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Pneumocystis Jirovecii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330709/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-iclaprim-a-diaminopyrimidine-compound-and-potential-therapeutic-alternative-against-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#1
E M Aliouat, E Dei-Cas, N Gantois, M Pottier, C Pinçon, S Hawser, A Lier, D B Huang
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a serious complication that may affect immunosuppressed patients. The absence of reliable and safe therapeutic alternatives to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) justifies the search for more effective and less toxic agents. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii activity of iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine compound that exerts its antimicrobial activity through the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), as does TMP, was evaluated alone or in combination with SMX...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325308/-opportunistic-infection-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-the-disease-spectrum-and-the-characteristics-of-peripheral-lymphocyte-subsets
#2
L Qin, Z F Qiu, J Xie, T R Geng, J L Zhao, L Wan, T S Li
Objective: To investigate the common opportunistic infections and the characteristics of peripheral lymphocyte subsets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: From December 2013 to December 2016, peripheral lymphocyte subsets were consecutively detected by flow cytometry in treated SLE patients with or without opportunistic infections (OIs) . The lymphocyte subsets in healthy donors were used as normal control group. Results: A total of 145 treated SLE patients were enrolled including 108 with OIs and 37 without OIs...
January 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314762/opportunistic-infections-in-patients-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#3
Ada Redondo-Benito, Adrian Curran, Ana Villar-Gomez, Ernesto Trallero-Araguas, Andreu Fernández-Codina, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Jose Ángel Rodrigo-Pendás, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan
AIM: To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of opportunistic infection (OI) in a cohort of patients with inflammatory myopathies, and compare mortality rates between those with and without OIs. METHODS: In total, 204 patients from our myositis cohort were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced an OI during the period 1986-2014. The patients' clinical characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes were systematically recorded...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314523/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#4
Hung Chang, Ming-Chung Kuo, Tung-Liang Lin, Jin-Hou Wu, Po-Nan Wang
The association of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is not clearly defined. In our experience of 291 patients with AML, 20 (14 males and 6 females, median age 56) developed PJP (incidence 6.8%). Thirteen patients (65%) survived until discharge from hospital. We conclude that PJP is not uncommon among patients with AML. In clinical care of AML, awareness of PJP should be heightened and prophylaxis should be considered.
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276769/low-incidence-of-opportunistic-infections-in-lupus-patients-treated-with-cyclophosphamide-and-steroids-in-a-tertiary-care-setting
#5
Shubhasree Banerjee, Ann Biehl, Maryam Ghaderi-Yeganeh, Zerai Manna, Sarfaraz Hasni
Background: Infection is common cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our objective was to determine incidence and types of infections, particularly opportunistic infections, in SLE patients receiving cyclophosphamide, and to identify contribution of variables like demographics, steroid, other immunosuppressives, white blood cell and absolute neutrophil count to infection risk. Patients and Methods: We did retrospective chart review of SLE patients in our institute over last 10 years, who received minimum six cyclophosphamide infusions...
March 2017: Medical Research Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258242/successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-and-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-associated-with-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-an-hiv-patient
#6
Marie-Françoise Rey, Charles Mary, Diane Sanguinetti, Stéphane Ranque, Christophe Bartoli, Coralie L'Ollivier
In both the post and pre combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, Pneumocystis jirovecii and Toxoplasma gondii remain common opportunistic infectious agents. The common manifestations are pneumonia for P. jirovecii and brain abscess for T. gondii. Nevertheless, co-infection remains rare, and pulmonary toxoplasmosis is scarce, or may be underestimated because of its similarity with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We reported an uncommon case of an AIDS patient (6 CD4 + T cells/mm³) with both pulmonary and cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with pneumocystis pneumonia...
