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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918147/invited-review-effects-of-heat-stress-on-dairy-cattle-welfare
#1
Liam Polsky, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
The effects of high ambient temperatures on production animals, once thought to be limited to tropical areas, has extended into northern latitudes in response to the increasing global temperature. The number of days where the temperature-humidity index (THI) exceeds the comfort threshold (>72) is increasing in the northern United States, Canada, and Europe. Compounded by the increasing number of dairy animals and the intensification of production, heat stress has become one of the most important challenges facing the dairy industry today...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902894/what-determines-sclerobiont-colonization-on-marine-mollusk-shells
#2
Vanessa Ochi Agostini, Matias do Nascimento Ritter, Alexandre José Macedo, Erik Muxagata, Fernando Erthal
Empty mollusk shells may act as colonization surfaces for sclerobionts depending on the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of the shells. However, the main factors that can affect the establishment of an organism on hard substrates and the colonization patterns on modern and time-averaged shells remain unclear. Using experimental and field approaches, we compared sclerobiont (i.e., bacteria and invertebrate) colonization patterns on the exposed shells (internal and external sides) of three bivalve species (Anadara brasiliana, Mactra isabelleana, and Amarilladesma mactroides) with different external shell textures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902892/neanderthal-and-denisova-tooth-protein-variants-in-present-day-humans
#3
Clément Zanolli, Mathilde Hourset, Rémi Esclassan, Catherine Mollereau
Environment parameters, diet and genetic factors interact to shape tooth morphostructure. In the human lineage, archaic and modern hominins show differences in dental traits, including enamel thickness, but variability also exists among living populations. Several polymorphisms, in particular in the non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of the tooth hard tissues, like enamelin, are involved in dental structure variation and defects and may be associated with dental disorders or susceptibility to caries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884802/a-female-viking-warrior-confirmed-by-genomics
#4
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, Anna Kjellström, Torun Zachrisson, Maja Krzewińska, Veronica Sobrado, Neil Price, Torsten Günther, Mattias Jakobsson, Anders Götherström, Jan Storå
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783229/breaking-the-taboo-a-history-of-monetary-financing-in-canada-1930-1975
#5
Josh Ryan-Collins
Monetary financing - the funding of state expenditure via the creation of new money rather than through taxation or borrowing - has become a taboo policy instrument in advanced economies. It is generally associated with dangerously high inflation and/or war. Relatedly, a key institutional feature of modern independent central banks is that they are not obligated to support government expenditure via money creation. Since the financial crisis of 2007-2008, however, unorthodox monetary policies, in particular quantitative easing, coupled with stagnant growth and high levels of public and private debt have led to questions over the monetary financing taboo...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757201/continuity-and-admixture-in-the-last-five-millennia-of-levantine-history-from-ancient-canaanite-and-present-day-lebanese-genome-sequences
#6
Marc Haber, Claude Doumet-Serhal, Christiana Scheib, Yali Xue, Petr Danecek, Massimo Mezzavilla, Sonia Youhanna, Rui Martiniano, Javier Prado-Martinez, Michał Szpak, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, Holger Schutkowski, Richard Mikulski, Pierre Zalloua, Toomas Kivisild, Chris Tyler-Smith
The Canaanites inhabited the Levant region during the Bronze Age and established a culture that became influential in the Near East and beyond. However, the Canaanites, unlike most other ancient Near Easterners of this period, left few surviving textual records and thus their origin and relationship to ancient and present-day populations remain unclear. In this study, we sequenced five whole genomes from ∼3,700-year-old individuals from the city of Sidon, a major Canaanite city-state on the Eastern Mediterranean coast...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753828/risk-of-testosterone-flare-in-the-era-of-the-saturation-model-one-more-historical-myth
#7
REVIEW
Yonah Krakowsky, Abraham Morgentaler
CONTEXT: When luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists were introduced in the 1980s, it was universally believed that the initial transient rise in serum testosterone (T), termed T flare, caused rapid prostate cancer (PCa) growth and led to disease progression, complications, and death. It became routine to offer antiandrogens (AAs) to prevent these risks. However, over the last decade, it has become recognized that androgens have a finite ability to stimulate PCa growth (the saturation model), providing a theoretical challenge to the risks of T flare...
