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pneumococcal pneumonia in Children

Vijay G Mammen, Ziyaad Dangor, David P Moore, Alane Izu, Natalie Beylis, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Children hospitalized with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) frequently present with acute symptoms, possibly because of superimposed pneumococcal pneumonia. We undertook a time-series analysis to determine whether routine immunization of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was temporally associated with changes in the incidence of hospitalization for PTB in South African children. METHODS: PCV was introduced in the South African public immunization program in April 2009, with coverage for the third dose of PCV of 10%, 64% and 89% in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jacek Wysocki, Jerzy Brzostek, Ryszard Konior, Falko G Panzer, Nancy A François, Sudheer M Ravula, Devayani A Kolhe, Yue Song, Ilse Dieussaert, Lode Schuerman, Dorota Borys
To investigate long-term antibody persistence following the administration of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), we present results of two follow-up studies assessing antibody persistence following two 3+1 schedules up to four (NCT00624819 - Study A) and five years (NCT00891176 - Study B) post-booster vaccination. In Study A, antibody persistence was measured one, two and four years post-booster in children previously primed and boosted with PHiD-CV, or primed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) and boosted with either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM...
October 13, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Anne L Wyllie, Lidewij W Rümke, Kayleigh Arp, Astrid A T M Bosch, Jacob P Bruin, Nynke Y Rots, Alienke J Wijmenga-Monsuur, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Krzysztof Trzciński
Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults is rarely detected by the gold standard culture method. With molecular tests of high sensitivity now available, we analysed upper respiratory tract samples collected during autumn/winter 2012/2013 from parents of PCV7-vaccinated infants and from childless adults, directly comparing culture and qPCR-based S. pneumoniae detection. As compared to the gold standard of testing nasopharyngeal swabs, qPCR-based analysis of oral samples significantly improved detection of pneumococcal carriage (5% versus 20%, p < 0...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Pneumococcal infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients throughout the world. This microorganism remains the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia and is associated with a considerable burden of disease and health-care costs in both developed and developing countries. Emerging antibiotic resistance has been a concern because of its potential negative impact on the outcome of patients who receive standard antibiotic therapy. However, there have been substantial changes in the epidemiology of this pathogen in recent years, not least of which has been due to the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children, with subsequent herd protection in unvaccinated adults and children...
2016: F1000Research
Maria-Cristina de C Brandileone, Rosemeire C Zanella, Samanta C G Almeida, Angela P Brandao, Ana F Ribeiro, Telma-Regina M P Carvalhanas, Helena Sato, Ana-Lúcia Andrade, Jennifer R Verani
In March 2010, Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in the routine infant immunization program using a 4-dose schedule and catch-up for children <23months. We investigated PCV10 effect on nasopharyngeal carriage with vaccine-type Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) among children in São Paulo city. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 (baseline) and 2013 (post-PCV10). Healthy PCV-naïve children aged 12-23months were recruited from primary health centers during immunization campaigns...
September 28, 2016: Vaccine
Anneke Steens, Natacha Milhano, Ingeborg S Aaberge, Didrik F Vestrheim
BACKGROUND: As a standard method for pneumococcal carriage studies, the World Health Organization recommends nasopharyngeal swabs be transported and stored at cool temperatures in a medium containing skim-milk, tryptone, glucose and glycerol (STGG). An enrichment broth used for transport at room temperature in three carriage studies performed in Norway may have a higher sensitivity than STGG. We therefore compared the media in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For the in vitro component, three strains (serotype 4, 19F and 3) were suspended in STGG and enrichment broth...
2016: PeerJ
Chrispin Chaguza, Cheryl P Andam, Simon R Harris, Jennifer E Cornick, Marie Yang, Laura Bricio-Moreno, Arox W Kamng'ona, Julian Parkhill, Neil French, Robert S Heyderman, Aras Kadioglu, Dean B Everett, Stephen D Bentley, William P Hanage
: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence...
