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pneumococcal pneumonia in Children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460732/emergence-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-12f-after-sequential-introduction-of-7-and-13-valent-vaccines-israel
#1
Assaf Rokney, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Zinaida Korenman, Nurith Porat, Zeev Gorodnitzky, Noga Givon-Lavi, Merav Ron, Vered Agmon, Ron Dagan, Lea Valinsky
Israel implemented use of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in 2009 and 2010, respectively. We describe results of prospective, population-based, nationwide active surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) dynamics in the 7 years after vaccine introduction. Of 4,573 IPD episodes during July 2009-June 2016, a total of 434 (9.5%) were caused by Sp12F. Sp12F IPD rates (cases/100,000 population) increased in children <5 years of age, from 1.44 in 2009-2010 to >3...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451838/serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-potential-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Kaile Chen, Xiyan Zhang, Wei Shan, Genming Zhao, Tao Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV13) was licensed for optional use in mainland China since 2017, but the uptake is low. To update the research evidence for the pneumococcal serotype distribution of pre-PCV era and to estimate the potential impact of PCVs, we performed a meta-analysis on the relevant publications concerning the Chinese population. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on the pneumococcal serotype distribution publications in mainland China from 2000 to 2016...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449834/peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-3-does-not-alter-the-outcome-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-mice
#3
Anshu Shrivastav, Alexander N Dabrowski, Claudia Conrad, Nelli Baal, Holger Hackstein, Stephanie Plog, Kristina Dietert, Achim D Gruber, Philippe D N'Guessan, Sahar Aly, Norbert Suttorp, Janine Zahlten
Pneumococci frequently cause community-acquired pneumonia, a disease with high mortality rates, particularly in young children and in the elderly. Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and proteins such as PGLYRP3 may contribute to the progression and outcome of this disease. Since increasing antibiotic resistant strains occur all over the world, these endogenous antimicrobial molecules are interesting new targets for future therapies. In this study, the expression pattern of PGLYRP3 was analyzed in alveolar epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447196/nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-children-5-years-of-age-before-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-mozambique
#4
Jennifer R Verani, Sérgio Massora, Sozinho Acácio, Rita Teresa Dos Santos, Delfino Vubil, Fabiana Pimenta, Iaci Moura, Cynthia G Whitney, Maria Helena Costa, Eusébio Macete, Maria Benigna Matsinhe, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Betuel Sigaúque
Nasopharyngeal carriage is a precursor for pneumococcal disease and can be useful for evaluating pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact. We studied pre-PCV pneumococcal carriage among HIV-infected and -uninfected children in Mozambique. Between October 2012 and March 2013, we enrolled HIV-infected children age <5 years presenting for routine care at seven HIV clinics in 3 sites, including Maputo (urban-south), Nampula (urban-north), and Manhiça (rural-south). We also enrolled a random sample of HIV-uninfected children <5 years old from a demographic surveillance site in Manhiça...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441651/invasive-pneumococcal-infections-in-pediatric-liver-small-bowel-pancreas-transplant-recipients
#5
Hanh D Vo, Diana F Florescu, Cindy R Brown, Heather E Chambers, David F Mercer, Luciano M Vargas, Wendy J Grant, Alan N Langnas, Ruben E Quiros-Tejeira
Children undergoing LSBPTx are at increased risk of IPI due to splenectomy. We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcomes of IPI in pediatric LSBPTx recipients. Between 2008 and 2016, 122 LSBPTx children at our center were retrospectively reviewed. Nine patients had 12 episodes of IPI; the median age at first infection was 3.5 years (range: 1.5-7.1 years). The median time from transplant to first infection was 3 years (range: 0.8-5.8 years). Clinical presentation included as follows: pneumonia (n = 1), bacteremia/sepsis (n = 7), pneumonia with sepsis (n = 1), meningitis with sepsis (n = 2), pneumonia and meningitis with sepsis (n = 1)...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415741/elucidating-the-impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-programme-on-pneumonia-sepsis-and-otitis-media-hospital-admissions-in-england-using-a-composite-control
#6
Dominic Thorrington, Nick Andrews, Julia Stowe, Elizabeth Miller, Albert Jan van Hoek
BACKGROUND: The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced in England in September 2006, changing to the 13-valent vaccine in April 2010. PCV impact on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been extensively reported, but less described is its impact on the burden of pneumonia, sepsis and otitis media in the hospital. METHODS: Using details on all admissions to hospitals in England, we compared the incidence of pneumococcal-specific and syndromic disease endpoints in a 24-month pre-PCV period beginning April 2004 to the 24-month period ending March 2015 to derive incidence rate ratios (IRRs)...
