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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213974/molecular-characterization-and-clinical-epidemiology-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-hrsv-a-and-b-in-hospitalized-children-southern-brazil
#1
F B Moreira, C S Rosario, J S Santos, V M Avanzi, M B Nogueira, L R Vidal, S M Raboni
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major etiologic agent of pediatric respiratory infections. Genetic variability of its glycoprotein G enables HRSV to evade the immune response and determines its seasonal dissemination. This study reports genetic variability and clinical profiles of HRSV-infected patients from Southern Brazil. Seventy positive samples, 78% type A and 22% type B, were analyzed. Of the patients (median age, 6 months; interquartile range, 2-11 years) 16% had co-morbidities and 17% developed severe disease...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199704/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infects-cd4-t-cells-the-frequency-of-circulating-cd4-rsv-t-cells-as-a-marker-of-disease-severity-in-young-children
#2
Silvina Raiden, Inés Sananez, Federico Remes-Lenicov, Julieta Pandolfi, Cecilia Romero, Leonardo De Lillo, Ana Ceballos, Jorge Geffner, Lourdes Arruvito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194013/potent-single-domain-antibodies-that-arrest-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-in-its-prefusion-state
#3
Iebe Rossey, Morgan S A Gilman, Stephanie C Kabeche, Koen Sedeyn, Daniel Wrapp, Masaru Kanekiyo, Man Chen, Vicente Mas, Jan Spitaels, José A Melero, Barney S Graham, Bert Schepens, Jason S McLellan, Xavier Saelens
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. The RSV fusion protein (F) is highly conserved and is the only viral membrane protein that is essential for infection. The prefusion conformation of RSV F is considered the most relevant target for antiviral strategies because it is the fusion-competent form of the protein and the primary target of neutralizing activity present in human serum. Here, we describe two llama-derived single-domain antibodies (VHHs) that have potent RSV-neutralizing activity and bind selectively to prefusion RSV F with picomolar affinity...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193180/viral-aetiology-of-bronchiolitis-in-hospitalised-children-in-qatar
#4
Ibrahim Janahi, Anas Abdulkayoum, Fawziya Almeshwesh, Mohamed Alkuwari, Ahmed Al Hammadi, Marwah Alameri
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is considered one of the earliest and most common causes of hospitalisation in young children. Development of molecular technologies allowed a better understanding of bronchiolitis aetiology. Results from cohort studies evaluating the association between single, multiple viral infections and clinical outcomes are conflicting. Data on viral bronchiolitis in children were found to be limited in Qatar. This study aimed to determine frequency and seasonal trends of viral pathogens causing acute bronchiolitis, and to explore association between viral pathogens, disease severity and length of stay (LOS)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188494/palivizumab-exposure-and-the-risk-of-atopic-dermatitis-asthma-and-allergic-rhinoconjunctivitis-a-cross-national-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Ann Haerskjold, Lonny Stokholm, Marie Linder, Simon Francis Thomsen, Gunnar Bergman, Ingegärd Anveden Berglind, Helle Kieler, Henrik Ravn, Lone Graff Stensballe
BACKGROUND: Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to provide passive immunity against respiratory syncytial virus. It is prescribed to children at high risk for severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus. However, little is known about the risk of the immune-mediated diseases atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis after palivizumab exposure. AIM: Our objective was to investigate whether exposure to palivizumab was associated with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in childhood...