September 27, 2016: MBio
N Principi, P Marchisio, C Rosazza, C S Sciarrabba, S Esposito
The principal aim of this review is to present the current knowledge regarding acute otitis media (AOM) with spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation (STMP) and to address the question of whether AOM with STMP is a disease with specific characteristics or a severe case of AOM. PubMed was used to search for all studies published over the past 15 years using the key words "acute otitis media" and "othorrea" or "spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation". More than 250 articles were found, but only those published in English and providing data on aspects related to perforation of infectious origin were considered...
September 27, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Devrim Emel Alici, Abdullah Sayiner, Serhat Unal
Immunization is an important component of preventive healthcare services aiming to prevent and eventually eradicate infectious diseases by immunizing people before they become infected. Although immunization is an integral part of children's healthcare, this fact is underrated, even ignored in adults. In Turkey, adult immunization is available only for certain high risk groups such as health care professionals and populations aged >65 years and under certain conditions including pregnancy, military service, travel-pilgrimage, and employment procedures...
September 26, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Eduardo Jorge da Fonseca Lima, Maria Júlia Gonçalves Mello, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Maria Isabella Londres Lopes, George Henrique Cordeiro Serra, Debora Ellen Pessoa Lima, Jailson Barros Correia
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia plays an important role in children's morbidity and mortality. In Brazil, epidemiological and social changes occurred concomitantly with the universal introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This study identified risk factors for pneumonia following the implementation of a pneumococcal vaccination program. METHODS: A hospital-based, case-control study involving incident cases of pneumonia in children aged 1-59 months was conducted between October 2010 and September 2013 at a tertiary hospital in northeastern Brazil...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Aliou Thiongane, Aliou Abdoulaye Ndongo, Idrissa Demba Ba, Djibril Boiro, Papa Moctar Faye, Younoussa Keita, Aïssatou Ba, Djeynaba Fafa Cissé, Idrissa Basse, Lamine Thiam, Indou Déme Ly, Babacar Niang, Abou Ba, Amadou Lamine Fall, Saliou Diouf, Ousmane Ndiaye, Mamadou Ba, Mamadou Sarr
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a common cause of organic acute renal failure (ARF) in children. It is a progressive complication of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), especially caused by Escherichia coli in children. This study aimed to describe the clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of this affection in four children. We collected four cases of HUS. The average age was 10,5 months (5-15mois), exclusively boys. Clinical examination revealed a hemolytic anemia (pallor and jaundice), oligoanuria and edematous syndrome (2 cases), arterial hypertension (1 patient), AGE associated with severe dehydration and hypovolemic shock (2 patients), consciousness disorders...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Maurice Gatera, Jeannine Uwimana, Emmanuel Manzi, Fidele Ngabo, Friday Nwaigwe, Bradford D Gessner, Jennifer C Moïsi
BACKGROUND: Ongoing surveillance is critical to assessing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact over time. However, robust prospective studies are difficult to implement in resource-poor settings. We evaluated retrospective use of routinely collected data to estimate PCV impact in Rwanda. METHODS: We collected data from admission registers at five district hospitals on children age <5yearsadmitted for suspected meningitis and pneumonia during 2002-2012...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Fabiola Fernández, Rolando Campillay, Valeria Palma, Ximena Norambuena, Arnoldo Quezada
INTRODUCTION: Specific antibody deficiency (SAD) with normal immunoglobulin and normal B cells is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by reduced ability to produce antibodies to specific antigens especially polysaccharides. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of patients diagnosed with SAD emphasizing the association between primary immunodeficiency and allergic diseases. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Descriptive study showing patients with SAD treated at a public hospital between August 2007 and July 2015...
