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Pneumocystis Jirovecii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917032/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-a-treatment-naive-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#1
Jeffrey R Strich, Theresa D Jerussi, Adrian Wiestner, Steven M Holland
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a known complication in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who are treated with fludarabine-based chemotherapy; however, it is extremely uncommon in treatment naïve patients. Here we report a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a patient with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
November 2016: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: IDCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904052/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#2
Yinggai Song, Yi Ren, Xiaowen Wang, Ruoyu Li
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a prototypical opportunistic pathogen, causing an asymptomatic or mild infection in normal hosts and fulminating pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in immunocompromised hosts. PCP is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS patients. Microscopic detection of cysts and trophic forms of P. jirovecii in respiratory secretions is simple and useful but may underestimate the P. jirovecii infection. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR increase the sensitivity and specificity to identify PCP and provide an approach to discriminate PCP from pulmonary P...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890947/profile-of-pneumocystis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-institute-in-north-india
#3
Ravinder Kaur, Pragyan Swagatika Panda, Richa Dewan
CONTEXT: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) is still remains a common opportunistic disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. Study on PcP in developing countries are scarce. AIMS: To study the occurrence of P. jirovecii infection in clinically suspected individuals in a tertiary care institute. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two years data regarding respiratory sample analysis, HIV status, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count of clinically suspected pneumocystis infection patients with known/unknown HIV status were analyzed...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890037/grouped-cases-of-pulmonary-pneumocystosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-advantages-of-coordination-by-an-infectious-diseases-unit-for-overall-management-and-epidemiological-monitoring
#4
Claire Wintenberger, Daniele Maubon, Elena Charpentier, John Rendu, Patricia Pavese, Caroline Augier, Paolo Malvezzi, Boubou Camara, Marie-Reine Mallaret, Laurence Bouillet, Olivier Epaulard
OBJECTIVE To determine the origin of grouped cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in solid-organ transplant recipients at our institution. DESIGN A case series with clinical examinations, genotyping, and an epidemiological survey. SETTING A university hospital in France. PATIENTS We report 12 solid-organ transplant recipients with successive cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia that occurred over 3 years; 10 of these cases occurred in a single year. METHODS We used molecular typing of P. jirovecii strains by multilocus sequence typing and clinical epidemiological survey to determine potential dates and places of transmission...
November 28, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859907/identification-and-functional-ascertainment-of-the-pneumocystis-jirovecii-potential-drug-targets-gsc1-and-kre6-involved-in-glucan-synthesis
#5
Amanda Luraschi, Ousmane H Cissé, Marco Pagni, Philippe M Hauser
The most efficient drug against the human pathogenic fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii is cotrimoxazole targeting the folate biosynthesis. However, resistance towards it is emerging and adverse effects occur in some patients. Studies in rodent models suggested that echinocandins could be useful to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia. Echinocandins inhibit the catalytic subunit Gsc1 of the enzymatic complex ensuring the synthesis of 1,3-β glucan, an essential constituent of cell walls of most fungi. Besides, inhibitors of the enzyme Kre6 involved in the synthesis of 1,6-β glucan, another essential component of fungal walls, were recently described...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855071/high-prevalence-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-dihydropteroate-synthase-gene-mutations-in-patients-with-first-episode-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-santiago-chile-and-their-clinical-response-to-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-therapy
#6
Carolina A Ponce, Magali Chabé, Claudio George, Alejandra Cárdenas, Luisa Duran, Julia Guerrero, Rebeca Bustamante, Olga Matos, Laurence Huang, Robert F Miller, Sergio L Vargas
Mutations in the Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene of Pneumocystis jirovecii associate with failure of sulfa prophylaxis. They can develop by selection in patients receiving sulfa drugs, or be acquired via person-to-person transmission. DHPS mutations raise concern about decreasing efficacy of sulfa drugs, the main available therapeutic tool for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The prevalence of Pneumocystis DHPS mutations was examined in Pneumocystis isolates from 56 sulfa-prophylaxis-naive adults with first-episode of PCP from 2002-2010 in Santiago, Chile...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852659/case-of-steven-johnson-syndrome-in-a-male-with-breast-cancer-secondary-to-docetaxel-cyclophosphamide-therapy
#7
Benjamin Jarrett, Sehem Ghazala, Joseph Chao, Sachin Chaudhary
The mortality rate for Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is estimated to be ∼12% and for toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) it is around 30%. It continues to be a severe life-threatening drug reaction. We present a 60-year-old Caucasian man with a medical history significant for breast cancer status post mastectomy and chemotherapy with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide who presented with severe mucositis and a progressing skin rash consistent with SJS. He was started on high-dose corticosteroids and IVIG but continued to have worsening mucosal ulcerations and severe bleeding from the oral, conjunctival and genital mucosa...
