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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631310/zinc-supplementation-for-the-treatment-of-measles-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Ajibola A Awotiwon, Olabisi Oduwole, Anju Sinha, Charles I Okwundu
BACKGROUND: Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614476/integrated-community-case-management-iccm-of-childhood-infection-saves-lives-in-hard-to-reach-communities-in-nicaragua
#2
Dixmer Rivera, Rashed Shah, Tanya Guenther, Meredith Adamo, Jeanne Koepsell, Carmen Maria Reyes, Mary McInerney, David R Marsh
Objective: To describe Nicaragua's integrated community case management (iCCM) program for hard-to-reach, rural communities and to evaluate its impact using monitoring data, including annual, census-based infant mortality data. Method: This observational study measured the strength of iCCM implementation and estimated trends in infant mortality during 2007-2013 in 120 remote Nicaraguan communities where brigadistas ("health brigadiers") offered iCCM services to children 2-59 months old...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607674/gender-bias-in-careseeking-practices-in-57-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Janaína Calu Costa, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Aluísio Jd Barros, Cesar G Victora
BACKGROUND: Preventive and curative medical interventions can reduce child mortality. It is important to assess whether there is gender bias in access to these interventions, which can lead to preferential treatment of children of a given sex. METHODS: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 57 low- and middle-income countries were used. The outcome variable was a composite careseeking indicator, which represents the proportion of children with common childhood symptoms or illnesses (diarrhea, fever, or suspected pneumonia) who were taken to an appropriate provider...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601903/can-complications-in-febrile-neutropenia-be-predicted-report-from-a-developing-country
#4
Sapna Oberoi, Anirban Das, Amita Trehan, Pallab Ray, Deepak Bansal
PURPOSE: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We aimed to look at complications in febrile neutropenia and to derive a risk model for developing complications from the variables predicting complications. METHODS: Children on treatment for ALL, presenting with FN, were prospectively enrolled over a period of 1 year. Their clinical presentation, course during hospital stay, and outcomes were recorded...
June 11, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592263/radiologic-findings-as-a-determinant-and-no-effect-of-macrolide-resistance-on-clinical-course-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#5
In Ae Yoon, Ki Bae Hong, Hoan Jong Lee, Ki Wook Yun, Ji Young Park, Young Hoon Choi, Woo Sun Kim, Hyunju Lee, Byung Wook Eun, Young Min Ahn, Eun Young Cho, Hwa Jin Cho, Eun Hwa Choi
BACKGROUND: With the emergence of macrolide resistance, concerns about the efficacy of macrolides for the treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia in children have been raised. This study aimed to determine the effect of macrolide resistance on the outcome of children who were hospitalized with MP pneumonia. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, we performed culture of MP from nasopharyngeal samples obtained from children who were hospitalized with pneumonia at five hospitals in Korea...
June 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591775/parainfluenza-virus-in-the-hospitalized-adult
#6
Elliott Russell, Michael G Ison
Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a negative sense single stranded RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family. There are 4 serotypes that follow seasonal patterns with varying rates of infection for each serotype. PIV is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric and immunocompromised populations, and its impact on the hospitalized adult is becoming more apparent with the increased use of multiplex molecular assays in the clinical setting. The clinical presentation of PIV in hospitalized adults varies widely, and includes URTIs, severe LRTIs, and exacerbations of underlying disease...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587330/principles-of-antibiotic-application-in-children-with-lobar-pneumonia-step-up-or-step-down
#7
Yan Li, Feng Han, Yan Yang, Jianwei Chu
In order to provide a scientific basis for rational use of antibiotics, we studied and compared the therapeutic effects of step-down and step-up antibiotic treatment schemes in children with lobar pneumonia. Eighty cases of children with lobar pneumonia were enrolled in this study and were randomly divided into two groups: The observation group and the control group, with 40 cases in each group. In the observation group, there were 23 cases with mild and 17 cases with severe lobar pneumonia, and in the control group, 25 were mild and 15 were severe cases...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577016/clinical-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-influenza-a-h1n1pdm-and-b-among-hospitalized-children-georgia-season-2010-2011
#8
A Machablishvili, D Tsereteli, Kh Zakhashvili, I Karseladze, P Imnadze
The aim of the study was to describe, analyze and compare clinical and epidemiological characteristics of laboratory confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm and B cases in hospitalized children during post pandemic season. Between 1st January and 1st May, 2011 retrospective observational study was conducted in M. Iashvili Children's Central Hospital. From 1028 patients with influenza like illness hospitalized at Children's Hospital 871 specimens were collected and 360 tested positive for influenza: A(H1N1)pdm - 139 and B - 221...
