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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646954/development-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccines-for-infants
#1
Hannah E Gerretsen, Charles J Sande
2017 will mark the 60(th) anniversary since the first isolation of RSV in children. In spite of concerted efforts over all these years, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against paediatric RSV disease has remained elusive. One of the main hurdles standing in the way of an effective vaccine is the fact that the age incidence of severe disease peaks within the first 3 months of life, providing limited opportunity for intervention. In addition to this complexity, the spectre of failed historical vaccines, which increased the risk of illness and death upon subsequent natural infection, has substantially increased the safety criteria against which modern vaccines will be assessed...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639594/viral-aetiology-of-wheezing-in-children-under-five
#2
Prithi Sureka Mummidi, Radha Tripathy, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amarendra Mahapatra, Suryakanta Baraha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Wheezing is a common problem in children under five with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Viruses are known to be responsible for a considerable proportion of ARIs in children. This study was undertaken to know the viral aetiology of wheezing among the children less than five years of age, admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. METHODS: Seventy five children, under the age of five years admitted with wheezing, were included in the study...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627819/analysis-of-respiratory-viral-infections-detected-using-multiplex-real-time-pcr-in-hwaseong-korea-from-2013-to-2015
#3
Dae-Hyun Ko, Jungwon Hyun, Han-Sung Kim, Jae-Seok Kim, Wonkeun Song, Hyun Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: We investigated the incidences and age-related/seasonal variations of respiratory virus infections in a regional area in Korea. METHODS: A total of 3,467 respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory infection symptoms in a teaching hospital were tested for respiratory viruses during 2013 - 2015. RESULTS: At least one virus was detected in 2,561 of the 3,467 specimens (73.9%), and 706 patients (20.4%) were positive for two or more viruses...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619123/chd-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-global-expert-exchange-recommendations
#4
Robert M R Tulloh, Constancio Medrano-Lopez, Paul A Checchia, Claudia Stapper, Naokata Sumitomo, Matthias Gorenflo, Eun Jung Bae, Antonio Juanico, Juan M Gil-Jaurena, Mei-Hwan Wu, Talal Farha, Ali Dodge-Khatami, Rocky Tsang, Gerard Notario, Colleen Wegzyn
BACKGROUND: Palivizumab is the standard immunoprophylaxis against serious disease due to respiratory syncytial virus infection. Current evidence-based prophylaxis guidelines may not address certain children with CHD within specific high-risk groups or clinical/management settings. METHODS: An international steering committee of clinicians with expertise in paediatric heart disease identified key questions concerning palivizumab administration; in collaboration with an additional international expert faculty, evidence-based recommendations were formulated using a quasi-Delphi consensus methodology...
June 16, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606804/a-human-challenge-model-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-kinetics-the-pharmacological-effect-of-a-novel-fusion-inhibitor-and-the-modeling-of-symptoms-scores
#5
Julia Korell, Bruce Green, John DeVincenzo, Dymphy Huntjens
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute lower respiratory tract infections, and is a major cause of hospital admissions and death in young children. Limited treatments currently exist that can prevent or minimise exacerbation of the disease. The aims of this work were: 1) to develop a population pharmacodynamic model to describe RSV kinetics (RSVK) in nasal lavage, 2) evaluate the impact of an investigational fusion inhibitor, JNJ-53718678, on RSVK, and 3) determine the relationship between RSVK and symptoms scores...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606236/-expression-of-interferon-%C3%AE-1-in-respiratory-epithelial-cells-of-children-with-rsv-infection-and-its-relationship-with-rsv-load
#6
Mei-Ting Tao, Ya-Ping Xie, Shu-Ping Liu, Hao-Feng Chen, Han Huang, Min Chen, Li-Li Zhong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of IFN-λ1 in respiratory epithelial cells of children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and its relationship with RSV load. METHODS: The nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the children who were hospitalized with respiratory tract infection from June 2015 to June 2016. A direct immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the antigens of seven common respiratory viruses (including RSV) in the nasopharyngeal swabs...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605562/microorganisms-associated-with-pneumonia-in-children-5-years-of-age-in-developing-and-emerging-countries-the-gabriel-pneumonia-multicenter-prospective-case-control-study
