keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Polygamy

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021319/the-purging-of-deleterious-mutations-in-simple-and-complex-mating-environments
#1
Julie Colpitts, Darla Williscroft, Harmandeep Singh Sekhon, Howard D Rundle
There is a general expectation that sexual selection should align with natural selection to aid the purging of deleterious mutations, yet experiments comparing purging under monogamy versus polygamy have provided mixed results. Recent studies suggest that this may be because the simplified mating environments used in these studies reduce the benefit of sexual selection through males and hamper natural selection through females by increasing costs associated with sexual conflict. To test the effect of the physical mating environment on purging, we use experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to track the frequency of four separate deleterious mutations in replicate populations that experience polygamy under either a simple or structurally complex mating arena while controlling for arena size...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884796/the-evolution-of-between-species-reproductive-interference-capability-under-different-within-species-mating-regimes
#2
Daisuke Kyogoku, Teiji Sota
Sexual selection sometimes favors male traits that benefit their bearers, but harm their mates. The harmful effects of male traits may also extend to females of other species via heterospecific mating interactions. This could affect the coexistence of closely related species during secondary contact. We examined the evolution of the interspecific interfering capability of a beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) with a congener (C. maculatus) using C. chinensis males reared under conditions of monogamy and polygamy for 17 generations...
November 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840604/environmental-complexity-and-the-purging-of-deleterious-alleles
#3
Amardeep Singh, Aneil F Agrawal, Howard D Rundle
Sexual interactions among adults can generate selection on both males and females with genome-wide consequences. Sexual selection through males is one component of this selection that has been argued to play an important role in purging deleterious alleles. A common technique to assess the influence of sexual selection is by a comparison of experimental evolution under enforced monogamy versus polygamy. Mixed results from past studies may be due to the use of highly simplified laboratory conditions that alter the nature of sexual interactions...
November 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555834/effects-of-breeder-turnover-and-harvest-on-group-composition-and-recruitment-in-a-social-carnivore
#4
David E Ausband, Michael S Mitchell, Lisette P Waits
Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition and recruitment. Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding grey wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758)...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508402/risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-among-blood-donors-in-cameroon-evidence-for-the-design-of-an-africa-specific-donor-history-questionnaire
#5
Claude T Tagny, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Diderot Fopa, Celestin Ashu, Estel Tante, Pauline Ngo Balogog, Olivier Donfack, Dora Mbanya, Syria Laperche, Edward Murphy
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa improving the deferral of at-risk blood donors would be a cost-effective approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We performed a pilot case-control study to identify the risk factors for HIV infection and to develop an adapted donor history questionnaire (DHQ) for sub-Saharan Africa. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 137 HIV-positive donors (cases) and 256 HIV-negative donors (controls) and gathered risk factor data using audio computer-assisted self-interview...
August 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481143/women-s-narratives-of-living-in-polygamous-marriages-rural-malawian-experience-distilled-and-preserved-in-poetic-constructions
#6
April L Yerges, Patricia E Stevens, Lucy Mkandawire-Valhmu, Wendy Bauer, Thokozani Ng'ombe Mwenyekonde, Lance S Weinhardt, Loren W Galvao
Polygamy in sub-Saharan Africa has been linked to poverty, infant mortality, and HIV; however, it is unknown how interpersonal dynamics within polygamous households may influence population health outcomes. Findings from this postcolonial feminist study derive from interview data in a larger mixed-methods study in rural Malawi. We used thematic narrative analysis to probe 25 women's stories and applied an arts-based research technique, poetic construction, to present the results. Participants' evocative expressions, distilled and preserved in poetic form, illustrate themes of perseverance, grief, agency, and reflection...
May 8, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442724/entanglement-distribution-in-multi-particle-systems-in-terms-of-unified-entropy
#7
Yu Luo, Fu-Gang Zhang, Yongming Li
We investigate the entanglement distribution in multi-particle systems in terms of unified (q, s)-entropy. We find that for any tripartite mixed state, the unified (q, s)-entropy entanglement of assistance follows a polygamy relation. This polygamy relation also holds in multi-particle systems. Furthermore, a generalized monogamy relation is provided for unified (q, s)-entropy entanglement in the multi-qubit system.
