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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Childrens

Ashleigh A McGirr, Kevin L Schwartz, Upton Allen, Melinda Solomon, Beate Sander
Background Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at higher risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which can lead to a decline in lung function. A monoclonal antibody, palivizumab (PMB), effectively prevents RSV hospitalizations; however, the high cost of PMB, approximately C$10,000 per patient per RSV season, limits its widespread use. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PMB prophylaxis in CF children less than 2 years of age from the Canadian healthcare payer's perspective. Methods In 2014, a Markov cohort model of CF disease and infant RSV infections in the Canadian setting was developed based on literature data...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Wenkuan Liu, Dehui Chen, Weiping Tan, Duo Xu, Shuyan Qiu, Zhiqi Zeng, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogenic infections of children and requires in-depth research worldwide, and especially in developing countries. We used a novel multiplex real-time PCR to test 5483 patients (≤ 14 years old) hospitalized with respiratory illness in Guangzhou, China, over a 3-year period. Of these patients, 729 were positive for RSV-A (51.2%, 373/729) or RSV-B (48.8%, 356/729), but none was infected with both viruses. Two seasonal peaks in total RSV were detected at the changes from winter to spring and from summer to autumn...
2016: PloS One
Jessica A Flynn, Eberhard Durr, Ryan Swoyer, Pedro J Cejas, Melanie S Horton, Jennifer D Galli, Scott A Cosmi, Amy S Espeseth, Andrew J Bett, Lan Zhang
Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in humans, leading to significant morbidity and mortality in both young children and older adults. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available, and therapeutic options are limited. During the infection process, the type I viral fusion (F) glycoprotein on the surface of the RSV particle rearranges from a metastable prefusion conformation to a highly stable postfusion form. In people naturally infected with RSV, most potent neutralizing antibodies are directed to the prefusion form of the F protein...
2016: PloS One
Maiara L Bouzas, Juliana R Oliveira, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Igor C Borges, Aldina Barral, Winke Van der Gucht, Elke Wollants, Marc Van Ranst, Camila I de Oliveira, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common etiological agents of childhood respiratory infections globally. Information on seasonality of different antigenic groups is scarce. We aimed to describe the frequency, seasonality, and age of children infected by RSV antigenic groups A (RSVA) and B (RSVB) among children with ARI in a 4-year period.Children (6-23 months old) with respiratory infection for ≤7 days were enrolled in a prospective cross-sectional study, from September, 2009 to October, 2013, in Salvador, in a tropical region of Brazil...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Renato T Stein, Louis J Bont, Heather Zar, Fernando P Polack, Caroline Park, Ami Claxton, Gerald Borok, Yekaterina Butylkova, Colleen Wegzyn
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major public health burden worldwide. We aimed to review the current literature on the incidence and mortality of severe RSV in children globally. METHODS: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of published data from 2000 onwards, reporting on burden of acute respiratory infection (ARI) due to RSV in children. Main outcomes were hospitalization for severe RSV-ARI and death. RESULTS: Five thousand two hundred and seventy-four references were identified...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Stephanie A Grayson, Pamela S Griffiths, Miriam K Perez, Giovanni Piedimonte
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of respiratory illness in infants and young children, but this virus is also capable of re-infecting adults throughout life. Universal precautions to prevent its transmission consist of gown and glove use, but masks and goggles are not routinely required because it is believed that RSV is unlikely to be transmitted by the airborne route. Our hypothesis was that RSV is present in respirable-size particles aerosolized by patients seen in a pediatric acute care setting...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Eric A F Simões
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Terho Heikkinen, Emilia Ojala, Matti Waris
BACKGROUND:  Vaccines and antivirals against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are being developed, but there are scarce data on the full impact of RSV infection on outpatient children. METHODS:  We analyzed the burden of RSV in a prospective cohort study of children aged ≤13 years during 2 consecutive respiratory seasons in Turku, Finland (2231 child-seasons of follow-up). We examined the children and obtained nasal swabs for the detection of RSV during each respiratory illness...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Richard L Hodinka
Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are a major public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. At greatest risk are young children, the elderly, the chronically ill, and those with suppressed or compromised immune systems. Viruses are the predominant cause of respiratory tract illnesses and include RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, and coronavirus. Laboratory testing is required for a reliable diagnosis of viral respiratory infections, as a clinical diagnosis can be difficult since signs and symptoms are often overlapping and not specific for any one virus...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ah Young Kim, Se Yong Jung, Jae Young Choi, Gi Beom Kim, Young-Hwue Kim, Woo Sup Shim, I-Seok Kang, Jo Won Jung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of current data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis with palivizumab, in Korean children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). In 2009, the Korean guideline for RSV prophylaxis had established up to five shots monthly per RSV season, only for children <1 year of age with hemodynamic significance CHD (HS-CHD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: During the RSV seasons in 2009-2015, we performed a retrospective review of data for 466 infants with CHD, examined at six centers in Korea...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
Pierre-Louis Hervé, Delphyne Descamps, Charlotte Deloizy, Véronique Dhelft, Daphné Laubreton, Edwige Bouguyon, Abdelhak Boukadiri, Catherine Dubuquoy, Thibaut Larcher, Pierre-Henri Benhamou, Jean-François Eléouët, Nicolas Bertho, Lucie Mondoulet, Sabine Riffault
