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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857087/the-oral-microbiome-an-update-for-oral-healthcare-professionals
#1
M Kilian, I L C Chapple, M Hannig, P D Marsh, V Meuric, A M L Pedersen, M S Tonetti, W G Wade, E Zaura
For millions of years, our resident microbes have coevolved and coexisted with us in a mostly harmonious symbiotic relationship. We are not distinct entities from our microbiome, but together we form a 'superorganism' or holobiont, with the microbiome playing a significant role in our physiology and health. The mouth houses the second most diverse microbial community in the body, harbouring over 700 species of bacteria that colonise the hard surfaces of teeth and the soft tissues of the oral mucosa. Through recent advances in technology, we have started to unravel the complexities of the oral microbiome and gained new insights into its role during both health and disease...
November 18, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824859/the-strength-of-selection-against-neanderthal-introgression
#2
Ivan Juric, Simon Aeschbacher, Graham Coop
Hybridization between humans and Neanderthals has resulted in a low level of Neanderthal ancestry scattered across the genomes of many modern-day humans. After hybridization, on average, selection appears to have removed Neanderthal alleles from the human population. Quantifying the strength and causes of this selection against Neanderthal ancestry is key to understanding our relationship to Neanderthals and, more broadly, how populations remain distinct after secondary contact. Here, we develop a novel method for estimating the genome-wide average strength of selection and the density of selected sites using estimates of Neanderthal allele frequency along the genomes of modern-day humans...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766937/leveraging-graph-topology-and-semantic-context-for-pharmacovigilance-through-twitter-streams
#3
Ryan Eshleman, Rahul Singh
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) constitute one of the leading causes of post-therapeutic death and their identification constitutes an important challenge of modern precision medicine. Unfortunately, the onset and effects of ADEs are often underreported complicating timely intervention. At over 500 million posts per day, Twitter is a commonly used social media platform. The ubiquity of day-to-day personal information exchange on Twitter makes it a promising target for data mining for ADE identification and intervention...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723159/physical-activity-patterns-and-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-hunter-gatherers
#4
David A Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Jacob A Harris, Audax Z P Mabulla, Frank W Marlowe, J Josh Snodgrass, Geeta Eick, J Colette Berbesque, Amelia Sancilio, Brian M Wood
OBJECTIVES: Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular health, yet few humans living in industrialized societies meet current recommendations (150 min/week). Researchers have long suggested that human physiological requirements for aerobic exercise reflect an evolutionary shift to a hunting and gathering foraging strategy, and a recent transition to more sedentary lifestyles likely represents a mismatch with our past in terms of physical activity...
October 9, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627454/molecular-genealogy-of-a-mongol-queen-s-family-and-her-possible-kinship-with-genghis-khan
#5
Gavaachimed Lkhagvasuren, Heejin Shin, Si Eun Lee, Dashtseveg Tumen, Jae-Hyun Kim, Kyung-Yong Kim, Kijeong Kim, Ae Ja Park, Ho Woon Lee, Mi Jin Kim, Jaesung Choi, Jee-Hye Choi, Na Young Min, Kwang-Ho Lee
Members of the Mongol imperial family (designated the Golden family) are buried in a secret necropolis; therefore, none of their burial grounds have been found. In 2004, we first discovered 5 graves belonging to the Golden family in Tavan Tolgoi, Eastern Mongolia. To define the genealogy of the 5 bodies and the kinship among them, SNP and/or STR profiles of mitochondria, autosomes, and Y chromosomes were analyzed. Four of the 5 bodies were determined to carry the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup D4, while the fifth carried haplogroup CZ, indicating that this individual had no kinship with the others...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581845/a-partial-nuclear-genome-of-the-jomons-who-lived-3000-years-ago-in-fukushima-japan
#6
Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Kirill Kryukov, Timothy A Jinam, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Aiko Saso, Gen Suwa, Shintaroh Ueda, Minoru Yoneda, Atsushi Tajima, Ken-Ichi Shinoda, Ituro Inoue, Naruya Saitou
The Jomon period of the Japanese Archipelago, characterized by cord-marked 'jomon' potteries, has yielded abundant human skeletal remains. However, the genetic origins of the Jomon people and their relationships with modern populations have not been clarified. We determined a total of 115 million base pair nuclear genome sequences from two Jomon individuals (male and female each) from the Sanganji Shell Mound (dated 3000 years before present) with the Jomon-characteristic mitochondrial DNA haplogroup N9b, and compared these nuclear genome sequences with those of worldwide populations...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572236/relationship-among-environmental-quality-variables-housing-variables-and-residential-needs-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-relationship-among-indoor-outdoor-and-personal-air-riopa-concentrations-database
#7
Fausto Garcia, Derek G Shendell, Jaime Madrigano
Retrospective descriptive secondary analyses of data from relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) study homes (in Houston, Texas; Los Angeles County, California; and, Elizabeth, New Jersey May 1999-February 2001) were conducted. Data included air exchange rates, associations between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity, and calculated apparent temperature and humidex. Analyses examined if study homes provided optimum thermal comfort for residents during both heating and cooling seasons when compared to current American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards 62/62...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535991/how-much-is-too-much-part-2-international-olympic-committee-consensus-statement-on-load-in-sport-and-risk-of-illness
#8
Martin Schwellnus, Torbjørn Soligard, Juan-Manuel Alonso, Roald Bahr, Ben Clarsen, H Paul Dijkstra, Tim J Gabbett, Michael Gleeson, Martin Hägglund, Mark R Hutchinson, Christa Janse Van Rensburg, Romain Meeusen, John W Orchard, Babette M Pluim, Martin Raftery, Richard Budgett, Lars Engebretsen
The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load-including rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel-and health outcomes in sport...
