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Pneumocystis Jirovecii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920631/pneumocystis-jirovecii-genotyping-experience-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-italy
#1
Pietro Pini, Carlotta F Orsi, Annunziata La Regina, Samuele Peppoloni, Federica Berrilli, Elisabetta Blasi, David Di Cave
Respiratory samples from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) cases collected at a tertiary-care university hospital in Modena were analyzed for the presence of specific polymorphisms in the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU-rRNA). Retrospectively, 57 cases were selected in a six-year period and 34 out of the 57 processed BAL samples returned PCR positive results, thus allowing further molecular analysis. The following P.jirovecii genotype distribution was observed: genotype 3 (50%), genotype 2 (23%), genotype 1 (18%), genotypes 1 or 4 (9%)...
July 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918972/-mycological-and-parasitological-examinations-in-the-management-of-lung-infections
#2
REVIEW
L Lachaud, J P Gangneux
Pulmonary parasitic diseases are rare whereas pulmonary fungal infections are increasing. The diversity of clinical presentations requires laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis. Direct examination of lung samples and antibody detection are the basis of parasitological diagnosis. With regard to mycoses, the range of biological tests is broader. The conventional mycological examination allows identification of any type of fungus except Pneumocystis jirovecii. Its specificity is excellent but it lacks sensitivity...
September 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913714/high-transient-colonization-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii-between-mothers-and-newborn
#3
Cristian Vera, Yudy A Aguilar, Lázaro A Vélez, Zulma Vanessa Rueda
The aim of the study was to explore the frequency and dynamics of acquisition and colonization of Pneumocystis jirovecii among neonates, as well as the epidemiological and genotypic characteristics in mother-child binomial. In a prospective enrolled cohort of women in their third trimester of pregnancy, nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and clinical and epidemiological data were collected at four different times: 17 days, 2nd, 4th, and 6th month of life of the newborn. P. jirovecii was detected by nested-PCR for the mtLSU-rRNA gene in each NPS; the genotypes were determined amplifying four genes...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856102/pjp-granuloma-in-an-immune-competent-host-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Chandra S Pingili, Vel Sivapalan
PJP (Pneumocystis jirovecii) is a fungal agent by taxonomy. Ones considered a protozoan, it is now recognized as fungi based on ribosomal RNA and other gene sequence homologies, the composition of their cell walls, and structure of key enzymes. This organism generally affects immunocompromised hosts with a CD4 count <200 or <15%.Review of literature does support a rare occurrence of PJP infections in immunocompetent hosts.PJP can occur at normal CD 4 levels.
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851493/evaluation-of-quantitative-ftd-pneumocystis-jirovecii-kit-for-pneumocystis-infection-diagnosis
#5
Gautier Hoarau, Solène Le Gal, Patricia Zunic, Patrice Poubeau, Emmanuel Antok, Julien Jaubert, Gilles Nevez, Sandrine Picot
We evaluated the Fast track Diagnostics (FTD) Pneumocystis PCR kit, targeting the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (mtLSU rRNA) of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii). A hundred and thirty-three patients were prospectively enrolled. Respiratory specimens were examined using both microscopy and the PCR assay. Twenty-six patients led to P. jirovecii detection. Fourteen patients presented with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) whereas 12 patients were considered to be colonized. The median copy numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly different in the PCP and colonization groups (1...
August 9, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843641/a-study-on-the-colonization-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-among-outpatients-during-cancer-chemotherapy-and-among-healthy-smokers
#6
Shun Takemoto, Megumi Ebara, Shinji Hasebe, Yoshihiro Yakushijin
AIMS: Pneumocystis Jirovecii (PJ) is regarded as an agent of fungal infection and in cases of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immune-compromised patients including cancer patients. It is not clear what kinds of cancer, treatments, and environment need prophylaxis for PCP. In this study, we have analyzed the detectability of PJ DNA from sputum, and discussed prophylaxis and risk factors regarding PCP. METHODS: A total of forty-nine materials (twenty-four from outpatients during cancer chemotherapies and twenty-five from healthy control subjects) was collected...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833985/switch-to-atovaquone-and-subsequent-re-challenge-with-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-for-pneumocystis-prophylaxis-in-a-kidney-transplant-population
#7
Milena M McLaughlin, Audrey Galal, Chad L Richardson, Sarah H Sutton, Viktorija O Barr, Niketa Patel, Porntiwa Mitchell, Valentina Stosor
Kidney transplant recipients who are switched to atovaquone (ATO) from trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) prophylaxis because of adverse events or complications may miss opportunities to be re-challenged with TMP/SMX, the first-line agent. This single-site, retrospective study assessed kidney transplant recipients for documented reasons for switching from TMP/SMX to alternate PJP prophylaxis and outcomes of TMP/SMX re-challenge. Out of 166 patients, 155 initially received TMP/SMX; of these, 31 were switched to ATO for various reasons...