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288371/gender-and-other-risk-factors-associated-with-risky-behaviours-among-nigerian-adolescents
#8
Oluyemi O Akanni, Olaide N Koleoso, Anthony A Olashore, Ehigiator O Adayonfo, Adeagbo F Osundina, Olaniyi O Ayilara
Risky behaviours in adolescents, apart from substance use, and their associate factors, have not been thoroughly investigated in Nigeria. Hence, there is a need to study the prevalence of risky behaviours and their relationship with gender and other potential risk factors. Data comprising socio-demographic, risky behaviours, personality traits, religious orientation and substance use were obtained from 300 randomly selected secondary school students. Two risk groups (low and high) based on the number of risky behaviours were determined...
June 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250991/polygamy-and-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-men-undergoing-angiography-an-observational-study
#9
Amin Daoulah, Amir Lotfi, Mushabab Al-Murayeh, Salem Al-Kaabi, Salem M Al-Faifi, Osama E Elkhateeb, Mohamed N Alama, Ahmad S Hersi, Ciaran M Dixon, Waleed Ahmed, Mohamed Al-Shehri, Ali Youssef, Ahmed Moustafa Elimam, Ayman S Abougalambou, Waheed Murad, Alawi A Alsheikh-Ali
Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between psychosocial risk factors such as marital status and coronary artery disease (CAD). Polygamy (multiple concurrent wives) is a distinct marital status practiced in many countries in Asia and the Middle East, but its association with CAD is not well defined. We conducted a multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography during the period from April 1, 2013, to March 30, 2014. Of 1,068 enrolled patients, 687 were married men...
2017: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974519/postcopulatory-sexual-selection-influences-baculum-evolution-in-primates-and-carnivores
#10
Matilda Brindle, Christopher Opie
The extreme morphological variability of the baculum across mammals is thought to be the result of sexual selection (particularly, high levels of postcopulatory selection). However, the evolutionary trajectory of the mammalian baculum is little studied and evidence for the adaptive function of the baculum has so far been elusive. Here, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to reconstruct baculum evolution across the mammalian class and investigate the rate of baculum length evolution within the primate order...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883363/sexual-selection-shapes-development-and-maturation-rates-in-drosophila
#11
Brian Hollis, Laurent Keller, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Explanations for the evolution of delayed maturity usually invoke trade-offs mediated by growth, but processes of reproductive maturation continue long after growth has ceased. Here, we tested whether sexual selection shapes the rate of posteclosion maturation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that populations maintained for more than 100 generations under a short generation time and polygamous mating system evolved faster posteclosion maturation and faster egg-to-adult development of males, when compared to populations kept under short generations and randomized monogamy that eliminated sexual selection...
February 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828872/sexual-behavior-and-vaginal-practices-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-implications-for-hiv-prevention-strategies
#12
John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, Alison L Drake, Daniel Matemo, Jennifer A Unger, Raymond S McClelland, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. METHODS: HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801374/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-seroconversion-among-pregnant-women-in-uganda-a-prospective-study
#13
Sarah Nakubulwa, Dan K Kaye, Freddie Bwanga, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Florence M Mirembe
INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquired during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes such as perinatal HSV-2 transmission. HSV-2 seroconversion occurs within four weeks of HSV-2 acquisition. There was neither documented incidence nor risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study of 200 consenting HSV-2-negative women between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation was done between November 2013 and October 2014...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765475/characteristics-of-hpv-infection-in-women-at-risk-in-western-algeria
#14
N Masdoua, L Boublenza, H Hassaine, J Ngou, A Nahet, M Segondy, F Razik, D Regagba, N Sadouki, D Mouhammedi
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize HPV infections and cervical lesions in Western Algeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 96 cervical samples obtained from women at risk of HPV infection (HIV-1-infected or presenting with a gynecological disease) were analyzed to characterize this infection and search for cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: A total of 60% of women at risk had an HPV infection. The rate of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection among these women was 84...
