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pneumococcal pneumonia in Children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096183/pneumococcal-neuraminidase-a-nana-promotes-biofilm-formation-and-synergizes-with-influenza-a-virus-in-nasal-colonization-and-middle-ear-infection
#1
John T Wren, Lance K Blevins, Bing Pang, Ankita Basu Roy, Melissa B Oliver, Jennifer L Reimche, Jessie E Wozniak, Martha A Alexander-Miller, W Edward Swords
Even in the vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of otitis media, a significant public health burden, in large because of its high prevalence of nasal colonization in children. The primary pneumococcal neuraminidase NanA, which is a sialidase that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from host glycoconjugates, is involved in both of these processes. Coinfection with influenza A virus, which also expresses a neuraminidase, exacerbates nasal colonization and disease by S...
January 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#2
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070670/the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalizations-in-children-with-comorbidity
#3
Ellinor Sterky, Rutger Bennet, Ann Lindstrand, Margareta Eriksson, Anna Nilsson
: The burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in high-income countries is still significant. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has reduced the overall need for hospitalization for CAP. However, it is not clear whether children with underlying disease also have benefitted from the PCV immunization programme. Children 0 to <5 years of age hospitalized with CAP and discharged with an ICD-10 code of J13-J18.9 between November 1, 2005, and April 30, 2007 (pre-vaccination period), and November 1, 2010, and April 30, 2012 (post-vaccination period), were eligible for this study...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067813/pneumococcal-colonization-in-the-familial-context-and-implications-for-anti-pneumococcal-immunization-in-adults-results-from-the-binocolo-project-in-sicily
#4
Fabio Tramuto, Emanuele Amodio, Giuseppe Calamusa, Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Francesco Vitale, On Behalf Of The Binocolo Group
The spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae within families has been scarcely investigated so far. This feasibility study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in school-aged children and co-habiting relatives and to explore the potential link between the family environment and the sharing of pneumococcal serotypes covered by the vaccine. Oropharyngeal samples of 146 subjects belonging to 36 different family groups were molecularly tested for pneumococcal detection and serotyping. The overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 65...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062125/propensity-of-pneumococcal-carriage-serotypes-to-infect-the-lower-airways-of-children-with-chronic-endobronchial-infections
#5
Kim M Hare, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Susan Pizzutto, Helen L Petsky, Gabrielle B McCallum, Amanda J Leach
BACKGROUND: Chronic endobronchial infections in children are responsible for a high disease burden. Streptococcus pneumoniae is frequently isolated; however, few publications have described serotypes associated with non-invasive lower airway infection. METHODS: Paired nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected from children undergoing bronchoscopy for chronic cough. NP swabs were also collected from asymptomatic children in otitis media surveillance studies (controls)...
January 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052071/impact-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-clinical-and-hypoxemic-childhood-pneumonia-over-three-years-in-central-malawi-an-observational-study
#6
Eric D McCollum, Bejoy Nambiar, Rashid Deula, Beatiwel Zadutsa, Austin Bondo, Carina King, James Beard, Harry Liyaya, Limangeni Mankhambo, Marzia Lazzerini, Charles Makwenda, Gibson Masache, Naor Bar-Zeev, Peter N Kazembe, Charles Mwansambo, Norman Lufesi, Anthony Costello, Ben Armstrong, Tim Colbourn
BACKGROUND: The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine's (PCV) impact on childhood pneumonia during programmatic conditions in Africa is poorly understood. Following PCV13 introduction in Malawi in November 2011, we evaluated the case burden and rates of childhood pneumonia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between January 1, 2012-June 30, 2014 we conducted active pneumonia surveillance in children <5 years at seven hospitals, 18 health centres, and with 38 community health workers in two districts, central Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032483/indirect-effects-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-national-immunization-programs-for-children-on-adult-pneumococcal-disease
#7
REVIEW
Young Keun Kim, David LaFon, Moon H Nahm
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was developed to overcome the limitations of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which produces poor immunogenicity in infants younger than 2 years. As many countries have included PCVs in national immunization programs for children, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine type Streptococcus pneumoniae has declined markedly, not only among the vaccinated pediatric population, but also among unvaccinated adults. In this review, we present a concise overview of the indirect effects of mass pediatric PCV immunization on unvaccinated adults...