August 21, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803505/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-an-hiv-positive-man-with-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-secondary-to-pneumocystis-and-cytomegalovirus-pneumonia
#8
Deirdre Morley, Almida Lynam, Edmund Carton, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Gerard Sheehan, Niamh Lynn, Serena O'Brien, Fiona Mulcahy
The management of critically ill human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is challenging; however, intensive care unit-related mortality has declined significantly in recent years. There are 10 case reports in the literature of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in HIV-positive patients, of whom seven survived to hospital discharge. We describe a 33-year-old Brazilian man who presented with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and severe hypoxic respiratory failure. He developed refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and was commenced on veno-venous ECMO...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797489/approach-to-fungal-infections-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-pneumocystis-and-beyond
#9
REVIEW
Richard J Wang, Robert F Miller, Laurence Huang
Many fungi cause pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pathogens include Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Talaromyces marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. Because symptoms are frequently nonspecific, a high index of suspicion for fungal infection is required for diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of fungal infection in HIV-infected patients frequently depend on the degree of immunosuppression and the CD4(+) helper T cell count...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791279/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Sally J Lawrence, Manish Sadarangani, Kevan Jacobson
Immunosuppressive therapy is a known risk factor for opportunistic infections. We report the first case of severe Pneumocystis jirovecii infection requiring intensive care in a pediatric patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The literature was reviewed and there were 92 reported cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with IBD. Most sources were case reports and there was likely reporting bias toward patients receiving immunomodulators, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy, and those who died...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782390/treatment-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-review
#11
Yu-Shan Huang, Jen-Jia Yang, Nan-Yao Lee, Guan-Jhou Chen, Wen-Chien Ko, Hsin-Yun Sun, Chien-Ching Hung
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening pulmonary infection that occurs in immunocompromised individuals and HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 cell count. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been used as the first-line agent for treatment, but mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene render potential resistance to sulfamide. Despite advances of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), Pneumocystis pneumonia continues to occur in HIV-infected patients with late presentation for cART or virological and immunological failure after receiving cART...
September 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781310/severe-thrombocytopenia-during-dolutegravir-containing-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Kazuhiko Nakaharai, Makiko Miyajima, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Akihiro Shimizu, Yumiko Hosaka, Tetsuya Horino, Seiji Hori
A 56-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and cytomegalovirus infection presented with thrombocytopenia after starting antiretroviral therapy, which included dolutegravir (DTG). Although good control of the human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus infections was achieved, the patient's thrombocytopenia persisted. The patient's platelet count decreased to ≤50,000/μL even after the cessation of valganciclovir, which can cause bone marrow suppression...
