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Pneumocystis Jirovecii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#1
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062161/-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-respiratory-infections
#2
José María Marimón, José María Navarro-Marí
Acute respiratory infections are the second cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults worldwide, being viruses, bacteria and fungi involved in their etiology. The rapid diagnosis allows for a better clinical management of the patient, for adopting public health measures and for controlling possible outbreaks. The main etiologic agents can be diagnosed within the first hours after the onset of symptoms with antigen detection techniques, primarily immunochromatography. Results are obtained in 15-30minutes, with 70-90% sensitivity and >95% specificity for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila serogroup O1 infections from urine, Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs and respiratory syncytial virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates...
January 3, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050417/diffuse-parenchymal-lung-diseases-with-clinicoradiological-discordance-role-of-transbronchial-lung-biopsy-as-a-diagnostic-tool-an-observational-study
#3
K P Suraj, Kiran Vishnu Narayan, Jyothi Edakalavan, Neethu Kesava Kumar
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease (DPLD) requires a multidisciplinary approach with reconciliation of clinicoradiological and histopathological data. But when the preliminary clinicoradiological profile fails to suggest a diagnosis, an adequate lung biopsy specimen with meticulous histological examination and a multidisciplinary approach usually yields results. There is also a high chance of sampling error due to patchy and heterogeneous involvement of the disease process and due to the small volume of tissue taken...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049128/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-pulmonary-pathogens
#4
REVIEW
Radha Gopal, Rekha R Rapaka, Jay K Kolls
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response to a variety of pathogens in response to antiretroviral therapy-mediated recovery of the immune system in HIV-infected patients. Although IRIS can occur in many organs, pulmonary IRIS, associated with opportunistic infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii, is particularly associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathology of IRIS is associated with a variety of innate and adaptive immune factors, including CD4(+) T-cells, CD8(+) T-cells, γδ T-cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, the complement system and surfactant proteins, Toll-like receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035717/the-role-of-cd4-cell-count-as-discriminatory-measure-to-guide-chemoprophylaxis-against-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-negative-immunocompromised-patients-a-systematic-review
#5
Peter E Messiaen, Senne Cuyx, Tom Dejagere, Jeroen C Van der Hilst
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has increased in immunocompromised patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is highly effective in preventing PJP in both HIV-positive and -seronegative patients. In HIV-positive patients, the risk of PJP is strongly correlated with decreased CD4 cell count. The role of CD4 cell count in the pathogenesis of PJP in non-HIV immunocompromised patients is less well studied...
December 30, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033170/a-rare-cause-of-cavitary-lung-lesions
#6
Nika Pierre-Louis, Brian Dlugos
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a common infection among susceptible patients with compromised immune function and can lead to life-threatening complications without prompt recognition and appropriate treatment. Clinicians should be aware that patients can develop severe infection even while receiving approved prophylactic medications for PJP. Furthermore, atypical radiographic findings, such as the cavitary lung lesions found in the patient in this case report, can make the diagnosis even more challenging...
January 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031836/pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-a-case-report-and-world-literature-review
#7
Armando J Huaringa, Wassem H Francis
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a lung disorder which was first described in 1958 by Rosen et al. and is indeed rare disease with a prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals. PAP is characterized by abnormal accumulation of pulmonary surfactant in the alveolar space, which impairs gas exchange leading to a severe hypoxemia. Pulmonary surfactant is an insoluble proteinaceous material that is rich in lipids and stains positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The most common type of PAP is the so-called autoimmune or idiopathic type...
November 2016: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031260/immunization-with-pca1-protects-mice-against-pneumocystis-pneumonia-and-generates-antibody-to-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#8
Brenda L Tesini, Terry W Wright, Jane E Malone, Constantine G Haidaris, Martha Harber, Andrea J Sant, Jennifer L Nayak, Francis Gigliotti
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a life-threatening infection that affects immunocompromised individuals. Nearly half of all PcP cases occur in those prescribed effective chemoprophylaxis, suggesting that additional preventive methods are needed. To this end, we have identified a unique mouse Pc surface protein, designated Pneumocystis cross-reactive antigen 1 (Pca1), as a potential vaccine candidate. Mice were immunized with a recombinant fusion protein containing Pca1. Subsequently, CD4(+) T cells were depleted and the mice were exposed to P...
December 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018911/a-quantitative-model-to-estimate-drug-resistance-in-pathogens
#9
Frazier N Baker, Melanie T Cushion, Aleksey Porollo
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic infection that occurs in humans and other mammals with debilitated immune systems. These infections are caused by fungi in the genus Pneumocystis, which are not susceptible to standard antifungal agents. Despite decades of research and drug development, the primary treatment and prophylaxis for PCP remains a combination of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) that targets two enzymes in folic acid biosynthesis, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), respectively...
December 2016: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013116/low-risk-of-pneumonia-from-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-receiving-immune-suppression
#10
Thomas G Cotter, Nicola Gathaiya, Jelena Catania, Edward V Loftus, William J Tremaine, Larry M Baddour, W Scott Harmsen, Alan R Zinsmeister, William J Sandborn, Andrew H Limper, Darrell S Pardi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Use of immunosuppressants and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may increase the risk of pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJP). We assessed the risk of PJP in a population-based cohort of patients with IBD treated with corticosteroids, immune-suppressive medications, and biologics. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, diagnosed with Crohn's disease (n=427) or ulcerative colitis (n=510) from 1970 through 2011...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965450/functional-characterization-of-pneumocystis-carinii-inositol-transporter-1
#11
Melanie T Cushion, Margaret S Collins, Thomas Sesterhenn, Aleksey Porollo, Anish Kizhakkekkara Vadukoot, Edward J Merino
: Fungi in the genus Pneumocystis live in the lungs of mammals, where they can cause a fatal pneumonia (PCP [Pneumocystis pneumonia]) in hosts with compromised immune systems. The absence of a continuous in vitro culture system for any species of Pneumocystis has led to limited understanding of these fungi, especially for the discovery of new therapies. We recently reported that Pneumocystis carinii, Pneumocystis murina, and most significantly, Pneumocystis jirovecii lack both enzymes necessary for myo-inositol biosynthesis but contain genes with homologies to fungal myo-inositol transporters...