April 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575379/efficacy-of-oral-zinc-supplementation-in-radiologically-confirmed-pneumonia-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Narendra Kumar Bagri, Neha Bagri, Manisha Jana, Arun Kumar Gupta, Nitya Wadhwa, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Aruna Chandran, Satinder Aneja, Mona K Chaturvedi, Jitender Sodhi, Sean Patrick Fitzwater, Jagdish Chandra, Bimbadhar Rath, Udaypal S Kainth, Savita Saini, Robert E Black, Mathuram Santosham, Shinjini Bhatnagar
Objective: To evaluate the effect of zinc as an adjuvant therapy in radiologically confirmed pneumonia in children 2-24 months of age. Patients and Methods: We analyzed data of 212 children with pneumonia for whom chest X-ray films were available at enrollment and at least two radiologists agreed on the diagnosis of pneumonia. We compared the time to recovery in the two groups ( n  = 121, zinc group and n  = 91, placebo group) using a Cox proportional hazards regression model...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575366/the-effect-of-antibiotic-exposure-and-specimen-volume-on-the-detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-in-children-with-pneumonia
#10
Amanda J Driscoll, Maria Deloria Knoll, Laura L Hammitt, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Stephen R C Howie, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Andrea N DeLuca, Bernard E Ebruke, Caroline Gitahi, Melissa M Higdon, Anek Kaewpan, Angela Karani, Ruth A Karron, Razib Mazumder, Jessica McLellan, David P Moore, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Daniel E Park, Christine Prosperi, Julia Rhodes, Md Saifullah, Phil Seidenberg, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch
Background.: Antibiotic exposure and specimen volume are known to affect pathogen detection by culture. Here we assess their effects on bacterial pathogen detection by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in children. Methods.: PERCH (Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health) is a case-control study of pneumonia in children aged 1-59 months investigating pathogens in blood, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs, and induced sputum by culture and PCR...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567280/solar-powered-oxygen-systems-in-remote-health-centers-in-papua-new-guinea-a-large-scale-implementation-effectiveness-trial
#11
Trevor Duke, Ilomo Hwaihwanje, Magdalynn Kaupa, Jonah Karubi, Doreen Panauwe, Martin Sa'avu, Francis Pulsan, Peter Prasad, Freddy Maru, Henry Tenambo, Ambrose Kwaramb, Eleanor Neal, Hamish Graham, Rasa Izadnegahdar
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the largest cause of child deaths in Papua New Guinea (PNG), and hypoxaemia is the major complication causing death in childhood pneumonia, and hypoxaemia is a major factor in deaths from many other common conditions, including bronchiolitis, asthma, sepsis, malaria, trauma, perinatal problems, and obstetric emergencies. A reliable source of oxygen therapy can reduce mortality from pneumonia by up to 35%. However, in low and middle income countries throughout the world, improved oxygen systems have not been implemented at large scale in remote, difficult to access health care settings, and oxygen is often unavailable at smaller rural hospitals or district health centers which serve as the first point of referral for childhood illnesses...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562556/low-utility-of-blood-culture-in-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-an-observational-study-on-2705-patients-admitted-to-the-emergency-department
#12
Jae Hyun Kwon, Jung Heon Kim, Jeong-Yong Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Chang Hwan Sohn, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
To investigate the utility of blood cultures performed on previously healthy children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) at a tertiary care hospital emergency department (ED).We reviewed 3235 patients with CAP aged 6 months to 18 years who underwent blood cultures at the ED from 2009 through 2016. CAP was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes for pneumonia and the requirement of antibiotic treatment plus any of the following: radiologically confirmed, hospitalized, or moderate to severe disease...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551703/bacteriology-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-of-tonsillar-diseases-in-chinese-children
#13
Qian Wang, Jingdong Du, Chen Jie, Hong Ouyang, Renzhong Luo, Wei Li
Although many bacteriology studies on tonsillar diseases have been completed, only a few studies investigated bacteriology of tonsillar diseases in recent years, especially in Asian children population. The aim of our study is to elucidate the bacterial flora and antibiotic sensitivity of tonsillar diseases in Chinese children. A three-center study was performed on 2994 children with or without tonsillar diseases. We compared and analyzed differences of bacterial pathogens among recurrent tonsillitis, tonsillar hypertrophy and controls...