February 10, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183291/rapid-and-sensitive-real-time-assay-for-the-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-using-rt-siba%C3%A2
#6
Kevin E Eboigbodin, Kirsi Moilanen, Sonja Elf, Mark Hoser
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes of respiratory tract infections among young children and the elderly. Timely and accurate diagnosis of respiratory tract infections improves patient care and minimizes unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics. We sought to develop a rapid nucleic acid tests for the detection of RSV within minutes, while retaining the high sensitivity achieved with RT-PCR. METHODS: We developed and evaluated a reverse transcription isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, reverse transcription strand invasion based amplification (RT-SIBA), for the rapid detection of RSV...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182741/etiology-of-severe-pneumonia-in-ecuadorian-children
#7
Sivani Jonnalagadda, Oswaldo Rodríguez, Bertha Estrella, Lora L Sabin, Fernando Sempértegui, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. METHODS: This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179378/the-human-immune-response-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Clark D Russell, Stefan A Unger, Marc Walton, Jürgen Schwarze
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important etiological agent of respiratory infections, particularly in children. Much information regarding the immune response to RSV comes from animal models and in vitro studies. Here, we provide a comprehensive description of the human immune response to RSV infection, based on a systematic literature review of research on infected humans. There is an initial strong neutrophil response to RSV infection in humans, which is positively correlated with disease severity and mediated by interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173654/-clinical-value-of-a-rapid-respiratory-syncytial-virus-antigen-detection-in-point-of-care-testing
#9
Y X Ding, R Tian, Y Qian, Y Sun, J Deng, F Wang, R N Zhu, L Q Zhao
Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of a rapid respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen detection in point-of-care testing (POCT). Method: A total of 209 specimens, including 78 throat swabs (TS) and 131 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs), were collected from inpatients who visited the Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics and were diagnosed as acute respiratory infection from 5 January to 7 February, 2015. These specimens were tested for RSV by a rapid antigen detection kit which was compared with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for RSV detection...
February 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159157/vaccines-in-the-prevention-of-viral-pneumonia
#10
REVIEW
Clementine S Fraser, Akhilesh Jha, Peter J M Openshaw
Pneumonia is of great global public health importance. Viral infections play both direct and indirect parts in its cause across the globe. Influenza is a leading cause of viral pneumonia in both children and adults, and respiratory syncytial virus is increasingly recognized as causing disease at both extremes of age. Vaccination offers the best prospect for prevention but current influenza vaccines do not provide universal and durable protection, and require yearly reformulation. In the future, it is hoped that influenza vaccines will give better and universal protection, and that new vaccines can be found for other causes of viral pneumonia...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155195/clinical-evaluation-of-the-isothermal-amplification-assays-for-the-detection-of-four-common-respiratory-viruses-in-children-with-pneumonia
#11
Hangyu Zhou, Mengchuan Zhao, Xinna Li, Dan Zhang, Shuaifeng Zhou, Chen Chen, Zhishan Feng, Xuejun Ma
Respiratory viruses are recognized as serious causes of morbidity and mortality in lower respiratory tract infections in patients. Isothermal amplification assays are increasingly used in their detection because of their rapidity, simplicity and cost-effectiveness, when compared to traditional molecular diagnostic methods. However, systematic assessment of these assays in the clinical settings is rarely reported. MEDLINE (Pubmed) searches were done analysing subject headings and words in the abstract related to isothermal amplification assay and virus...
February 2, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148790/immunization-with-low-doses-of-recombinant-post-fusion-or-pre-fusion-rsv-f-primes-for-vaccine-enhanced-disease-in-the-cotton-rat-model-independent-of-the-presence-of-a-th1-biasing-gla-se-or-th2-biasing-alum-adjuvant
#12
Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Corinne Cayatte, Angie Snell Bennett, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Patrick McTamney, Krystal Nacel, Leigh Hostetler, Lily Cheng, Kuishu Ren, Terrence O'Day, Gregory A Prince, Michael P McCarthy
: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of children previously immunized with a non-live, formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV vaccine was associated with serious enhanced respiratory disease (ERD). Consequently, detailed studies of potential ERD are a critical step in the development of non-live RSV vaccines targeting RSV-naïve children and infants. The fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV in either its post- or pre-fusion conformation is a target for neutralizing antibodies and therefore an attractive antigen candidate for a pediatric RSV subunit vaccine...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132571/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#13
W G Flight, A M Jones
Introduction Respiratory viruses, such as those that cause influenza and the common cold, are a regular feature of life for the entire human population. Among people with CF, these viruses are associated with prolonged respiratory illness and show a clear association with pulmonary exacerbations which in turn are associated with lung function decline and risk of death. Human rhinovirus is the most commonly encountered respiratory viral pathogen in CF although adenovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus, influenza, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus are all also responsible for infections in this population...
