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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743673/ancient-hepatitis-b-viruses-from-the-bronze-age-to-the-medieval-period
#1
Barbara Mühlemann, Terry C Jones, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Morten E Allentoft, Irina Shevnina, Andrey Logvin, Emma Usmanova, Irina P Panyushkina, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Tsevel Bazartseren, Kadicha Tashbaeva, Victor Merz, Nina Lau, Václav Smrčka, Dmitry Voyakin, Egor Kitov, Andrey Epimakhov, Dalia Pokutta, Magdolna Vicze, T Douglas Price, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Anders J Hansen, Ludovic Orlando, Simon Rasmussen, Martin Sikora, Lasse Vinner, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Derek J Smith, Dieter Glebe, Ron A M Fouchier, Christian Drosten, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Kristian Kristiansen, Eske Willerslev
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of human hepatitis. There is considerable uncertainty about the timescale of its evolution and its association with humans. Here we present 12 full or partial ancient HBV genomes that are between approximately 0.8 and 4.5 thousand years old. The ancient sequences group either within or in a sister relationship with extant human or other ape HBV clades. Generally, the genome properties follow those of modern HBV. The root of the HBV tree is projected to between 8.6 and 20...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727585/tales-of-human-migration-admixture-and-selection-in-africa
#2
Carina M Schlebusch, Mattias Jakobsson
In the last three decades, genetic studies have played an increasingly important role in exploring human history. They have helped to conclusively establish that anatomically modern humans first appeared in Africa roughly 250,000-350,000 years before present and subsequently migrated to other parts of the world. The history of humans in Africa is complex and includes demographic events that influenced patterns of genetic variation across the continent. Through genetic studies, it has become evident that deep African population history is captured by relationships among African hunter-gatherers, as the world's deepest population divergences occur among these groups, and that the deepest population divergence dates to 300,000 years before present...
May 4, 2018: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724038/reliability-of-using-motion-sensors-to-measure-children-s-physical-activity-levels-in-exergaming
#3
Nan Zeng, Xingyuan Gao, Yuanlong Liu, Jung Eun Lee, Zan Gao
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the reliability of two objective measurement tools in assessing children’s physical activity (PA) levels in an exergaming setting. METHODS: A total of 377 children (190 girls, Mage = 8.39, SD = 1.55) attended the 30-min exergaming class every other day for 18 weeks. Children’s PA levels were concurrently measured by NL-1000 pedometer and ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer, while children’s steps per min and time engaged in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous PA were estimated, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684051/estimating-genetic-kin-relationships-in-prehistoric-populations
#4
Jose Manuel Monroy Kuhn, Mattias Jakobsson, Torsten Günther
Archaeogenomic research has proven to be a valuable tool to trace migrations of historic and prehistoric individuals and groups, whereas relationships within a group or burial site have not been investigated to a large extent. Knowing the genetic kinship of historic and prehistoric individuals would give important insights into social structures of ancient and historic cultures. Most archaeogenetic research concerning kinship has been restricted to uniparental markers, while studies using genome-wide information were mainly focused on comparisons between populations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681551/-he-must-die-or-go-mad-in-this-place-prisoners-insanity-and-the-pentonville-model-prison-experiment-1842-52
#5
Catherine Cox, Hilary Marland
The relationship between prisons and mental illness has preoccupied prison administrators, physicians, and reformers from the establishment of the modern prison service in the nineteenth century to the current day. Here we take the case of Pentonville Model Prison, established in 1842 with the aim of reforming convicts through religious exhortation, rigorous discipline and training, and the imposition of separate confinement in its most extreme form. Our article demonstrates how following the introduction of separate confinement, the prison chaplains rather than the medical officers took a lead role in managing the minds of convicts...
2018: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599709/caffeine-and-modafinil-ameliorate-the-neuroinflammation-and-anxious-behavior-in-rats-during-sleep-deprivation-by-inhibiting-the-microglia-activation
#6
Meetu Wadhwa, Garima Chauhan, Koustav Roy, Surajit Sahu, Satyanarayan Deep, Vishal Jain, Krishna Kishore, Koushik Ray, Lalan Thakur, Usha Panjwani
Background : Sleep deprivation (SD) plagues modern society due to the professional demands. It prevails in patients with mood and neuroinflammatory disorders. Although growing evidence suggests the improvement in the cognitive performance by psychostimulants during sleep-deprived conditions, the impending involved mechanism is rarely studied. Thus, we hypothesized that mood and inflammatory changes might be due to the glial cells activation induced modulation of the inflammatory cytokines during SD, which could be improved by administering psychostimulants...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579219/operator-volume-is-not-associated-with-mortality-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-insights-from-the-british-cardiovascular-intervention-society-registry
#7
William Hulme, Matthew Sperrin, Nick Curzen, Tim Kinnaird, Mark A De Belder, Peter Ludman, Chun Shing Kwok, Chris P Gale, James Cockburn, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Mamas A Mamas
Aims: The relationship between operator volume and outcomes for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been studied in the past, but recent analyses of national data covering the modern radial, acute coronary syndrome-dominant era are limited. Changing in case-mix, practice, and service provision mean that previously described volume-outcome relationships may no longer be relevant, and a reassessment in contemporary practice is needed. We aim to assess whether operator volume is associated with independently reported 30-day mortality in a contemporary PCI cohort...