December 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029140/prevention-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-with-available-pneumococcal-vaccines
#8
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) places a considerable burden on society. A substantial number of pediatric and adult CAP cases are due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, but fortunately there are effective vaccines available that have a significant impact on CAP-related medical, social, and economic problems. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the published evidence concerning the impact of pneumococcal vaccines on the prevention of CAP in children and adults. Available data indicate that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are effective in children, reducing all-cause CAP cases and bacteremic and nonbacteremic CAP cases...
December 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024738/recent-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-nasopharynxes-of-korean-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#9
Seung Beom Han, Jong-Hyun Kim, Jin Han Kang, Sang Hyuk Ma, Chun Soo Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim, Hwang Min Kim, Young Youn Choi
BACKGROUND: This prospective study was performed to evaluate serotype distribution, multilocus sequence typing, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae identified in Korean children with acute otitis media (AOM) after the introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children diagnosed with AOM in seven hospitals in Korea. The bacteria identified in these samples and the serotypes, sequence types (STs), and antibiotic susceptibilities of S...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012512/no-evidence-for-impaired-humoral-immunity-to-pneumococcal-proteins-in-australian-aboriginal-children-with-otitis-media
#10
Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann S Kirkham, Karli J Corscadden, Harvey L Coates, Shyan Vijayasekaran, Jessica Hillwood, Sophie Toster, Phillipa Edminston, Guicheng Zhang, Anthony Keil, Peter C Richmond
BACKGROUND: The Australian Aboriginal population experiences disproportionately high rates of otitis media (OM). Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the main pathogens responsible for OM and currently no vaccine offering cross strain protection exists. Vaccines consisting of conserved antigens to S. pneumoniae may reduce the burden of OM in high-risk populations; however no data exists examining naturally acquired antibody in Aboriginal children with OM. METHODS: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG were measured against the S...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011920/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-carriage-during-childhood-community-acquired-alveolar-pneumonia-relationship-between-specific-serotypes-and-co-infecting-viruses
#11
David Greenberg, Noga Givon-Lavi, Yaniv Fainguelernt, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Yonat Shemer Avni, Jacob Bar-Ziv, Ron Dagan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses and S. pneumoniae are known to be co-pathogens in childhood pneumonia. However, it is unclear whether all pneumococcal serotypes are equally prone to such interaction. We attempted to determine association between carried pneumococcal serotypes and respiratory viruses during childhood community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP). METHODS: The study was conducted during RSV seasons, before pneumococcal vaccine introduction. Children <5 years diagnosed with CAAP, with positive pneumococcal nasopharyngeal cultures from whom viral diagnostic tests were obtained were enrolled...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006650/rise-of-multidrug-resistant-non-vaccine-serotype-15a-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-the-united-kingdom-2001-to-2014
#12
Carmen Sheppard, Norman K Fry, Shazad Mushtaq, Neil Woodford, Rosy Reynolds, Regina Janes, Rachel Pike, Robert Hill, Maimuna Kimuli, Peter Staves, Michel Doumith, Timothy Harrison, David M Livermore
Conjugate vaccines have reduced pneumococcal disease in vaccinated children and unvaccinated adults, but non-vaccine serotypes are of concern, particularly if antibiotic resistant. We reviewed Streptococcus pneumoniae collected via: (i) the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) surveillances from 2001-2014; (ii) Public Health England's (PHE) invasive isolate surveillance from 2005-2014 and (iii) referral to PHE for resistance investigation from 2005-2014. Serotype 15A increased in all series, with many representatives showing triple resistance to macrolides, tetracyclines and penicillin...
December 15, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000028/demonstration-of-the-herd-effect-in-adults-after-the-implementation-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-pcv13-in-children
#13
C Hays, Q Vermee, A Agathine, A Dupuis, E Varon, C Poyart, M-C Ploy, J Raymond
The purpose of this investigation was to describe the evolution of serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from both adults and children from the same population area with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or acute otitis media (AOM), 5 years after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). From 2009 to 2015, 839 strains of S. pneumoniae strains were collected (481 from adults and 358 from children). Serotyping by latex antisera and molecular methods was performed...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998266/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-cases-in-france-between-2001-and-2014-a-time-series-analysis
#14
Anna Alari, Hélène Chaussade, Matthieu Domenech De Cellès, Lénaig Le Fouler, Emmanuelle Varon, Lulla Opatowski, Didier Guillemot, Laurence Watier
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a major invasive pneumococcal disease. Two pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced in France: PCV7 was recommended in 2003 and replaced in 2010 by PCV13, which has six additional serotypes. The impact of introducing those vaccines on the evolution of PM case numbers and serotype distributions in France from 2001 to 2014 is assessed herein. METHODS: Data on 5166 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid between 2001 and 2014 in the 22 regions of France were obtained from the National Reference Center for Pneumococci...
