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pneumococcal pneumonia in Children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729019/safety-reactogenicity-and-immunogenicity-of-two-investigational-pneumococcal-protein-based-vaccines-results-from-a-randomized-phase-ii-study-in-infants
#1
Roman Prymula, Leszek Szenborn, Sven-Arne Silfverdal, Jacek Wysocki, Piotr Albrecht, Magali Traskine, Asparuh Gardev, Yue Song, Dorota Borys
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with formulations containing pneumococcal protein antigens such as pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and histidine-triad protein D (PhtD) may extend serotype-related protection of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: This phase II, multi-center, observer-blind trial conducted in Europe (NCT01204658) assessed 2 investigational vaccines containing 10 serotype-specific polysaccharide conjugates of PHiD-CV and either 10 or 30µg of dPly and PhtD each...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726625/risk-for-death-among-children-with-pneumonia-afghanistan
#2
Rahmani Zabihullah, Bhim G Dhoubhadel, Ferogh A Rauf, Sahab A Shafiq, Motoi Suzuki, Kiwao Watanabe, Lay M Yoshida, Michio Yasunami, Salihi Zabihullah, Christopher M Parry, Rabi Mirwais, Koya Ariyoshi
In Afghanistan, childhood deaths from pneumonia are high. Among 639 children at 1 hospital, the case-fatality rate was 12.1%, and 46.8% of pneumococcal serotypes detected were covered by the 13-valent vaccine. Most deaths occurred within 2 days of hospitalization; newborns and malnourished children were at risk. Vaccination could reduce pneumonia and deaths.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723870/osteoarticular-infections-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-in-the-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#3
Liset Olarte, Jose Romero, William Barson, John Bradley, Philana Ling Lin, Laurence Givner, Tina Tan, Jill Hoffman, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal osteoarticular infections (OAI) are an uncommon manifestation of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We describe the demographic characteristics, hospitalization rate, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of children with pneumococcal OAI over a 16-year period. METHODS: We identified patients ≤18 years old with pneumococcal OAI at 8 children's hospitals in the United States (2000-2015). Pneumococcal isolates were collected prospectively...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711387/serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-in-children%C3%A2-5years-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-india-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Jyotsana Singh, Suba Sundaresan, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in India. Commercially licensed and available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) include ten (PCV-10) and 13 (PCV-13) pneumococcal serotypes. Vaccines with other serotype combinations are under development. Reviewing and reporting trends and distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in India will be useful for policy making as PCV is being introduced into India's universal immunization program...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696530/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-single-dose-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-oncology-patients
#5
Te-Yu Hung, Rishi S Kotecha, Christopher C Blyth, Sarah K Steed, Ruth B Thornton, Anne L Ryan, Catherine H Cole, Peter C Richmond
BACKGROUND: Children receiving immunosuppressive treatment for cancer are at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) can prevent pneumococcal disease in healthy children; however, there is an absence of literature regarding the benefit of PCV13 in immunocompromised children with cancer. METHODS: A prospective, open-label cohort study recruited children between ages 1 and 18 years who were receiving active immunosuppressive therapy (AIT) or were within 12 months after completing immunosuppressive therapy (CIT)...
July 11, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694854/antimicrobial-resistant-pattern-and-capsular-typing-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-children-in-sistan-baluchestan
#6
Zahra Gharailoo, Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Niloofar Halvani, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
BACKGROUND: Ankyloglossia is an anatomic developmental anomaly determining by thick and short, fi brotic ferenum. Tongue changes have severe eff ects on occlusion and oropharyngeal structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the position of hyoid in children 7-11 years` old with ankyloglossia in lateral cephalometric radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In this study 260 nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from non-vaccinated healthy children between 6 months to 6 years old at medical centers in Sistan-Baluchestan during August 2013 to January 2014...
