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pneumococcal pneumonia in Children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032897/prevnar-13-vaccine-failure-in-a-mouse-model-for-vitamin-a-deficiency
#1
Rhiannon R Penkert, Amy Iverson, Jason W Rosch, Julia L Hurwitz
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for serious pediatric respiratory infections, and kills close to one million children under the age of five each year. Unfortunately, the Prevnar-13 vaccine (PCV-13) that is used to protect children from the serious consequences of pneumococcus infections is not always successful. Given that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to affect children in both developed and developing countries, we asked if VAD could be responsible, at least in part, for PCV-13 vaccine failures...
November 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029063/impact-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-on-pneumonia-hospitalizations-and-related-costs-in-ontario-a-population-based-ecological-study
#2
Dara Lee Luca, Jeffrey C Kwong, Anna Chu, Beate Sander, Ryan O'Reilly, Allison J McGeer, David E Bloom
Background: In Ontario, Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was approved for infants in 2001 and became part of the publicly funded routine immunization schedule in 2005. We assessed the population-level impact of PCV on pneumonia hospitalizations and related costs. Methods: We used the difference-in-differences (DD) approach to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal vaccination on pneumonia hospitalizations and related costs, using non-pneumonia hospitalization as the control condition...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027028/determination-of-avidity-of-igg-against-protein-antigens-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae-assay-development-and-preliminary-application-in-clinical-settings
#3
D C Andrade, I C Borges, N Ekström, T Jartti, T Puhakka, A Barral, H Kayhty, O Ruuskanen, C M Nascimento-Carvalho
The measurement of antibody levels is a common test for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in research. However, the quality of antibody response, reflected by avidity, has not been adequately evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the role of avidity of IgG against eight pneumococcal proteins in etiologic diagnosis. Eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply, CbpA, PspA1 and 2, PcpA, PhtD, StkP-C, and PcsB-N) were used to develop a multiplex bead-based avidity immunoassay. The assay was tested for effects of the chaotropic agent, multiplexing, and repeatability...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021105/invasive-pneumococcal-pneumonia-caused-by-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-types-in-children-with-different-schedules
#4
Hong-Yi Lee, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Ching-Chuan Liu, Yi-Chuan Huang, Kuang-Yi Chang, Hsin Chi, Luan-Yin Chang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Li-Min Huang
BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, the age group with the greatest incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease is 2-5 years of age, which is different from other countries. This study was conducted to identify risk factors and different 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) schedules associated with vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (IPP) despite prior vaccination. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted prospectively between August 2012 and December 2015 at five participating medical centers...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020313/trends-in-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-ipd-in-cancer-patients-after-the-introduction-of-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-a-20-year-longitudinal-study-at-a-major-urban-cancer-center
#5
Yeon Joo Lee, Yao-Ting Huang, Seong Jin Kim, Marina Kerpelev, Victoria Gonzalez, Anna Kaltsas, Genovefa Papanicolaou
Background: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) declined since routine childhood immunization with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000. We studied the impact of PCV7 on the incidence of IPD in cancer patients. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of adult and pediatric patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 1992 to 2012. Recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from a sterile site defined IPD. IPD incidence was calculated as cases per 1,000 unique patient-visits per year (UPV)...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020218/pan-serotype-reduction-in-progression-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-otitis-media-after-rollout-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines
#6
Joseph A Lewnard, Noga Givon-Lavi, Daniel M Weinberger, Marc Lipsitch, Ron Dagan
Background: Reductions in otitis media (OM) burden following rollout of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have exceeded predictions of vaccine impact. In settings with active surveillance, reductions in OM caused by vaccine-targeted pneumococcal serotypes have co-occurred with reductions in OM caused by other pathogens carried in the upper-respiratory tract of children. To understand these changes, we investigated the progression of vaccine-targeted and non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes from carriage to OM before and after vaccine rollout...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020195/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-pneumonia-hospitalizations-in-high-and-low-income-subpopulations-in-brazil
#7
Joshua L Warren, Kayoko Shioda, Esra Kürüm, Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Roger Lustig, Robert J Taylor, Lone Simonsen, Daniel M Weinberger
Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are being used worldwide. A key question is whether the impact of PCVs on pneumonia is similar in low- and high-income populations. However, most low-income countries, where the burden of disease is greatest, lack reliable data that can be used to evaluate the impact. Data from middle-income countries that have both low- and high-income subpopulations can provide a proxy measure for the impact of the vaccine in low-income countries. Methods: We evaluated the impact of PCV10 on hospitalizations for all-cause pneumonia in Brazil, a middle-income country with localities that span a broad range of human development index (HDI) levels...
