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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045741/respiratory-syncytial-virus-genotypes-host-immune-profiles-and-disease-severity-in-young-children-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis
#1
Rosa Rodriguez-Fernandez, Lorena I Tapia, Chin-Fen Yang, Juan Pablo Torres, Susana Chavez-Bueno, Carla Garcia, Lisa M Jaramillo, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Hasan S Jafri, Mark E Peeples, Pedro A Piedra, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias
Background: Data on how RSV genotypes influence disease severity and host immune responses is limited. We characterized the genetic variability of RSV during five seasons, and evaluated the role of RSV subtypes, genotypes and viral loads on disease severity and host transcriptional profiles. Methods: Prospective, observational study including a convenience sample of healthy infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis. Nasopharyngeal samples for viral load quantitation, typing and genotyping, and blood samples for transcriptome analyses were obtained within 24h of hospitalization...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040527/in-and-out-of-hospital-mortality-associated-with-seasonal-and-pandemic-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-south-africa-2009-2013
#2
Cheryl Cohen, Sibongile Walaza, Florette K Treurnicht, Meredith McMorrow, Shabir A Madhi, Johanna M McAnerney, Stefano Tempia
Background: Estimates of influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated mortality burden are important to guide policy for control. Data are limited on the contribution of out-of-hospital deaths to this mortality. Methods: We modeled excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV infection by applying regression models to weekly deaths from national vital statistics from 2009 through 2013, using influenza and RSV laboratory surveillance data as covariates...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036724/etiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-with-airway-malacia-in-children
#3
Wang Yu-Qing, Hao Chuang-Li, Ji Wei, Chen Zheng-Rong, Zhang Xin-Xin, Gu Wen-Jing
Objective: The objective of this article is to study the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children with airway malacia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 428 pneumonia patients. All patients underwent bronchoscopy, and bronchoalveolar lavage samples were processed for microbiological assessment. Results: In a total of 428 cases reviewed, 60 were found to have airway malacia. Pathogens were identified in 44 of the 60 specimens (73...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036182/proteome-analysis-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-from-calves-infected-with-bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-insights-in-pathogenesis-and-perspectives-for-new-treatments
#4
Sara Hägglund, Krister Blodörn, Katarina Näslund, Karin Vargmar, Sara Bergström Lind, Jia Mi, Mariluz Araínga, Sabine Riffault, Geraldine Taylor, John Pringle, Jean François Valarcher
Human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV/BRSV) are major causes of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children and calves, respectively. Shared epidemiological, clinical, pathological and genetic characteristics of these viruses make comparative research highly relevant. To characterise the host response against BRSV infection, bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant (BAL) from i) non-vaccinated, BRSV-infected ii) vaccinated, BRSV-infected and iii) non-infected calves was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029312/prefusion-f-postfusion-f-g-antibodies-and-disease-severity-in-infants-and-young-children-with-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#5
Cristina Capella, Supranee Chaiwatpongsakorn, Erin Gorrell, Zachary A Risch, Fang Ye, Sara E Mertz, Sara M Johnson, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias, Mark E Peeples
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Maternally-derived RSV-specific antibodies play a role in protection against RSV infection in early life, but data regarding the concentration and specificity of those antibodies are incomplete. Methods: We prospectively enrolled a cohort of previously healthy infants and young children hospitalized (n=45) or evaluated as outpatients (n=20) for RSV infection, and healthy non-infected age-matched controls (n=18)...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029245/host-transcription-profile-in-nasal-epithelium-and-whole-blood-of-hospitalised-children-under-two-years-of-age-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#6
Lien Anh Ha Do, Johann Pellet, H Rogier van Doorn, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Huu Mai Khanh Nguyen, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Bertrand De Meulder, Charles Auffray, Jorrit-Jan Hofstra, Jeremy Farrar, Juliet E Bryant, Menno de Jong, Martin L Hibberd
Most insights into the cascade of immune events following acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been obtained from animal experiments or in vitro models. Here we investigated host gene expression profiles in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and whole blood samples during natural RSV and rhinovirus (hRV) infection (acute versus early recovery phase) in 83 hospitalised patients <2 years old with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). RSV infection induced strong and persistent innate immune responses including interferon signaling and pathways related to chemokine/cytokine signaling in both compartments...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992427/effects-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-human-subjects-and-mice
#7
Alireza Tahamtan, Yazdan Samieipoor, Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri, Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh, Anahita Izadi, Ali Rashidi-Nezhad, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Mohammad Farahmand, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhatri-Azad, Vahid Salimi
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a significant role in pathophysiological processes and impacts disease severity. Here we investigate the possible role of a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) functional variant in determining disease severity and the potential pharmacological therapeutic effects of CB2 activation in viral respiratory infection. The common missense variant (CAA/CGG; Q63R) of the gene-encoding CB2 receptor (CNR2) was evaluated in 90 inpatient and 90 outpatient children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI)...