December 13, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960210/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-latin-america
#12
Hernán A Iannella, Carlos M Luna
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951623/clinical-significance-of-positive-pneumocystis-jirovecii-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-non-human-immunodeficiency-virus-immunocompromised-patients-in-a-real-practice
#13
Hea Yon Lee, Hye Seon Kang, Hwa Young Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Sook Young Lee, Seok Chan Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Yeon Joon Park, Young Kyoon Kim, Ji Young Kang
Background/Aims: Pneumocystis jirovecii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be helpful in diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP); however it has limitations. We evaluated the prevalence of positive P. jirovecii PCR from non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunocompromised patients and tried to determine the risk of PCP development. Methods: Between May 2009 and September 2012, P. jirovecii PCR was performed in bronchoscopic specimens from 1,231 adult non-HIV immunocompromised patients suspected of respiratory infection...
December 13, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936923/evaluation-of-the-automated-becton-dickinson-max-real-time-pcr-platform-for-detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#14
Jung-Yien Chien, Chia-Jung Liu, Pei-Chien Chuang, Tai-Fen Lee, Yu-Tsung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Chien-Ching Hung, Wan-Huei Sheng, Chong-Jen Yu, Po-Ren Hsueh
AIM: We evaluated the performance of the automated quantitative BD MAX (Becton Dickinson) real-time PCR platform for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 34 retrospective and 137 prospective samples were included. RESULTS: Retrospectively, all (100%) positive samples were correctly detected by this platform compared with a nested PCR. Among prospective samples, the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 92...
January 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932109/risk-evaluation-and-outcome-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#15
S Brakemeier, M Dürr, F Bachmann, D Schmidt, J Gaedeke, K Budde
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) affects immunocompromised patients. As a result of effective prophylaxis in the 1st months after kidney transplantation, PJP is increasingly diagnosed in the long term after transplantation. The present study evaluates course and outcome of PJP in a single transplant center from 2010 to 2015. Twenty-three patients presented with PJP at a mean of 53.7 ± 50.2 months after transplantation. Of these, 3 patients underwent ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) living-donor transplantation and 3 patients were treated with the use of belatacept...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917032/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-a-treatment-naive-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#16
Jeffrey R Strich, Theresa D Jerussi, Adrian Wiestner, Steven M Holland
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a known complication in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who are treated with fludarabine-based chemotherapy; however, it is extremely uncommon in treatment naïve patients. Here we report a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a patient with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
November 2016: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: IDCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904052/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#17
Yinggai Song, Yi Ren, Xiaowen Wang, Ruoyu Li
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a prototypical opportunistic pathogen, causing an asymptomatic or mild infection in normal hosts and fulminating pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in immunocompromised hosts. PCP is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS patients. Microscopic detection of cysts and trophic forms of P. jirovecii in respiratory secretions is simple and useful but may underestimate the P. jirovecii infection. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR increase the sensitivity and specificity to identify PCP and provide an approach to discriminate PCP from pulmonary P...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890947/profile-of-pneumocystis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-institute-in-north-india
#18
Ravinder Kaur, Pragyan Swagatika Panda, Richa Dewan
CONTEXT: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) is still remains a common opportunistic disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. Study on PcP in developing countries are scarce. AIMS: To study the occurrence of P. jirovecii infection in clinically suspected individuals in a tertiary care institute. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two years data regarding respiratory sample analysis, HIV status, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count of clinically suspected pneumocystis infection patients with known/unknown HIV status were analyzed...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890037/grouped-cases-of-pulmonary-pneumocystosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-advantages-of-coordination-by-an-infectious-diseases-unit-for-overall-management-and-epidemiological-monitoring
#19
Claire Wintenberger, Daniele Maubon, Elena Charpentier, John Rendu, Patricia Pavese, Caroline Augier, Paolo Malvezzi, Boubou Camara, Marie-Reine Mallaret, Laurence Bouillet, Olivier Epaulard
OBJECTIVE To determine the origin of grouped cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in solid-organ transplant recipients at our institution. DESIGN A case series with clinical examinations, genotyping, and an epidemiological survey. SETTING A university hospital in France. PATIENTS We report 12 solid-organ transplant recipients with successive cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia that occurred over 3 years; 10 of these cases occurred in a single year. METHODS We used molecular typing of P. jirovecii strains by multilocus sequence typing and clinical epidemiological survey to determine potential dates and places of transmission...
February 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859907/identification-and-functional-ascertainment-of-the-pneumocystis-jirovecii-potential-drug-targets-gsc1-and-kre6-involved-in-glucan-synthesis
#20
Amanda Luraschi, Ousmane H Cissé, Marco Pagni, Philippe M Hauser
The most efficient drug against the human pathogenic fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii is cotrimoxazole targeting the folate biosynthesis. However, resistance toward it is emerging and adverse effects occur in some patients. Studies in rodent models suggested that echinocandins could be useful to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia. Echinocandins inhibit the catalytic subunit Gsc1 of the enzymatic complex ensuring the synthesis of 1,3-β glucan, an essential constituent of cell walls of most fungi. Besides, inhibitors of the enzyme Kre6 involved in the synthesis of 1,6-β glucan, another essential component of fungal walls, were recently described...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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