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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216996/busman-s-stomach-and-the-embodiment-of-modernity
#1
Rhodri Hayward
This paper examines the relationship between the gastric illness, 'busman's stomach' and the Coronation bus strike of May 1937 in which 27,000 London busworkers walked out for better working conditions and a seven-and-half-hour day. It explores the way in which new patterns of somatisation, gastroenterological techniques, psychological theories and competing understandings of time worked together to create new political institutions and new forms of political action in inter-war Britain.
January 2, 2017: Contemporary British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205612/dna-analysis-of-a-30-000-year-old-urocitellus-glacialis-from-northeastern-siberia-reveals-phylogenetic-relationships-between-ancient-and-present-day-arctic-ground-squirrels
#2
Marina Faerman, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Elisabetta Boaretto, Gennady G Boeskorov, Nikolai E Dokuchaev, Oleg A Ermakov, Fedor N Golenishchev, Stanislav V Gubin, Eugenia Mintz, Evgeniy Simonov, Vadim L Surin, Sergei V Titov, Oksana G Zanina, Nikolai A Formozov
In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El'ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed (14)C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El'ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168123/a-new-glimpse-on-mesozoic-zooplankton-150-million-year-old-lobster-larvae
#3
Joachim T Haug, Carolin Haug
Larvae of malacostracan crustaceans represent a large fraction of modern day zooplankton. Plankton is not only a major part of the modern marine ecosystem, but must have played an important role in the ecosystems of the past as well. Unfortunately, our knowledge about plankton composition of the past is still quite limited. As an important part of today's zooplankton, malacostracan larvae are still a rarity in the fossil record; many types of malacostracan larvae dominating the modern plankton have so far not been found as fossils...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099442/a-whole-genome-dartseq-and-snp-analysis-for-genetic-diversity-assessment-in-durum-wheat-from-central-fertile-crescent
#4
Faheem Shehzad Baloch, Ahmad Alsaleh, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Vahdettin Çiftçi, Luis E Sáenz de Miera, Muhammad Aasim, Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Husnu Aktaş, Hakan Özkan, Rüştü Hatipoğlu
Until now, little attention has been paid to the geographic distribution and evaluation of genetic diversity of durum wheat from the Central Fertile Crescent (modern-day Turkey and Syria). Turkey and Syria are considered as primary centers of wheat diversity, and thousands of locally adapted wheat landraces are still present in the farmers' small fields. We planned this study to evaluate the genetic diversity of durum wheat landraces from the Central Fertile Crescent by genotyping based on DArTseq and SNP analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000096/relationship-between-tissue-distributions-of-modified-wuzi-yanzong-prescription-in-rats-and-meridian-tropism-theory
#5
Lin-Lin Wang, Wei-Wei Li, Cai-Sheng Wu, Jin-Lan Zhang, Yi-Xiang Song, Fang-Jiao Song, Hong Fu, Geng-Xin Liu, Xue-Mei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between tissue distributions of modified Wuzi Yanzong prescription (, MWP) in rats and meridian tropism theory. METHODS: A high-performance liquid chromatography with Fourier transform-mass spectrometry (HPLC-FT) method was used to identify the metabolites of MWP in different tissues of rats after continued oral administration of MWP for 7 days. The relationship between MWP and meridian tropism theory was studied according to the tissue distributions of the metabolites of MWP in rats and the relevant literature...
December 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934774/the-moral-agency-of-institutions-effectively-using-expert-nurses-to-support-patient-autonomy
#6
Sonya Charles
Patient autonomy-with an emphasis on informed consent and the right to refuse treatment-is a cornerstone of modern bioethics. Within discussions about patient autonomy, feminist bioethicists have argued for a relational approach to autonomy. Under a relational framework, we must look beyond the individual moment of choice to include the role relationships and specific contexts can play in supporting or undermining autonomy. Given the day-to-day interactions they have with patients, nurses play a significant role in helping patients understand the nature of their illnesses and make truly informed decisions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857087/the-oral-microbiome-an-update-for-oral-healthcare-professionals
#7
M Kilian, I L C Chapple, M Hannig, P D Marsh, V Meuric, A M L Pedersen, M S Tonetti, W G Wade, E Zaura
For millions of years, our resident microbes have coevolved and coexisted with us in a mostly harmonious symbiotic relationship. We are not distinct entities from our microbiome, but together we form a 'superorganism' or holobiont, with the microbiome playing a significant role in our physiology and health. The mouth houses the second most diverse microbial community in the body, harbouring over 700 species of bacteria that colonise the hard surfaces of teeth and the soft tissues of the oral mucosa. Through recent advances in technology, we have started to unravel the complexities of the oral microbiome and gained new insights into its role during both health and disease...
