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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449938/molecular-characteristics-and-successful-management-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreak-among-pediatric-patients-with-hemato-oncological-disease
#1
Claas Baier, Sibylle Haid, Andreas Beilken, Astrid Behnert, Martin Wetzke, Richard J P Brown, Corinna Schmitt, Ella Ebadi, Gesine Hansen, Thomas F Schulz, Thomas Pietschmann, Franz-Christoph Bange
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infection in adults and children. Especially immunocompromised patients are at high risk for a severe course of infection, and mortality is increased. Moreover RSV can spread in healthcare settings and can cause outbreaks. Herein we demonstrate the successful control and characteristics of a RSV outbreak that included 8 patients in our Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. Methods: We performed an epidemiologic investigation and a molecular analysis of the outbreak strains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447395/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-coronavirus-infection-in-children-the-role-of-viral-factors-and-an-immunocompromised-state
#2
Chikara Ogimi, Janet A Englund, Miranda C Bradford, Xuan Qin, Michael Boeckh, Alpana Waghmare
Background: Immunocompromised children might be predisposed to serious infections from human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including strains OC43, NL63, HKU1, and 229E; however, the virologic and clinical features of HCoV infection in immunocompromised children have not been compared to those in nonimmunocompromised children. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of children who presented to Seattle Children's Hospital and in whom HCoV was detected by a multiplex respiratory polymerase chain reaction assay of a nasal sample between October 2012 and March 2016...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445124/efficacy-of-mucosal-polyanhydride-nanovaccine-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-the-neonatal-calf
#3
Jodi L McGill, Sean M Kelly, Pankaj Kumar, Savannah Speckhart, Shannon L Haughney, Jamie Henningson, Balaji Narasimhan, Randy E Sacco
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is closely related to HRSV and a significant cause of morbidity in young cattle. BRSV infection in calves displays many similarities to RSV infection in humans, including similar age dependency and disease pathogenesis. Polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) have shown promise as adjuvants and vaccine delivery vehicles due to their ability to promote enhanced immunogenicity through the route of administration, provide sustained antigen exposure, and induce both antibody- and cell-mediated immunity...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444701/a-case-series-on-common-cold-to-severe-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-children-following-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-sri-lanka
#4
J A A S Jayaweera, F Noordeen, S Kothalaweala, F N N Pitchai, M L M Rayes
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of hMPV infections in Sri Lanka has not been reported and here we report a case series of hMPV infection in children less than 5 years. Patients with ARTI were included from Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura from March 2013 to August 2014. Indirect fluorescence assay was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates for the identification of respiratory viruses [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B and hMPV]. Moreover, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was done to further confirm the hMPV infection...
February 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436781/rsv-prophylaxis-guideline-changes-and-outcomes-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Adam S Walpert, Ian D Thomas, Merlin C Lowe, Michael D Seckeler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare inpatient outcomes and costs for children with respiratory syncytial virus and congenital heart disease before and after the change in management guidelines for respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis. DESIGN: Hospital discharge data from the Vizient (formerly University HealthSystem Consortium) were queried from October 2012 to June 2014 (Era 1) and July 2014 to April 2016 (Era 2) for patients aged <24 months with an any International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for congenital heart disease (745-747...
February 13, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433478/case-report-of-severe-myocarditis-in-an-immunocompromised-child-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#6
Hiroki Miura, Fumihiko Hattori, Hidetoshi Uchida, Tadayoshi Hata, Kazuko Kudo, Masatoki Sato, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is common and may be severe among patients with preexisting cardiac anomalies, but direct involvement of myocardial damage is not common in those patients. Additionally, myocardial involvement has been rarely described among immune compromised children. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received maintenance chemotherapy in an outpatient clinic developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome...
February 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422011/comparison-of-the-prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-infections-at-different-hospital-settings-in-north-china-2012-2015
#7
Jianxing Yu, Zhengde Xie, Tiegang Zhang, Yanqin Lu, Hongwei Fan, Donghong Yang, Thomas Bénet, Philippe Vanhems, Kunling Shen, Fang Huang, Jinxiang Han, Taisheng Li, Zhancheng Gao, Lili Ren, Jianwei Wang
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a great public health challenge globally. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with ARIs attending at different hospital settings is fully undetermined. METHODS: Laboratory-based surveillance for ARIs was conducted at inpatient and outpatient settings of 11 hospitals in North China. The first 2-5 patients with ARIs were recruited in each hospital weekly from 2012 through 2015. The presence of respiratory viruses was screened by PCR assays...