November 15, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835947/successful-treatment-of-severe-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient-using-caspofungin-combined-with-clindamycin-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Hongjuan Li, Haoming Huang, Hangyong He
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii is responsible for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), which occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised individuals. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is regarded as the first-line treatment and prophylaxis for P. jirovecii infection, but the frequency of adverse reactions and newly emerged antibiotic resistance limit its use. CASE PRESENTATION: Ulcerations and hemorrhages involving the tongue were noted secondary to TMP-SMZ desensitization against PCP in a 46-year-old male who had previously been diagnosed with IgA nephropathy and sustained prolonged corticosteroid therapy...
November 11, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824870/clinical-course-radiological-manifestations-and-outcome-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-hiv-patients-and-renal-transplant-recipients
#9
Lukas Ebner, Laura N Walti, Andri Rauch, Hansjakob Furrer, Alexia Cusini, Andreas M J Meyer, Stefan Weiler, Uyen Huynh-Do, Johannes Heverhagen, Spyridon Arampatzis, Andreas Christe
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. In literature, presentation and outcome of PCP differs between patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and renal transplant recipients (RTRs). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with PCP based on the HIV and renal transplant registries at our institution. Radiological and clinical data from all confirmed PCP cases between 2005 and 2012 were compared...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824115/serological-diagnosis-of-pneumocystosis-production-of-a-synthetic-recombinant-antigen-for-immunodetection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#10
A L Tomás, F Cardoso, F Esteves, O Matos
Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) relies on the detection of P. jirovecii in respiratory specimens obtained by invasive techniques. Thus, the development of a serological test is urgently needed as it will allow the diagnosis of PcP using blood, an inexpensive and non-invasive specimen. This study aims to combine the production of a multi-epitope synthetic recombinant antigen (RSA) and an ELISA test for detection of anti-P. jirovecii antibodies, in order to develop a new approach for PcP diagnosis. The RSA was selected and designed based on the study of the immunogenicity of the carboxyl-terminal domain of the major surface glycoprotein...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814896/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-systemic-autoimmune-rheumatic-disease-a-case-control-study
#11
Susan Tadros, Andrew J Teichtahl, Sabina Ciciriello, Ian P Wicks
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that affects the immunocompromised. Patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease are increasingly recognised as an at-risk clinical population with a high mortality. This case-control study examined differences in the characteristics and peripheral blood parameters between patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease who developed PJP and gender, age and disease-matched controls...
September 28, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812050/clinical-outcomes-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-from-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-pakistan
#12
Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Hira Shahzad, Afia Zafar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predisposing immunocompromised states, administration of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis, the disease course and outcomes of patients with pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi. The medical records of patients diagnosed with pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia from January 1995 to October 2015 were retrieved. Baseline characteristics, clinical course, treatment, and mortality rates were noted...
November 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811179/diffusion-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-the-surrounding-air-of-patients-with-pneumocystis-colonization-frequency-and-putative-risk-factors
#13
Emilie Fréalle, Sandrine Valade, Nicolas Guigue, Samia Hamane, Magali Chabé, Solène Le Gal, Céline Damiani, Anne Totet, El Moukhtar Aliouat, Gilles Nevez, Jean Menotti
In a prospective bicentric study, Pneumocystis jirovecii excretion and diffusion was explored in air samples collected in the rooms occupied by 17 Pneumocystis-colonized patients. P. jirovecii DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the air collected from 3 patients' rooms (17.6%), with identical genotypes in corresponding clinical and air samples. Pneumocystis DNA was detected for 2/3 patients with autoimmune disease treated with corticosteroids versus 1/6 patients with hematologic disease and 0/5 kidney transplant recipients...
