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Oluyemi O Akanni, Olaide N Koleoso, Anthony A Olashore, Ehigiator O Adayonfo, Adeagbo F Osundina, Olaniyi O Ayilara
Risky behaviours in adolescents, apart from substance use, and their associate factors, have not been thoroughly investigated in Nigeria. Hence, there is a need to study the prevalence of risky behaviours and their relationship with gender and other potential risk factors. Data comprising socio-demographic, risky behaviours, personality traits, religious orientation and substance use were obtained from 300 randomly selected secondary school students. Two risk groups (low and high) based on the number of risky behaviours were determined...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
Amin Daoulah, Amir Lotfi, Mushabab Al-Murayeh, Salem Al-Kaabi, Salem M Al-Faifi, Osama E Elkhateeb, Mohamed N Alama, Ahmad S Hersi, Ciaran M Dixon, Waleed Ahmed, Mohamed Al-Shehri, Ali Youssef, Ahmed Moustafa Elimam, Ayman S Abougalambou, Waheed Murad, Alawi A Alsheikh-Ali
Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between psychosocial risk factors such as marital status and coronary artery disease (CAD). Polygamy (multiple concurrent wives) is a distinct marital status practiced in many countries in Asia and the Middle East, but its association with CAD is not well defined. We conducted a multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography during the period from April 1, 2013, to March 30, 2014. Of 1,068 enrolled patients, 687 were married men...
2017: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Matilda Brindle, Christopher Opie
The extreme morphological variability of the baculum across mammals is thought to be the result of sexual selection (particularly, high levels of postcopulatory selection). However, the evolutionary trajectory of the mammalian baculum is little studied and evidence for the adaptive function of the baculum has so far been elusive. Here, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to reconstruct baculum evolution across the mammalian class and investigate the rate of baculum length evolution within the primate order...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Brian Hollis, Laurent Keller, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Explanations for the evolution of delayed maturity usually invoke trade-offs mediated by growth, but processes of reproductive maturation continue long after growth has ceased. Here, we tested whether sexual selection shapes the rate of posteclosion maturation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that populations maintained for more than 100 generations under a short generation time and polygamous mating system evolved faster posteclosion maturation and faster egg-to-adult development of males, when compared to populations kept under short generations and randomized monogamy that eliminated sexual selection...
November 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, Alison L Drake, Daniel Matemo, Jennifer A Unger, Raymond S McClelland, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. METHODS: HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sarah Nakubulwa, Dan K Kaye, Freddie Bwanga, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Florence M Mirembe
INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquired during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes such as perinatal HSV-2 transmission. HSV-2 seroconversion occurs within four weeks of HSV-2 acquisition. There was neither documented incidence nor risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study of 200 consenting HSV-2-negative women between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation was done between November 2013 and October 2014...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
N Masdoua, L Boublenza, H Hassaine, J Ngou, A Nahet, M Segondy, F Razik, D Regagba, N Sadouki, D Mouhammedi
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize HPV infections and cervical lesions in Western Algeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 96 cervical samples obtained from women at risk of HPV infection (HIV-1-infected or presenting with a gynecological disease) were analyzed to characterize this infection and search for cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: A total of 60% of women at risk had an HPV infection. The rate of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection among these women was 84...
February 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Evariste Sanchez-Palencia, Philippe Lherminier, Jean-Pierre Françoise
The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the sempiternal problem of the "burden of factor two" implied by sexual reproduction versus asexual one, as males are energy consumers not contributing to the production of offspring. We construct a deterministic mathematical model in population dynamics where a species enjoys both sexual and parthenogenetic capabilities of reproduction and lives on a limited resource. We then show how polygamy implies instability of a parthenogenetic population with a small number of sexually born males...
December 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
Julia Anna Matz
This study sheds light on the development of family structures in a polygamous context with a particular emphasis on wife order, and offers an explanation for the association between outcomes of children and the status of their mothers among wives based on observable maternal characteristics. In a simple framework, I propose that selection into rank among wives with respect to female productivity takes place: highly productive women are more strongly demanded in the marriage market than less productive women, giving them a higher chance of becoming first wives...
