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Pneumocystis Jirovecii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303545/low-prevalence-of-dhfr-and-dhps-mutations-in-pneumocystis-jirovecii-strains-obtained-from-a-german-cohort
#1
Isabelle Suárez, Lisa Roderus, Edeltraud van Gumpel, Norma Jung, Clara Lehmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Pia Hartmann, Georg Plum, Jan Rybniker
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic and potentially life-threatening infection of immunocompromised individuals. A combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is widely used for prophylaxis and treatment of PCP. Polymorphisms in the drug targets, the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) or the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are presumably a reason for treatment failure. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the prevalence of DHPS and DHFR mutations in Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates obtained from HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected PCP patients...
March 16, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287298/pneumocystis-jirovecii-induced-chronic-interstitial-lung-disease-in-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-s-macroglobulinemia
#2
Wolfram Windisch, Axel Meissner, Axel Goßmann, Michael Brockmann, Verena Schildgen, Oliver Schildgen
Infections with Pneumocystis jirovecii can result in asymptomatic colonization or induce life threatening clinical symptoms. However, there appears to be a 'gray area' between colonization and severe pneumonia that remains underestimated so far. We describe a case with chronic interstitial lung disease and chronic cough that was attributed to P. jirovecii. The patient's history of chronic cough, although very likely being fostered by the underlying Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and interstitial lung disease, was most likely caused by P...
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287010/diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection
#3
P Lewis White, Matthijs Backx, Rosemary A Barnes
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a ubiquitous fungus, which causes pneumonia in humans. Diagnosis was hampered by the inability to culture the organism, and based on microscopic examination of respiratory samples or clinical presentation. New assays can assist in the diagnosis and even aid with the emergence of resistant infections. Areas Covered: This manuscript will provide background information on Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). Diagnosis, from radiological to non-microbiological (e.g. Lactate dehydrogenase) and microbiological investigations (Microscopy, PCR, β-D-Glucan) will be discussed...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267082/guidelines-for-the-prophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pjp-in-children-with-solid-tumors
#4
Rebecca Proudfoot, Bob Phillips, Sophie Wilne
Although it is well-established that children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplants and treatment for leukemia should be offered prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, the risk for children with solid malignancies is less certain. This guideline has been developed with the aim of standardizing practice and optimizing the benefit versus risk of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. P. jirovecii pneumonia has a high mortality rate even with prompt antimicrobial treatment. Since prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole is safe, effective, and inexpensive, we suggest that all children with malignancies undergoing immunosuppressive therapy are offered prophylaxis unless there are clear contraindications...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257752/efficacy-and-safety-of-idelalisib-in-combination-with-ofatumumab-for-previously-treated-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-an-open-label-randomised-phase-3-trial
#5
Jeffrey A Jones, Tadeusz Robak, Jennifer R Brown, Farrukh T Awan, Xavier Badoux, Steven Coutre, Javier Loscertales, Kerry Taylor, Elisabeth Vandenberghe, Malgorzata Wach, Nina Wagner-Johnston, Loic Ysebaert, Lyndah Dreiling, Ronald Dubowy, Guan Xing, Ian W Flinn, Carolyn Owen
BACKGROUND: Idelalisib, a selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ, is approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in combination with rituximab. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of idelalisib in combination with a second-generation anti-CD20 antibody, ofatumumab, in a similar patient population. METHODS: In this global, open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients with relapsed CLL progressing less than 24 months from last therapy...
March 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243035/infections-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#6
REVIEW
Eleni Karakike, Christophe Moreno, Thierry Gustot
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH), defined by a modified discriminant function ≥32, is the most severe form of alcohol-induced liver disease and is associated with a 1-month mortality rate of around 30%. Corticosteroid treatment remains the only therapeutic option that improves short-term survival. Infectious complications, occurring in approximately 50% of patients, are the main causes of death, even in patients who benefit from corticosteroids. Liver failure, recent alcohol consumption and immunosuppressive drugs contribute to this infectious risk...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223177/pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-or-autoimmune-diseases-usefulness-of-lymphocyte-subtyping
#7
Yi Li, Marc Ghannoum, Chuntao Deng, Yanxia Gao, Huadong Zhu, Xuezhong Yu, Valery Lavergne
OBJECTIVES: No consensus currently exists on the indications for Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis in patients with inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The main objective was to identify biomarkers associated with P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in this population. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out at Beijing Union Medical College Hospital (2003-2014). All patients with an inflammatory or autoimmune disease presenting with acute onset of fever and respiratory symptoms were included...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214275/detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-by-nested-pcr-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-pulmonary-disease
#8
Cristina Rodrigues Santos, Ângela M de Assis, Edson A Luz, Luzia Lyra, Ivan F Toro, José Claudio C Seabra, Dira H Daldin, Tathiane U Marcalto, Marcos T Galasso, Ronaldo F Macedo, Angélica Z Schreiber, Francisco H Aoki
BACKGROUND: Nested PCR can be used to determine the status of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in other lung diseases. AIMS: This study sought to detect a target DNA fragment (mitochondrial large subunit rRNA or mtL SUrRNA) of P. jirovecii in patients with lung disease who underwent bronchoscopy with collection of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). METHODS: The results from toluidine blue staining were compared with those obtained using molecular methods that included an "in house" DNA extraction procedure, PCR and nested PCR...
