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treatment in pneumonia in Children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217595/impact-of-pre-hospital-care-on-the-outcome-of-children-arriving-with-agonal-breathing-to-a-pediatric-emergency-service-in-south-india
#1
Debasis Das Adhikari, Krishna Mahathi, Urmi Ghosh, Indira Agarwal, Anila Chacko, Ebor Jacob, Kala Ebenezer
BACKGROUND: Data on the prehospital interventions received by critically ill children at arrival to Paediatric Emergency Services (PES) is limited in developing countries. This study aims to describe the pre-hospital care scenario, transport and their impact on outcome in non-traumatic, acutely ill children presenting in PES with agonal breathing. METHODS: Prospective observational study done on children aged below 15 years arriving in PES with agonal breathing due to non-trauma related causes...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216076/total-esophageal-substitution-for-combined-hypopharyngeal-and-esophageal-strictures-after-corrosive-injury-in-children
#2
Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri, Uenis Tannuri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The treatment of children with esophageal strictures and involvement of the hypopharynx caused by caustic substance ingestion continues to be challenging. The aims of the present study are to describe the peculiarities of the technique of complete esophageal substitution for the treatment of children with severe caustic strictures (pharyngocoloplasties) and to compare the results to those of classical esophagocoloplasty with thoracic and abdominal esophageal substitution in another group of children...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208178/lingual-tonsillectomy-for-treatment-of-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-meta-analysis
#3
Kun-Tai Kang, Peter J Koltai, Chia-Hsuan Lee, Ming-Tzer Lin, Wei-Chung Hsu
Importance: Evidence indicates correlations between lingual tonsil hypertrophy and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, to our knowledge, a meta-analysis of surgical outcomes for lingual tonsillectomy in children with OSA has not been conducted. Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of lingual tonsillectomy for treatment of pediatric OSA. Data Sources: The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42015027053). PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Reviews databases were searched independently by 2 authors for relevant articles published by September 2016...
February 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205429/-pneumococcal-arthritis-in-paediatric-population
#4
G Barbeito-Castiñeiras, M Guinda-Giménez, O Cores-Calvo, M Hernández-Blanco, F Pardo-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: Cases of septic arthritis in paediatric population by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Health Area of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) were reviewed. METHODS: A retrospective study from January 2005 to March 2014 was conducted for all S. pneumoniae isolates obtained from joint fluids in children. RESULTS: From the 7,416 joint fluids received in the Microbiology Department, 77 belonged to paediatric patients, and of these, only 8 had positive culture...
February 16, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187063/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-malagasy-children
#5
Ravelomanana Lova, Bouazza Naim, Mbola Rakotomahefa, André Zo Andrianirina, Annick Lalaina Robinson, Honoré Raobidjaona, Rabezanahary Andriamihaja, Nadjet Benhaddou, Fréderique Randrianirina, Elisoa Ratsima, Patrick Imbert, Josette Raymond
BACKGROUND: Childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in low-income countries. The etiologic agents are usually Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. M. pneumoniae was recognized as co-factor in asthmatic disease. High asthma prevalence was reported in Madagascar. Our aim was to clarify the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection in this country and its relationship with asthma. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 351 children (aged from 2 to 16 years) from January 2012 to December 2014...
February 9, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178776/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-children
#6
Lindsay E Rogozinski, Brian K Alverson, Eric A Biondi
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections and accounts for up to 40% of cases of pneumonia in children over age 5. This article seeks to provide a general overview of the current recommended management of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children.
