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pneumococcal pneumonia in Children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889801/production-and-purification-of-an-untagged-recombinant-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-pspa4pro-with-high-purity-and-low-endotoxin-content
#1
Douglas B Figueiredo, Eneas Carvalho, Mauricio P Santos, Stefanie Kraschowetz, Rafaela T Zanardo, Gilson Campani, Gabriel G Silva, Cíntia R Sargo, Antonio Carlos L Horta, Roberto de C Giordano, Eliane N Miyaji, Teresa C Zangirolami, Joaquin Cabrera-Crespo, Viviane Maimoni Gonçalves
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other conditions that kill thousands of children every year worldwide. The replacement of pneumococcal serotypes among the vaccinated population has evidenced the need for new vaccines with broader coverage and driven the research for protein-based vaccines. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) protects S. pneumoniae from the bactericidal effect of human apolactoferrin and prevents complement deposition. Several studies indicate that PspA is a very promising target for novel vaccine formulations...
November 26, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889249/analysis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-isolated-from-middle-ear-fluid-before-and-after-the-introduction-of-government-subsidies-for-pneumococcal-and-h-%C3%A2-influenzae-type-b-vaccines-in-japan
#2
Tadashi Hoshino, Noriko Takeuchi, Chie Fukasawa, Shoko Hirose, Hideyuki Okui, Hiroko Sato, Mari Sato, Yukiko Arimoto, Atsuko Nakano, Naruhiko Ishiwada
This study aimed to identify trends in frequency, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid specimens of children aged≤15 years (mean, 2 years), before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and the H. influenzae type b vaccine, at a pediatric facility in Japan. Sixty-six S. pneumoniae and 88 H. influenzae strains were isolated from 820 middle ear fluid samples. Serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885442/patterns-and-trends-of-pediatric-bloodstream-infections-a-7-year-surveillance-study
#3
N Buetti, A Atkinson, L Kottanattu, J Bielicki, J Marschall, A Kronenberg
We characterize the epidemiology of pediatric bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Switzerland. We analyzed pathogen distribution and resistance patterns in monomicrobial and polymicrobial BSIs in children from 2008 to 2014 using data from the Swiss antibiotic resistance centre (ANRESIS). A confirmatory statistical analysis was performed comparing pathogens and resistance across 20 acute care hospitals. We identified 3,067 bacteremia episodes, of which 1,823 (59 %) were considered true BSI episodes. Overall, S...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#4
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), e.g. acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis (AM), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and meningitis. The aim of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during, and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years who were hospitalized with HNIs in the Pediatrics Department in a general hospital between 1/1/2007-12/31/2014 were retrospectively identified...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862712/invasive-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-following-transplantation-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#5
Liset Olarte, Philana Ling Lin, William J Barson, Jose R Romero, Tina Q Tan, Laurence B Givner, Jill A Hoffman, John S Bradley, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pediatric recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI). Data on IPI in this population is scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the epidemiology of IPI among pediatric transplant recipients in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era. METHODS: We identified transplant recipients with IPI at 8 children's hospitals in the U.S. from our surveillance database (2000-2014)...
November 9, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859014/cord-blood-streptococcus-pneumoniae-specific-cellular-immune-responses-predict-early-pneumococcal-carriage-in-high-risk-infants-in-papua-new-guinea
#6
Jacinta P Francis, Peter C Richmond, Deborah Strickland, Susan L Prescott, William S Pomat, Audrey Michael, Marie A Nadal-Sims, Catherine J Edwards-Devitt, Patrick G Holt, Deborah Lehmann, Anita H J van den Biggelaar
Background In areas where Streptococcus pneumoniae is highly endemic, infants experience very early pneumococcal colonization of the upper respiratory tract with carriage often persisting into adulthood. We aimed to explore whether newborns in high risk areas have pre-existing pneumococcal-specific cellular immune responses that may affect early pneumococcal acquisition. Methods Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) of 84 Papua New Guinean (PNG; high endemic) and 33 Australian (AUS; low endemic) newborns were stimulated in vitro with detoxified pneumolysin (dPly) or pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA; families 1 and 2) and compared for cytokine responses...
