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rhinovirus infections in Children

Roger R Fan, Leigh M Howard, Marie R Griffin, Kathryn M Edwards, Yuwei Zhu, John V Williams, Jorge E Vidal, Keith P Klugman, Ana I Gil, Claudio F Lanata, Carlos G Grijalva
We examined nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization density patterns surrounding acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in young children in Peru. Pneumococcal densities were dynamic, gradually increasing leading up to an ARI, peaking during the ARI, and decreasing after the ARI. Rhinovirus co-infection was associated with higher pneumococcal densities.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Cristina Calvo, Isabel Aguado, María Luz García-García, Esther Ruiz-Chercoles, Eloisa Díaz-Martinez, Rosa María Albañil, Olga Campelo, Antonio Olivas, Luisa Muñóz-Gonzalez, Francisco Pozo, Rosa Fernandez-Arroyo, Adelaida Fernandez-Rincón, Ana Calderon, Inmaculada Casas
INTRODUCTION: It is known that infants with viral respiratory infections severe enough to require hospital admission have a high risk of developing recurrent wheezing. Few data have been published on unselected populations. The main aim of this study was to analyse symptomatic and asymptomatic respiratory viral infections during the first year of life in a cohort of infants, recruited at birth, and the development of recurrent wheezing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 302 newborns were recruited...
October 13, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Yury A Bochkov, Kelly Watters, Sarmila Basnet, Shakher Sijapati, Marchel Hill, Ann C Palmenberg, James E Gern
Viruses in the rhinovirus C species (RV-C) can cause severe respiratory illnesses in children including pneumonia and asthma exacerbations. A transduced cell line (HeLa-E8) stably expressing the CDHR3-Y529 receptor variant, supports propagation of RV-C after infection. C15 clinical or recombinant isolates replicate in HeLa-E8, however progeny yields are lower than those of related strains of RV-A and RV-B. Serial passaging of C15 in HeLa-E8 resulted in stronger cytopathic effects and increased (≥10-fold) virus binding to cells and progeny yields...
October 13, 2016: Virology
Howard Faden, Vincent Callanan, Michael Pizzuto, Mark Nagy, Mark Wilby, Daryl Lamson, Brian Wrotniak, Stefan Juretschko, Kirsten St George
BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction due to enlargement of tonsils and adenoids is a common pediatric problem resulting in sleep disordered breathing. The cause for the relatively abnormal growth of tonsils and adenoids is poorly understood. METHODS: Non-acutely ill children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for various reasons were enrolled prospectively in a study to determine the frequency of asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in each lymphoid tissue and to relate the number and types of virus to the degree of airway obstruction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Richard L Hodinka
Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are a major public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. At greatest risk are young children, the elderly, the chronically ill, and those with suppressed or compromised immune systems. Viruses are the predominant cause of respiratory tract illnesses and include RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, and coronavirus. Laboratory testing is required for a reliable diagnosis of viral respiratory infections, as a clinical diagnosis can be difficult since signs and symptoms are often overlapping and not specific for any one virus...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
A A Chughtai, Q Wang, T C Dung, C R Macintyre
We compared the rates of fever in adult subjects with laboratory-confirmed influenza and other respiratory viruses and examined the factors that predict fever in adults. Symptom data on 158 healthcare workers (HCWs) with a laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection were collected using standardized data collection forms from three separate studies. Overall, the rate of fever in confirmed viral respiratory infections in adult HCWs was 23·4% (37/158). Rates varied by virus: human rhinovirus (25·3%, 19/75), influenza A virus (30%, 3/10), coronavirus (28·6%, 2/7), human metapneumovirus (28·6%, 2/7), respiratory syncytial virus (14·3%, 4/28) and parainfluenza virus (8·3%, 1/12)...
