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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238000/elevation-of-serum-acid-sphingomyelinase-activity-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis
#1
Shuichiro Yoshida, Atsuko Noguchi, Wataru Kikuchi, Hiroshi Fukaya, Kiyoshi Igarashi, Tsutomu Takahashi
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin into ceramide, a bioactive lipid to regulate cellular physiological functions. Thus, ASM activation has been reported as a key event in pathophysiological reactions including inflammation, cytokine release, oxidative stress, and endothelial damage in human diseases. Since ASM activation is associated with extracellular ASM secretion through unknown mechanisms, it can be detected by recognizing the elevation of secretory ASM (S-ASM) activity...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237419/performance-of-the-alere-i-rsv-assay-for-point-of-care-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-children
#2
Sarah Valerie Schnee, Johannes Pfeil, Clara Marlene Ihling, Julia Tabatabai, Paul Schnitzler
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of severe acute respiratory tract infection in young children. Alere i RSV is a novel molecular rapid test which identifies respiratory syncytial virus in less than 13 min. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical performance of the Alere i RSV assay in a pediatric point-of-care setting during winter season 2016 / 2017. Test results from 518 nasopharyngeal swab samples were compared to a real-time reverse transcription PCR reference standard...
December 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#3
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217660/chimeric-pneumoviridae-fusion-proteins-as-immunogens-to-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#4
Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Isidoro Martínez, Daniel Luque, María C Terrón, Jason S McLellan, José A Melero, Vicente Más
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), two members of the Pneumoviridae family, account for the majority of severe lower respiratory tract infections worldwide in very young children. They are also a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and immunocompromised adults. High levels of neutralizing antibodies, mostly directed against the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein, correlate with protection against either hRSV or hMPV However, no cross-neutralization is observed in polyclonal antibody responses raised after virus infection or immunization with purified F proteins...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215596/rsv-infection-in-human-macrophages-promotes-cxcl10-ip-10-expression-during-bacterial-co-infection
#5
Daniela Machado, Jonathan Hoffmann, Marie Moroso, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Hubert Endtz, Olivier Terrier, Glaucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major etiologic agent of acute lower respiratory infection constitutes the most important cause of death in young children worldwide. Viral/bacterial mixed infections are related to severity of respiratory inflammatory diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously investigated the intracellular mechanisms that mediate the immune response in the context of influenza virus/Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) co-infection using a model of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213258/the-complexity-of-antibody-responses-elicited-against-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-glycoproteins-in-hospitalized-children-younger-than-2-years
#6
Alfonsina Trento, Rosa Rodríguez-Fernández, María I González-Sánchez, Felipe González-Martínez, Vicente Mas, Mónica Vázquez, Concepción Palomo, José A Melero
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212531/etiology-of-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-community-and-clinic-in-ilorin-nigeria
#7
Olatunji Kolawole, Michael Oguntoye, Tina Dam, Rumi Chunara
OBJECTIVE: Recognizing increasing interest in community disease surveillance globally, the goal of this study was to investigate whether respiratory viruses circulating in the community may be represented through clinical (hospital) surveillance in Nigeria. RESULTS: Children were selected via convenience sampling from communities and a tertiary care center (n = 91) during spring 2017 in Ilorin, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction...
December 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206851/role-of-viral-coinfections-in-asthma-development
#8
Maria Luz Garcia-Garcia, Cristina Calvo, Sara Ruiz, Francisco Pozo, Victoria Del Pozo, Laura Remedios, Nadia Exposito, Ana Tellez, Inmaculada Casas
BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory infections, especially acute bronchiolitis, play a key role in the development of asthma in childhood. However, most studies have focused on respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus infections and none of them have compared the long-term evolution of single versus double or multiple viral infections. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the frequency of asthma development at 6-8 years in children with previous admission for bronchiolitis associated with single versus double or multiple viral infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205682/sibling-visitations-and-viral-infections-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#9
Yuho Horikoshi, Kaoru Okazaki, Shigeko Miyokawa, Kazue Kinoshita, Hiroshi Higuchi, Junichi Suwa, Yuta Aizawa, Kahoru Fukuoka
BACKGROUND: Sibling visitations to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are a part of family-centered care, which is now being increasingly endorsed as a positive development in patient care. However, sibling visitations pose a risk of viral infections such that many NICUs in Japan impose strict limits on the practice. The aim of our study was to assess whether sibling visitations to the NICU are related to an increase in the nosocomial viral infection rate. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between April 2012 and March 2017 at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan...