October 9, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991397/record-linkage-study-of-the-pathogen-specific-burden-of-respiratory-viruses-in-children
#8
Faye Janice Lim, Christopher Charles Blyth, Parveen Fathima, Nicholas de Klerk, Hannah Catherine Moore
BACKGROUND: Reliance on hospital discharge diagnosis codes alone will likely underestimate the burden of respiratory viruses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory viruses more accurately, we used record linkage to examine data relating to all children hospitalized in Western Australia between 2000 and 2012. PATIENTS/METHODS: We extracted hospital, infectious disease notification and laboratory data of a cohort of children born in Western Australia between 1996 and 2012...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987219/role-of-viral-infections-in-the-development-and-exacerbation-of-asthma-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Tuomas Jartti, James E Gern
Viral infections are closely linked to wheezing illnesses in children of all ages. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main causative agent of bronchiolitis, whereas rhinovirus (RV) is most commonly detected in wheezing children thereafter. Severe respiratory illness induced by either of these viruses is associated with subsequent development of asthma, and the risk is greatest for young children who wheeze with RV infections. Whether viral illnesses actually cause asthma is the subject of intense debate...
October 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982576/asthma-predisposition-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-modulate-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-function-in-children-s-airways
#10
Terri J Harford, Fariba Rezaee, Rachel G Scheraga, Mitchell A Olman, Giovanni Piedimonte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975651/risk-factors-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-pediatric-influenza-like-illness-and-severe-acute-respiratory-infections-in-suzhou-china
#11
Yukai Huang, Jun Hua, Dan Wang, Liling Chen, Jun Zhang, Hong Zhu, Jianmei Tian, Tao Zhang, Genming Zhao
Background The characteristics and risk factors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children has not yet been fully understood. Objectives To address the characteristics of RSV-associated illness and risk factors of RSV infection among children under 5 years of age in Suzhou, China. Methods From April 2011 to March 2014, we conducted a prospective surveillance among children in Suzhou, China. Nasal or throat swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and inpatients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI)...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975629/etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-1500-hospitalized-children
#12
Oumei Hao, Xuefeng Wang, Jianping Liu, Kunling Shen, Rong Ma, Zhenze Cui, Li Deng, Huimin Yan, Lining Wang, Zhaolan Liu, Xinmin Li, Hua Xu, Zhiyan Jiang, Yanning Li, Yan Huang, Baoqing Zhang, Xiaochun Feng, Chunhui He, Yonghong Jiang, Xue Zhao, Wei Wei, Zi Wang
Childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common illness; however, comprehensive studies of hospitalizations for CAP among children in China based on prospective and multicenter data collection are limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the respiratory pathogens responsible for CAP in hospitalized children. From January to December 2015, oropharyngeal swabs and blood serum were collected from hospitalized children with CAP symptoms ranging in age from 6 months to 14 years at 10 hospitals across China...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967522/potential-impact-of-a-maternal-vaccine-for-rsv-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#13
Alexandra B Hogan, Patricia T Campbell, Christopher C Blyth, Faye J Lim, Parveen Fathima, Stephanie Davis, Hannah C Moore, Kathryn Glass
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory morbidity and one of the main causes of hospitalisation in young children. While there is currently no licensed vaccine for RSV, a vaccine candidate for pregnant women is undergoing phase 3 trials. We developed a compartmental age-structured model for RSV transmission, validated using linked laboratory-confirmed RSV hospitalisation records for metropolitan Western Australia. We adapted the model to incorporate a maternal RSV vaccine, and estimated the expected reduction in RSV hospitalisations arising from such a program...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963880/protective-role-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-immune-response-in-airway-epithelial-cells
#14
Devi Rajan, Raghavan Chinnadurai, Evan O Keefe, Seyhan Boyoglu-Barnum, Sean O Todd, Tina V Hartert, Jacques Galipeau, Larry J Anderson
RSV is a major cause of severe lower respiratory infection in infants and young children. With no vaccine yet available, it is important to clarify mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Since indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunomodulatory enzyme and is upregulated with RSV infection, we studied it in vivo during infection of BALB/c mice and in vitro in A549 cells. RSV infection upregulated IDO transcripts in vivo and in vitro. IDO siRNA decreased IDO transcripts ~2 fold compared to control siRNA after RSV infection but this decrease did not affect RSV replication...