August 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774701/fungal-infections-in-hiv-aids
#13
REVIEW
Andrew H Limper, Antoine Adenis, Thuy Le, Thomas S Harrison
Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (talaromycosis). The incidence of systemic fungal infections has decreased in people with HIV in high-income countries because of the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs and early testing for HIV. However, in many areas with high HIV prevalence, patients present to care with advanced HIV infection and with a low CD4 cell count or re-present with persistent low CD4 cell counts because of poor adherence, resistance to antiretroviral drugs, or both...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774170/an-autopsy-case-of-epstein-barr-virus%C3%A2-associated-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-an-immunocompromised-host
#14
Sun-Young Park, Seong Ik Kim, Hannah Kim, Yoojin Lee, Sung-Hye Park
Lymphomas arising in the central nervous system (CNS) of immunocompromised hosts represent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas exclusively associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here we report an autopsy case of EBV-associated CNS diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a host suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus who underwent immunosuppressive therapy. After autopsy, EBV-associated CNS DLBCL as well as pulmonary mixed aspergillosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were added to the clinical impressions of complicated pneumonia and cerebral hemorrhage in this immunocompromised patient...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771054/unexpected-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-untreated-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#15
Lucile Sesé, Elisabeth Rivaud, Camille Bron, Véronique Leblond, Emmanuel Raffoux, Elisabeth Longchampt, Pierre Cahen, Leila Zemoura, François Mellot, Louis-Jean Couderc, Emilie Catherinot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759746/serum-markers-as-an-aid-in-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-fungal-infections-in-aids-patients
#16
Ana Isabela Passos, Rachel Polo Dertkigil, Marcelo de Carvalho Ramos, Ariane BussoLopes, Cibele Tararan, Erivan Olinda Ribeiro, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber, Plinio Trabasso, Mariangela Ribeiro Resende, Maria Luiza Moretti
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of pulmonary infections in HIV patients is determined by several variables including geographic region and availability of antiretroviral therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from 2012 to 2016 to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary fungal infection in HIV-patients hospitalized due to pulmonary infections. Patients' serums were tested for (1-3)-β-D-Glugan (BG), galactomannan, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...
July 28, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746178/assessment-of-cytomegalovirus-and-cell-mediated-immunity-for-predicting-outcomes-in-non-hiv-infected-patients-with-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Taeeun Kim, Se Yoon Park, Hyun-Jung Lee, Sun-Mi Kim, Heungsup Sung, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
The clinical importance of pulmonary cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection in patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is uncertain. We therefore determined the association of CMV infection with outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with PCP by assessing CMV viral load and CMV-specific T-cell response.We prospectively enrolled all non-HIV-infected patients with confirmed PCP, over a 2-year period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction from bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to measure CMV viral load, and CMV enzyme-linked immunospot assays of peripheral blood were used to measure CMV-specific T-cell responses...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726611/added-value-of-next-generation-sequencing-for-multilocus-sequence-typing-analysis-of-a-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-outbreak1
#18
Elena Charpentier, Cécile Garnaud, Claire Wintenberger, Sébastien Bailly, Jean-Benjamin Murat, John Rendu, Patricia Pavese, Thibault Drouet, Caroline Augier, Paolo Malvezzi, Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand, Marie-Reine Mallaret, Olivier Epaulard, Muriel Cornet, Sylvie Larrat, Danièle Maubon
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a major threat for immunocompromised patients, and clusters of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) have been increasingly described in transplant units during the past decade. Exploring an outbreak transmission network requires complementary spatiotemporal and strain-typing approaches. We analyzed a PCP outbreak and demonstrated the added value of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study of P. jirovecii strains. Thirty-two PCP patients were included...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719897/clinical-manifestations-and-prognostic-factors-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-without-hiv
#19
Nobuhiro Asai, Shinji Motojima, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Ryo Matsunuma, Takuya Iwasaki, Kei Nakashima, Keiji Sogawa, Tamao Nakashita, Norihiro Kaneko
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) can occur in HIV patients but also in those without HIV (non-HIV PCP) but with other causes of immunodeficiency including malignancy or rheumatic diseases. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To evaluate the clinical presentation and prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP, we retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed as having PCP without HIV at Kameda Medical Center, Chiba, Japan, from January 2005 until June 2012. For the purpose of examining a prognostic factor for non-HIV PCP with 30-day mortality, we compared the characteristics of patients, clinical symptoms, radiological images, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS), and the time from the onset of respiratory symptoms to the start of therapy, in both survival and fatality groups...
July 19, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713390/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-an-infant-with-immunodeficiency-centromeric-instability-and-facial-anomaly-syndrome
#20
Katharina L Gössling, Cyrill Schipp, Ute Fischer, Florian Babor, Gerhard Koch, Friedhelm R Schuster, Jutta Dietzel-Dahmen, Dagmar Wieczorek, Arndt Borkhardt, Roland Meisel, Michaela Kuhlen
Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomaly (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic condition with severe immunodeficiency, which leads to lethal infections if not recognized and treated in early childhood. Up-to-date treatment regimens consist of prophylactic and supportive treatment of the recurrent infections. Here, we report the case of a 1-year-old boy of Moroccan consanguineous parents, who was diagnosed at 4 months of age with ICF syndrome with a homozygous missense mutation in the DNMT3B gene...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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