November 18, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824859/the-strength-of-selection-against-neanderthal-introgression
#8
Ivan Juric, Simon Aeschbacher, Graham Coop
Hybridization between humans and Neanderthals has resulted in a low level of Neanderthal ancestry scattered across the genomes of many modern-day humans. After hybridization, on average, selection appears to have removed Neanderthal alleles from the human population. Quantifying the strength and causes of this selection against Neanderthal ancestry is key to understanding our relationship to Neanderthals and, more broadly, how populations remain distinct after secondary contact. Here, we develop a novel method for estimating the genome-wide average strength of selection and the density of selected sites using estimates of Neanderthal allele frequency along the genomes of modern-day humans...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766937/leveraging-graph-topology-and-semantic-context-for-pharmacovigilance-through-twitter-streams
#9
Ryan Eshleman, Rahul Singh
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) constitute one of the leading causes of post-therapeutic death and their identification constitutes an important challenge of modern precision medicine. Unfortunately, the onset and effects of ADEs are often underreported complicating timely intervention. At over 500 million posts per day, Twitter is a commonly used social media platform. The ubiquity of day-to-day personal information exchange on Twitter makes it a promising target for data mining for ADE identification and intervention...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723159/physical-activity-patterns-and-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-hunter-gatherers
#10
David A Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Jacob A Harris, Audax Z P Mabulla, Frank W Marlowe, J Josh Snodgrass, Geeta Eick, J Colette Berbesque, Amelia Sancilio, Brian M Wood
OBJECTIVES: Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular health, yet few humans living in industrialized societies meet current recommendations (150 min/week). Researchers have long suggested that human physiological requirements for aerobic exercise reflect an evolutionary shift to a hunting and gathering foraging strategy, and a recent transition to more sedentary lifestyles likely represents a mismatch with our past in terms of physical activity...
October 9, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627454/molecular-genealogy-of-a-mongol-queen-s-family-and-her-possible-kinship-with-genghis-khan
#11
Gavaachimed Lkhagvasuren, Heejin Shin, Si Eun Lee, Dashtseveg Tumen, Jae-Hyun Kim, Kyung-Yong Kim, Kijeong Kim, Ae Ja Park, Ho Woon Lee, Mi Jin Kim, Jaesung Choi, Jee-Hye Choi, Na Young Min, Kwang-Ho Lee
Members of the Mongol imperial family (designated the Golden family) are buried in a secret necropolis; therefore, none of their burial grounds have been found. In 2004, we first discovered 5 graves belonging to the Golden family in Tavan Tolgoi, Eastern Mongolia. To define the genealogy of the 5 bodies and the kinship among them, SNP and/or STR profiles of mitochondria, autosomes, and Y chromosomes were analyzed. Four of the 5 bodies were determined to carry the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup D4, while the fifth carried haplogroup CZ, indicating that this individual had no kinship with the others...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581845/a-partial-nuclear-genome-of-the-jomons-who-lived-3000-years-ago-in-fukushima-japan
#12
Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Kirill Kryukov, Timothy A Jinam, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Aiko Saso, Gen Suwa, Shintaroh Ueda, Minoru Yoneda, Atsushi Tajima, Ken-Ichi Shinoda, Ituro Inoue, Naruya Saitou
The Jomon period of the Japanese Archipelago, characterized by cord-marked 'jomon' potteries, has yielded abundant human skeletal remains. However, the genetic origins of the Jomon people and their relationships with modern populations have not been clarified. We determined a total of 115 million base pair nuclear genome sequences from two Jomon individuals (male and female each) from the Sanganji Shell Mound (dated 3000 years before present) with the Jomon-characteristic mitochondrial DNA haplogroup N9b, and compared these nuclear genome sequences with those of worldwide populations...
February 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572236/relationship-among-environmental-quality-variables-housing-variables-and-residential-needs-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-relationship-among-indoor-outdoor-and-personal-air-riopa-concentrations-database
#13
Fausto Garcia, Derek G Shendell, Jaime Madrigano
Retrospective descriptive secondary analyses of data from relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) study homes (in Houston, Texas; Los Angeles County, California; and, Elizabeth, New Jersey May 1999-February 2001) were conducted. Data included air exchange rates, associations between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity, and calculated apparent temperature and humidex. Analyses examined if study homes provided optimum thermal comfort for residents during both heating and cooling seasons when compared to current American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards 62/62...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535991/how-much-is-too-much-part-2-international-olympic-committee-consensus-statement-on-load-in-sport-and-risk-of-illness
#14
Martin Schwellnus, Torbjørn Soligard, Juan-Manuel Alonso, Roald Bahr, Ben Clarsen, H Paul Dijkstra, Tim J Gabbett, Michael Gleeson, Martin Hägglund, Mark R Hutchinson, Christa Janse Van Rensburg, Romain Meeusen, John W Orchard, Babette M Pluim, Martin Raftery, Richard Budgett, Lars Engebretsen
The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load-including rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel-and health outcomes in sport...