December 5, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194014/respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonality-and-its-implications-on-prevention-strategies
#10
Sophie Janet, Jonathan Broad, Matthew D Snape
With maternal and infant vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in development, it is timely to consider how the deployment of these vaccines might vary according to local RSV disease seasonality. In temperate regions RSV infection is predictably limited to a period of 3 to 5 months, while in tropical regions disease seasonality is often both more variable and more prolonged. Accordingly, in tropical regions a year-round immunisation schedule for both maternal and infant immunisation might be appropriate...
December 1, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190684/respiratory-syncytial-and-influenza-viruses-in-children-under-2-years-old-with-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-sari-in-maputo-2015
#11
Mirela Pale, Afonso Nacoto, Almiro Tivane, Neuza Nguenha, Loira Machalele, Félix Gundane, Délcio Muteto, Josina Chilundo, Sandra Mavale, Cynthia Semá-Baltazar, Germano Pires, Orvalho Augusto, Tufária Mussá, Eduardo Gudo
INTRODUCTION: Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus (influenza) infections are one of the leading causes of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) and death in young children worldwide, little is known about the burden of these pathogens in Mozambique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2015 to January 2016, nasopharyngeal swabs from 450 children, aged ≤2 years, who had been admitted to the Pediatric Department of the Maputo Central Hospital (HCM) in Mozambique, suffering with SARI were enrolled and tested for influenza and RSV using a real-time PCR assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189674/concurrent-community-transmission-of-enterovirus-d68-with-human-rhinoviruses-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-among-children-in-sendai-japan
#12
Takaya Metoki, Michiko Okamoto, Akira Suzuki, Setsuko Kitaoka, Hiroki Miyabayashi, Yuka Rokugo, Ryoichi Onuma, Suguru Ohmiya, Ko Sato, Hidekazu Nishimura, Hitoshi Oshitani, Satoru Kumaki, Rie Noguchi, Taiki Sato, Yohei Watanabe
BACKGROUND: In the autumn of 2015, we experienced a surge in the number of pediatric cases of wheeze in our hospital, which was suspected to be caused by enterovirus (EV)-D68 transmission in the community. Thus, we implemented an ad hoc retrospective surveillance for EV-D68. METHODS: Patients aged < 15 years old with acute respiratory infection were eligible for inclusion in this study. All enrolled patients underwent virus detection test. Additionally, neutralization tests (NTs) were performed using the stored serum samples of the enrolled patients to compare the antigenicity of the virus isolated in this study with that isolated in 2010 and evaluate the anti-EV-D68 antibody prevalence...
November 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158684/right-and-left-ventricular-function-in-hospitalized-children-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#13
Thorsten Horter, Britt Nakstad, Omid Ashtari, Anne Lee Solevåg
Background: Extrapulmonary manifestations including cardiac dysfunction have been demonstrated in children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring intensive care. The aim of this study was to examine cardiac function in hospitalized children with moderate RSV infection admitted to a regular pediatric ward. Methods: We used echocardiography to determine cardiac output, and right and left ventricular function in 26 patients (aged 2 weeks to 24 months) with RSV infection...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149439/trends-in-utilization-of-outpatient-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-with-palivizumab-among-medicaid-and-commercially-insured-infants
#14
Melissa Pavilack, Robert A Clifford, Tara Gonzales, Amanda M Kong, Sally Wade, Kimmie K McLaurin
INTRODUCTION: Palivizumab is indicated for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in high-risk children. Previous palivizumab utilization studies examined prior authorization claims but did not examine utilization within insured populations as a whole. This study describes outpatient palivizumab utilization trends and characterizes high-risk infants receiving palivizumab within Medicaid- and commercially insured populations. METHODS: Infants born July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2013 were identified in the MarketScan(®) Multistate Medicaid and Commercial claims databases...