December 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962005/dynamic-changes-in-the-cd4-t-cell-transcriptome-are-associated-with-disease-severity-during-primary-rsv-infection-in-young-infants
#15
Thomas J Mariani, Xing Qiu, Chin Yi Chu, Lu Wang, Juilee Thakar, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Anthony Corbett, David J Topham, Ann R Falsey, Mary T Caserta, Edward E Walsh
Background: Nearly all children are infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) within the first 2 years of life, with a minority developing severe disease (1-3% hospitalized). We hypothesized that an assessment of the adaptive immune system, using CD4+ T lymphocyte transcriptomics, would identify gene expression correlates of disease severity. Methods: RSV infected infants, representing extremes of clinical severity were studied. Mild illness (N=23) was defined as a respiratory rate (RR) <55 and room air SaO2 ≥ 97% and severe illness (N=23) as RR ≥ 65 and SaO2 ≤ 92%...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946159/palivizumab-the-effects-of-prophylactic-immunization-on-the-occurrence-of-infections-caused-by-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#16
Marjana Jerkovic Raguz, Jerko Brzica, Ivana Grgic
Aim The aim of this research is to analyze the characteristics of children immunized during immunization season, and their readmission to hospital due to infections of the respiratory tract in the period from 2008 to 2016. Method The retrospective cohort study included 101 children. The test group consists of infants who met the strict criteria for immunization. The national guidance was determined on the basis of earlier research and recommendations by the AAP. All the children who had been readmitted for hospitalization were quickly tested for RSV...
September 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925058/the-association-between-mica-micb-polymorphism-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children
#17
Q Luo, X Guo, S Peng, W Luo, F Tian, P Yu, Y Zou
MICA/MICB gene polymorphisms are related to several cancers and infectious diseases, but there are no reports on the association between MICA/MICB gene polymorphisms and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. To clarify the association between MICA/MICB gene polymorphisms and infection of RSV in children, we collected fresh blood samples from paediatric patients with and without pneumonia after RSV infection. The MICA/MICB alleles were characterized by PCR sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) and PCR sequence-based genotyping (PCR-SBT), and then, the frequency of the MICA/MICB alleles and haplotypes was calculated...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913912/streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-of-the-nasopharynx-is-associated-with-increased-severity-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-young-children
#18
Jaelle C Brealey, Keith J Chappell, Sally Galbraith, Emmanuelle Fantino, Jane Gaydon, Sarah Tozer, Paul R Young, Patrick G Holt, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in early life. RSV and other respiratory viruses are known to stimulate substantial outgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper airways of young children. However, the clinical significance of interactions between viruses and bacteria is currently unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of viral and bacterial co-detections on disease severity during paediatric ARI...
September 15, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911764/global-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-mortality-in-young-children-rsv-gold-a-retrospective-case-series
#19
Nienke M Scheltema, Angela Gentile, Florencia Lucion, D James Nokes, Patrick K Munywoki, Shabir A Madhi, Michelle J Groome, Cheryl Cohen, Jocelyn Moyes, Kentigern Thorburn, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Hitoshi Oshitani, Socorro P Lupisan, Aubree Gordon, José F Sánchez, Katherine L O'Brien, Bradford D Gessner, Agustinus Sutanto, Asuncion Mejias, Octavio Ramilo, Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Natasha Halasa, Fernanda de-Paris, Márcia Rosane Pires, Michael C Spaeder, Bosco A Paes, Eric A F Simões, Ting F Leung, Maria Tereza da Costa Oliveira, Carla Cecília de Freitas Lázaro Emediato, Quique Bassat, Warwick Butt, Hsin Chi, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Asad Ali, Marilla G Lucero, Rodrigo A Fasce, Olga Lopez, Barbara A Rath, Fernando P Polack, Jesse Papenburg, Srđan Roglić, Hisato Ito, Edward A Goka, Diederick E Grobbee, Harish Nair, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of pneumonia mortality in young children. However, clinical data for fatal RSV infection are scarce. We aimed to identify clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years with RSV-related mortality using individual patient data. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we developed an online questionnaire to obtain individual patient data for clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years who died with community-acquired RSV infection between Jan 1, 1995, and Oct 31, 2015, through leading research groups for child pneumonia identified through a comprehensive literature search and existing research networks...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903080/transplacental-transfer-of-maternal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-antibody-and-protection-against-rsv-disease-in-infants-in-rural-nepal
#20
Helen Y Chu, James Tielsch, Joanne Katz, Amalia S Magaret, Subarna Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Mark C Steinhoff, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral cause of pneumonia in children. RSV-specific antibody (ab) protects infants from disease, and may be increased by a potential strategy of maternal RSV vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of RSV antibody on RSV infection risk in infants in a resource-limited setting. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study in Nepal, women were enrolled during pregnancy and maternal and infant cord blood were collected at birth...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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