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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883363/sexual-selection-shapes-development-and-maturation-rates-in-drosophila
#1
Brian Hollis, Laurent Keller, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Explanations for the evolution of delayed maturity usually invoke trade-offs mediated by growth, but processes of reproductive maturation continue long after growth has ceased. Here, we tested whether sexual selection shapes the rate of posteclosion maturation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that populations maintained for more than 100 generations under a short generation time and polygamous mating system evolved faster posteclosion maturation and faster egg-to-adult development of males, when compared to populations kept under short generations and randomized monogamy that eliminated sexual selection...
November 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828872/sexual-behavior-and-vaginal-practices-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-implications-for-hiv-prevention-strategies
#2
John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, Alison L Drake, Daniel Matemo, Jennifer A Unger, R Scott McClelland, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. METHODS: HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801374/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-seroconversion-among-pregnant-women-in-uganda-a-prospective-study
#3
Sarah Nakubulwa, Dan K Kaye, Freddie Bwanga, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Florence M Mirembe
INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquired during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes such as perinatal HSV-2 transmission. HSV-2 seroconversion occurs within four weeks of HSV-2 acquisition. There was neither documented incidence nor risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study of 200 consenting HSV-2-negative women between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation was done between November 2013 and October 2014...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765475/characteristics-of-hpv-infection-in-women-at-risk-in-western-algeria
#4
N Masdoua, L Boublenza, H Hassaine, J Ngou, A Nahet, M Segondy, F Razik, D Regagba, N Sadouki, D Mouhammedi
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize HPV infections and cervical lesions in Western Algeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 96 cervical samples obtained from women at risk of HPV infection (HIV-1-infected or presenting with a gynecological disease) were analyzed to characterize this infection and search for cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: A total of 60% of women at risk had an HPV infection. The rate of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection among these women was 84...
October 17, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738842/a-mathematical-model-for-alternation-of-polygamy-and-parthenogenesis-stability-versus-efficiency-and-analogy-with-parasitism
#5
Evariste Sanchez-Palencia, Philippe Lherminier, Jean-Pierre Françoise
The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the sempiternal problem of the "burden of factor two" implied by sexual reproduction versus asexual one, as males are energy consumers not contributing to the production of offspring. We construct a deterministic mathematical model in population dynamics where a species enjoys both sexual and parthenogenetic capabilities of reproduction and lives on a limited resource. We then show how polygamy implies instability of a parthenogenetic population with a small number of sexually born males...
October 13, 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687516/productivity-rank-and-returns-in-polygamy
#6
Julia Anna Matz
This study sheds light on the development of family structures in a polygamous context with a particular emphasis on wife order, and offers an explanation for the association between outcomes of children and the status of their mothers among wives based on observable maternal characteristics. In a simple framework, I propose that selection into rank among wives with respect to female productivity takes place: highly productive women are more strongly demanded in the marriage market than less productive women, giving them a higher chance of becoming first wives...
October 2016: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606132/a-comparison-of-sexual-function-psychological-status-and-sociodemographic-characteristics-of-turkish-men-within-polygamous-and-monogamous-marriages
#7
Hasan Çetin Ekerbiçer, Sefa Resim, Erkan Efe, Mustafa Remzi Bahar, Özlem Altunören, Faruk Küçükdurmaz, Can Benlioğlu
BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies within the literature have entailed objective evaluations of psychological, sexual, and emotional features of women within polygamous marriages. However, there is a lack of studies reporting these features among polygamous and monogamous men. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, sexual function, and psychological status of polygamously and monogamously married men. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
July 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346605/monogamy-relation-of-multi-qubit-systems-for-squared-tsallis-q-entanglement
#8
Guang-Ming Yuan, Wei Song, Ming Yang, Da-Chuang Li, Jun-Long Zhao, Zhuo-Liang Cao
Tsallis-q entanglement is a bipartite entanglement measure which is the generalization of entanglement of formation for q tending to 1. We first expand the range of q for the analytic formula of Tsallis-q entanglement. For , we prove the monogamy relation in terms of the squared Tsallis-q entanglement for an arbitrary multi-qubit systems. It is shown that the multipartite entanglement indicator based on squared Tsallis-q entanglement still works well even when the indicator based on the squared concurrence loses its efficacy...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27237934/experimentally-evolved-and-phenotypically-plastic-responses-to-enforced-monogamy-in-a-hermaphroditic-flatworm
#9
T Janicke, P Sandner, S A Ramm, D B Vizoso, L Schärer
Sexual selection is considered a potent evolutionary force in all sexually reproducing organisms, but direct tests in terms of experimental evolution of sexual traits are still lacking for simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. Here, we tested how evolution under enforced monogamy affected a suite of reproductive traits (including testis area, sex allocation, genital morphology, sperm morphology and mating behaviour) in the outcrossing hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano, using an assay that also allowed the assessment of phenotypically plastic responses to group size...
