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Hiv Perinatal Transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989498/two-vignettes-of-adolescent-sexual-disclosure-guidance-for-hiv-clinical-practice
#1
Bronwen Lichtenstein, Cynthia Rodgers, Lauren Eb Marefka, Marla D Hinson, Dayna Cook-Heard, Stephen D Rygiel, Marsha S Sturdevant
HIV-positive adolescents are required by law to notify sexual partners, but can find it difficult to achieve this goal. This article offers practice guidance for counselling HIV-positive adolescents about sexual disclosure in clinical settings and for building confidence in managing sexual lives with HIV. We use two vignettes to illustrate key differences between perinatally and sexually infected adolescents in terms of readiness to disclose, and include a set of strategies for both groups that can be tailored to individual circumstances and contexts...
January 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988509/darunavir-for-use-in-pregnant-women-with-hiv
#2
Robert Pope, Angela Kashuba
Combination antiretroviral therapy is recommended during pregnancy to decrease the rate of HIV transmission to the baby and reduce morbidity in the mother. More than 50% of women are prescribed a protease inhibitor-based regimen during pregnancy. Darunavir was recently reclassified as a first-line protease inhibitor for use in pregnancy in the US Department of Health and Human Services Perinatal Guidelines. Areas covered: This is a brief review of the use of protease inhibitor therapy during pregnancy, and a discussion of darunavir's utility in this area...
October 7, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969502/a-hierarchical-modeling-approach-for-assessing-the-safety-of-exposure-to-complex-antiretroviral-drug-regimens-during-pregnancy
#3
Katharine Correia, Paige L Williams
Combination antiretroviral regimens have achieved tremendous success in reducing perinatal HIV transmission, and have become standard of care in pregnant women with HIV. However, the large variety of combination antiretroviral regimens utilized in practice raises the question of whether some of these highly potent drugs pose other risks to the pregnancy or infant. While HIV-infected pregnant women are almost always exposed to multiple antiretrovirals concurrently, standard safety screening strategies typically consider each individual antiretroviral separately, which fails to account for potential confounding due to simultaneous exposure to other antiretrovirals...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953612/new-diagnoses-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-the-spanish-pediatric-hiv-cohort-corispe-from-2004-to-2013
#4
Santiago Jiménez de Ory, María Isabel González-Tomé, Claudia Fortuny, Maria Jose Mellado, Pere Soler-Palacin, Matilde Bustillo, José Tomas Ramos, Maria Angeles Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Luisa Navarro
Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased in industrialized countries in recent decades, but there are no studies on the mechanisms of HIV transmission among infected children in Spain. Our aim was to study the characteristics and trends of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children in Spain from 2004 to 2013.Vertically HIV-infected children were selected if they were diagnosed from 2004 to 2013, were aged 0 to 18 years old, and were included in the Cohort of the Spanish Pediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899162/high-levels-of-viral-suppression-among-east-african-hiv-infected-women-and-men-in-serodiscordant-partnerships-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-with-high-cd4-counts-and-during-pregnancy
#5
Andrew Mujugira, Jared Baeten, Lara Kidoguchi, Jessica Haberer, Connie Celum, Deborah Donnell, Kenneth Ngure, Elizabeth Bukusi, Nelly Mugo, Stephen Asiimwe, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Nulu Bulya, Elly Katabira, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: People who are asymptomatic and feel healthy, including pregnant women, may be less motivated to initiate ART or achieve high adherence. We assessed whether ART initiation, and viral suppression 6, 12 and 24-months after ART initiation, were lower in HIV-infected members of serodiscordant couples who initiated during pregnancy or with higher CD4 counts. METHODS: We used data from the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label study of the delivery of integrated PrEP and ART (at any CD4 count) for HIV prevention among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891343/current-and-future-contraceptive-options-for-women-living-with-hiv
#6
Rena C Patel, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten
Among women living with HIV, half of the pregnancies are unintended. Effective contraception can prevent unintended pregnancies and consequently reduce maternal mortality and perinatal transmission of HIV. While contraceptive options available for all women also apply to women living with HIV, specific considerations exist to the use of contraception by women living with HIV. Areas covered: First, general principles guiding the use of contraception among women living with HIV are discussed, such as choice, method mix, relative effectiveness, and drug-drug interactions...