October 3, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Mingyuan Han, Jun Young Hong, Suraj Jaipalli, Charu Rajput, Jing Lei, Joanna L Hinde, Qiang Chen, Natalie M Hershenson, J Kelley Bentley, Marc B Hershenson
Early-life wheezing-associated infections with rhinovirus (RV) have been associated with asthma development in children. We have shown that RV infection of six day-old mice induces mucous metaplasia and airways hyperresponsiveness which is dependent on IL-13, IL-25 and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Infection of immature mice fails to induce lung IFN-γ expression, in contrast to mature 8 week-old mice with a robust IFN-γ response, consistent with the notion that deficient IFN-γ production in immature mice permits RV-induced type 2 immune responses...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Prapaporn Khoonta, Piyada Linsuwanon, Nawarat Posuwan, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Sunchai Payungporn, Yong Poovorawan
Human rhinovirus (RV) most often causes mild upper respiratory tract infection. Although RV is routinely isolated from the respiratory tract, few studies have examined RV in other types of clinical samples. The prevalence of RV was examined in 1,294 stool samples collected mostly from children with acute gastroenteritis residing in Bangkok and Khon Kaen province of Thailand between January 2010 and October 2014. In addition, 591 samples from hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) or herpangina patients who do not have gastroenteritis served as a comparison group...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
A Annamalay, I Jroundi, J Bizzintino, S-K Khoo, Guicheng Zhang, Deborah Lehmann, Ingrid Laing, James Gern, Jack Goldblatt, C Mahraoui, R Benmessaoud, C Moraleda, Q Bassat, P Le Souëf
Human rhinovirus (RV) is commonly associated with severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children. We aimed to describe the distribution of RV species and associations between RV species and clinical features in children hospitalized with clinically severe pneumonia (CSP) in Morocco. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected from 700 children, 2-59 months of age, admitted with CSP to the Hôpital d'Enfants de Rabat in Morocco. At least one respiratory virus was identified in 92% of children, of which RV was the most common (53%)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Sylvia Taylor, Pio Lopez, Lily Weckx, Charissa Borja-Tabora, Rolando Ulloa-Gutierrez, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Angkool Kerdpanich, Miguel Angel Rodriguez Weber, Abiel Mascareñas de Los Santos, Juan-Carlos Tinoco, Marco Aurelio P Safadi, Fong Seng Lim, Marcela Hernandez-de Mezerville, Idis Faingezicht, Aurelio Cruz-Valdez, Yang Feng, Ping Li, Serge Durviaux, Gerco Haars, Sumita Roy-Ghanta, David W Vaughn, Terry Nolan
BACKGROUND: Better population data on respiratory viruses in children in tropical and southern hemisphere countries is needed. METHODS: The epidemiology of respiratory viruses among healthy children (6 months to <10 years) with influenza-like illness (ILI) was determined in a population sample derived from an influenza vaccine trial (NCT01051661) in 17 centers in eight countries (Australia, South East Asia and Latin America). Active surveillance for ILI was conducted for approximately 1 year (between February 2010 and August 2011), with PCR analysis of nasal and throat swabs...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Infection
Maria J Gutierrez, Jose L Gomez, Geovanny F Perez, Krishna Pancham, Stephanie Val, Dinesh K Pillai, Mamta Giri, Sarah Ferrante, Robert Freishtat, Mary C Rose, Diego Preciado, Gustavo Nino
BACKGROUND: Innate immune responses are fine-tuned by small noncoding RNA molecules termed microRNAs (miRs) that modify gene expression in response to the environment. During acute infections, miRs can be secreted in extracellular vesicles (EV) to facilitate cell-to-cell genetic communication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the baseline population of miRs secreted in EVs in the airways of young children (airway secretory microRNAome) and examine the changes during rhinovirus (RV) infection, the most common cause of asthma exacerbations and the most important early risk factor for the development of asthma beyond childhood...
