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Modern day relationships

David A Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Jacob A Harris, Audax Z P Mabulla, Frank W Marlowe, J Josh Snodgrass, Geeta Eick, J Colette Berbesque, Amelia Sancilio, Brian M Wood
OBJECTIVES: Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular health, yet few humans living in industrialized societies meet current recommendations (150 min/week). Researchers have long suggested that human physiological requirements for aerobic exercise reflect an evolutionary shift to a hunting and gathering foraging strategy, and a recent transition to more sedentary lifestyles likely represents a mismatch with our past in terms of physical activity...
October 9, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Gavaachimed Lkhagvasuren, Heejin Shin, Si Eun Lee, Dashtseveg Tumen, Jae-Hyun Kim, Kyung-Yong Kim, Kijeong Kim, Ae Ja Park, Ho Woon Lee, Mi Jin Kim, Jaesung Choi, Jee-Hye Choi, Na Young Min, Kwang-Ho Lee
Members of the Mongol imperial family (designated the Golden family) are buried in a secret necropolis; therefore, none of their burial grounds have been found. In 2004, we first discovered 5 graves belonging to the Golden family in Tavan Tolgoi, Eastern Mongolia. To define the genealogy of the 5 bodies and the kinship among them, SNP and/or STR profiles of mitochondria, autosomes, and Y chromosomes were analyzed. Four of the 5 bodies were determined to carry the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup D4, while the fifth carried haplogroup CZ, indicating that this individual had no kinship with the others...
2016: PloS One
Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Kirill Kryukov, Timothy A Jinam, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Aiko Saso, Gen Suwa, Shintaroh Ueda, Minoru Yoneda, Atsushi Tajima, Ken-Ichi Shinoda, Ituro Inoue, Naruya Saitou
The Jomon period of the Japanese Archipelago, characterized by cord-marked 'jomon' potteries, has yielded abundant human skeletal remains. However, the genetic origins of the Jomon people and their relationships with modern populations have not been clarified. We determined a total of 115 million base pair nuclear genome sequences from two Jomon individuals (male and female each) from the Sanganji Shell Mound (dated 3000 years before present) with the Jomon-characteristic mitochondrial DNA haplogroup N9b, and compared these nuclear genome sequences with those of worldwide populations...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Fausto Garcia, Derek G Shendell, Jaime Madrigano
Retrospective descriptive secondary analyses of data from relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) study homes (in Houston, Texas; Los Angeles County, California; and, Elizabeth, New Jersey May 1999-February 2001) were conducted. Data included air exchange rates, associations between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity, and calculated apparent temperature and humidex. Analyses examined if study homes provided optimum thermal comfort for residents during both heating and cooling seasons when compared to current American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards 62/62...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Martin Schwellnus, Torbjørn Soligard, Juan-Manuel Alonso, Roald Bahr, Ben Clarsen, H Paul Dijkstra, Tim J Gabbett, Michael Gleeson, Martin Hägglund, Mark R Hutchinson, Christa Janse Van Rensburg, Romain Meeusen, John W Orchard, Babette M Pluim, Martin Raftery, Richard Budgett, Lars Engebretsen
The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load-including rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel-and health outcomes in sport...
September 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Heather Dawson, Alexander Novotny, Karen Becker, Daniel Reim, Rupert Langer, Irene Gullo, Magali Svrcek, Jan H Niess, Radu Tutuian, Kaspar Truninger, Ioannis Diamantis, Annika Blank, Inti Zlobec, Robert H Riddell, Fatima Carneiro, Jean-François Fléjou, Robert M Genta, Alessandro Lugli
BACKGROUND: The cause of Napoleon Bonaparte's death remains controversial. Originally suggested to be gastric cancer, whether this was truly neoplastic or a benign lesion has been recently debated. AIMS: To interpret findings of original autopsy reports in light of the current knowledge of gastric cancer and to highlight the significance of accurate macroscopy in modern-day medicine. METHODS: Using original autopsy documents, endoscopic images and data from current literature, Napoleon's gastric situation was reconstructed...
July 21, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
T Fournier, L Tibère, C Laporte, E Mognard, M N Ismail, S P Sharif, J-P Poulain
The Malaysian society is experiencing and coping with a fast modernization process, which is characterized by a rapid urbanization and rural exodus, an important reduction of the size of households, and the emergence of a new middle class. The Malaysian Food Barometer launched in 2013 has provided better understanding how these macro issues have affected the lifestyles and especially the food habits of the Malaysians. The country has indeed undergone a transition period from under-nutrition to over-nutrition in a few decades, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity having markedly and rapidly increased...
August 9, 2016: Appetite
Laurent Malisoux, Nicolas Chambon, Axel Urhausen, Daniel Theisen
BACKGROUND: Modern running shoes are available in a wide range of heel-to-toe drops (ie, the height difference between the forward and rear parts of the inside of the shoe). While shoe drop has been shown to influence strike pattern, its effect on injury risk has never been investigated. Therefore, the reasons for such variety in this parameter are unclear. PURPOSE: The first aim of this study was to determine whether the drop of standard cushioned running shoes influences running injury risk...
August 8, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Frank R Datema, Peter J F M Lohuis
The tongue-in-groove (TIG) is a conservative but powerful surgical suture technique to control tip rotation and projection, to set an appropriate alar-columellar relationship, to straighten a caudal septal deviation, and to stabilize the nasal base. TIG is suitable in primary and most revision cases and is easily combined with other surgical techniques. Seventeen years after its popularization, the TIG technique is embedded in modern-day rhinoplasty literature and teaching material. This article describes indications and considerations during external primary and revision rhinoplasty, based on clinical experience and the available literature...