November 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803824/successful-treatment-of-disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-disease-in-an-hiv-infected-child-with-a-linezolid-containing-regimen
#14
Srđan Roglić, Drusia Dickson, Branko Miše, Klaudija Višković, Vera Katalinić-Janković, George Rutherford, Josip Begovac
Upon HIV infection diagnosis, an 8-month-old boy was transferred for evaluation of worsening respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) was diagnosed; the boy also had a nonhealing ulcer at the site of vaccination with Statens Serum Institut (Danish strain) Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and associated axillary lymphadenopathy. PCP treatment resulted in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Antimycobacterial treatment was immediately attempted but was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789058/evaluation-of-a-new-commercial-real-time-pcr-assay-for-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-and-identification-of-dihydropteroate-synthase-dhps-mutations
#15
Isabel Montesinos, Marie-Luce Delforge, Farida Ajjaham, Françoise Brancart, Maya Hites, Frederique Jacobs, Olivier Denis
The PneumoGenius® real-time PCR assay is a new commercial multiplex real-time PCR method, which detects the Pneumocystis mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU) and two dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) point mutations. To evaluate the clinical performance of this new real-time PCR assay we tested 120 extracted DNA samples from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. These set of extracted DNA samples had already tested positive for Pneumocystis and patients had been classified in probable and unlikely PCP in a previous study...
October 7, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739337/utility-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-in-diagnosing-respiratory-tract-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-are-invasive-diagnostics-still-needed
#16
Tobias Svensson, Kristina Lamberg Lundström, Martin Höglund, Honar Cherif
BACKGROUND: Patients treated for hematological malignancies have an increased risk of serious infections. Diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-established investigation for identifying the cause of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic yield of BAL in patients treated for hematological malignancies and how often it contributed to a modification of the anti-infectious therapy...
October 14, 2016: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721846/erratum-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-pediatric-patients-an-analysis-of-15-confirmed-consecutive-cases-during-14-years
#17
Kyung-Ran Kim, Jong Min Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Yae-Jean Kim
[This corrects the article on p. 252 in vol. 59, PMID: 27462353.].
September 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720434/pneumocystis-infection-alters-the-activation-state-of-pulmonary-macrophages
#18
Jessica M Deckman, Cathryn J Kurkjian, Joseph P McGillis, Theodore J Cory, Susan E Birket, Linda M Schutzman, Brian S Murphy, Beth A Garvy, David J Feola
Recent studies show a substantial incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization and infection in patients with chronic inflammatory lung conditions. However, little is known about the impact of Pneumocystis upon the regulation of pulmonary immunity. We demonstrate here that Pneumocystis polarizes macrophages towards an alternatively activated macrophage-like phenotype. Genetically engineered mice that lack the ability to signal through IL-4 and IL-13 were used to show that Pneumocystis alternative macrophage activation is dependent upon signaling through these cytokines...
October 5, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695870/lamellar-ichthyosis-like-eruption-associated-with-ponatinib
#19
Özge Mine Örenay, Funda Tamer, Evren Sarıfakıoğlu, Umran Yıldırım
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695869/very-recent-hiv-infection-accompanied-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-and-mycobacterium-avium-complex-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-a-case-report
#20
Katarina Čurić, Mario Poljak, Alojz Ihan, Janez Tomažič
A small proportion of HIV-infected patients rapidly progress to AIDS; indeed, some individuals have been known to progress to AIDS within a year after primary infection. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) is the most frequent AIDS-defining illness. However, PCP can also rarely occur during primary HIV infection as a result of the severe immunosuppression that may accompany the early stage of HIV infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) comprises two distinct syndromes: paradoxical IRIS and unmasking IRIS...
September 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
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