July 22, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988664/epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-otitis-media-in-taiwanese-children
#8
Ying-Chun Cho, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Ching-Ying Huang, Yen-Hsin Kung, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: Concerns about non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in otitis media (OM) have grown after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). We aim to better understand the clinical role of NTHi in pediatric OM. METHODS: Middle ear fluid samples from children <18 years with OM were obtained from 2010 to 2015. For culture-positive episodes (Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes), patients' demographic and clinical information were reviewed and analyzed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982123/kinetics-of-antibodies-against-pneumococcal-proteins-and-their-relationship-to-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-the-first-two-months-of-life
#9
Awa L Mendy, Schadrac C Agbla, Aderonke A Odutola, Martin Antonio, Brian M Greenwood, Jayne S Sutherland, Martin O C Ota
INTRODUCTION: The currently used Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines have had a significant impact on the pneumococcal diseases caused by the serotypes they cover. Their limitations have stimulated a search for alternate vaccines that will cover all serotypes, be affordable and effective in young children. Pneumococcal protein antigens are potential vaccine candidates that may meet some of the shortfalls of the current vaccines. Thus, this study aimed to determine the relationship between antibodies against pneumococcal protein antigens and nasopharyngeal carriage in infants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968817/streptococcus-pneumoniae-from-patients-with-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-binds-human-plasminogen-via-the-surface-protein-pspc-and-uses-plasmin-to-damage-human-endothelial-cells
#10
Christian Meinel, Giuseppina Spartà, Hans-Martin Dahse, Franziska Hörhold, Rainer König, Martin Westermann, Sina M Coldewey, Zoltán Cseresnyés, Marc Thilo Figge, Sven Hammerschmidt, Christine Skerka, Peter F Zipfel
Pneumococcal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is caused by infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Because endothelial cell damage is a hallmark of HUS, we studied how HUS-inducing pneumococci derived from infant HUS patients during the acute phase disrupt the endothelial layer. HUS pneumococci efficiently bound human plasminogen. These clinical isolates of HUS pneumococci efficiently bound human plasminogen via the bacterial surface proteins Tuf and PspC. When activated to plasmin at the bacterial surface, the active protease degraded fibrinogen and cleaved C3b...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968382/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-infant-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-the-effects-of-age-illness-and-antibiotic-use-in-a-cohort-of-south-east-asian-children
#11
Susannah J Salter, Claudia Turner, Wanitda Watthanaworawit, Marcus C de Goffau, Josef Wagner, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D Bentley, David Goldblatt, Francois Nosten, Paul Turner
A longitudinal study was undertaken in infants living in the Maela refugee camp on the Thailand-Myanmar border between 2007 and 2010. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected monthly, from birth to 24 months of age, with additional swabs taken if the infant was diagnosed with pneumonia according to WHO clinical criteria. At the time of collection, swabs were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae and multiple serotype carriage was assessed. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiles of 544 swabs from 21 infants were analysed to see how the microbiota changes with age, respiratory infection, antibiotic consumption and pneumococcal acquisition...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961675/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-colonization-and-impact-of-a-single-dose-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-indian-children-with-hiv-and-their-unvaccinated-parents
#12
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Feroze Ganaie, Arun Bhaskar, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, K L Ravikumar, Ranjan Saurav Das, Sutapa Mandal
BACKGROUND: HIV infection increases risk of invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) prevent invasive disease and acquisition of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcus in the nasopharynx. OBJECTIVE: To look at the safety and impact of one dose of PCV13 on acquisition of VT pneumococcal carriage in Indian children with HIV. METHOD: We conducted a cohort study in families of HIV-infected children (CLH) and families of HIV-uninfected children (HUC) in West Bengal...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956354/heterologous-prime-boost-immunization-with-live-spy1-and-dnaj-protein-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-induces-strong-th1-and-th17-cellular-immune-responses-in-mice
#13
Yulan Qiu, Xuemei Zhang, Hong Wang, Xinyuan Zhang, Yunjun Mo, Xiaoyu Sun, Jichao Wang, Yibing Yin, Wenchun Xu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of infectious diseases in children under 5-year-old. Vaccine has been used as an indispensable strategy to prevent S. pneumoniae infection for more than 30 years. Our previous studies confirmed that mucosal immunization with live attenuated strain SPY1 can protect mice against nasopharyngeal colonization of S. pneumoniae and lethal pneumococcal infection, and the protective effects are comparable with those induced by commercially available 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine...