September 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522550/macroscopy-predicts-tumor-progression-in-gastric-cancer-a-retrospective-patho-historical-analysis-based-on-napoleon-bonaparte-s-autopsy-report
#9
Heather Dawson, Alexander Novotny, Karen Becker, Daniel Reim, Rupert Langer, Irene Gullo, Magali Svrcek, Jan H Niess, Radu Tutuian, Kaspar Truninger, Ioannis Diamantis, Annika Blank, Inti Zlobec, Robert H Riddell, Fatima Carneiro, Jean-François Fléjou, Robert M Genta, Alessandro Lugli
BACKGROUND: The cause of Napoleon Bonaparte's death remains controversial. Originally suggested to be gastric cancer, whether this was truly neoplastic or a benign lesion has been recently debated. AIMS: To interpret findings of original autopsy reports in light of the current knowledge of gastric cancer and to highlight the significance of accurate macroscopy in modern-day medicine. METHODS: Using original autopsy documents, endoscopic images and data from current literature, Napoleon's gastric situation was reconstructed...
July 21, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521166/eating-patterns-and-prevalence-of-obesity-lessons-learned-from%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-malaysian-food-barometer
#10
T Fournier, L Tibère, C Laporte, E Mognard, M N Ismail, S P Sharif, J-P Poulain
The Malaysian society is experiencing and coping with a fast modernization process, which is characterized by a rapid urbanization and rural exodus, an important reduction of the size of households, and the emergence of a new middle class. The Malaysian Food Barometer launched in 2013 has provided better understanding how these macro issues have affected the lifestyles and especially the food habits of the Malaysians. The country has indeed undergone a transition period from under-nutrition to over-nutrition in a few decades, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity having markedly and rapidly increased...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501833/influence-of-the-heel-to-toe-drop-of-standard-cushioned-running-shoes-on-injury-risk-in-leisure-time-runners-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-6-month-follow-up
#11
Laurent Malisoux, Nicolas Chambon, Axel Urhausen, Daniel Theisen
BACKGROUND: Modern running shoes are available in a wide range of heel-to-toe drops (ie, the height difference between the forward and rear parts of the inside of the shoe). While shoe drop has been shown to influence strike pattern, its effect on injury risk has never been investigated. Therefore, the reasons for such variety in this parameter are unclear. PURPOSE: The first aim of this study was to determine whether the drop of standard cushioned running shoes influences running injury risk...
August 8, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494586/the-tongue-in-groove-technique-in-primary-and-revision-rhinoplasty
#12
Frank R Datema, Peter J F M Lohuis
The tongue-in-groove (TIG) is a conservative but powerful surgical suture technique to control tip rotation and projection, to set an appropriate alar-columellar relationship, to straighten a caudal septal deviation, and to stabilize the nasal base. TIG is suitable in primary and most revision cases and is easily combined with other surgical techniques. Seventeen years after its popularization, the TIG technique is embedded in modern-day rhinoplasty literature and teaching material. This article describes indications and considerations during external primary and revision rhinoplasty, based on clinical experience and the available literature...