October 2016: Demography
Hasan Çetin Ekerbiçer, Sefa Resim, Erkan Efe, Mustafa Remzi Bahar, Özlem Altunören, Faruk Küçükdurmaz, Can Benlioğlu
BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies within the literature have entailed objective evaluations of psychological, sexual, and emotional features of women within polygamous marriages. However, there is a lack of studies reporting these features among polygamous and monogamous men. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, sexual function, and psychological status of polygamously and monogamously married men. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
July 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Guang-Ming Yuan, Wei Song, Ming Yang, Da-Chuang Li, Jun-Long Zhao, Zhuo-Liang Cao
Tsallis-q entanglement is a bipartite entanglement measure which is the generalization of entanglement of formation for q tending to 1. We first expand the range of q for the analytic formula of Tsallis-q entanglement. For , we prove the monogamy relation in terms of the squared Tsallis-q entanglement for an arbitrary multi-qubit systems. It is shown that the multipartite entanglement indicator based on squared Tsallis-q entanglement still works well even when the indicator based on the squared concurrence loses its efficacy...
2016: Scientific Reports
T Janicke, P Sandner, S A Ramm, D B Vizoso, L Schärer
Sexual selection is considered a potent evolutionary force in all sexually reproducing organisms, but direct tests in terms of experimental evolution of sexual traits are still lacking for simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. Here, we tested how evolution under enforced monogamy affected a suite of reproductive traits (including testis area, sex allocation, genital morphology, sperm morphology and mating behaviour) in the outcrossing hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano, using an assay that also allowed the assessment of phenotypically plastic responses to group size...
September 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Rodgers O Moindi, Moses M Ngari, Venny C S Nyambati, Charles Mbakaya
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality has declined by 43 % globally between 1990 and 2013, a reduction that was insufficient to achieve the 75 % reduction target by millennium development goal (MDG) five. Kenya recorded a decline of 18 % from 490 deaths in 1990 to 400 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013. Delivering at home, is associated with higher risk of maternal deaths, therefore reducing number of home deliveries is important to improve maternal health. In this study, we aimed at establishing the proportion of home deliveries and evaluating factors associated with home deliveries in Kilifi County...
2016: BMC Public Health
Omran Bakoush, Amin Bredan, Srdjan Denic
Human consanguinity is often attributed to poverty, lack of education and social insecurity. Nevertheless, kin unions continue to be arranged in socioeconomically transformed societies. This study examined the structure of families and marriages in the rich tribal society of the United Arab Emirates, which has had a high gross domestic product for the last two generations and currently has one of the highest in the world. The respondents were 217 national medical students whose families are proportionally distributed to the population of the country emirates...
November 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Araceli Argüelles-Ticó, Clemens Küpper, Robert N Kelsh, András Kosztolányi, Tamás Székely, René E van Dijk
Sexual selection determines the elaboration of morphological and behavioural traits and thus drives the evolution of phenotypes. Sexual selection on males and females can differ between populations, especially when populations exhibit different breeding systems. A substantial body of literature describes how breeding systems shape ornamentation across species, with a strong emphasis on male ornamentation and female preference. However, whether breeding system predicts ornamentation within species and whether similar mechanisms as in males also shape the phenotype of females remains unclear...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
J K Janes, A D Roe, A V Rice, J C Gorrell, D W Coltman, D W Langor, F A H Sperling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Heredity
Fahad Dakheel Alosaimi, Maram Hani Altuwirqi, Mujahid Bukhari, Zeinab Abotalib, Saleh BinSaleh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: No study has assessed psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women seeking fertility treatment in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we sought to measure the rate of psychiatric disorders in this population. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional observational study among patients attending infertility clinics at three referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2013 and September 2014. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 406 patients (206 women and 200 men) participated in the study...
September 2015: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Chris R Kenyon, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Ilan Steven Schwartz
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia's eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. RESULTS: There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0...
2015: PloS One
András Liker, Robert P Freckleton, Vladimir Remeš, Tamás Székely
Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (1) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (2) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (3) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here, we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families...
November 2015: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sara Kebede Tadesse
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death among women in Ethiopia, affecting them at a time of their life when they are critical to social and economic stability. This study was mainly focused on assessing different socioeconomic and cultural related factors that make women vulnerable to cervical cancer and challenges women face in the process of diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: To achieve the objective of the study both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized...
2015: BMC Women's Health
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