October 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941358/rates-of-vaccination-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-cochlear-implant-patients
#14
Anna Piotrowska, Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Henryk Skarżyński
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause life-threatening illness, with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) like meningitis, sepsis, bacteremic pneumonia, and bacteremia being major causes of morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that patients who have had a cochlear implant, particularly children, have an increased risk of bacterial (pneumococcal) meningitis. Vaccination in patients with cochlear implants is important and recommended universally. The World Health Organization recommends the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in all countries and considers their use to be a priority in all national immunization programs...
September 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938258/pneumococcal-vaccination-and-pneumonia-associated-with-pleural-effusion-in-a-pediatric-population
#15
Enrique Bernaola, Francisco Gil, Mercedes Herranz, Alberto Gil-Setas, Marcela Guevara, Jesus Castilla
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the effect of the non-systematic pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on incidence of pneumonia associated with parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) in vaccinated and unvaccinated children. METHODS: Cases were patients aged <15 years who had been diagnosed with pneumonia associated with PPE in a tertiary hospital in Navarra (Spain) between 1995 and 2014. The population aged <15 years and covered by the public health service was used as reference...
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929957/-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-the-adult-patients-in-a-turkish-%C3%A3-niversity-hospital
#16
Lütfiye Öksüz, Nezahat Gürler
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S.pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in adults. Invasive pneumococcal disease can usually occur in the elderly, children and immunocompromised individuals. Usage of the vaccines for the protection against S.pneumoniae infections, is an effective method to reduce the burden of disease in both children and adults. Serotypes frequently isolated from purified capsular polysaccharides of S...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#17
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922054/economic-burden-of-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#18
Mehmet Ceyhan, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Basak Hacibedel, Egemen Ozbilgili
The present study aimed to determine the cost of childhood pneumococcal infections under 5 years of age and to provide further data for future health economy studies. Electronic medical records of children diagnosed with meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae and all-cause pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) between January 2013-April 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Direct costs for the treatments of hospitalized patients (pneumonia and pneumococcal meningitis) including costs of healthcare services consisted of costs of hospital bed, examination, laboratory analyses, scanning methods, consultation, vascular access procedures, and infusion and intravenous treatments...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918242/predictive-value-of-thomsen-friedenreich-antigen-activation-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-and-severity-in-pediatric-lobar-pneumonia
#19
Chia-Jung Chang, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Ching-Ying Huang, Yen-Hsin Kung, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: Most cases of complicated pneumonia in children are caused by pneumococcal infections. Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TA) is present on erythrocytes, platelets and glomeruli, and it can be activated during pneumococcal infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of TA activation for pneumococcal infection and association with the severity of complicated pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with lobar pneumonia were routinely tested for TA at the Department of Pediatrics, Mackay Memorial Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911902/the-impact-of-10-valent-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-hospitalization-for-pneumonia-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Cristiano Alicino, Chiara Paganino, Andrea Orsi, Matteo Astengo, Cecilia Trucchi, Giancarlo Icardi, Filippo Ansaldi
BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at summarizing available data on the impact of PCV10 and PCV13 in reducing the incidence of CAP hospitalizations in children aged <5years. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted. We included time-series analyses and before-after studies, reporting the incidence of hospitalization for pneumonia in the periods before and after the introduction of PCV10 or PCV13 into the immunization program...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
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