November 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847379/emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-pneumococcal-serotype-35b-among-u-s-children
#7
Liset Olarte, Sheldon L Kaplan, William J Barson, José R Romero, Philana Ling Lin, Tina Q Tan, Jill A Hoffman, John S Bradley, Laurence B Givner, Edward O Mason, Kristina G Hultén
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 35B is a nonvaccine serotype associated with high rates of penicillin nonsusceptibility. An increase in the proportion of multidrug-resistant (MDR) 35B isolates has been recently reported. The genetic events contributing to the emergence of MDR serotype 35B are unknown.The sequence type (ST) composition of 78 serotype 35B isolates obtained from pediatric patients with invasive pneumococcal disease from 1994 to 2014, and 48 isolates from pediatric patients with otitis media (noninvasive) from 2011 to 2014 was characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844262/changes-in-the-pneumococcal-disease-related-hospitalisations-in-spain-after-the-replacement-of-7-valent-by-13-valent-conjugate-vaccine
#8
L Georgalis, A Mozalevskis, M V Martínez de Aragón, M Garrido-Estepa
In Spain, anti-pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for all children under 2 years old, high-risk groups and adults ≥65 years old. However, it is not funded in most autonomous communities. This study aims to compare pneumococcal disease hospitalisation rates between Period 1 (2007-2009), when 7-valent (PCV7) vaccine was available, and Period 2 (2011-2013), after the change to 13-valent (PCV13) vaccine in Spain. Data on hospitalisations were obtained from the National Registry of Hospitalisations. We calculated hospitalisation rates (HRs) and hospitalisation rate ratios (HRRs) among periods by age group and autonomous community, for all and by clinical presentation...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832918/changes-in-empyema-among-u-s-children-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#9
Andrew D Wiese, Marie R Griffin, Yuwei Zhu, Edward F Mitchel, Carlos G Grijalva
BACKGROUND: Parapneumonic empyema, a serious complication of pneumonia, started increasing among U.S. children before the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, and continued afterwards. This increase was due in part to pneumococcal serotypes not included in PCV7 that were included in the new 13-valent (PCV13) vaccine introduced in 2010. We assessed changes in the incidence of empyema hospitalizations among U.S. children after PCV13 introduction. METHODS: We calculated annualized empyema hospitalization rates among U...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832151/nationwide-trends-in-bacterial-meningitis-before-the-introduction-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-burkina-faso-2011-2013
#10
Dinanibè Kambiré, Heidi M Soeters, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Isaïe Medah, Lassana Sangare, Issaka Yaméogo, Guetawendé Sawadogo, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Soumeya Hema-Ouangraoua, Lesley McGee, Velusamy Srinivasan, Flavien Aké, Malika Congo-Ouédraogo, Soufian Sanou, Absatou Ky Ba, Ryan T Novak, Chris Van Beneden
BACKGROUND: Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. METHODS: Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832022/pneumococcal-serotype-5-colonization-prevalence-among-newly-arrived-unaccompanied-children-one-year-after-an-outbreak-texas-2015
#11
Miwako Kobayashi, Lara Misegades, Katherine E Fleming-Dutra, Sana Ahmed, Ryan Gierke, Srinivas Nanduri, Jessica M Healy, Duong Nguyen, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Fabiana Pimenta, Stephen H Waterman, Matthew R Moore, Curi Kim, Cynthia G Whitney
In 2014, an acute respiratory illness outbreak affected unaccompanied children from Central America entering the US; 9% of 774 surveyed children were colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5. In our 2015 follow-up survey of 475 children, serotype 5 was not detected, and an interim recommendation to administer 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to all unaccompanied children was discontinued.
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830065/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-meningitis-in-well-vaccinated-immunocompetent-13-month-old-child-a-case-of-pcv13-failure
#12
Simon Kayemba-Kay's, Abdul Monem Badran, Cécile Lagneaux, Tamas Kovacs, Anne Heron
We report a 13-month-old immune-competent male child who was diagnosed with pneumococcal serotype 19A meningitis despite having received three PCV13 injections. Clinicians are reminded that bacterial meningitis can still occur, even in correctly vaccinated children. Investigations should include immune system screening along with abdominal ultrasound to exclude asplenia.