February 14, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193704/pneumocystis-colonization-in-asthmatic-patients-not-receiving-oral-corticosteroid-therapy
#9
Emma L Davey, Rhonda E Colombo, Charles Fiorentino, Gary Fahle, Richard T Davey, Kenneth N Olivier, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis jirovecii can colonize patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To determine if colonization occurs in asthma patients, sputum samples from 10 patients with mild asthma, who were not receiving oral corticosteroids, were evaluated by a sensitive real-time PCR assay that targets a multicopy gene of P. jirovecii. 2 patients (20%) had Pneumocystis DNA detected; 1 patient had 3 positive samples over an 11-day period. Thus, Pneumocystis colonization occurs in asthma patients, and further studies are warranted to evaluate its role in airways disease...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192629/the-effect-of-co-trimoxazole-on-serum-potassium-concentration-safety-evaluation-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Wei Yee Chan, Allan B Clark, Andrew M Wilson, Yoon K Loke
AIMS: Co-trimoxazole maintains a well-established role in the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as urinary tract infections. Observational studies report hyperkalemia associated with co-trimoxazole which may stem from an amiloride-like potassium sparing effect. Our study reports on changes in serum potassium on patients without acute infections, and the influence of concomitant anti-kaliuretic drugs on this effect. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial in patients with interstitial lung disease who were assigned to placebo or 960 mg twice daily co-trimoxazole...
February 13, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185780/corrigendum-to-caspofungin-salvage-therapy-in-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-j-microbiol-immunol-infect-2016-pii-s1684-1182-16-30029-9-epub-ahead-of-print
#11
Wen-Sen Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh, Tai-Chin Hsieh, Fu-Lun Chen, Tsong-Yih Ou, Shio-Shin Jean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169011/investigation-of-outbreaks-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-two-scottish-renal-units
#12
T Inkster, S Dodd, R Gunson, L Imrie, E Spalding, S Packer, C Deighan, C Daly, J Coia, T Imtiaz, C McGuffie, R Wilson, A M Bal
Pneumocystis jirovecii is recognized as an opportunistic pathogen. In recent years, human-to-human transmission of P. jirovecii has been demonstrated. However, outbreaks of P. jirovecii infections are not well defined because the epidemiological setting that facilitates transmission is not fully understood. This article describes two outbreaks of P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in renal transplant patients in the West of Scotland. In total, 25 patients in two geographically contiguous locations were affected...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143789/comparison-of-a-commercial-real-time-pcr-assay-realcycler%C3%A2-pjir-kit-progenie-molecular-to-an-in-house-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infections
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thibaud Guillaud-Saumur, Gilles Nevez, Amélie Bazire, Michèle Virmaux, Nicolas Papon, Solène Le Gal
We compared the RealCycler® PJIR kit (Progenie Molecular), available in Europe, to an in-house real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii infections. Excellent agreement was found (concordance rate, 97.4%; Cohen's kappa, 0.918>0.8) showing that this commercial assay represents an alternative method for the diagnosis of P. jirovecii infections.
April 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121925/prospective-etiological-investigation-of-community-acquired-pulmonary-infections-in-hospitalized-people-living-with-hiv
#14
Claudia Figueiredo-Mello, Pontus Naucler, Marinella D Negra, Anna S Levin
The study of the etiological agents of community-acquired pulmonary infections is important to guide empirical therapy, requires constant updating, and has a substantial impact on the prognosis of patients. The objective of this study is to determine prospectively the etiology of community-acquired pulmonary infections in hospitalized adults living with HIV. Patients were submitted to an extended microbiological investigation that included molecular methods. The microbiological findings were evaluated according to severity of the disease and pneumococcal vaccine status...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115507/overcoming-hurdles-to-vaccine-development-against-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#15
Beth A Garvy
Development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a common problem among immunosuppressed individuals. There are windows of opportunity in which vaccination would be beneficial, but to date, no vaccines have made it to clinical trials. Significant hurdles to vaccine development include a host range specificity making it difficult to translate from animal models to humans. Discovery of cross-reactive epitopes are critical to moving vaccine candidates from pre-clinical animal studies to clinical trials.
January 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115045/-life-threatening-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-a-previously-healthy-pregnant-woman
#16
Sara Trier-Mørch, Nicki Broholm Holst Sørensen, Martin Rostgaard-Knudsen, Helle Larsen, Anne Nødgaard Sørensen
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common infections in patients with HIV. Pneumocystis jirovecii rarely gives rise to symptoms in immunocompetent individuals. PCP has been reported in individuals with immunosuppression. We report a case of life-threatening PCP in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Pregnant patients should be considered to be relatively immunosuppressed, and more opportunistic infections should be included in differential diagnosis considerations.
January 16, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106902/bone-marrow-infection-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#17
Kanokorn Lerdlamyong, Sanya Sukpanichnant, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#18
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062161/-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-respiratory-infections
#19
José María Marimón, José María Navarro-Marí
Acute respiratory infections are the second cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults worldwide, being viruses, bacteria and fungi involved in their etiology. The rapid diagnosis allows for a better clinical management of the patient, for adopting public health measures and for controlling possible outbreaks. The main etiologic agents can be diagnosed within the first hours after the onset of symptoms with antigen detection techniques, primarily immunochromatography. Results are obtained in 15-30minutes, with 70-90% sensitivity and >95% specificity for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila serogroup O1 infections from urine, Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs and respiratory syncytial virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates...
February 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050417/diffuse-parenchymal-lung-diseases-with-clinicoradiological-discordance-role-of-transbronchial-lung-biopsy-as-a-diagnostic-tool-an-observational-study
#20
K P Suraj, Kiran Vishnu Narayan, Jyothi Edakalavan, Neethu Kesava Kumar
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease (DPLD) requires a multidisciplinary approach with reconciliation of clinicoradiological and histopathological data. But when the preliminary clinicoradiological profile fails to suggest a diagnosis, an adequate lung biopsy specimen with meticulous histological examination and a multidisciplinary approach usually yields results. There is also a high chance of sampling error due to patchy and heterogeneous involvement of the disease process and due to the small volume of tissue taken...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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