICS step-down and withdrawal strategy has been developed for asthmatic children receiving 3-year subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). METHODS: Eleven children were included into the SCIT group and 13 children into the ICS group. ICSs were discontinued when children met the following criteria: requiring only 1 puffper day, with good control, for at least 6 months; having a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ≥80%; and SCIT discontinued for ≥24 months...
December 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057257/serological-analysis-and-drug-resistance-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-4500-healthy-subjects-in-shenzhen-china
#17
Dong Du, Shuping Liao, Yan Wu, Yang Jiao, Di Wu, Weiqing Wu, Dapeng Yu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in the population and to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This study included a total of 4500 healthy subjects who were given physical examination in Shenzhen People's Hospital from January to December in 2016. Venous blood was drawn from people to detect the MP- and CP-specific IgG and IgM in the serum using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046034/-neurological-manifestations-in-atypical-kawasaki-disease
#18
Edgar Martínez-Guzmán, Luisa Berenise Gámez-González, Francisco Rivas-Larrauri, Giovanni Sorcia-Ramírez, Marco Yamazaki-Nakashimada
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Atypical Kawasaki disease is defined as that where there are signs and symptoms not corresponding to the classical criteria for this nosological entity. Children with atypical Kawasaki disease may present with acute abdominal symptoms, meningeal irritation, pneumonia or renal failure. CLINICAL CASES: We describe 4 children with ages ranging from 2 to 12 years who had atypical Kawasaki disease, with neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms as part of the systemic presentation of the disease...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043423/preliminary-report-from-the-world-health-organisation-chest-radiography-in-epidemiological-studies-project
#19
REVIEW
Nasreen Mahomed, Nicholas Fancourt, John de Campo, Margaret de Campo, Aliu Akano, Thomas Cherian, Olivia G Cohen, David Greenberg, Stephen Lacey, Neera Kohli, Henrique M Lederman, Shabir A Madhi, Veronica Manduku, Eric D McCollum, Kate Park, Jose Luis Ribo-Aristizabal, Naor Bar-Zeev, Katherine L O'Brien, Kim Mulholland
Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of childhood pneumonia remains a critical epidemiological task for monitoring vaccine and treatment program effectiveness. The chest radiograph remains the most readily available and common imaging modality to assess childhood pneumonia. In 1997, the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group was established to provide a consensus method for the standardized definition for the interpretation of pediatric frontal chest radiographs, for use in bacterial vaccine efficacy trials in children...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043419/computed-tomography-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
REVIEW
Savvas Andronikou, Pierre Goussard, Erich Sorantin
Diagnostic imaging plays a significant role in both the diagnosis and treatment of complications of pneumonia in children and chest radiography is the imaging modality of choice. Computed tomography (CT) on the other hand, is not currently a first-line imaging tool for children with suspected uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia and is largely reserved for when complications of pneumonia are suspected or there is difficulty in differentiating pneumonia from other pathology. This review outlines the situations where CT needs to be considered in children with pneumonia, describes the imaging features of the parenchymal and pleural complications of pneumonia, discusses how CT may have a wider role in developing countries where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis are prevalent, makes note of the role of CT scanning for identifying missed foreign body aspiration and, lastly, addresses radiation concerns...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
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