December 18, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228377/genotyping-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-colonized-patients-with-various-pulmonary-diseases
#7
Magdalena Sokulska, Marta Kicia, Maria Wesolowska, Pawel Piesiak, Aneta Kowal, Maria Luísa Lobo, Zaneta Kopacz, Andrzej B Hendrich, Olga Matos
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus causing Pneumocystis pneumonia primarily in immunosuppressed patients. However, immunocompetent individuals may become colonized and, as asymptomatic carriers, serve as reservoirs of the pathogen. Moreover, these asymptomatic carriers are at higher risk of developing pneumonia if favorable conditions occur. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii in patients with various pulmonary diseases and to characterize the genetic diversity of organisms circulating in the studied population...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225815/hypercalcaemia-preceding-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#8
Jonathan Ling, Tara Anderson, Sanchia Warren, Geoffrey Kirkland, Matthew Jose, Richard Yu, Steven Yew, Samantha Mcfadyen, Alison Graver, William Johnson, Lisa Jeffs
Background: The overall incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in solid organ transplant recipients is 5-15%. A timely diagnosis of PJP is difficult and relies on imaging and detection of the organism. Methods: We present a case series of four patients displaying hypercalcaemia with an eventual diagnosis of PJP and document the management of the outbreak with a multidisciplinary team approach. We discuss the underlying pathophysiology and previous reports of hypercalcaemia preceding a diagnosis of PJP...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212106/-an-uncommon-case-of-pneumonia
#9
J A von Donat, M Weber
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a common cause of respiratory disease in immunocompromised hosts. We describe a case of an HIV negative, immunocompetent patient and discuss the probable cause.
December 6, 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202739/the-lung-microbiome-in-patients-with-pneumocystosis
#10
J Kehrmann, B Veckollari, D Schmidt, O Schildgen, V Schildgen, N Wagner, M Zeschnigk, L Klein-Hitpass, O Witzke, J Buer, J Steinmann
BACKROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we analysed the microbiome of the lower respiratory tract from critically ill intensive care unit patients with and without pneumocystosis. METHODS: Broncho-alveolar fluids from 65 intubated and mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients (34 PCP+ and 31 PCP- patients) were collected...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201472/severe-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-in-patient-with-low-grade-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-after-standard-chemotherapy
#11
Lena Modvig, Ciaran Boyle, Katie Randall, Anton Borg
Clinically significant cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is not uncommon in patients with severe immunodeficiency secondary to underlying medical disorders or following aggressive immunosuppressive therapy. However, it is less frequently found in patients with low-grade haematological malignancies after nonintensive chemotherapy. We treated a patient at our centre for stage IVB follicular lymphoma with standard chemotherapy who successively developed CMV colitis associated with a CMV viral load of >3 million copies/ml...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190812/diagnostic-performance-of-the-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-in-patients-with-pneumocystis-jirovecii-compared-with-those-with-candidiasis-aspergillosis-mucormycosis-and-tuberculosis-and-healthy-volunteers
#12
Hyo-Ju Son, Heungsup Sung, Se Yoon Park, Taeeun Kim, Hyun Jeong Lee, Sun-Mi Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) relies on microscopic visualization of P. jirovecii, or detection of Pneumocystis DNA in respiratory specimens, which involves invasive procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage. The (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BG) assay has been proposed as a less invasive and less expensive diagnostic test to rule out PCP. We therefore compared blood levels of BG in patients with PCP with those of patients with candidemia, chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC), invasive aspergillosis, mucormycosis, and tuberculosis and those of healthy volunteers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187293/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia
#13
Luisa Roade Tato, Joaquín Burgos Cibrian, Adrià Curran Fábregas, Jordi Navarro Mercadé, Rein Willekens, María Teresa Martín Gómez, Esteban Ribera Pascuet, Vicenç Falcó Ferrer
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in HIV-infected patients after an episode of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) seems to be lower than with other opportunistic infections. We conducted an observational study in order to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcome of patients diagnosed with PJP-related IRIS. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of HIV patients diagnosed with PJP-related IRIS from January 2000 to November 2015...
November 26, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186259/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-induced-by-low-dose-methotrexate-in-a-patient-with-chronic-urticaria
#14
Sheng-Huei Wang, Shih-En Tang, Yu-Huei Li, Kuang-Yu Wei, Chan-Yuan Chang
Methotrexate has immunosuppressive effects and is administered for refractory chronic urticaria. We present a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a patient with refractory chronic urticaria managed by low-dose weekly methotrexate treatment (total cumulative dose 195mg). Our study highlights the importance of providing prompt diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with chronic urticaria under methotrexate therapy.