February 8, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405142/distribution-of-different-genes-responsible-for-invasive-characteristics-detection-of-point-mutations-in-capsular-gene-wcha-and-biofilm-production-among-the-invasive-and-non-invasive-isolates-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#7
James John, Kripa Shanker Kasudhan, Reba Kanungo, Savitri Sharma, Vaishali Dohe, K Prashanth
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to cause morbidity and mortality across the globe, with developing countries bearing the brunt of the disease. It is mainly responsible for meningitis, pneumonia and septicaemia primarily in children, elderly and immunocompromised persons. Colonisation and persistence in the human nasopharynx occur during early childhood, and it appears to be prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Factors that help in persistent colonisation and subsequent invasion are ill understood...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401243/population-structure-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonizing-children-before-and-after-universal-use-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-brazil-emergence-and-expansion-of-the-mdr-serotype-6c-cc386-lineage
#8
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Aline R V Souza, Robert E Snyder, Mariel M Marlow, Tatiana C A Pinto, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
Objectives: To determine the population structure and change in drug resistance of pneumococci colonizing children before and after the introduction of the 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10/13) in Brazil. Methods: We used MLST to analyse 256 pneumococcal isolates obtained from children aged <6 years before (2009-10; n = 125) and after (2014; n = 131) the introduction of the PCV10 and PCV13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and capsular types were previously determined...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391051/short-course-antimicrobial-therapy-for-paediatric-respiratory-infections-safer-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Jeffrey Pernica, Stuart Harman, April Kam, Jacob Bailey, Redjana Carciumaru, Sarah Khan, Martha Fulford, Lehana Thabane, Robert Slinger, Cheryl Main, Marek Smieja, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is commonly diagnosed in children. The Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines recommend 10 days of high-dose amoxicillin for the treatment of non-severe CAP but 5-day "short course" therapy may be just as effective. Randomized trials in adults have already demonstrated non-inferiority of 5-day short-course treatment for adults hospitalized with severe CAP and for adults with mild CAP treated as outpatients. Minimizing exposure to antimicrobials is desirable to avoid harms including diarrhoea, rashes, severe allergic reactions, increased circulating antimicrobial resistance, and microbiome disruption...
February 1, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374831/use-of-procalcitonin-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-infants-and-preschool-children
#10
Eneritz Velasco-Arnaiz, Esther Pérez, Desirée Henares, Anna Fernández-López, Anna Valls, Pedro Brotons, Clàudia Fortuny, Antoni Noguera-Julian
Normal procalcitonin (PCT) levels have been reported in adult pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) but have not been previously investigated in children. We aimed to assess PCT levels at diagnosis of TB in young children in a low-burden setting. In a cross-sectional observational study in a referral pediatric center in Barcelona (Spain), we assessed the value of PCT and other inflammatory markers (leucocyte counts, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) in the diagnosis of TB in pre-school children (< 6 years at diagnosis, n = 45), as compared with two control groups (pneumococcal pneumonia, n = 25; and healthy controls, n = 49)...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361416/laboratory-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-multidrug-resistance-among-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-in-the-kinki-region-of-japan-2001-2015
#11
Hirofumi Toda, Kaori Satoh, Masaru Komatsu, Saori Fukuda, Tatsuya Nakamura, Takumi Jikimoto, Hisaaki Nishio, Katsutoshi Yamasaki, Takuya Maede, Tamaki Orita, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Machiko Kita, Masahiro Toyokawa, Isao Nishi, Masahiro Akagi, Takefumi Higuchi, Tomomi Kofuku, Isako Nakai, Tamotsu Ono, Koichi Shimakawa, Yoshie Hikita, Kunihiko Moro, Kaneyuki Kida, Masanobu Oohama, Yasunao Wada, Toru Tobe, Toshinori Kamisako, Yuji Tanaka
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced among children in Japan in 2010. There are no long-term multicenter surveillance studies of antimicrobial resistance in S. pneumoniae before and after the introduction of PCV7. Therefore, we examined chronological trends in antimicrobial resistance among 4534 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from both children and adults in the Kinki region of Japan during 2001-2015. High-level penicillin and third-generation cephalosporin resistance in S...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304066/burden-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-among-children-in-rural-mozambique-2001-2012
#12
Betuel Sigaúque, Jennifer R Verani, Sérgio Massora, Delfino Vubil, Llorenç Quintó, Sozinho Acácio, Inácio Mandomando, Quique Bassat, Tacilta Nhampossa, Fabiana Pimenta, Charfudin Sacoor, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Eusebio Macete, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a major cause of illness and death among children worldwide. 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced as part of the Mozambican routine immunization program in April 2013. We characterized the IPD burden in a rural area of Mozambique before PCV introduction and estimated the potential impact of this intervention. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveillance for IPD, defined as S. pneumoniae isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid, among children <5 years old admitted to Manhiça District Hospital, a referral hospital in a rural area with high prevalence of human immunodiciency virus infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289385/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-pre-conjugate-vaccine-era-a-chinese-hospital-based-retrospective-study
#13
Ling Li, Jinjian Fu, Shunming Li, Dan Guo, Zhiyao Chen, Sidong Chen, Xiaohua Ye
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is an important pathogen in causing global morbidity and mortality among children. This study aimed to determine phenotypic and molecular characteristics of S. pneumoniae causing infections in children under five years in China. METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted. All 537 S. pneumoniae isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by E-test method, molecular characteristics including resistance genes, virulence genes and serotypes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and sequence types (STs) by sequencing seven housekeeping genes...