#7
Thomas Bénet, Valentina Sánchez Picot, Mélina Messaoudi, Monidarin Chou, Tekchheng Eap, Jianwei Wang, Kunling Shen, Jean-William Pape, Vanessa Rouzier, Shally Awasthi, Nitin Pandey, Ashish Bavdekar, Sonali Sanghavi, Annick Robinson, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Maryam Sylla, Souleymane Diallo, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Nymadawaagiin Naranbat, Graciela Russomando, Wilma Basualdo, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Philippe Vanhems, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Background.: Pneumonia, the leading infectious cause of child mortality globally, mainly afflicts developing countries. This prospective observational study aimed to assess the microorganisms associated with pneumonia in children aged <5 years in developing and emerging countries. Methods.: A multicenter, case-control study by the GABRIEL (Global Approach to Biological Research, Infectious diseases and Epidemics in Low-income countries) network was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Cambodia, China, Haiti, India (2 sites), Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605249/product-review-on-the-monoclonal-antibody-palivizumab-for-prevention-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#8
Bernhard Resch
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) accounts for about 20% of all respiratory infections in children below the age of 5 years. It is associated with up to 63% of all acute respiratory infections and up to 81% of all viral lower respiratory tract infections causing hospitalization in infants and young children. RSV leads to seasonal epidemics between November and April in the northern hemisphere. Most severe infections (RSV accounts for 50 to 80% of all cause bronchiolitis) affect infants younger than 6 months of age and high-risk infants including those born preterm with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia and those with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease up to an age of 24 months...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601216/usefulness-of-ct-value-in-acute-respiratory-infections-caused-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-and-b-and-influenza-virus-a-h1n1-pdm09-a-h3n2-and-b
#9
Jordi Reina, Carmen Morales, María Busquets, Cristina Norte
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory infections of viral cause are very frequent entities. The difficulty in evaluating the detection of a virus in these entities could be solved by determining the viral load. METHODS: A prospective study on the mean Ct value (cycle threshold value) detected against RSV-A, RSV-B and influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2) and B viruses in patients of different origin and age was performed. Detection was performed using a commercial molecular amplification (RT-PCR) technique...
June 7, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598702/a-safe-and-efficient-bcg-vectored-vaccine-to-prevent-the-disease-caused-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#10
Emma Rey-Jurado, Jorge Soto, Nicolás Gálvez, Alexis M Kalergis
The human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Such infections also cause a large number of hospitalizations and affects mainly newborns, young children and the elderly worldwide. Symptoms associated with hRSV infection are due to an exacerbated immune response characterized by low levels of IFN-γ, recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils to the site of infection and lung damage. Although hRSV is a major health problem, no vaccines are currently available...
June 9, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598593/intravenous-palivizumab-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-children
#11
Juan Pablo Torres, Lorena I Tapia, Paula Catalán, Verónica De la Maza, Asunción Mejías
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause lower respiratory tract disease and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We report two children who underwent HSCT and developed RSV infection simultaneously at the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit. The treatment with intravenous palivizumab was provided and sequential viral loads were measured in nasopharyngeal (NP) and whole blood samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report where RSV loads were measured in parallel (NP and blood), before and after palivizumab, in correlation with a favorable clinical outcome in both cases...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578159/low-retinol-binding-protein-and-vitamin-d-levels-are-associated-with-severe-outcomes-in-children-hospitalized-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-or-human-metapneumovirus-detection
#12
Julia L Hurwitz, Bart G Jones, Rhiannon R Penkert, Shane Gansebom, Yilun Sun, Li Tang, Anna M Bramley, Seema Jain, Jonathan A McCullers, Sandra R Arnold
Retinol binding protein and vitamin D were measured in children aged <5 years hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection and respiratory syncytial virus and/or human metapneumovirus detections. Low vitamin levels were observed in 50% of the children and were associated with significantly elevated risk of the need for intensive care unit admission and invasive mechanical ventilation.