February 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738842/a-mathematical-model-for-alternation-of-polygamy-and-parthenogenesis-stability-versus-efficiency-and-analogy-with-parasitism
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Evariste Sanchez-Palencia, Philippe Lherminier, Jean-Pierre Françoise
The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the sempiternal problem of the "burden of factor two" implied by sexual reproduction versus asexual one, as males are energy consumers not contributing to the production of offspring. We construct a deterministic mathematical model in population dynamics where a species enjoys both sexual and parthenogenetic capabilities of reproduction and lives on a limited resource. We then show how polygamy implies instability of a parthenogenetic population with a small number of sexually born males...
December 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687516/productivity-rank-and-returns-in-polygamy
#16
Julia Anna Matz
This study sheds light on the development of family structures in a polygamous context with a particular emphasis on wife order, and offers an explanation for the association between outcomes of children and the status of their mothers among wives based on observable maternal characteristics. In a simple framework, I propose that selection into rank among wives with respect to female productivity takes place: highly productive women are more strongly demanded in the marriage market than less productive women, giving them a higher chance of becoming first wives...
October 2016: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606132/a-comparison-of-sexual-function-psychological-status-and-sociodemographic-characteristics-of-turkish-men-within-polygamous-and-monogamous-marriages
#17
Hasan Çetin Ekerbiçer, Sefa Resim, Erkan Efe, Mustafa Remzi Bahar, Özlem Altunören, Faruk Küçükdurmaz, Can Benlioğlu
BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies within the literature have entailed objective evaluations of psychological, sexual, and emotional features of women within polygamous marriages. However, there is a lack of studies reporting these features among polygamous and monogamous men. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, sexual function, and psychological status of polygamously and monogamously married men. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
July 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346605/monogamy-relation-of-multi-qubit-systems-for-squared-tsallis-q-entanglement
#18
Guang-Ming Yuan, Wei Song, Ming Yang, Da-Chuang Li, Jun-Long Zhao, Zhuo-Liang Cao
Tsallis-q entanglement is a bipartite entanglement measure which is the generalization of entanglement of formation for q tending to 1. We first expand the range of q for the analytic formula of Tsallis-q entanglement. For , we prove the monogamy relation in terms of the squared Tsallis-q entanglement for an arbitrary multi-qubit systems. It is shown that the multipartite entanglement indicator based on squared Tsallis-q entanglement still works well even when the indicator based on the squared concurrence loses its efficacy...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27237934/experimentally-evolved-and-phenotypically-plastic-responses-to-enforced-monogamy-in-a-hermaphroditic-flatworm
#19
T Janicke, P Sandner, S A Ramm, D B Vizoso, L Schärer
Sexual selection is considered a potent evolutionary force in all sexually reproducing organisms, but direct tests in terms of experimental evolution of sexual traits are still lacking for simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. Here, we tested how evolution under enforced monogamy affected a suite of reproductive traits (including testis area, sex allocation, genital morphology, sperm morphology and mating behaviour) in the outcrossing hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano, using an assay that also allowed the assessment of phenotypically plastic responses to group size...
September 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842657/why-mothers-still-deliver-at-home-understanding-factors-associated-with-home-deliveries-and-cultural-practices-in-rural-coastal-kenya-a-cross-section-study
#20
Rodgers O Moindi, Moses M Ngari, Venny C S Nyambati, Charles Mbakaya
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality has declined by 43 % globally between 1990 and 2013, a reduction that was insufficient to achieve the 75 % reduction target by millennium development goal (MDG) five. Kenya recorded a decline of 18 % from 490 deaths in 1990 to 400 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013. Delivering at home, is associated with higher risk of maternal deaths, therefore reducing number of home deliveries is important to improve maternal health. In this study, we aimed at establishing the proportion of home deliveries and evaluating factors associated with home deliveries in Kilifi County...
2016: BMC Public Health
keyword
keyword
82964
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"