December 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285648/bacteria-from-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-children-with-suspected-chronic-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-results-from-a-multi-center-cross-sectional-study-in-spain
#14
Amparo Escribano Montaner, Juan García de Lomas, José Ramón Villa Asensi, Oscar Asensio de la Cruz, Olga de la Serna Blázquez, Mikel Santiago Burruchaga, Pedro Mondéjar López, Alba Torrent Vernetta, Yang Feng, Melissa K Van Dyke, Janet Reyes, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Carla A Talarico
This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of bacteria isolated from Spanish children with suspected chronic lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) for whom bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was indicated. BAL fluid (BALF) was collected from 191 children (aged ≥ 6 months to < 6 years, with persistent or recurrent respiratory symptoms, non-responders to usual treatment) and cultured. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) were also obtained and cultured to assess concordance of BALF and NPS findings in the same patient...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284419/serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-17-chinese-cities-from-2011-to-2016
#15
Chunjiang Zhao, Zongbo Li, Feifei Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Ping Ji, Ji Zeng, Bijie Hu, Zhidong Hu, Kang Liao, Hongli Sun, Rong Zhang, Bin Cao, Chao Zhuo, Wei Jia, Yaning Mei, Yunzhuo Chu, Xuesong Xu, Qing Yang, Yan Jin, Quan Fu, Xiuli Xu, Hongling Li, Lijun Wang, Yuxing Ni, Hongjie Liang, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading pathogen of bacterial infections in infants and the elderly, is responsible for pneumococcal diseases with severe morbidity and mortality. Emergence of drug-resistant strains presented new challenges for treatment and prevention. Vaccination has proven to be an effective means of preventing pneumococcal infection worldwide. Detailed epidemiological information of antibiotic susceptibilities and serotype distribution will be of great help to the management of pneumococcal infections...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278616/decreased-aom-with-treatment-failure-following-introduction-of-the-ten-valent-pneumococcal-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine
#16
Elias Eythorsson, Birgir Hrafnkelsson, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Sigmar Atli Gudmundsson, Karl G Kristinsson, Ásgeir Haraldsson
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media non-responsive to antibiotics is most commonly caused by antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. A strategy for treating these infections with parenteral ceftriaxone was adopted at The Children's Hospital Iceland. The 10-valent pneumococcal H. influenzae Protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) was introduced into the vaccination program in Iceland in 2011. The aim was to study its effect on the incidence of AOM with treatment failure...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277475/subtractive-genome-analysis-for-in-silico-identification-and-characterization-of-novel-drug-targets-in-streptococcus-pneumonia-strain-jja
#17
Abdul Wadood, Alam Jamal, Muhammad Riaz, Ajmal Khan, Reaz Uddin, Musharraf Jelani, Syed Sikander Azam
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium. Humans are the major target for the pneumococcus. The pneumococcus is a common etiological agent of many different diseases such as bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media (OM), sinusitis, and conjunctivitis. According to the WHO, the pneumococcus is responsible for causing 1 million deaths each year. In 2000, over 14 million children worldwide under the age of 5 years were diagnosed with a pneumococcal disease, with the highest incidence seen in Africa...
December 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258745/recovery-from-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-a-developing-country-prognostic-value-of-serum-procalcitonin
#18
Taiane S Fonseca, Ângela G Vasconcellos, Dominique Gendrel, Olli Ruuskanen, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Childhood community-acquired pneumonia is a common and potentially life-threatening illness in developing countries. We assessed the prognostic value of serum procalcitonin level upon admission on clinical response to antibiotic treatment. METHODS: Out of 89 patients, the median (IQR) age was 19(12-29) months and 60% were boys. Viral (49.5%), typical bacterial (38%) and atypical bacterial (12.5%) infections as well as probable pneumococcal infections (26%) were diagnosed...
December 16, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238454/phenotypic-and-genotypic-features-of-first-biofilm-forming-nasopharyngeal-colonized-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#19
Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Bahman Mirzaei, Bahareh Shaghaghi, Pantea Jalali, Tahereh Setayesh, Seyed Hamid Moosavi
Background and Objectives: Designing control and therapeutic policies for antibiotic resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is an important causative agent of several invasive and noninvasive infectious diseases and its carriage rates, has been described as the main target in World Health Organization (WHO). The present study was conducted to determine antibiotic resistance pattern, evaluate biofilm forming ability in S. pneumoniae isolates, and find the genetic relationship between cultured strains...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237402/prevalence-and-serotype-distribution-of-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-china-a-meta-analysis
#20
Lin Wang, Jinjian Fu, Zhuoxin Liang, Jichang Chen
BACKGROUND: To explore the overall prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae(S. pneumoniae) among healthy children. METHODS: A search for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage studies including children published up to July 31th, 2016 was conducted to describe carriage in China. The review also describes antibiotic resistance in and serotypes of S. pneumoniae and assesses the impact of vaccination on carriage in this region...
December 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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