November 2016: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829063/pneumococcal-carriage-in-children-under-five-years-in-uganda-will-present-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-be-appropriate
#13
Ann Lindstrand, Joan Kalyango, Tobias Alfvén, Jessica Darenberg, Daniel Kadobera, Freddie Bwanga, Stefan Peterson, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Karin Källander
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the major cause of death in children globally, with more than 900,000 deaths annually in children under five years of age. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes most deaths, most often in the form of community acquired pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are currently being implemented in many low-income countries. PCVs decrease vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage, a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease, and thereby affects pneumococcal disease and transmission...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810315/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-for-infants-in-china
#14
Kristin A Maurer, Huey-Fen Chen, Abram L Wagner, Sonia T Hegde, Tejasi Patel, Matthew L Boulton, David W Hutton
BACKGROUND: Although China has a high burden of pneumococcal disease among young children, the government does not administer publicly-funded pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) through its Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of publicly-funded PCV-7, PCV-10, and PCV-13 vaccination programs for infants in China. METHODS: Using a Markov model, we simulated a cohort of 16 million Chinese infants to estimate the impact of PCV-7, PCV-10, and PCV-13 vaccination programs from a societal perspective...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798547/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-in-middle-ear-fluid-isolates-during-acute-otitis-media-and-nasopharyngeal-isolates-during-community-acquired-alveolar-pneumonia-in-central-romania
#15
Raluca-Ileana Lixandru, Cristian Falup-Pecurariu, Laura Bleotu, Alice Mercas, Eugene Leibovitz, Ron Dagan, David Greenberg, Oana Falup-Pecurariu
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Romania has high rates of S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) are not being used routinely in this country. The aims of the study were: 1) To compare pneumococcal antibiotic resistance patterns in AOM and CAAP in children from central Romania; and 2) to compare differences in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes isolated from the middle ear fluid (MEF) of children with AOM and from the nasopharynx (NP) of children with CAAP...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798013/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-new-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-versus-a-licensed-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-a-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-non-inferiority-trial-in-china
#16
Jing Jing Chen, Lin Yuan, Zhen Huang, Nian Min Shi, Yu Liang Zhao, Sheng Li Xia, Guo Hua Li, Rong Cheng Li, Yan Ping Li, Shu Yuan Yang, Jie Lai Xia
INTRODUCTION: The invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae pose an enormous threat to children under 5 years of age. However, routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines could aid in reducing the incidence of IPDs. The purpose of this clinical trial is to assess the non-inferiority of the investigational 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) to the currently licensed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 1040 infants will receive a three-dose series of either PCV13 or PCV7 at ages 3, 4 and 5 months, respectively, and a booster dose at 12-15 months...
October 19, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795471/difference-of-the-change-of-the-hospitalization-for-pneumonia-in-children-between-japanese-secondary-and-tertiary-medical-facilities-after-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#17
Kaoru Haro, Masato Ogawa, Takayuki Hoshina, Masumi Kojiro, Koichi Kusuhara
The aim of this study is to compare pneumonia hospitalization in children between secondary and tertiary medical facilities, hospitalizing many children without and with underlying diseases, respectively, after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Our retrospective study was performed on the children who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at Kitakyushu General Hospital, a secondary medical facility, and at Hospital of the University of Occupational and Environment Health, Japan, a tertiary medical facility, from 2009 to 2013 for pneumonia...
October 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784937/antibiotic-resistance-patterns-and-related-mobile-genetic-elements-of-pneumococci-and-%C3%AE-hemolytic-streptococci-in-thai-healthy-children
#18
P Tantivitayakul, J Lapirattanakul, T Vichayanrat, T Muadchiengka
Transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-hemolytic streptococcus (BHS) was generally associated with transmissible genetic elements. The objectives of this study were to investigate carriage rate, antibiotic resistance and related mobile genetic elements of pneumococci and BHS from school-children. The pneumococci and BHS were recovered from 220 Thai school-children, and then tested for antibiotic susceptibility pattern by disc diffusion. Antibiotic resistance genes and related genetic elements were detected by PCR with specific primers...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773849/intranasal-administration-of-a-polyvalent-bacterial-lysate-induces-self-restricted-inflammation-in-the-lungs-and-a-th1-th17-memory-signature
#19
Analía Rial, Florencia Ferrara, Norma Suárez, Paola Scavone, Juan Martín Marqués, José Alejandro Chabalgoity
Respiratory tract infections are among the most frequent infections in humans causing millions of deaths especially in children and the elderly. Antibiotics and vaccines are the main available tools of control, but resistant strains are continuously arising and available vaccines only account for few of many pathogens involved. Non-specific immunotherapies are an emerging alternative to induce protective immunity at the airways. Mucosally administered polyvalent bacterial lysates (PBLs) have been widely used for decades for prevention of respiratory diseases, but the bases of their proposed therapeutic effectiveness are still controversial...
October 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771185/role-of-antibodies-and-il17-mediated-immunity-in-protection-against-pneumococcal-otitis-media
#20
Marrit N Habets, Saskia van Selm, Fred J van Opzeeland, Elles Simonetti, Peter W M Hermans, Marien I de Jonge, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos
Widespread vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) has significantly reduced pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes. Despite vaccination, overall pneumococcal colonization rates in children have not reduced and otitis media (OM) by non-vaccine serotypes remains one of the most common childhood infections. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) has been shown to be a promising protein antigen to induce broad protection against pneumococcal colonization. However, its ability to protect against OM remains unclear...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
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