May 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570627/effect-of-climate-on-incidence-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infections-in-a-refugee-camp-in-kenya-a-non-gaussian-time-series-analysis
#13
Raymond Nyoka, Jimmy Omony, Samuel M Mwalili, Thomas N O Achia, Anthony Gichangi, Henry Mwambi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in children. Children younger than 1 year are the most susceptible to RSV infection. RSV infections occur seasonally in temperate climate regions. Based on RSV surveillance and climatic data, we developed statistical models that were assessed and compared to predict the relationship between weather and RSV incidence among refugee children younger than 5 years in Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya. Most time-series analyses rely on the assumption of Gaussian-distributed data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566367/heme-oxygenase-1-modulates-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-replication-and-lung-pathogenesis-during-infection
#14
Janyra A Espinoza, Miguel A León, Pablo F Céspedes, Roberto S Gómez, Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Sebastían A Riquelme, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Phillipe Blancou, Thomas Simon, Ignacio Anegon, Margarita K Lay, Pablo A González, Claudia A Riedel, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children. The development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic antiviral drugs against hRSV is imperative to control the burden of disease in the susceptible population. In this study, we examined the effects of inducing the activity of the host enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on hRSV replication and pathogenesis on lung inflammation induced by this virus. Our results show that after hRSV infection, HO-1 induction with metalloporphyrin cobalt protoporphyrin IX significantly reduces the loss of body weight due to hRSV-induced disease...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558308/age-predicts-cytokine-kinetics-and-innate-immune-cell-activation-following-intranasal-delivery-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-gm-csf-in-a-mouse-model-of-rsv-infection
#15
Katherine M Eichinger, Erin Resetar, Jacob Orend, Kacey Anderson, Kerry M Empey
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and is further associated with increased healthcare utilization and cost of care in the first years of life. Severe RSV disease during infancy has also been linked to the later development of allergic asthma, yet there remains no licensed RSV vaccine or effective treatment. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that disease severity and development of allergic asthma are associated with differences in cytokine production...
May 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539444/improved-prefusion-stability-optimized-codon-usage-and-augmented-virion-packaging-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-in-a-vectored-vaccine-candidate
#16
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Sonja Surman, Barbora Kabatova, Xiang Liu, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Lijuan Yang, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of severe pediatric respiratory tract disease worldwide, but lacks a licensed vaccine or suitable antiviral drug. A live-attenuated chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type-3 (rB/HPIV3) was developed previously as a vector expressing RSV fusion (F) protein to confer bivalent protection against RSV and HPIV3. In a previous clinical trial in virus-naïve children, rB/HPIV3 was well-tolerated but the immunogenicity of wildtype RSV F was unsatisfactory...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539342/multicenter-clinical-evaluation-of-the-luminex-aries%C3%A2-flu-a-b-rsv-assay-for-pediatric-and-adult-respiratory-tract-specimens
#17
Stefan Juretschko, James Mahony, Richard S Buller, Ryhana Manjj, Sherry Dunbar, Kimberly Walker, Arundhati Rao
Influenza A and B viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are three common viruses implicated in seasonal respiratory tract infections and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults and children worldwide. In recent years, an increasing number of commercial molecular tests have become available to diagnose respiratory viral infections. The Luminex® ARIES® Flu A/B & RSV Assay is a fully automated sample-to-answer molecular diagnostic assay for the detection of influenza A, influenza B and RSV...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531224/defining-the-vaccination-window-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-using-age-seroprevalence-data-for-children-in-kilifi-kenya
#18
Joyce U Nyiro, Ivy K Kombe, Charles J Sande, James Kipkoech, Patience K Kiyuka, Clayton O Onyango, Patrick K Munywoki, Timothy M Kinyanjui, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in early life and a target for vaccine prevention. Data on the age-prevalence of RSV specific antibodies will inform on optimizing vaccine delivery. METHODS: Archived plasma samples were randomly selected within age strata from 960 children less than 145 months of age admitted to Kilifi County Hospital pediatric wards between 2007 and 2010. Samples were tested for antibodies to RSV using crude virus IgG ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529001/a-single-intranasal-administration-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-induces-an-efficient-protection-for-mice-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#19
Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yi-Fei Yan, Ying Hua, Yao Ma, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Song, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jiaqiang Huang, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527341/unravelling-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreaks-in-buenos-aires-argentina-molecular-basis-of-the-spatio-temporal-transmission
#20
Gabriel Lihue Rojo, Stephanie Goya, Mariana Orellana, Andrea Sancilio, Alberto Rodriguez Perez, César Montali, Carolina García, Lilian Sosa, Alejandra Musto, Daniela Alvarez, Alejandro Castello, Mariana Viegas
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide. Several vaccines against RSV are under research and development, which are about to be approved. We evaluated transmission patterns in different settings to determine age-specific vaccination targets from a viral perspective. We sequenced the G glycoprotein's ectodomain of a constant clinical sampling between two epidemic outbreaks in a limited geographical region and performed phylogeographic analyses...
May 17, 2017: Virology
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