September 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690025/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-caused-by-ceftriaxone-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-taiwan
#7
Hao-Yuan Lee, Tsu-Lan Wu, Lin-Hui Su, Hsin-Chieh Li, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was associated with mortality, but the risk factors associated with mortality remains controversial. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was designed. All patients with IPD from 2011 to 2013 admitted in a medical center were screened and collected for their clinical presentations and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS: Approximately half of the 134 IPD isolates derived from these patients belonged to three major serotypes (19A, 6A and 3), which are included in 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), but not in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688781/immunogenicity-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-among-children-with-underlying-medical-conditions
#8
Sabelle Jallow, Shabir A Madhi, Richard Madimabe, Nosisa Sipambo, Avy Violari, Udai Kala, Karen Petersen, Sanushka Naidoo, Charl Verwey, David P Moore, Marta C Nunes
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable disease in children under 5years. Immunocompromised children and those with underlying diseases are at increased risk of severe complications from vaccine-preventable infections. We studied the humoral immune response to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in children with HIV-infection, kidney or lung disease and compared this to the response in healthy control children. METHODS: Children aged 12-71months with underlying conditions including HIV-infection and those with kidney and lung diseases (at-risk children), and a healthy control group were vaccinated with PCV13...
July 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680083/comparison-of-traditional-culture-and-molecular-qpcr-for-detection-of-simultaneous-carriage-of-multiple-pneumococcal-serotypes-in-african-children
#9
Courtney P Olwagen, Peter V Adrian, Shabir A Madhi
S. pneumoniae is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx in high income and low-middle income countries. Due to limitations of standard culture methods, the prevalence of concurrent colonization with multiple serotypes is unclear. We evaluated the use of multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) to detect multiple pneumococcal serotypes/group colonization in archived nasopharyngeal swabs of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine naive children who had previously been investigated by traditional culture methods. Overall the detection of pneumococcal colonization was higher by qPCR (82%) compared to standard culture (71%; p < 0...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671978/estimated-severe-pneumococcal-disease-cases-and-deaths-before-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction-in-children-younger-than-5-years-of-age-in-south-africa
#10
Claire von Mollendorf, Stefano Tempia, Anne von Gottberg, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Charles Feldman, Jeane Cloete, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Cheryl Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe bacterial infections globally. A full understanding of the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on pneumococcal disease burden, following its introduction in 2009 in South Africa, can support national policy on PCV use and assist with policy decisions elsewhere. METHODS: We developed a model to estimate the national burden of severe pneumococcal disease, i.e. disease requiring hospitalisation, pre- (2005-2008) and post-PCV introduction (2012-2013) in children aged 0-59 months in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668654/measurement-of-pneumococcal-igg-antibody-carriage-and-infection-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-under-five-years-of-age-with-acute-respiratory-infection-in-niger
#11
Dan Dano Ibrahim, Sani Ousmane, Kamayé Moumouni, Ali Elhadji Mahamane
Pneumonia is the major cause of mortality in children under five years. A total of 751 children aged 1-59 months admitted for acute respiratory infection were included in this study. Pneumococcal serum IgG antibody was determined by ELISA. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae was determined by molecular analyses of nasopharyngeal swabbings, and the rapid urinary diagnostic test Binax NOW(®)Sp was used for detection of pneumococcal antigen in urine. A total of 224 (29.8%) children had vaccination record books, and among them, 186 (83%) were vaccinated with the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV-23), 7 (3%) were vaccinated with the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-13), and 31 (14%) had not been vaccinated...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668572/characteristics-of-pediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-diseases-and-the-pneumococcal-isolates-in-suzhou-china-before-introduction-of-pcv13
#12
Xiyan Zhang, Jianmei Tian, Wei Shan, Jian Xue, Yunzhen Tao, Qian Geng, Yunfang Ding, Genming Zhao, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Data on characteristics of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) is limited in China. We aimed to understand the clinical features and explore the molecular characteristics of the pneumococcal isolates in China. METHODS: Since 2010, we prospectively collected the pneumococcal isolates and the IPD patients' demographic and clinical information in Suzhou University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH). The antibiotic susceptibility, serotypes, genotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were identified by E-test, quellung reaction and/or multiplex PCR, and multi-locus sequence typing, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668570/changes-in-pathogens-and-pneumococcal-serotypes-causing-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-netherlands
#13