May 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185961/recommendations-for-the-management-of-pulmonary-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
REVIEW
Massimo Galli, Spinello Antinori, Fabiola Atzeni, Luca Meroni, Agostino Riva, Carlo Scirè, Fulvio Adorni, Luca Quartuccio, Marco Sebastiani, Paolo Airò, Laura Bazzichi, Francesco Cristini, Valerio Del Bono, Andreina Manfredi, Ombretta Viapiana, Francesco De Rosa, Ennio Favalli, Enzo Petrelli, Carlo Salvarani, Marcello Govoni, Silvia Corcione, Rossana Scrivo, Loredana Sarmati, Adriano Lazzarin, Walter Grassi, Claudio Mastroianni, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Maurizio Cutolo, Salvatore De Vita, Giovanni Lapadula, Marco Matucci-Cerinic, Orlando Armignacco, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
Often life-threatening pulmonary fungal infections (PFIs) can occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Most of the data concerning PFIs in RA patients come from case reports and retrospective case series. Of the ve most widely described PFIs, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has rarely been seen outside Japan, pulmonary cryptococcosis has been diagnosed in only a small number of patients worldwide, pulmonary coccidioidomycosis has almost only been observed in endemic areas, the limited number of cases of pulmonary histoplasmosis have mainly occurred in the USA, and the rare cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis have only been encountered in leukopenic patients...
November 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141926/ectopic-acth-syndrome-complicated-by-multiple-opportunistic-infections-treated-with-percutaneous-ablation-of-the-adrenal-glands
#16
Chrystal Chan, James Mark Roberts
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-related Cushing's syndrome can lead to multiple complications including severe immunosuppression. If the ACTH-secreting tumour cannot be found, definitive treatment is surgical adrenalectomy, typically followed by glucocorticoid replacement. Here, we present a case of fulminant respiratory failure secondary to coinfection with Pneumocystis jirovecii and cytomegalovirus in a patient with ectopic ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome with occult primary. Due to significant deconditioning, she was unable to undergo definitive adrenalectomy and instead underwent percutaneous microwave ablation of the adrenal glands...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#17
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136537/new-advances-in-understanding-the-host-immune-response-to-pneumocystis
#18
REVIEW
J Claire Hoving, Jay K Kolls
Pneumocystis jirovecii causes clinical pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Despite this, the inability to cultivate this organism in vitro has likely hindered the field in ascertaining the true impact of Pneumocystis in human infection. However the recent release of the genome as well as in advances in understanding host genetics, and other risk factors for infection and robust experimental models of disease have shed new light on the impact of this fungal pathogen as to better define populations at risk...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135400/-the-comparison-of-microscopy-and-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-evaluation-of-clinical-parameters
#19
Seray Töz, Cumhur Gündüz, Aslı Tetik, Meltem Taşbakan, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Feza Bacakoğlu, Mehmet Sezai Taşbakan, Figen Gülen, Ayşegül Ünver, Nevin Turgay
Introduction: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) causes serious infections, especially in patients with immunosuppressive diseases. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the results of samples obtained from PCP suspected patients using two different methods together with clinical data. Materials and Methods: Microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (real time PCR) methods were performed with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples sended to Ege University Medical Faculty Direct Parasitology Diagnostic Laboratory between March 2009 and June 2010...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114024/mechanisms-of-surface-antigenic-variation-in-the-human-pathogenic-fungus-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#20
Emanuel Schmid-Siegert, Sophie Richard, Amanda Luraschi, Konrad Mühlethaler, Marco Pagni, Philippe M Hauser
Microbial pathogens commonly escape the human immune system by varying surface proteins. We investigated the mechanisms used for that purpose by Pneumocystis jirovecii This uncultivable fungus is an obligate pulmonary pathogen that in immunocompromised individuals causes pneumonia, a major life-threatening infection. Long-read PacBio sequencing was used to assemble a core of subtelomeres of a single P. jirovecii strain from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen from a single patient. A total of 113 genes encoding surface proteins were identified, including 28 pseudogenes...
November 7, 2017: MBio
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