November 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149199/epidemiology-and-clinical-profile-of-pathogens-responsible-for-the-hospitalization-of-children-in-sousse-area-tunisia
#15
Ines Brini, Aida Guerrero, Naila Hannachi, Jihene Bouguila, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Amira Bouhlel, Lamia Boughamoura, Benjamin Hetzer, Wegene Borena, Britta Schiela, Dorothee Von Laer, Jalel Boukadida, Heribert Stoiber
This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143374/asthma-and-lung-function-in-adulthood-after-a-viral-wheezing-episode-in-early-childhood
#16
Katri Backman, Hertta Ollikainen, Eija Piippo-Savolainen, Kirsi Nuolivirta, Matti Korppi
BACKGROUND: Viral etiology of infection has a significant role in the long-term outcome of early-childhood wheezing. OBJECTIVE: This study examines asthma and lung function in adulthood after early-childhood wheezing induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV). METHODS: A total of 100 children were hospitalized for a wheezing episode at less than 24 months of age from 1992 to 1993 in Kuopio University Hospital (Finland)...
November 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131392/virus-detection-in-critically-ill-children-with-acute-respiratory-disease-a-new-profile-in-view-of-new-technology
#17
Atsushi Kawaguchi, Angela Bates, Bonita E Lee, Steven Drews, Daniel Garros
AIM: To describe the epidemiology of critically ill children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with acute respiratory disease. The association with intubation was analyzed for the three most prevalent viruses and in those with and without viral co-infection. METHODS: Patients admitted to the PICU (2004 - 2014) with acute respiratory disease were included. Analyses were performed utilizing each respiratory viral infection or multiple viral infections as an exposure...
November 13, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131066/human-polyomavirus-wu-in-patients-with-respiratory-tract-infection-in-kuwait
#18
Sahar Essa, Wassim Chehadeh, Widad Al-Nakib
OBJECTIVE: To determine the circulating polyomavirus Washington University (WUV) strains among hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI) in Kuwait. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 459 hospitalized children and adult patients with respiratory tract infections were screened for respiratory viruses by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques from April 2013 to April 2016. The VP2 gene from WUV-positive samples was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis...
November 7, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130355/adherence-and-outcomes-a-systematic-review-of-palivizumab-utilization
#19
Sophie K Wong, Abby Li, Krista L Lanctôt, Bosco Paes
Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody used for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis. RSV is the primary cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children aged <2 years, and can give rise to high-burden hospitalization and respiratory complications in later life. Adherence to a monthly dosing regimen, both in timing and injection number, is essential to sustain therapeutic levels of palivizumab and maintain protective status. Deviation from the approved dosing schedule may reduce the efficacy of palivizumab and increase the risk of breakthrough RSV infection and hospitalization...
November 13, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122495/up-regulation-of-serum-periostin-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma-antigen-levels-in-infants-with-acute-bronchitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#20
Hiroaki Nakamura, Kenichi Akashi, Masako Watanabe, Shoichiro Ohta, Junya Ono, Yoshinori Azuma, Noriko Ogasawara, Keisuke Yamamoto, Norikazu Shimizu, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Kenji Izuhara, Toshio Katsunuma
BACKGROUND: Periostin and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Acute bronchitis due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during infancy exhibits an asthma-like pathogenesis, suggesting that it may be associated with the subsequent development of asthma. However, the mechanism by which RSV infection leads to development of asthma has not yet been fully elucidated. METHODS: Infants younger than 36 months were enrolled and classified into three groups...
November 6, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
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