September 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842657/why-mothers-still-deliver-at-home-understanding-factors-associated-with-home-deliveries-and-cultural-practices-in-rural-coastal-kenya-a-cross-section-study
#10
Rodgers O Moindi, Moses M Ngari, Venny C S Nyambati, Charles Mbakaya
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality has declined by 43 % globally between 1990 and 2013, a reduction that was insufficient to achieve the 75 % reduction target by millennium development goal (MDG) five. Kenya recorded a decline of 18 % from 490 deaths in 1990 to 400 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013. Delivering at home, is associated with higher risk of maternal deaths, therefore reducing number of home deliveries is important to improve maternal health. In this study, we aimed at establishing the proportion of home deliveries and evaluating factors associated with home deliveries in Kilifi County...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26790338/kin-and-non-kin-marriages-and-family-structure-in-a-rich-tribal-society
#11
Omran Bakoush, Amin Bredan, Srdjan Denic
Human consanguinity is often attributed to poverty, lack of education and social insecurity. Nevertheless, kin unions continue to be arranged in socioeconomically transformed societies. This study examined the structure of families and marriages in the rich tribal society of the United Arab Emirates, which has had a high gross domestic product for the last two generations and currently has one of the highest in the world. The respondents were 217 national medical students whose families are proportionally distributed to the population of the country emirates...
November 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26766883/geographic-variation-in-breeding-system-and-environment-predicts-melanin-based-plumage-ornamentation-of-male-and-female-kentish-plovers
#12
Araceli Argüelles-Ticó, Clemens Küpper, Robert N Kelsh, András Kosztolányi, Tamás Székely, René E van Dijk
Sexual selection determines the elaboration of morphological and behavioural traits and thus drives the evolution of phenotypes. Sexual selection on males and females can differ between populations, especially when populations exhibit different breeding systems. A substantial body of literature describes how breeding systems shape ornamentation across species, with a strong emphasis on male ornamentation and female preference. However, whether breeding system predicts ornamentation within species and whether similar mechanisms as in males also shape the phenotype of females remains unclear...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26647823/polygamy-and-an-absence-of-fine-scale-structure-in-dendroctonus-ponderosae-hopk-coleoptera-curcilionidae-confirmed-using-molecular-markers
#13
J K Janes, A D Roe, A V Rice, J C Gorrell, D W Coltman, D W Langor, F A H Sperling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26506969/psychiatric-disorders-among-infertile-men-and-women-attending-three-infertility-clinics-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Fahad Dakheel Alosaimi, Maram Hani Altuwirqi, Mujahid Bukhari, Zeinab Abotalib, Saleh BinSaleh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: No study has assessed psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women seeking fertility treatment in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we sought to measure the rate of psychiatric disorders in this population. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional observational study among patients attending infertility clinics at three referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2013 and September 2014. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 406 patients (206 women and 200 men) participated in the study...
September 2015: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26496073/hiv-prevalence-correlates-with-high-risk-sexual-behavior-in-ethiopia-s-regions
#15
Chris R Kenyon, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Ilan Steven Schwartz
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia's eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. RESULTS: There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26420758/sex-differences-in-parental-care-gametic-investment-sexual-selection-and-social-environment
#16
András Liker, Robert P Freckleton, Vladimir Remeš, Tamás Székely
Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (1) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (2) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (3) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here, we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families...
November 2015: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376638/socio-economic-and-cultural-vulnerabilities-to-cervical-cancer-and-challenges-faced-by-patients-attending-care-at-tikur-anbessa-hospital-a-cross-sectional-and-qualitative-study
#17
Sara Kebede Tadesse
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death among women in Ethiopia, affecting them at a time of their life when they are critical to social and economic stability. This study was mainly focused on assessing different socioeconomic and cultural related factors that make women vulnerable to cervical cancer and challenges women face in the process of diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: To achieve the objective of the study both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized...
2015: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26286666/polygamy-and-an-absence-of-fine-scale-structure-in-dendroctonus-ponderosae-hopk-coleoptera-curcilionidae-confirmed-using-molecular-markers
#18
J K Janes, A D Roe, A V Rice, J C Gorrell, D W Coltman, D W Langor, F A H Sperling
An understanding of mating systems and fine-scale spatial genetic structure is required to effectively manage forest pest species such as Dendroctonus ponderosae (mountain pine beetle). Here we used genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the fine-scale genetic structure and mating system of D. ponderosae collected from a single stand in Alberta, Canada. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure was absent within the stand and the majority of genetic variation was best explained at the individual level...
January 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26124821/children-with-bronchial-asthma-assessed-for-psychosocial-problems-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-nigeria
#19
Mosunmola Florence Tunde-Ayinmode
BACKGROUND: Paediatric bronchial asthma causes respiratory related mortality and morbidity globally and elevates the risk of psychological and social problems (psychosocial problems); which may result in poorer asthma control. The rate of and associated factors for psychosocial problems among our asthmatic children was assessed in this study. METHODS: Seventy five (75) children aged 7 to 14 years with bronchial asthma who were attending clinics at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria, were assessed with Child behaviour questionnaire and a semi-structured questionnaire...
June 2015: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26120564/female-economic-activity-in-rural-malawi
#20
Asma Hyder, Jere R Behrman
This study investigates economic activities and their determinants for women in households of rural Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Three waves of household panel data for years 2006, 2008 and 2010 from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) are used to examine female labor market participation. This study includes certain important characteristics of Malawian households i.e., polygamy, ethnicity, religion and self reported health status. The study reports five different labor market outcomes for women's participation i...
June 2014: Journal for Development and Leadership
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