July 1, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690059/the-relationship-between-norwegian-red-heifer-growth-and-their-first-lactation-test-day-milk-yield-a-field-study
#8
K S Storli, G Klemetsdal, H Volden, R Salte
Today's Norwegian Red (NR) is markedly different from the one that existed 25 yr ago due to the continuous genetic improvement of economically important traits. Still, current national recommendations on replacement heifer rearing largely are based on results from Danish studies from the late 1980s to the mid 1990s. The objectives of the present study were to gain information on (1) growth and growth profiles of modern NR replacement heifers in commercial dairy herds and (2) how growth during the rearing period affects the heifers' milk yield during their first lactation...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687060/safety-limit-warning-levels-for-the-avoidance-of-excessive-sound-amplification-to-protect-against-further-hearing-loss
#9
Earl E Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To determine safe output sound pressure levels (SPL) for sound amplification devices to preserve hearing sensitivity after usage. DESIGN: A mathematical model consisting of the Modified Power Law (MPL) (Humes & Jesteadt, 1991 ) combined with equations for predicting temporary threshold shift (TTS) and subsequent permanent threshold shift (PTS) (Macrae, 1994b ) was used to determine safe output SPL. STUDY SAMPLE: The study involves no new human subject measurements of loudness tolerance or threshold shifts...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521909/proximal-interphalangeal-joint-ankylosis-in-an-early-medieval-horse-from-wroc%C3%A5-aw-cathedral-island-poland
#10
Maciej Janeczek, Aleksander Chrószcz, Vedat Onar, Radomir Henklewski, Aleksandra Skalec
Animal remains that are unearthed during archaeological excavations often provide useful information about socio-cultural context, including human habits, beliefs, and ancestral relationships. In this report, we present pathologically altered equine first and second phalanges from an 11th century specimen that was excavated at Wrocław Cathedral Island, Poland. The results of gross examination, radiography, and computed tomography, indicate osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint, with partial ankylosis...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484253/human-ancestry-correlates-with-language-and-reveals-that-race-is-not-an-objective-genomic-classifier
#11
Jennifer L Baker, Charles N Rotimi, Daniel Shriner
Genetic and archaeological studies have established a sub-Saharan African origin for anatomically modern humans with subsequent migrations out of Africa. Using the largest multi-locus data set known to date, we investigated genetic differentiation of early modern humans, human admixture and migration events, and relationships among ancestries and language groups. We compiled publicly available genome-wide genotype data on 5,966 individuals from 282 global samples, representing 30 primary language families. The best evidence supports 21 ancestries that delineate genetic structure of present-day human populations...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391047/evolution-of-photoperiod-sensing-in-plants-and-algae
#12
REVIEW
Gloria Serrano-Bueno, Francisco J Romero-Campero, Eva Lucas-Reina, Jose M Romero, Federico Valverde
Measuring day length confers a strong fitness improvement to photosynthetic organisms as it allows them to anticipate light phases and take the best decisions preceding diurnal transitions. In close association with signals from the circadian clock and the photoreceptors, photoperiodic sensing constitutes also a precise way to determine the passing of the seasons and to take annual decisions such as the best time to flower or the beginning of dormancy. Photoperiodic sensing in photosynthetic organisms is ancient and two major stages in its evolution could be identified, the cyanobacterial time sensing and the evolutionary tool kit that arose in green algae and developed into the photoperiodic system of modern plants...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381901/an-ethnolinguistic-and-genetic-perspective-on-the-origins-of-the-dravidian-speaking-brahui-in-pakistan
#13
Luca Pagani, Vincenza Colonna, Chris Tyler-Smith, Qasim Ayub
Pakistan is a part of South Asia that modern humans encountered soon after they left Africa ~50 - 70,000 years ago. Approximately 9,000 years ago they began establishing cities that eventually expanded to represent the Harappan culture, rivalling the early city states of Mesopotamia. The modern state constitutes the north western land mass of the Indian sub-continent and is now the abode of almost 200 million humans representing many ethnicities and linguistic groups. Studies utilising autosomal, Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA markers in selected Pakistani populations revealed a mixture of Western Eurasian-, South- and East Asian-specific lineages, some of which were unequivocally associated with past migrations...
2017: Man in India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332253/sex-and-ancestry-determine-the-free-running-circadian-period
#14
Charmane I Eastman, Victoria A Tomaka, Stephanie J Crowley
The endogenous, free-running circadian period (τ) determines the phase relationship that an organism assumes when entrained to the 24-h day. We found a shorter circadian period in African Americans compared to non-Hispanic European Americans (24.07 versus 24.33 h). We speculate that a short circadian period, closer to 24 h, was advantageous to humans living around the equator, but when humans migrated North out of Africa, where the photoperiod changes with seasons, natural selection favoured people with longer circadian periods...