April 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178138/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-and-serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chilean-children-5-years-of-age
#7
Andres Rosenblut, Carla Napolitano, Angelica Pereira, Camilo Moreno, Devayani Kolhe, Alejandro Lepetic, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged <5 years in a public setting in Santiago, Chile.Children aged ≥3 months and <5 years referred to the physician for treatment of AOM episodes (with an onset of symptoms <72 h) were enrolled between September 2009 and September 2010...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167588/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-uninfected-children-in-botswana-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#8
Michael J A Reid, Rebecca S B Fischer, Naledi Mannathoko, Charles Muthoga, Erin McHugh, Heather Essigmann, Eric L Brown, Andrew P Steenhoff
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A major risk factor for staphylococcal infection is S. aureus colonization of the anterior nares. We sought to define risk factors for S. aureus carriage and characterize antimicrobial resistance patterns in children in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two clinical sites in southern Botswana. Patients under 18 years of age underwent two nasal swabs and brief interviews, 4 weeks apart...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165443/video-assisted-thoracoscopic-lobectomy-for-congenital-cystic-adenomatoid-malformations
#9
Amina Selimović, Edo Hasanbegović, Ermina Mujičić, Selma Milišić, Emir Haxhija, Kenan Karavdić, Alen Pilav
Aim The aim was to show rare cases of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) and the manner of its surgical treatment with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Methods Two male and one female child, 7, 4 and 3 years of age were treated for symptoms of cough and high temperature in district hospitals. In all three children laboratory blood tests and chest radiography were done. Auscultatory findings showed the presence of pneumonia. Children were treated with appropriate doses of antibiotics...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153011/association-between-caregivers-knowledge-and-care-seeking-behaviour-for-children-with-symptoms-of-pneumonia-in-six-sub-saharan-african-countries
#10
Aaltje Camielle Noordam, Alyssa B Sharkey, Paddy Hinssen, GeertJan Dinant, Jochen W L Cals
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the main cause of child mortality world-wide and most of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Treatment with effective antibiotics is crucial to prevent these deaths; nevertheless only 2 out of 5 children with symptoms of pneumonia are taken to an appropriate care provider in SSA. While various factors associated with care seeking have been identified, the relationship between caregivers' knowledge of pneumonia symptoms and actual care seeking for their child with symptoms of pneumonia is not well researched...
February 2, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148730/a-multicenter-collaborative-to-improve-care-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-children
#11
Kavita Parikh, Eric Biondi, Joanne Nazif, Faiza Wasif, Derek J Williams, Elizabeth Nichols, Shawn Ralston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Value in Inpatient Pediatrics Network sponsored the Improving Care in Community Acquired Pneumonia collaborative with the goal of increasing evidence-based management of children hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Project aims included: increasing use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics, decreasing use of macrolides, and decreasing concurrent treatment of pneumonia and asthma. METHODS: Data were collected through chart review across emergency department (ED), inpatient, and discharge settings...
February 1, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145162/early-use-of-corticosteroids-in-infants-with-a-clinical-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-malawi-a-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#12
Laura Newberry, Bernadette O'Hare, Neil Kennedy, Andrew Selman, Sofia Omar, Pamela Dawson, Kim Stevenson, Yo Nishihara, Samantha Lissauer, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is the most common opportunistic infection in infants with vertically acquired HIV infection and the most common cause of death in HIV-infected infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early administration of adjuvant corticosteroids in addition to standard treatment reduces mortality in infants with vertically acquired HIV and clinically diagnosed PJP when co-infection with cytomegalovirus and other pathogens cannot be excluded...
February 1, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135233/use-of-colistin-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-cohort-study-of-65-patients
#13
Eren Çağan, Evrim Kıray Baş, Hüseyin Selim Asker
BACKGROUND The emergence of infections related to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) reintroduced the use of colistin, an antibiotic that was previously abandoned due to adverse effects. However, because of its limited use in neonatal intensive care units, there is very little data about the effectiveness and safety of colistin in children and newborns. In this study, which will be the largest case study in the literature, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of colistin in full-term and preterm newborns...