Stefan M T Vestjens, Gertjan H J Wagenvoort, Jan C Grutters, Bob Meek, Arnoud F Aldenkamp, Bart J M Vlaminckx, Willem-Jan W Bos, Ger T Rijkers, Ewoudt M W van de Garde
BACKGROUND: In 2006 a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the immunisation programme for infants in The Netherlands and replaced by PCV10 in 2011. Limited data exist about the impact of PCV on the aetiology of CAP as a whole. The aim of the present study is to describe the overall changes in microbial aetiology, pneumococcal burden (including non-bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia) and its serotypes in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after the introduction of these PCVs...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668567/10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv10-decreases-metabolic-activity-but-not-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae
#14
Dafne C Andrade, Igor C Borges, Maiara L Bouzas, Juliana R Oliveira, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Artur T Queiroz, Camila Indiani de Oliveira, Aldina Barral, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Cristiana Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The effect of pneumococcal vaccination is widely variable when measured by nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine and non-vaccine targets. The aim of this study was to compare the carriage rates and metabolic activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis among children who were or were not vaccinated with PCV10. METHODS: We included children with acute respiratory infection aged 6-23months from a cross-sectional study (CHIADO-IVAS)...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668258/infection-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-with-or-without-radiologically-confirmed-pneumonia
#15
Dafne C Andrade, Igor C Borges, Ana Luísa Vilas-Boas, Maria S H Fontoura, César A Araújo-Neto, Sandra C Andrade, Rosa V Brim, Andreas Meinke, Aldina Barral, Olli Ruuskanen, Helena Käyhty, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of morbidity in childhood, but the detection of its causative agent remains a diagnostic challenge. The authors aimed to evaluate the role of the chest radiograph to identify cases of CAP caused by typical bacteria. METHODS: The frequency of infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared in non-hospitalized children with clinical diagnosis of CAP aged 2-59 months with or without radiological confirmation (n=249 and 366, respectively)...
June 29, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650416/redistribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-after-nationwide-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-program-in-children-in-northern-taiwan
#16
Ying-Chun Cho, Nan-Chang Chiu, Chun-Yi Lu, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Fu-Yuan Huang, Luan-Yin Chang, Li-Min Huang, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: After the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, public health officials in Taiwan monitored a decline in circulating vaccine serotypes and the emergence of non-vaccine serotypes in children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). A gradually expanded PCV13 national immunization program was launched in 2013 in Taiwan. Here we evaluate the changes in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and antimicrobial nonsusceptibility in children during the evolution of vaccination policy...
June 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646948/generalized-herd-effects-and-vaccine-evaluation-impact-of-live-influenza-vaccine-on-off-target-bacterial-colonisation
#17
Michael J Mina
Interactions between pathogens and commensal microbes are major contributors to health and disease. Infectious diseases however are most often considered independent, viewed within a one-host one-pathogen paradigm and, by extension, the interventions used to treat and prevent them are measured and evaluated within this same paradigm. Vaccines, especially live vaccines, by stimulating immune responses or directly interacting with other microbes can alter the environment in which they act, with effects that span across pathogen species...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640002/trends-in-diagnoses-among-hospitalizations-of-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-the-us-2003-2012
#18
Stacey A Hurst, Alexander C Ewing, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis
OBJECTIVE: Using data from 2003-2012, we updated a previous analysis of trends in hospitalizations of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the US. METHODS: We used data from the Kids´ Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to derive nationally representative estimates of the number of hospitalizations and the rates per 1000 hospitalizations of select discharge diagnoses and procedures in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and adolescents ≤18 years, excluding hospitalizations for conditions related to pregnancy/delivery and neonatal diagnoses...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632827/-occult-bacteremia-in-s%C3%A3-tero-del-r%C3%A3-o-hospital-experience-after-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccine
#19
Isolda Budnik, Alejandra Sandoval, Alejandra Prado, Marcela Labbé, Anamaría Peña, Tamara Viviani
BACKGROUND: Occult bacteremia (OB) is one of the possible diagnoses of children younger than 3 years with fever without source in the emergency room. OBJECTIVE: describe OB in the era after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective descriptive review of data of children with possible OB diagnosis, referred from the emergency department between 2010-2013. RESULTS: Possible OB was diagnosed on 391 patients...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626738/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-young-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#20
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
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