March 22, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562232/reconstructing-the-genetic-history-of-late-neanderthals
#8
Mateja Hajdinjak, Qiaomei Fu, Alexander Hübner, Martin Petr, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Steffi Grote, Pontus Skoglund, Vagheesh Narasimham, Hélène Rougier, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Patrick Semal, Marie Soressi, Sahra Talamo, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Ivan Gušić, Željko Kućan, Pavao Rudan, Liubov V Golovanova, Vladimir B Doronichev, Cosimo Posth, Johannes Krause, Petra Korlević, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Montgomery Slatkin, Nick Patterson, David Reich, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo, Janet Kelso
Although it has previously been shown that Neanderthals contributed DNA to modern humans, not much is known about the genetic diversity of Neanderthals or the relationship between late Neanderthal populations at the time at which their last interactions with early modern humans occurred and before they eventually disappeared. Our ability to retrieve DNA from a larger number of Neanderthal individuals has been limited by poor preservation of endogenous DNA and contamination of Neanderthal skeletal remains by large amounts of microbial and present-day human DNA...
March 21, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488855/critique-of-the-vatican-s-role-in-recent-child-protection-practice-a-brief-report
#9
Faisal Rashid, Ian Barron
The current report aims to clarify the practices and implicit intentions of the Holy See in addressing child sexual abuse (CSA) by clerics in the twenty-first century. Church investigation reports, United Nations reports, press coverage, and academic literature were explored to understand the relationship between Church intention and practice. Various types of literature highlight the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) as an organization that is self-referential and self-defensive, with the implicit aim of protecting the reputation of RCC at the expense of children...
February 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395378/insights-into-modern-human-prehistory-using-ancient-genomes
#10
REVIEW
Melinda A Yang, Qiaomei Fu
The genetic relationship of past modern humans to today's populations and each other was largely unknown until recently, when advances in ancient DNA sequencing allowed for unprecedented analysis of the genomes of these early people. These ancient genomes reveal new insights into human prehistory not always observed studying present-day populations, including greater details on the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow that characterized past human populations, particularly in early Eurasia, as well as increased insight on the relationship between archaic and modern humans...
March 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386990/evolution-of-pollen-morphology-in-loranthaceae
#11
Friðgeir Grímsson, Guido W Grimm, Reinhard Zetter
Earlier studies indicate a strong correlation of pollen morphology and ultrastructure with taxonomy in Loranthaceae. Using high-resolution light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy imaging of the same pollen grains, we document pollen types of 35 genera including 15 studied for the first time. Using a molecular phylogenetic framework based on currently available sequence data with good genus-coverage, we reconstruct trends in the evolution of Loranthaceae pollen and pinpoint traits of high diagnostic value, partly confirming earlier intuitive hypotheses based on morphological observations...
2018: Grana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224867/dairy-system-parity-and-lactation-stage-affect-enteric-methane-production-yield-and-intensity-per-kilogram-of-milk-and-cheese-predicted-from-gas-chromatography-fatty-acids
#12
Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato, Stefano Schiavon
Ruminants (and milk production) contribute to global climate change through enteric methane emissions (EME), and any attempt to reduce them is complicated by the fact that they are difficult and expensive to measure directly. In the case of dairy cows, a promising indirect method of estimating EME is to use the milk fatty acid profile as a proxy, as a relationship exists between microbial activity in the rumen and the molecules available for milk synthesis in the mammary gland. In the present study, we analyzed the detailed fatty acid profiles (through gas chromatography) of a large number of milk samples from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows reared on 85 farms with the aim of testing in the field 2 equations for estimating EME taken from a published meta-analysis...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202706/ancient-dna-reveals-genetic-connections-between-early-di-qiang-and-han-chinese
#13
Jiawei Li, Wen Zeng, Ye Zhang, Albert Min-Shan Ko, Chunxiang Li, Hong Zhu, Qiaomei Fu, Hui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Ancient Di-Qiang people once resided in the Ganqing region of China, adjacent to the Central Plain area from where Han Chinese originated. While gene flow between the Di-Qiang and Han Chinese has been proposed, there is no evidence to support this view. Here we analyzed the human remains from an early Di-Qiang site (Mogou site dated ~4000 years old) and compared them to other ancient DNA across China, including an early Han-related site (Hengbei site dated ~3000 years old) to establish the underlying genetic relationship between the Di-Qiang and ancestors of Han Chinese...