January 30, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130749/effects-of-methylprednisolone-or-immunoglobulin-when-added-to-standard-treatment-with-intravenous-azithromycin-for-refractory-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children
#14
Li-Shen Shan, Xin Liu, Xin-Yuan Kang, Fei Wang, Xiao-Hua Han, Yun-Xiao Shang
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia has increased considerably in recent years. To evaluate the effi cacy of combined treatment of azithromycin with intravenous immunoglo-bulin (IVIG) or methylprednisolone in children with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP). METHODS: Children with RMPP were randomly allocated to group A [intravenous azithromycin (IA)+ methylprednisolone], group B (IA+IVIG) or group C (IA alone). Following a 7-day treatment, group C patients were randomly separated into two sub-groups: group C1 (IA+methylprednisolone) and group C2 (IA+IVIG)...
January 27, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#15
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124027/bacterial-lysis-through-interference-with-peptidoglycan-synthesis-increases-biofilm-formation-by-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#16
Sara Marti, Carmen Puig, Alexandra Merlos, Miguel Viñas, Marien I de Jonge, Josefina Liñares, Carmen Ardanuy, Jeroen D Langereis
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes otitis media in children and community-acquired pneumonia or exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. A large variety of studies suggest that biofilm formation by NTHi may be an important step in the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in this process are poorly elucidated. In this study, we used a transposon mutant library to identify bacterial genes involved in biofilm formation...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122629/bacteremia-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-among-hospitalized-malnourished-children-in-mwanza-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Maimuna Ahmed, Mariam M Mirambo, Martha F Mushi, Adolfine Hokororo, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Severe malnutrition has been known to increase susceptibility and severity of infections. Bacteremia in malnourished children has been found to increase morbidity and mortality especially if is due to multidrug resistant bacteria. Here, we report the prevalence of bacteremia among children under 5 years of age and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates; the information that can be used by clinicians to guide on the empirical antibiotic treatment. FINDINGS: A total of 402 malnourished children were investigated for bacteremia...
January 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100279/severe-community-acquired-adenovirus-pneumonia-treated-with-oral-ribavirin-a-case-report
#18
Byung Woo Yoon, Yong Geon Song, Seung Hyeun Lee
BACKGROUND: Adenovirus is a common pathogen of acute upper respiratory infection in children and is generally self-limiting. Severe adenovirus infections have been reported in immunocompromised hosts especially bone marrow transplantation recipients due to hematologic malignancy. Severe adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts has rarely been reported and optimal treatment has not been established. We report a case of community-acquired severe adenovirus pneumonia which was successfully treated with early administration of oral ribavirin...
January 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095824/community-based-health-care-is-an-essential-component-of-a-resilient-health-system-evidence-from-ebola-outbreak-in-liberia
#19
Kendra Siekmans, Salim Sohani, Tamba Boima, Florence Koffa, Luay Basil, Saïd Laaziz
BACKGROUND: Trained community health workers (CHW) enhance access to essential primary health care services in contexts where the health system lacks capacity to adequately deliver them. In Liberia, the Ebola outbreak further disrupted health system function. The objective of this study is to examine the value of a community-based health system in ensuring continued treatment of child illnesses during the outbreak and the role that CHWs had in Ebola prevention activities. METHODS: A descriptive observational study design used mixed methods to collect data from CHWs (structured survey, n = 60; focus group discussions, n = 16), government health facility workers and project staff...
January 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095119/fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-strains-is-associated-with-worse-outcome-in-patients-hospitalized-in-the-pediatric-oncology-unit-of-beni-messous-hospital-in-algiers-algeria
#20
Chafiaa Medboua-Benbalagh, Abdelaziz Touati, Rachida Kermas, Alima Gharout-Sait, Lucien Brasme, Halima Mezhoud, Djamila Touati, Thomas Guillard, Christophe de Champs
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) fecal carriage in children with different cancers admitted in the pediatric oncology unit of Beni-Messous Hospital (Algiers, Algeria). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs from children with cancer were sampled from February 2012 to May 2013 within 48 hours following their admission. After species identification and detection of ESBL production by double-disk synergy test (DD test), antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the standard disk diffusion method...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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