September 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522550/macroscopy-predicts-tumor-progression-in-gastric-cancer-a-retrospective-patho-historical-analysis-based-on-napoleon-bonaparte-s-autopsy-report
#15
Heather Dawson, Alexander Novotny, Karen Becker, Daniel Reim, Rupert Langer, Irene Gullo, Magali Svrcek, Jan H Niess, Radu Tutuian, Kaspar Truninger, Ioannis Diamantis, Annika Blank, Inti Zlobec, Robert H Riddell, Fatima Carneiro, Jean-François Fléjou, Robert M Genta, Alessandro Lugli
BACKGROUND: The cause of Napoleon Bonaparte's death remains controversial. Originally suggested to be gastric cancer, whether this was truly neoplastic or a benign lesion has been recently debated. AIMS: To interpret findings of original autopsy reports in light of the current knowledge of gastric cancer and to highlight the significance of accurate macroscopy in modern-day medicine. METHODS: Using original autopsy documents, endoscopic images and data from current literature, Napoleon's gastric situation was reconstructed...
November 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521166/eating-patterns-and-prevalence-of-obesity-lessons-learned-from%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-malaysian-food-barometer
#16
T Fournier, L Tibère, C Laporte, E Mognard, M N Ismail, S P Sharif, J-P Poulain
The Malaysian society is experiencing and coping with a fast modernization process, which is characterized by a rapid urbanization and rural exodus, an important reduction of the size of households, and the emergence of a new middle class. The Malaysian Food Barometer launched in 2013 has provided better understanding how these macro issues have affected the lifestyles and especially the food habits of the Malaysians. The country has indeed undergone a transition period from under-nutrition to over-nutrition in a few decades, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity having markedly and rapidly increased...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501833/influence-of-the-heel-to-toe-drop-of-standard-cushioned-running-shoes-on-injury-risk-in-leisure-time-runners-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-6-month-follow-up
#17
Laurent Malisoux, Nicolas Chambon, Axel Urhausen, Daniel Theisen
BACKGROUND: Modern running shoes are available in a wide range of heel-to-toe drops (ie, the height difference between the forward and rear parts of the inside of the shoe). While shoe drop has been shown to influence strike pattern, its effect on injury risk has never been investigated. Therefore, the reasons for such variety in this parameter are unclear. PURPOSE: The first aim of this study was to determine whether the drop of standard cushioned running shoes influences running injury risk...
November 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494586/the-tongue-in-groove-technique-in-primary-and-revision-rhinoplasty
#18
Frank R Datema, Peter J F M Lohuis
The tongue-in-groove (TIG) is a conservative but powerful surgical suture technique to control tip rotation and projection, to set an appropriate alar-columellar relationship, to straighten a caudal septal deviation, and to stabilize the nasal base. TIG is suitable in primary and most revision cases and is easily combined with other surgical techniques. Seventeen years after its popularization, the TIG technique is embedded in modern-day rhinoplasty literature and teaching material. This article describes indications and considerations during external primary and revision rhinoplasty, based on clinical experience and the available literature...
August 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464287/-sedentary-behavior-and-the-health-of-adolescents
#19
Nadine Witzel, Barbara Isensee, Vivien Suchert, Burkhard Weisser, Reiner Hanewinkel
BACKGROUND: In modern societies, adolescents spend about half of their waking hours with sedentary behavior (SB). Therefore, the current study aims at investigating the relationship between SB and adolescents' health. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 1296 students (8(th) grade) from 29 schools in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany was surveyed. Mean age was 13.75 years (SD = 0.67), 47.0 % were female. To asses screen-based and non-screen-based SB, moderate to vigorous physical activity as well as further indicators of health behavior (tobacco and alcohol use, diet) a questionnaire was used...
July 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352417/the-truth-about-truth-telling-in-american-medicine-a-brief-history
#20
Bryan Sisk, Richard Frankel, Eric Kodish, J Harry Isaacson
Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice...
2016: Permanente Journal
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