December 21, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997514/serotypes-not-included-in-13-valent-pneumococcal-vaccine-as-causes-of-acute-otitis-media-with-spontaneous-tympanic-membrane-perforation-in-a-geographic-area-with-high-vaccination-coverage
#15
Paola Marchisio, Susanna Esposito, Marina Picca, Elena Baggi, Leonardo Terranova, Annalisa Orenti, Elia Biganzoli, Nicola Principi
In 177 children living in an area with high 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) coverage who had acute otitis media (AOM) complicated with spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation (STMP), Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in the middle ear fluid of 48 (27.1%) subjects, with 37 (77.1%) cases caused by non-PCV13 serotypes.
December 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989625/pneumonia-prevention-cost-effectiveness-analyses-of-two-vaccines-among-refugee-children-aged-under-two-years-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-containing-and-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-during-a-humanitarian-emergency-yida-camp-south-sudan
#16
Lisa M Gargano, Rana Hajjeh, Susan T Cookson
By September 2013, war between Sudan and South Sudan resulted in >70,000 Sudanese refugees and high pneumonia incidence among the 20,000 refugees in Yida camp, South Sudan. Using Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-provided data and modifying our decision-tree models, we estimated if administering Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-containing (pentavalent vaccine, also with diphtheria pertussis and tetanus [DPT] and hepatitis B) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) vaccines were cost-effective against hospitalized pneumonia...
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956163/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-aged-younger-than-5-years-in-india-a-surveillance-study
#17
Anand Manoharan, Vikas Manchanda, Sundaram Balasubramanian, Sanjay Lalwani, Meera Modak, Sushama Bai, Ajith Vijayan, Anita Shet, Savitha Nagaraj, Sunil Karande, Gita Nataraj, Vijay N Yewale, Shrikrishna A Joshi, Ranganathan N Iyer, Mathuram Santosham, Geoffrey D Kahn, Maria Deloria Knoll
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years of age in India. We aimed to provide nationally representative data for the pattern of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, trends in the serotype of invasive pneumococci, and invasive pneumococci antimicrobial resistance patterns, in India. METHODS: In this prospective hospital-based and retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study, we prospectively enrolled children aged younger than 5 years with suspected or proven invasive pneumococcal disease from 18 hospitals or institutional centres and retrospectively included laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal isolates from ten sentinel laboratories, together representing 11 states in India...
December 9, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941979/impact-and-effectiveness-of-10-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-hospitalization-and-mortality-in-children-aged-less-than-5-years-in-latin-american-countries-a-systematic-review
#18
Lucia Helena de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio B Camacho, Evandro S F Coutinho, Martha S Martinez-Silveira, Ana Flavia Carvalho, Cuauhtemoc Ruiz-Matus, Cristiana M Toscano
BACKGROUND: Several Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-10 or PCV-13) in their routine national immunization programs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to summarize the evidence of PCV impact and effectiveness in children under 5 years old in the LAC Region. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on impact or effectiveness of PCVs on deaths or hospitalizations due to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939127/cocontribution-of-rotavirus-and-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-to-the-reduction-of-pediatric-hospital-visits-in-young-children
#19
Shalom Ben-Shimol, Noga Givon-Lavi, David Greenberg, Ron Dagan
OBJECTIVE: To assess rotavirus vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) cumulative impact on the pediatric emergency department visits and hospitalization rates in children <2 years of age in southern Israel between April 2006 and March 2014. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, population-based observational study calculated the rates of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), non-RVGE, community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP), nonalveolar lower respiratory tract infection, and all-cause hospital visits...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927201/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-pneumonia-severity-and-mortality-in-bangladeshi-children-5-years-of-age-before-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction
#20
Shampa Saha, Md Hasan, Lindsay Kim, Jennifer L Farrar, Belal Hossain, Maksuda Islam, Asm Nawshad Uddin Ahmed, M Ruhul Amin, Mohammed Hanif, Manzoor Hussain, Shams El-Arifeen, Cynthia G Whitney, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in Bangladesh. We present the epidemiology of pneumonia in Bangladeshi children <5 years before 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction and investigate factors associated with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Children aged 2-59 months admitted to three Bangladeshi hospitals with pneumonia (i.e., cough or difficulty breathing and age-specific tachypnea without danger signs) or severe pneumonia (i...
December 7, 2016: BMC Public Health
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