August 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464287/-sedentary-behavior-and-the-health-of-adolescents
#13
Nadine Witzel, Barbara Isensee, Vivien Suchert, Burkhard Weisser, Reiner Hanewinkel
BACKGROUND: In modern societies, adolescents spend about half of their waking hours with sedentary behavior (SB). Therefore, the current study aims at investigating the relationship between SB and adolescents' health. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 1296 students (8(th) grade) from 29 schools in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany was surveyed. Mean age was 13.75 years (SD = 0.67), 47.0 % were female. To asses screen-based and non-screen-based SB, moderate to vigorous physical activity as well as further indicators of health behavior (tobacco and alcohol use, diet) a questionnaire was used...
July 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352417/the-truth-about-truth-telling-in-american-medicine-a-brief-history
#14
Bryan Sisk, Richard Frankel, Eric Kodish, J Harry Isaacson
Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice...
2016: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320675/prediction-of-drinking-water-intake-by-dairy-cows
#15
J A D R N Appuhamy, J V Judy, E Kebreab, P J Kononoff
Mathematical models that predict water intake by drinking, also known as free water intake (FWI), are useful in understanding water supply needed by animals on dairy farms. The majority of extant mathematical models for predicting FWI of dairy cows have been developed with data sets representing similar experimental conditions, not evaluated with modern cows, and often require dry matter intake (DMI) data, which may not be routinely available. The objectives of the study were to (1) develop a set of new empirical models for predicting FWI of lactating and dry cows with and without DMI using literature data, and (2) evaluate the new and the extant models using an independent set of FWI measurements made on modern cows...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208563/epigenetic-regulation-of-neurodevelopmental-genes-in-response-to-in-utero-exposure-to-phthalate-plastic-chemicals-how-can-we-delineate-causal-effects
#16
REVIEW
Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Christos Symeonides, Peter Vuillermin, Jochen Mueller, Peter D Sly, Richard Saffery
Accumulating evidence, from animal models and human observational studies, implicates the in utero (and early postnatal) environment in the 'programming' of risk for a variety of adverse outcomes and health trajectories. The modern environment is replete with man-made compounds such as plastic product chemicals (PPC), including phenols and phthalates. Evidence from several human cohorts implicates exposure to these chemicals in adverse offspring neurodevelopment, though a direct causal relationship has not been firmly established...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162493/characterization-of-a-mini-core-collection-of-japanese-wheat-varieties-using-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-generated-by-genotyping-by-sequencing
#17
Fuminori Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Jianzhong Wu, Yuichi Katayose, Hirokazu Handa
A core collection of Japanese wheat varieties (JWC) consisting of 96 accessions was established based on their passport data and breeding pedigrees. To clarify the molecular basis of the JWC collection, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed using the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. Phylogenetic tree and population structure analyses using these SNP data revealed the genetic diversity and relationships among the JWC accessions, classifying them into four groups; "varieties in the Hokkaido area", "modern varieties in the northeast part of Japan", "modern varieties in the southwest part of Japan" and "classical varieties including landraces"...
March 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154194/hunter-gatherers-and-the-origins-of-religion
#18
Hervey C Peoples, Pavel Duda, Frank W Marlowe
Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs...
September 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27114583/biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning-relationships-in-long-term-time-series-and-palaeoecological-records-deep-sea-as-a-test-bed
#19
Moriaki Yasuhara, Hideyuki Doi, Chih-Lin Wei, Roberto Danovaro, Sarah E Myhre
The link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) over long temporal scales is poorly understood. Here, we investigate biological monitoring and palaeoecological records on decadal, centennial and millennial time scales from a BEF framework by using deep sea, soft-sediment environments as a test bed. Results generally show positive BEF relationships, in agreement with BEF studies based on present-day spatial analyses and short-term manipulative experiments. However, the deep-sea BEF relationship is much noisier across longer time scales compared with modern observational studies...
May 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106945/a-qualitative-study-of-how-caseload-midwifery-is-constituted-and-experienced-by-danish-midwives
#20
Ingrid Jepsen, Edith Mark, Ellen Aagaard Nøhr, Maralyn Foureur, Erik Elgaard Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study is to advance knowledge about the working and living conditions of midwives in caseload midwifery and how this model of care is embedded in a standard maternity unit. This led to two research questions: 1) What constitutes caseload midwifery from the perspectives of the midwives? 2) How do midwives experience working in caseload midwifery? DESIGN AND SETTING: phenomenology of practice was the analytical approach to this qualitative study of caseload midwifery in Northern Denmark...
May 2016: Midwifery
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