2016: PloS One
Cibele M Gaido, Shane Stone, Abha Chopra, Wayne R Thomas, Peter N Le Souëf, Belinda J Hales
: Rhinovirus (RV) species A and C are the most frequent cause of respiratory viral illness worldwide and RV-C has been linked to more severe exacerbations of asthma in young children. Little is known about the immune response against the different RV species, although studies comparing IgG1 antibody titers found impaired antibody responses to RV-C. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether T-cell immunity to RV-C is similarly impaired. We measured T-cell proliferation to overlapping synthetic peptides covering the entire VP1 capsid protein of an RV-A and RV-C genotype for 20 healthy adult donors...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
Laura Toivonen, Linnea Schuez-Havupalo, Sinikka Karppinen, Tamara Teros-Jaakkola, Maris Rulli, Jussi Mertsola, Matti Waris, Ville Peltola
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rhinoviruses frequently cause respiratory infections in young children. We aimed to establish the burden of acute respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus during the first 2 years of life. METHODS: In this prospective birth cohort study, we followed 923 children for acute respiratory infections from birth to 2 years of age. Data on respiratory infections were collected by daily symptom diaries, study clinic visits, and from electronic registries...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Sarah J Capistrano, Razia Zakarya, Hui Chen, Brian G Oliver
Biomass smoke is one of the major air pollutants and contributors of household air pollution worldwide. More than 3 billion people use biomass fuels for cooking and heating, while other sources of exposure are from the occurrence of bushfires and occupational conditions. Persistent biomass smoke exposure has been associated with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) as a major environmental risk factor. Children under the age of five years are the most susceptible in developing severe ALRI, which accounts for 940,000 deaths globally...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rachel Tham, Don Vicendese, Shyamali Dharmage, Rob J Hyndman, Ed Newbigin, Emma Lewis, Molly O'Sullivan, Adrian J Lowe, Philip Taylor, Philip Bardin, Mimi L K Tang, Michael J Abramson, Bircan Erbas
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a significant public health problem and severe exacerbations can result in diminished quality of life and hospitalisation. OBJECTIVE: To examine the contribution of outdoor fungi to childhood and adolescent asthma hospitalisations. METHODS: The Melbourne Air Pollen Children and Adolescent (MAPCAH) study is a case-crossover study of 644 children and adolescents (aged 2-17 years) hospitalised for asthma. MAPCAH collected individual data on human rhinovirus (HRV) infection and sensitisation to Alternaria and Cladosporium; and daily counts of ambient concentrations of fungal spores, pollen and air pollutants...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Juan Pablo Torres, Verónica De la Maza, Lisette Kors, Milena Villarroel, Paula Piemonte, Giannina Izquierdo, Carmen Salgado, Juan Tordecilla, Verónica Contardo, Mauricio J Farfán, Asunción Mejías, Octavio Ramilo, María Elena Santolaya
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections in episodes of fever and neutropenia (FN) in children with cancer are not well characterized. We compared the clinical outcome of infections caused by different respiratory viruses (RVs) and by RV coinfection in this population. METHODS: Children with cancer and FN at 3 hospitals in Chile were prospectively evaluated by clinical examination, blood cultures and detection of 17 RVs using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (nasopharyngeal samples)...
September 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Yue Liu, Marchel G Hill, Thomas Klose, Zhenguo Chen, Kelly Watters, Yury A Bochkov, Wen Jiang, Ann C Palmenberg, Michael G Rossmann
Isolates of rhinovirus C (RV-C), a recently identified Enterovirus (EV) species, are the causative agents of severe respiratory infections among children and are linked to childhood asthma exacerbations. The RV-C have been refractory to structure determination because they are difficult to propagate in vitro. Here, we report the cryo-EM atomic structures of the full virion and native empty particle (NEP) of RV-C15a. The virus has 60 "fingers" on the virus outer surface that probably function as dominant immunogens...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Swagatika Panda, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Subrat Kumar
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in low and middle income countries. To analyse the overall burden of respiratory viruses responsible for ARTIs in paediatrics population in eastern India, this study was performed. Clinical information, demographic information and nasal/oral swabs were collected from 332 paediatric patients (aged from one month to twelve years old) with the symptoms of ARTI, enrolled from the outpatient department from Nov 2012 to Oct 2014...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Suchitra Rao, Kevin Messacar, Michelle R Torok, Anne-Marie Rick, Jeffrey Holzberg, Aaron Montano, Dayanand Bagdure, Donna J Curtis, M Steven Oberste, W Allan Nix, Gina de Masellis, Christine C Robinson, Samuel R Dominguez
OBJECTIVE: In 2014, the Unites States experienced an outbreak of enterovirus D68 associated with severe respiratory illness. The clinical characteristics associated with severe illness from enterovirus D68 during this outbreak compared with those associated with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus outbreak are unknown. DESIGN AND SETTING: In this retrospective cohort study, we characterized the clinical features of children with enterovirus D68 admitted to the PICU between August 1, 2014, and November 1, 2014, and compared them with critically ill children infected with H1N1 influenza during the pandemic admitted between May 1, 2009, and January 31, 2010...
August 8, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Lien Anh Ha Do, Juliet E Bryant, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Khanh Le, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Jeremy Farrar, Menno de Jong, H Rogier van Doorn
BACKGROUND: Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load) and its association with disease severity...
2016: PloS One
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