January 30, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#14
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121929/correlation-of-symptomatic-enterovirus-infection-and-later-risk-of-allergic-diseases-via-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Zon-Min Lee, Ying-Hsien Huang, Shu-Chen Ho, Ho-Chang Kuo
Infants who are exposed to the rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus are at a higher risk of subsequently developing wheezing or asthma. This study aims to determine whether preschoolers with a history of symptomatic enterovirus infection are at an increased risk of developing allergic diseases or not.We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1999 to 2006 for this nationwide population-based cohort study. The subsequent risks for allergic diseases, which included asthma (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-9: 493...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118832/in-vitro-screening-for-antiviral-activity-of-turkish-plants-revealing-methanolic-extract-of-rindera-lanata-var-lanata-active-against-human-rotavirus
#16
Andrea Civra, Rachele Francese, Davide Sinato, Manuela Donalisio, Valeria Cagno, Patrizia Rubiolo, Ramazan Ceylan, Ahmet Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, David Lembo
BACKGROUND: Human rotavirus (HRoV) is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children under the age of five years. No specific antiviral drug is available for HRoV infections and the treatment of viral diarrhea is mainly based on rehydration and zinc treatment. In this study, we explored medicinal plants endemic to Turkey flora as a source of anti-HRoV compunds. METHODS: We performed an antiviral screening on Ballota macrodonta, Salvia cryptantha and Rindera lanata extracts by focus reduction assay...
January 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114162/impact-of-viral-respiratory-pathogens-on-outcomes-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#17
Katie Moynihan, Andrew Barlow, Nelson Alphonso, Ben Anderson, Janelle Johnson, Clare Nourse, Sanmarié Schlebusch, Tom R Karl, Luregn J Schlapbach
OBJECTIVES: Viral respiratory infection is commonly considered a relative contraindication to elective cardiac surgery. We aimed to determine the frequency and outcomes of symptomatic viral respiratory infection in pediatric cardiac surgical patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of children undergoing cardiac surgery. Symptomatic children were tested using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction) panel capturing nine respiratory viruses...
January 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112337/-potential-neurocognitive-consequences-of-infection-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#18
Juan Carlos Flores, Karen Bohmwald, Janyra Espinoza, Crlstlna Jara, Marcela Peña, Rodrigo Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Carolina Iturriaga, Alexis M Kalergis, Arturo Borzutzky
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among pediatric population. Immune response is poor and unable to establish a long term effective protection against this virus. Of particular interest has been the description of extrapulmonary manifestations of RSV infection in liver, kidney, endocrine system, heart and brain, associated to infection of peripheral blood. In the central nervous system (CNS), recent studies in animals have suggested long term neurocognitive impairment due to a direct damage from the virus...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111638/rapid-profiling-of-rsv-antibody-repertoires-from-the-memory-b-cells-of-naturally-infected-adult-donors
#19
Morgan S A Gilman, Carlos A Castellanos, Man Chen, Joan O Ngwuta, Eileen Goodwin, Syed M Moin, Vicente Mas, José A Melero, Peter F Wright, Barney S Graham, Jason S McLellan, Laura M Walker
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in young children and the elderly. There are currently no licensed RSV vaccines, and passive prophylaxis with the monoclonal antibody palivizumab is restricted to high-risk infants in part due to its modest efficacy. Although it is widely agreed that an effective RSV vaccine will require the induction of a potent neutralizing antibody response against the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein, little is known about the specificities and functional activities of RSV F-specific antibodies induced by natural infection...
December 16, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111238/age-specific-profiles-of-antibody-responses-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#20
Nao Jounai, Megumi Yoshioka, Miyuki Tozuka, Kazue Inoue, Tatsuya Oka, Kazuki Miyaji, Katsuyasu Ishida, Naoki Kawai, Hideyuki Ikematsu, Chiaki Kawakami, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Masaaki Mori, Ken J Ishii, Fumihiko Takeshita
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most prevalent causative agents of lower respiratory tract infections worldwide, especially in infants around 3 to 4months old. Infants at such a young age have maternally-transferred passive antibodies against RSV but do not have active immune systems efficient enough for the control of RSV infection. In order to elucidate age-specific profiles of immune responses against RSV protection, antibody responses were examined by using blood samples in both acute and convalescent phases obtained from child patients and adult patients...
January 16, 2017: EBioMedicine
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