December 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175999/modern-fertility-awareness-methods-wrist-wearables-capture-the-changes-of-temperature-associated-with-the-menstrual-cycle
#14
Mohaned Shilaih, Brianna M Goodale, Lisa Falco, Florian Kübler, Valerie De Clerck, Brigitte Leeners
Core and peripheral body temperatures are affected by changes in reproductive hormones during the menstrual cycle. Women worldwide use the basal body temperature (BBT) method to aid and prevent conception. However, prior research suggests taking one's daily temperature can prove inconvenient and subject to environmental factors. We investigate whether a more automatic, non-invasive temperature measurement system can detect changes in temperature across the menstrual cycle. We examined how wrist-skin temperature (WST), measured with wearable sensors, correlates with urinary tests of ovulation and may serve as a new method of fertility tracking...
November 24, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135493/relationship-between-postoperative-pain-and-overall-30-day-complications-in-a-broad-surgical-population-an-observational-study
#15
Regina L M van Boekel, Michiel C Warlé, Renske G C Nielen, Kris C P Vissers, Rob van der Sande, Ewald M Bronkhorst, Jos G C Lerou, Monique A H Steegers
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between postoperative pain and 30-day postoperative complications. BACKGROUND: Only scarce data are available on the association between postoperative pain and a broad range of postoperative complications in a large heterogeneous surgical population. METHODS: Having postoperative pain was assessed in 2 ways: the movement-evoked pain score on the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS-MEP) and the patients' opinion whether the pain was acceptable or not...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118302/impact-of-the-relationship-between-the-defibrillation-threshold-dft-and-clinical-outcomes-in-recipients-of-modern-era-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-icd
#16
Yoshinari Enomoto, Mahito Noro, Masao Moroi, Masato Nakamura, Kaoru Sugi
Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantations is considered necessary for appropriate shock therapy and to measure the safety margin. However, the relationship between the DFT with modern era devices and the clinical outcome, including the total mortality is limited, which may lead to DFT testing itself being questioned. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the DFT and clinical outcome in ICD recipients.We enrolled 81 consecutive patients (66 males, aged 64...
November 8, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073058/big-data-modeling-to-predict-platelet-usage-and-minimize-wastage-in-a-tertiary-care-system
#17
Leying Guan, Xiaoying Tian, Saurabh Gombar, Allison J Zemek, Gomathi Krishnan, Robert Scott, Balasubramanian Narasimhan, Robert J Tibshirani, Tho D Pham
Maintaining a robust blood product supply is an essential requirement to guarantee optimal patient care in modern health care systems. However, daily blood product use is difficult to anticipate. Platelet products are the most variable in daily usage, have short shelf lives, and are also the most expensive to produce, test, and store. Due to the combination of absolute need, uncertain daily demand, and short shelf life, platelet products are frequently wasted due to expiration. Our aim is to build and validate a statistical model to forecast future platelet demand and thereby reduce wastage...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070451/arctic-antibiotic-resistance-gene-contamination-a-result-of-anthropogenic-activities-and-natural-origin
#18
Lu Tan, Linyun Li, Nicholas Ashbolt, Xiaolong Wang, Yuxiao Cui, Xiao Zhu, Yan Xu, Yang Yang, Daqing Mao, Yi Luo
The increasing global prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is attributed to anthropogenic activities, particularly the misuse of antimicrobial drugs in human care and animal production. In the present study, we first examined Arctic/sub-Arctic (polar) sediments for the abundance and diversity of 30 ARGs against sulfonamide, tetracycline, aminoglycoside, quinolone, macrolide, and β-lactam antibiotics. Polar sediment ARGs were detected by qPCR at relatively low levels (10-9 to 10-5 copies/16S rRNA gene copies) compared to the reference sites, which were heavily impacted regions of China (the Haihe River, the Tianjin Water Park water and the Qilihai Wetland water, at 10-8 to 10-2 copies/16S rRNA gene copies)...
April 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033327/40-000-year-old-individual-from-asia-provides-insight-into-early-population-structure-in-eurasia
#19
Melinda A Yang, Xing Gao, Christoph Theunert, Haowen Tong, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Birgit Nickel, Montgomery Slatkin, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo, Janet Kelso, Qiaomei Fu
By at least 45,000 years before present, anatomically modern humans had spread across Eurasia [1-3], but it is not well known how diverse these early populations were and whether they contributed substantially to later people or represent early modern human expansions into Eurasia that left no surviving descendants today. Analyses of genome-wide data from several ancient individuals from Western Eurasia and Siberia have shown that some of these individuals have relationships to present-day Europeans [4, 5] while others did not contribute to present-day Eurasian populations [3, 6]...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019456/introduction-paving-the-old-new-way-from-qing-to-china
#20
Ori Sela
The funeral procession of Sheng Xuanhuai (, 1844-1916) - the renowned Qing scholar-official, financier, and "father of Chinese industrialism" - meandered through the streets of Shanghai on 18 November 1917. The funeral was a grand event, one that was purportedly documented in film, later to be distributed as the first "news short-film" () in China. The North China Herald reported on the event in some detail, at times in rather florid language, and suggested that "the cortege was splendid and impressive, bringing back the days of the Manchu emperors...
September 2017: Science in Context
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