August 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
Nadine Witzel, Barbara Isensee, Vivien Suchert, Burkhard Weisser, Reiner Hanewinkel
BACKGROUND: In modern societies, adolescents spend about half of their waking hours with sedentary behavior (SB). Therefore, the current study aims at investigating the relationship between SB and adolescents' health. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 1296 students (8(th) grade) from 29 schools in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany was surveyed. Mean age was 13.75 years (SD = 0.67), 47.0 % were female. To asses screen-based and non-screen-based SB, moderate to vigorous physical activity as well as further indicators of health behavior (tobacco and alcohol use, diet) a questionnaire was used...
July 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Bryan Sisk, Richard Frankel, Eric Kodish, J Harry Isaacson
Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice...
2016: Permanente Journal
J A D R N Appuhamy, J V Judy, E Kebreab, P J Kononoff
Mathematical models that predict water intake by drinking, also known as free water intake (FWI), are useful in understanding water supply needed by animals on dairy farms. The majority of extant mathematical models for predicting FWI of dairy cows have been developed with data sets representing similar experimental conditions, not evaluated with modern cows, and often require dry matter intake (DMI) data, which may not be routinely available. The objectives of the study were to (1) develop a set of new empirical models for predicting FWI of lactating and dry cows with and without DMI using literature data, and (2) evaluate the new and the extant models using an independent set of FWI measurements made on modern cows...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Christos Symeonides, Peter Vuillermin, Jochen Mueller, Peter D Sly, Richard Saffery
Accumulating evidence, from animal models and human observational studies, implicates the in utero (and early postnatal) environment in the 'programming' of risk for a variety of adverse outcomes and health trajectories. The modern environment is replete with man-made compounds such as plastic product chemicals (PPC), including phenols and phthalates. Evidence from several human cohorts implicates exposure to these chemicals in adverse offspring neurodevelopment, though a direct causal relationship has not been firmly established...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
Fuminori Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Jianzhong Wu, Yuichi Katayose, Hirokazu Handa
A core collection of Japanese wheat varieties (JWC) consisting of 96 accessions was established based on their passport data and breeding pedigrees. To clarify the molecular basis of the JWC collection, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed using the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. Phylogenetic tree and population structure analyses using these SNP data revealed the genetic diversity and relationships among the JWC accessions, classifying them into four groups; "varieties in the Hokkaido area", "modern varieties in the northeast part of Japan", "modern varieties in the southwest part of Japan" and "classical varieties including landraces"...
March 2016: Breeding Science
Hervey C Peoples, Pavel Duda, Frank W Marlowe
Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs...
September 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Moriaki Yasuhara, Hideyuki Doi, Chih-Lin Wei, Roberto Danovaro, Sarah E Myhre
The link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) over long temporal scales is poorly understood. Here, we investigate biological monitoring and palaeoecological records on decadal, centennial and millennial time scales from a BEF framework by using deep sea, soft-sediment environments as a test bed. Results generally show positive BEF relationships, in agreement with BEF studies based on present-day spatial analyses and short-term manipulative experiments. However, the deep-sea BEF relationship is much noisier across longer time scales compared with modern observational studies...
May 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Ingrid Jepsen, Edith Mark, Ellen Aagaard Nøhr, Maralyn Foureur, Erik Elgaard Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study is to advance knowledge about the working and living conditions of midwives in caseload midwifery and how this model of care is embedded in a standard maternity unit. This led to two research questions: 1) What constitutes caseload midwifery from the perspectives of the midwives? 2) How do midwives experience working in caseload midwifery? DESIGN AND SETTING: phenomenology of practice was the analytical approach to this qualitative study of caseload midwifery in Northern Denmark...
May 2016: Midwifery
John Tibby, Cameron Barr, Francesca A McInerney, Andrew C G Henderson, Melanie J Leng, Margaret Greenway, Jonathan C Marshall, Glenn B McGregor, Jonathan J Tyler, Vivienne McNeil
Quantitative reconstructions of terrestrial climate are highly sought after but rare, particularly in Australia. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant leaves (Δleaf ) is an established indicator of past hydroclimate because the fractionation of carbon isotopes during photosynthesis is strongly influenced by water stress. Leaves of the evergreen tree Melaleuca quinquenervia have been recovered from the sediments of some perched lakes on North Stradbroke and Fraser Islands, south-east Queensland, eastern Australia...
October 2016: Global Change Biology
Unnikrishnan Payyappallimana, Padma Venkatasubramanian
Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine that originated over three millennia ago in the South Asian region, offers extensive insights about food and health based on certain unique conceptual as well as theoretical positions. Health is defined as a state of equilibrium with one's self (svasthya) but which is inextricably linked to the environment. Ayurvedic principles, such as the tridosa (three humors) theory, provide the relationship between the microcosm and the macrocosm that can be applied in day-to-day practice...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami, Amir Hossein Goudarzian, Hesam Mirani, Sina Sabourian Jouybari, Davoud Nasiri
INTRODUCTION: Changes in the modern medical science caused significant reduction of mortality and every day increase of the elderly in the world. According to prevalence of physical and mental problems in elderly, it is necessary to take some actions. Self care in one of the best way to improve elderly health and life satisfaction that seems have a relation to self-esteem. METHODS: This descriptive and analytical study was performed on 180 elderly in rural areas of the Sari city...
February 2016: Materia Socio-medica
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