To put a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) vaccine onto the market, new vaccination strategies combining scientific and technical innovations need to be explored. Such a vaccine would also need to be adapted to the vaccination of young children that are the principal victims of acute RSV infection. In the present project, we describe the development and the preclinical evaluation of an original epicutaneous RSV vaccine that combines two technologies: Viaskin® epicutaneous patches as a delivery platform and RSV N-nanorings (N) as a subunit antigen...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
A Bimouhen, F El Falaki, H Ihazmad, Z Regragui, S Benkerroum, A Barakat
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young infants, little was known on its circulation types and patterns in Morocco. We conducted a prospective study using sentinel-based influenza surveillance to detect RSV by real time PCR in patients with acute respiratory infections, enrolled during two seasons (2014/15, 2015/16). During September 2014-April 2016, we obtained 1450 specimens, of which 267(18.4%) tested positive for RSV. The proportion of positive RSV infection was higher in patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infection compared to those with mild symptoms in out-patient clinics...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
A A K Thabet, A Al-Kohani, A Shadoul, A Al-Mahaqri, M Bin Yahya, A H Saleh, D Al-Adeemy, W Khan, M Malik
This study aims to describe etiological agents, demographic details of patients, seasonality and underlying conditions among patients hospitalized due to viral severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in Yemen. We carried out a retrospective descriptive analysis of data from January 2014 to December 2015. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from each patient for laboratory testing. A total of 1346 diagnostic specimens were tested, of which 733 (54%) were positive for influenza viruses. Influenza A(H3) and A(H1N1) pdm09 predominated...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Daniel Allen
In England last year, nearly 40,000 babies and young children with bronchiolitis were admitted to hospital. This infection is usually caused by the respiratory syncytial virus, and in most cases symptoms are mild and last only a few days. However, a quality standard published in the summer by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) states that admissions for bronchiolitis are rising. NICE quality standards describe high-priority areas for improvement in a defined field of care.
October 7, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
Khuen F Ng, Kah K Tan, Zhi H Sam, Grace Ss Ting, Wan Y Gan
AIM: The aim of this study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory data and severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in Malaysian children and to determine risk factors associated with prolonged hospital stay, paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective data on demographics, clinical presentation, outcomes and laboratory findings of 450 children admitted into Tuanku Jaafar Hospital in Seremban, Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 with documented diagnosis of RSV ALRI were collected and analysed...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Marko Pokorn, Monika Jevšnik, Miroslav Petrovec, Andrej Steyer, Tatjana Mrvič, Štefan Grosek, Lara Lusa, Franc Strle
The majority of children with febrile seizures have viral infections and viruses were detected in 22% to 63% of children in published studies. Using molecular methods, viruses were also detected in asymptomatic persons. A prospective study was conducted to detect respiratory and enteric viruses in 192 children with febrile seizures and compare the detection rates to those found in 156 healthy age-matched controls. A respiratory or enteric virus was detected in 72.9% of children with febrile seizures and in 51...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Ana Calderón, Francisco Pozo, Cristina Calvo, Mluz García-García, Mónica González-Esguevillas, Mar Molinero, Inmaculada Casas
Human respiratory syncytial virus group A (RSV-A) was detected in symptomatic hospital attended children in Central Spain for a continuous time period, September 2010 to April 2015. In order to accurately describe the epidemiology of this virus, the genetic diversity of the complete G gene and the clinical manifestations observed were jointly analyzed. Out of 3,011 respiratory specimens taken from 2,308 children, 640 were positive to RSV (21.3%) and 405 were RSV-A (63.2%). Complete G gene sequences of 166 randomly selected RSV-A virus identified NA1 and ON1 genotypes...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Asuncion Mejias, Cristina Garcia-Maurino, Rosa Rodriguez-Fernandez, Mark E Peeples, Octavio Ramilo
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, immunocompromised patients and the elderly. Despite the high disease burden, an effective and safe vaccine is lacking, although several candidates are currently in development. Current treatment for RSV infection remains largely supportive and RSV-specific options for prophylaxis are limited to palivizumab. In the past few years, novel therapeutic options including nanobodies, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have emerged and there are several products in preclinical and Phase-I, -II or -III clinical trials...
September 27, 2016: Vaccine
A A Chughtai, Q Wang, T C Dung, C R Macintyre
We compared the rates of fever in adult subjects with laboratory-confirmed influenza and other respiratory viruses and examined the factors that predict fever in adults. Symptom data on 158 healthcare workers (HCWs) with a laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection were collected using standardized data collection forms from three separate studies. Overall, the rate of fever in confirmed viral respiratory infections in adult HCWs was 23·4% (37/158). Rates varied by virus: human rhinovirus (25·3%, 19/75), influenza A virus (30%, 3/10), coronavirus (28·6%, 2/7), human metapneumovirus (28·6%, 2/7), respiratory syncytial virus (14·3%, 4/28) and parainfluenza virus (8·3%, 1/12)...
October 3, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Ying Hua, Yue-Ying Jiao, Yao Ma, Xiang-Lei Peng, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yan-Peng Zheng, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious infection in the lower respiratory tract, especially in infants, young children, the elderly and the immunocompromised population worldwide. Previous study demonstrated the polypeptide (amino acids 148-198) of RSV attachment (G) glycoprotein, corresponding to the central conserved region and encompassing CX3C chemokine motif, could induce antibodies and protection from RSV challenge in mice [1,2]. In this study, we evaluated the immune efficacy of the recombinant DNA vaccine of pVAX1/3G148-198 encoding RSV G protein polypeptide...
September 26, 2016: Immunology Letters
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