February 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412463/the-drug-drug-interaction-profile-of-presatovir
#8
Yan Xin, Winnie Weng, Bernard P Murray, Eugene J Eisenberg, Jason W Chien, John Ling, Jeffrey A Silverman
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Presatovir (previously GS-5806) is a novel, orally administered RSV fusion inhibitor with a favorable safety profile and proven antiviral efficacy in preclinical and clinical studies. In vitro, presatovir is a substrate of the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and hepatic uptake transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 and is slowly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP3A5...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411775/respiratory-syncytial-virus-activates-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-to-suppress-interferon-regulatory-factor-1-dependent-interferon-lambda-and-antiviral-defense-in-airway-epithelium
#9
A Kalinowski, B T Galen, I F Ueki, Y Sun, A Mulenos, A Osafo-Addo, B Clark, J Joerns, W Liu, J A Nadel, C S Dela Cruz, J L Koff
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) persists as a significant human pathogen that continues to contribute to morbidity and mortality. In children, RSV is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections, and in adults RSV causes pneumonia and contributes to exacerbations of chronic lung diseases. RSV induces airway epithelial inflammation by activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a tyrosine kinase receptor. Recently, EGFR inhibition was shown to decrease RSV infection, but the mechanism(s) for this effect are not known...
February 7, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410056/evaluation-of-monoclonal-antibodies-that-detect-conserved-proteins-from-respiratory-syncytial-virus-metapneumovirus-and-adenovirus-in-human-samples
#10
Liliana A González, Yaneisi Vázquez, Jorge E Mora, Christian E Palavecino, Pablo Bertrand, Marcela Ferrés, Ana M Contreras, Andrea A Beckhaus, Claudia A Riedel, Susan M Bueno
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV), human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and Adenovirus (ADV), are three of the most prevalent viruses responsible for pneumonia and bronchiolitis in children and elderly worldwide, accounting for a high number of hospitalizations annually. Diagnosis of these viruses is required to take clinical actions that allow an appropriate patient management. Thereby, new strategies to design fast diagnostic methods are highly required. In the present work, six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, two for each virus) specific for conserved proteins from hRSV, hMPV and ADV were generated and evaluated through different immunological techniques, based on detection of purified protein, viral particles and human samples...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409569/seasonality-and-geographical-spread-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-epidemics-in-15-european-countries-2010-to-2016
#11
Eeva K Broberg, Matti Waris, Kari Johansen, René Snacken, Pasi Penttinen, European Influenza Surveillance Network
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is considered the most common pathogen causing severe lower respiratory tract infections among infants and young children. We describe the seasonality and geographical spread of RSV infection in 15 countries of the European Union and European Economic Area. We performed a retrospective descriptive study of weekly laboratory-confirmed RSV detections between weeks 40/2010 and 20/2016, in patients investigated for influenza-like illness, acute respiratory infection or following the clinician's judgment...
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390105/respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonality-a-global-overview
#12
Pablo Obando-Pacheco, Antonio José Justicia-Grande, Irene Rivero-Calle, Carmen Rodríguez-Tenreiro, Peter Sly, Octavio Ramilo, Asunción Mejías, Eugenio Baraldi, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Harish Nair, Marta C Nunes, Leyla Kragten-Tabatabaie, Terho Heikkinen, Anne Greenough, Renato T Stein, Paolo Manzoni, Louis Bont, Federico Martinón-Torres
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children. By the age of 1 year, 60-70% of children have been infected by RSV. In addition, early-life RSV infection is associated with the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma in infancy and childhood. The need for precise epidemiologic data regarding RSV as a worldwide pathogen has been growing steadily as novel RSV therapeutics are reaching the final stages of development. To optimize the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of RSV infection in a timely manner, knowledge about the differences in the timing of the RSV epidemics worldwide is needed...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386287/rsv-replication-is-promoted-by-autophagy-mediated-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#13
Miao Li, Jian Li, Jianling Yang, Jianguo Liu, Zhengzheng Zhang, Xiaotian Song, Zhiyan Yao, Cuiqing Ma, Wenjian Li, Ruihong Zeng, Kai Wang, Lin Wei
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) in children worldwide. Virus-host interaction affects progression and prognosis of the infection. Autophagy plays important roles in virus-host interaction. Respiratory epithelial cells serve as the front line of host defense during RSV infection, However, it is still unclear how they interact with RSV. In this study, We found that RSV induced autophagy which favored RSV replication and exacerbated lung pathology in vivo Mechanistically, RSV induced complete autophagy flux through Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of AMPK-MTOR (AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway in Hep2 cells...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386093/incidence-and-seasonality-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-hospitalisations-in-young-children-in-denmark-2010-to-2015
#14
Martin T Jepsen, Ramona Trebbien, Hanne Dorthe Emborg, Tyra G Krause, Kristian Schønning, Marianne Voldstedlund, Jens Nielsen, Thea K Fischer
For future decisions on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-vaccination strategies and implementation into national immunisation-programmes, we used national registry data (hospitalisation, microbiology and vital statistics) to determine the age-specific incidence and direct medical costs of annual RSV-associated admissions in children < 5 years-old for the period of 2010-2015. We identified ca 2,500 RSV-associated hospitalisations annually amounting to total direct medical-costs of ca EUR 4.1 million per year...