September 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841701/pregnancy-outcomes-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-young-women-in-madrid-spain-2000-2015
#7
Luis M Prieto, Carolina Fernández McPhee, Patricia Rojas, Diana Mazariegos, Eloy Muñoz, Maria José Mellado, África Holguín, María Luisa Navarro, María Isabel González-Tomé, José Tomás Ramos
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of perinatally HIV-infected women (PHIV) are reaching adulthood and becoming pregnant. Most PHIV women have been exposed to a high number of antiretroviral regimens, and they may have difficulties to achieve viral suppression. Psychosocial problems are not uncommon and could be an important barrier for treatment adherence. The effects of chronic HIV infection and long-term exposure to antiretroviral treatment of PHIV women cause concerns on the developing fetus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821230/seroprevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-among-pregnant-women-who-participated-in-a-national-hiv-surveillance-activity-in-haiti
#8
Jean Wysler Domercant, Frantz Jean Louis, Erin Hulland, Mark Griswold, Jocelyne Andre-Alboth, Tun Ye, Barbara J Marston
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), one the most common causes of genital ulcers, appears to increase both the risk of HIV acquisition and HIV transmission. HSV-2/HIV co-infection among pregnant women may increase the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV. This study describes rates of HSV-2 among pregnant women in Haiti and HSV-2 test performance in this population. METHODS: Unlinked residual serum specimens from the 2012 National HIV and Syphilis Sentinel Surveillance Survey among pregnant women in Haiti were tested using two commercial kits (Focus HerpeSelect, Kalon) for HSV-2 antibodies...
August 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799825/progress-toward-elimination-of-perinatal-hiv-transmission-in-kenya-analysis-of-early-infant-diagnosis-data
#9
Dunstan Achwoka, Justin Mandala, Mutugi Muriithi, Yanwu Zeng, Mario Chen, Rebecca Dirks, Martin Sirengo, Rose Wafula, Kwasi Torpey
Interrupting vertical transmission of HIV from mothers to infants provides opportunity to transform the HIV/AIDS epidemic by eliminating new infections among children. We estimate mother-to-child transmission rates of infants born to known HIV-positive mothers offered prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions and provide an indication of Kenya's progress toward elimination of perinatal transmission. We obtained from the Kenya National Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) database, all 131,451 DNA polymerase chain reaction test results of HIV-exposed infants aged 0-18 months who had dried blood spot samples taken between January 2008 and October 2013...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796679/delivery-after-40-weeks-of-gestation-in-pregnant-women-with-well-controlled-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#10
Rachel K Scott, Nahida Chakhtoura, Margaret M Burke, Rachel A Cohen, Regis Kreitchmann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is increased mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 associated with deliveries at 40 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) or greater in pregnant women with HIV-1 viral loads of 1,000 copies/mL or less. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries and International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1025 cohorts...
September 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796673/human-immunodeficiency-virus-viral-load-rebound-near-delivery-in-previously-suppressed-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-pregnant-women
#11
Isabelle Boucoiran, Arianne Y K Albert, Karen Tulloch, Emily C Wagner, Neora Pick, Julie van Schalkwyk, P Richard Harrigan, Deborah Money
OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load suppression within 1 month before birth in pregnant women receiving antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of a Canadian provincial perinatal HIV database from 1997 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were live birth and CART received for at least 4 weeks. Viral load rebound, defined as viral load greater than 50 copies/mL (or greater than 400 copies/mL for 1997-1998) and measured within 1 month before delivery, was identified in women who had at least one previous undetectable viral load during pregnancy...
September 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747410/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-evaluating-the-performance-and-operational-characteristics-of-dual-point-of-care-tests-for-hiv-and-syphilis
#12
REVIEW
Harriet D Gliddon, Rosanna W Peeling, Mary L Kamb, Igor Toskin, Teodora E Wi, Melanie M Taylor
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis and HIV continue to be important yet preventable causes of perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review, critically appraise and perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the operational characteristics of dual rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for HIV/syphilis and evaluate whether they are cost effective, acceptable and easy to use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis...
July 26, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729100/an-evaluation-of-introduction-of-rapid-hiv-testing-in-a-perinatal-program
#13
Sarah Saunders, Karen Tulloch, Evelyn J Maan, Julianne van Schalkwyk, Deborah M Money
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the roll-out of rapid HIV testing as part of an emergency Prevention of Perinatal HIV Transmission Program. Specifically, HIV prevalence in this population, the reason(s) for performing the rapid HIV test, and compliance with recommendations for antiretroviral prophylaxis were assessed. METHODS: Since November 2011, all women presenting to a tertiary labour and delivery unit with unknown HIV status or with ongoing risk of HIV infection since their last HIV test were offered rapid HIV testing...