October 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328951/practising-pastoralism-in-an-agricultural-environment-an-isotopic-analysis-of-the-impact-of-the-hunnic-incursions-on-pannonian-populations
#15
Susanne E Hakenbeck, Jane Evans, Hazel Chapman, Erzsébet Fóthi
We conducted a multi-isotope study of five fifth-century AD cemeteries in modern-day Hungary to determine relationships between nomadic-pastoralist incomers-the historically documented Huns and other nomadic groups-and the sedentary agricultural population of the late Roman province of Pannonia. Contemporary historical sources describe this relationship as adversarial and destructive for the late Roman population, but archaeological evidence indicates high levels of hybridity between different groups. We undertook carbon, nitrogen, strontium and oxygen isotope analyses of bone collagen, dentine and tooth enamel at Keszthely-Fenékpuszta, Hács-Béndekpuszta, Győr-Széchenyi Square, Mözs and Szolnok-Szanda to examine these relationships through past subsistence practices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283140/pay-matters-the-piece-rate-and-health-in-the-developing-world
#16
Mary E Davis
BACKGROUND: Piece rate pay remains a common form of compensation in developing-world industries. While the piece rate may boost productivity, it has been shown to have unintended consequences for occupational safety and health, including increased accident and injury risk. OBJECTIVES: This paper explores the relationship between worker pay and physical and emotional health, and questions the modern day business case for piece rate pay in the developing world. METHODS: The relationship between piece rate and self-reported measures of physical and emotional health is estimated using a large survey of garment workers in 109 Vietnamese factories between 2010 and 2014...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281334/warm-cold-colonization-response-of-oaks-to-uplift-of-the-himalaya-hengduan-mountains
#17
Hong-Hu Meng, Tao Su, Xiao-Yang Gao, Jie Li, Xiao-Long Jiang, Hang Sun, Zhe-Kun Zhou
Clarifying the relationship between distribution patterns of organisms and geological events is critical to understanding the impact of environmental changes on organismal evolution. Quercus sect. Heterobalanus is now distributed across the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) and warm lowland in East China, yet how the distribution patterns of this group changed in response to the HHM uplift remains largely unknown. This study examines the effect of tectonic events in the HHM region on the oaks, providing a biological perspective on the geological history of this region...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256601/complete-mitochondrial-sequences-from-mesolithic-sardinia
#18
Alessandra Modi, Francesca Tassi, Roberta Rosa Susca, Stefania Vai, Ermanno Rizzi, Gianluca De Bellis, Carlo Lugliè, Gloria Gonzalez Fortes, Martina Lari, Guido Barbujani, David Caramelli, Silvia Ghirotto
Little is known about the genetic prehistory of Sardinia because of the scarcity of pre-Neolithic human remains. From a genetic perspective, modern Sardinians are known as genetic outliers in Europe, showing unusually high levels of internal diversity and a close relationship to early European Neolithic farmers. However, how far this peculiar genetic structure extends and how it originated was to date impossible to test. Here we present the first and oldest complete mitochondrial sequences from Sardinia, dated back to 10,000 yBP...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237909/the-relationship-between-smoking-intensity-and-subclinical-cardiovascular-injury-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#19
Mahmoud Al Rifai, Andrew P DeFilippis, John W McEvoy, Michael E Hall, Ana Navas Acien, Miranda R Jones, Rachel Keith, Hoda S Magid, Carlos J Rodriguez, Graham R Barr, Emelia J Benjamin, Rose Marie Robertson, Aruni Bhatnagar, Michael J Blaha
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modern tobacco regulatory science requires an understanding of which biomarkers of cardiovascular injury are most sensitive to cigarette smoking exposure. METHODS: We studied self-reported current smokers from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Smoking intensity was defined by number of cigarettes/day and urinary cotinine levels. Subclinical cardiovascular injury was assessed using markers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 & 2 (IL-2 & IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)], thrombosis (fibrinogen, D-dimer, homocysteine), myocardial injury (troponin T; TnT), endothelial damage (albumin: creatinine ratio), and vascular function [aortic & carotid distensibility, flow-mediated dilation (FMD)]...
March 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216996/busman-s-stomach-and-the-embodiment-of-modernity
#20
Rhodri Hayward
This paper examines the relationship between the gastric illness, 'busman's stomach' and the Coronation bus strike of May 1937 in which 27,000 London busworkers walked out for better working conditions and a seven-and-half-hour day. It explores the way in which new patterns of somatisation, gastroenterological techniques, psychological theories and competing understandings of time worked together to create new political institutions and new forms of political action in inter-war Britain.
January 2, 2017: Contemporary British History
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