May 27, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545041/effect-of-early-measles-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-colonization-a-randomized-trial-from-guinea-bissau
#14
Nadja Skadkær Hansen, Stine Byberg, Lars Hervig Jacobsen, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Aksel Karl Georg Jensen, Cesario Martins, Peter Aaby, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Christine Stabell Benn, Hilton Whittle
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether providing early MV at 18 weeks of age reduced pneumococcal colonization and/or density up to 9 months of age. METHOD: The study was conducted in 2013-2014 in Guinea-Bissau...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539503/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-from-the-respiratory-tract-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Ken B Waites, Li Xiao, Yang Liu, Mitchell F Balish, T Prescott Atkinson
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults that can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Over the past several years there has been much new information published concerning infections caused by this organism. New molecular-based tests for M. pneumoniae detection are now commercially available in the United States, and advances in molecular typing systems have enhanced understanding of the epidemiology of infections. More strains have had their entire genome sequences published, providing additional insights into pathogenic mechanisms...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538606/assessing-severity-in-pediatric-pneumonia-predictors-of-the-need-for-major-medical-interventions
#16
Are Stuwitz Berg, Christopher Stephen Inchley, Hans Olav Fjaerli, Truls Michael Leegaard, Britt Nakstad
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine potential predictors of the need for major medical interventions in the context of assessing severity in pediatric pneumonia. METHODS: This was a prospective, cohort study of previously healthy children and adolescents younger than 18 years presenting to the pediatric emergency room with clinically suspected pneumonia and examining both the full cohort and those with radiologically confirmed pneumonia. The presence of hypoxemia (peripheral oxygen saturation ≤92%), age-specific tachypnea, high temperature (≥38...
May 23, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538388/myxedema-coma-a-case-report-of-pediatric-emergency-care
#17
Yueniu Zhu, Wenjuan Qiu, Mengyan Deng, Xiaodong Zhu
RAIONALE: Myxedema coma (MC) is extremely rare but lethal in pediatric patients with hypothyroidism leading to altered mental status and hypothermia. But there is no clinical guideline for such cases. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 6-year-old Chinese girl presented with coma and hypothermia preceded by pneumonia. Her lab results were: free thyroxin (T4) 4.18 pmol/L and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) > 150 μIU/mL with extremely elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab) and anti-thyroglobulin...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526018/infection-mediated-asthma-etiology-mechanisms-and-treatment-options-with-focus-on-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-macrolides
#18
REVIEW
Wilmore C Webley, David L Hahn
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness to non-specific bronchoconstriction agonists as the primary underlying pathophysiology. The worldwide incidence of asthma has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, over 300 million children and adults worldwide currently suffer from this incurable disease and 255,000 die from the disease each year. It is now well accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome and many clinical subtypes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516508/near-infrared-photodynamic-inactivation-of-s-pneumoniae-and-its-interaction-with-raw-264-7-macrophages
#19
Ilaiáli S Leite, Mariana C Geralde, Ana C G Salina, Alexandra I Medeiros, Lívia N Dovigo, Vanderlei S Bagnato, Natalia M Inada
Pneumonia is the main cause of children mortality worldwide, and its major treatment obstacle stems from the microorganisms increasing development of resistance to several antibiotics. Photodynamic therapy has been presenting, for the last decades, promising results for some subtypes of cancer and infections. In this work we aimed to develop a safe and efficient in vitro protocol for photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of the most commonly found bacteria in pneumonia cases, using two near-infrared light sources and indocyanine green, a FDA approved dye...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513136/cold-chain-free-storable-hydrogel-for-infant-friendly-oral-delivery-of-amoxicillin-for-the-treatment-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#20
Keming Xu, Liang Li, Mingyue Cui, Yiyuan Han, H Enis Karahan, Vincent T K Chow, Chenjie Xu
Pneumonia is the major cause of death in children under five, particularly in developing countries. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin greatly help in mitigating this problem. However, there is a lack of an infant/toddler-friendly formulation for countries with limited clean water orr electricity. Here, we report the development of a shear-thinning hydrogel system for the oral delivery of amoxicillin to infant/toddler patients, without the need of clean water and refrigeration. The hydrogel formulation consists of metolose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) and amoxicillin...
June 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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