September 7, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Neea Laaksonen, Lilja Rintamäki, Matti Korppi
AIM: The occurrence of blood culture-positive pneumococcal bacteraemia and bacteraemic pneumonia decreased after large-scale pneumococcal vaccinations were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pneumococcal vaccinations on hospitalisations due to blood culture-negative infections with fever and leucocytosis, without any other focus than pneumonic infiltration. MATERIAL: This was a retrospective hospital chart review covering the pre-vaccination era of 2008-2009 and post-vaccination era of 2012-2013...
September 8, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Elisabeth Dowling Root, Marilla Lucero, Hanna Nohynek, Rebecca Stubbs, Veronica Tallo, Socorro P Lupisan, Diozele M Sanvictores, Leilani T Nillos, Eric A F Simões
BACKGROUND: Both vaccine trials and surveillance studies typically use passive surveillance systems to monitor study outcomes, which may lead to under-reporting of study outcomes in areas with poor access to care. This detection bias can have an adverse effect on conventional estimates of pneumonia risk derived from vaccine trials. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) among children less than 2 years of age in Bohol, Philippines...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Marcela Potin, Alberto Fica, Jan Wilhem, Jaime Cerda, Lily Contreras, Carola Escobar, Gabriela Moreno, Alma Muñoz, Liliana Véliz
Inclusion of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV10) in the Chilean infant vaccination Program in 2011 was followed by a reduction of hospital admissions and pneumonia-related deaths in this age group. However, a progressive increase of serotype 19A pneumococcal isolates (not included in PCV10) has been observed. According to the analysis of pneumococcal strains performed by the national reference laboratory of the Institute of Public Health as part of a national surveillance on invasive pneumococcal infections, the relative proportion of serotype 19A isolates increased from <5% before 2010 to 12-23% in years 2014-2015...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Junko Hasegawa, Mitsuru Mori, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Takeshi Tsugawa, Tsukasa Hori, Yuko Yoto, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi
BACKGROUND: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to Japan in 2009, after which there was a rapid decline in invasive pneumococcal disease. However, there is little data on the effectiveness of PCV7 against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We conducted an ambispective cohort study among children aged 0-6 years old who attended day care centers. METHODS: A total of 624 children at 10 day care centers in Sapporo, Japan participated in the study...
September 2, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
V Baldo, S Cocchio, T Gallo, P Furlan, E Clagnan, S Del Zotto, M Saia, C Bertoncello, A Buja, T Baldovin
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia remains a common reason for hospitalizing infants and the elderly worldwide, and streptococcal infection is often responsible. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of pneumonia in a large general population. METHODS: All pneumonia-related hospitalizations from 2004 to 2013 in north-east Italy were identified from the hospital records with a first-listed diagnosis on discharge of bacterial pneumonia, or a first-listed diagnosis on discharge of meningitis, septicemia or empyema associated with a secondary diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Igor C Borges, Dafne C Andrade, Maria Regina A Cardoso, Jorma Toppari, Mari Vähä-Mäkilä, Jorma Ilonen, Mikael Knip, Heikki Hyöty, Riitta Veijola, Olli Simell, Tuomas Jartti, Helena Käyhty, Olli Ruuskanen, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
Conserved protein antigens have been investigated as vaccine candidates against respiratory pathogens. We evaluated the natural development of antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis proteins during childhood. Fifty healthy children had serum samples collected from their first months up to the age of 13 years (median sampling interval 6 months). We also analyzed sera from 24 adults. Serum IgG against eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply, CbpA, PspA1 and 2, PcpA, PhtD, StkP-C, and PcsB-N), three H...
August 31, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Lubaba Shahrin, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Sayeeda Huq, Md Munirul Islam, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Mahmuda Begum, Shukla Saha, Tahmeed Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumonia is the most common and intimidating cause of childhood meningitis. Its delayed diagnosis may be associated with hyponatremia and hypernatremia with fatal outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy nine-month-old Bangladeshi female infant was diagnosed with diarrhea, pneumonia, and convulsion due to hypernatremia. Pneumonia was confirmed by respiratory distress and radiological findings. Routine cerebrospinal fluid study detected pneumococcal meningitis...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
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