August 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723871/optimal-anti-retroviral-prophylaxis-in-infants-at-high-risk-of-acquiring-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-systematic-review
#14
Sara Beste, Shaffiq Essajee, George Siberry, Alisse Hannaford, Jasmeen Dara, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
INTRODUCTION: The risk of perinatal HIV infection can be dramatically reduced through maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant antiretroviral (ARV) postnatal prophylaxis. The 2013 WHO guidelines recommended four to six weeks of nevirapine or zidovudine as post-natal prophylaxis, with possible extension to 12 weeks for high-risk breastfed infants. A systematic review was undertaken to determine if there is evidence for the WHO to recommend enhanced or extended prophylaxis for high-risk infants...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714809/reticence-in-disclosure-of-hiv-infection-and-reasons-for-bereavement-impact-on-perinatally-infected-adolescents-mental-health-and-understanding-of-hiv-treatment-and-prevention-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#15
Nataly Woollett, Vivian Black, Lucie Cluver, Heena Brahmbhatt
Survival rates of perinatally infected HIV-positive adolescents (PIA) are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a gap in understanding how disclosure and bereavement have an impact on PIA beliefs and understanding of their HIV infection and its management. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 purposively selected adolescents aged 13-19 years from 5 public health clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were analysed using NVivo 10 using a thematic approach. PIA experience incomplete disclosure both of their HIV status and reasons for their bereavements, which limits their understanding of how they became infected, vertical transmission and prevention options like prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT)...
July 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707345/the-cascade-of-care-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-1996-2013-improving-but-still-some-way-to-go
#16
Cristina Barroso Hofer, Matthias Egger, Mary-Ann Davies, Ana Cristina Cisne Frota, Ricardo Hugo de Oliveira, Thalita Fernandes Abreu, Lúcia Evangelista Araújo, Bernardo Bastos Witthlin, Alice Weber Carvalho, Janaína Rivas Cordeiro, Giulia Pasqualini Lima, Olivia Keiser
OBJECTIVE: To describe the cascade of care to HIV mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in a Rio de Janeiro reference paediatric clinic and evaluate the main factors possibly associated with HIV transmission. METHODS: Data on antenatal care (ANC), perinatal and neonatal assistance to HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children assisted in the clinic from 1996 to 2013 were collected. The cascade of care was graphically demonstrated, and possible factors associated with HIV infection were described using regression models for bivariate and multivariate analysis...
October 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600331/does-maternal-hsv-2-coinfection-increase-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Vishalini Sivarajah, Kevin Venus, Mark H Yudin, Kellie E Murphy, Steven A Morrison, Darrell Hs Tan
BACKGROUND: Reducing HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is critical to ending the HIV pandemic. Reports suggest that herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), a common coinfection in HIV-infected individuals, is associated with increased MTCT, but results have been conflicting. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of this relationship (PROSPERO no. CRD42016043315). METHODS: We searched Medline (1981 to June week 3, 2016), EMBASE (1981 to week 26, 2016), relevant conferences (2013-2016) and bibliographies of identified studies for cohort and case-control studies enrolling HIV-positive women during pregnancy or peripartum that quantified the effect of HSV-2 infection on MTCT...
June 9, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595510/young-adults-hiv-1-infected-by-vertical-transmission-in-southern-brazil-clinical-demographic-and-virological-features
#18
Beatris M Martin, Jucélia S Santos, Fernanda V Scapinello, Clea El Ribeiro, Monica M Gomes-da-Silva, Sonia M Raboni
Combination antiretroviral therapy promotes longer life expectancy, making it possible for perinatally HIV-infected patients to achieve adulthood. Past therapy was not always optimized, suggesting that virological and host features may also play a role in survival. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of HIV disease progression associated with virological features in adolescents perinatally that were HIV infected. A case series was conducted including 81 patients that were in follow-up at Hospital de Clínicas/Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595298/lowered-rilpivirine-exposure-during-the-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infected-women
#19
Stein Schalkwijk, Angela Colbers, Deborah Konopnicki, Andrea Gingelmaier, John Lambert, Marchina van der Ende, José Moltó, David Burger
Background: The use of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy is important for control of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. Physiological changes during pregnancy can reduce antiretroviral exposure. We studied the pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine 25 mg once daily in HIV-1-infected women during late pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a nonrandomized, open-label, multicenter, phase 4 study. HIV-infected pregnant women receiving rilpivirine 25 mg once daily were included...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489732/assessment-of-nevirapine-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-dosing-regimens-for-neonates
#20
Tim R Cressey, Baralee Punyawudho, Sophie Le Coeur, Gonzague Jourdain, Chalermpong Saenjum, Edmund V Capparelli, Kanokwan Jittayanun, Siriluk Phanomcheong, Anita Luvira, Thitiporn Borkird, Achara Puangsombat, Leon Aarons, Pra-Ornsuda Sukrakanchana, Saik Urien, Marc Lallemant
BACKGROUND: Nevirapine (NVP) is a key component of antiretroviral prophylaxis and treatment for neonates. We evaluated current World Health Organization (WHO) weight-band NVP prophylactic dosing recommendations and investigated optimal therapeutic NVP dosing for neonates. METHODS: The PHPT-5 study in Thailand assessed the efficacy of "Perinatal Antiretroviral Intensification" to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in women with <8 weeks of antiretroviral treatment before delivery (NCT01511237)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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