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377415/molecular-epidemiology-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#15
REVIEW
Krisna N A Pangesti, Moataz Abd El Ghany, Michael G Walsh, Alison M Kesson, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of viral acute respiratory tract infections in young children. The virus is characterised by distinct seasonality that is dependent upon the latitude and its ability to cause reinfection. Respiratory syncytial virus demonstrates a complex molecular epidemiology pattern as multiple strains and/or genotypes cocirculate during a single epidemic. Previous studies have investigated the relationship between RSV genetic diversity, reinfection, and clinical features...
January 29, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360861/genetic-diversity-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-circulating-among-children-in-ibadan-nigeria
#16
Olukunle Ogunsemowo, David O Olaleye, Georgina N Odaibo
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common viral cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants and young children however, without an effective vaccine licensed for human use till date. Information on the circulating genotypes of HRSV from regions with high-burden of infection is vital in the global efforts towards the development of protective vaccine. We report here the genotypes of HRSV circulating among children in Ibadan, the first of such from Nigeria.Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs collected from 231 children presenting with respiratory infections in some health facilities for care as well as those attending immunization centers for routine vaccination in Ibadan, Nigeria were used for the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359411/parainfluenza-virus-type-3-outbreak-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#17
Hajime Maeda, Kentaro Haneda, Yoshinobu Honda
Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a respiratory pathogen in young children and is second only to the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a cause of lower respiratory tract infection. PIV type 3 (PIV3) is the most severe. Herein we describe an outbreak of PIV3 in three infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. They were diagnosed on virus culture from pharyngeal swabs. We prevented the spread of the virus using standard infection control procedures and isolation of the symptomatic infants. One infant had severe chronic lung disease and was complicated with recurrent wheezing for a long time...
November 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346336/respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonality-united-states-2014-2017
#18
Erica Billig Rose, Alexandra Wheatley, Gayle Langley, Susan Gerber, Amber Haynes
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children worldwide (1-3). In the United States, RSV infection results in >57,000 hospitalizations and 2 million outpatient visits each year among children aged <5 years (3). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of RSV in adults as well as children (4). CDC reported RSV seasonality nationally, by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regions* and for the state of Florida, using a new statistical method that analyzes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory detections reported to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) (https://www...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343795/recurrent-wheezing-in-neonatal-pneumonia-is-associated-with-combined-infection-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-staphylococcus-aureus-or-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#19
Qin Zhong, Hui Feng, Qi Lu, Xu Liu, Qi Zhao, Yue Du, Xian-Hong Zhang, Jia-Rong Wang
Both viral and bacterial infections can be associated with wheezing episodes in children; however, information regarding combined infections with both viral and bacterial pathogens in full term neonates is limited. We sought to investigate the effects of viral-bacterial codetection on pneumonia severity and recurrent wheezing. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on neonates admitted to our hospital with pneumonia from 2009 to 2015. Of 606 total cases, 341 were diagnosed with RSV only, and 265 were diagnosed with both RSV and a potential bacterial pathogen...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342954/a-built-in-cpg-adjuvant-in-rsv-f-protein-dna-vaccine-drives-a-th1-polarized-and-enhanced-protective-immune-response
#20
Yao Ma, Yue-Ying Jiao, Yun-Zhou Yu, Nan Jiang, Ying Hua, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Yuan-Hui Fu, Xiang-Lei Peng, Yan-Peng Zheng, Larry J Anderson, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute lower respiratory infection in children. However, there is no licensed vaccine available. Here, we investigated the effect of five or 20 copies of C-Class of CpG ODN (CpG-C) motif incorporated into a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein on the vaccine-induced immune response. The addition of CpG-C motif enhanced serum binding and virus-neutralizing antibody responses in BALB/c mice immunized with the DNA vaccines...
January 15, 2018: Viruses
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