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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303919/eosinophils-are-key-regulators-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-vascular-functionality
#1
Sarah B Withers, Ruth Forman, Selene Meza-Perez, Daniel Sorobetea, Kasia Sitnik, Thomas Hopwood, Catherine B Lawrence, William W Agace, Kathryn J Else, Anthony M Heagerty, Marcus Svensson-Frej, Sheena M Cruickshank
Obesity impairs the relaxant capacity of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature (PVAT) and has been implicated in resultant obesity-related hypertension and impaired glucose intolerance. Resident immune cells are thought to regulate adipocyte activity. We investigated the role of eosinophils in mediating normal PVAT function. Healthy PVAT elicits an anti-contractile effect, which was lost in mice deficient in eosinophils, mimicking the obese phenotype, and was restored upon eosinophil reconstitution. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that the loss of PVAT function was due to reduced bioavailability of adiponectin and adipocyte-derived nitric oxide, which was restored after eosinophil reconstitution...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259947/methotrexate-improves-perivascular-adipose-tissue-endothelial-dysfunction-via-activation-of-ampk-enos-pathway
#2
Yanmin Ma, Li Li, Yating Shao, Xiaohong Bai, Tiao Bai, Xinliang Huang
Adipose and endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular disease. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) directly surrounds vessels and influences vessel function via a paracrine effect, and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates the metabolic pathway, thus, the present study hypothesized that activation of AMPK in PVAT may regulate endothelial function in pathological settings. The present study investigated the effect of methotrexate (MTX) on adipocytokine expression in PVAT with an emphasis on the regulation of endothelial function...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257140/pro-contractile-effects-of-perivascular-fat-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
J G Ramirez, E J O'Malley, W S V Ho
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognised as an active player in vascular homeostasis. Expansion of PVAT in obesity and the possible role of PVAT in vascular dysfunction has attracted much interest. In terms of the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure, PVAT has been shown to release vasoactive mediators, for instance angiotensin peptides, reactive oxygen species, chemokines and cytokines. The secretory profile of PVAT is altered by obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, leading to imbalance between its pro-contractile and anti-contractile effects...
March 3, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251235/cold-exposure-down-regulates-immune-response-pathways-in-ferret-aortic-perivascular-adipose-tissue
#4
Bàrbara Reynés, Evert M van Schothorst, Estefanía García-Ruiz, Jaap Keijer, Andreu Palou, Paula Oliver
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds blood vessels and releases paracrine factors, such as cytokines, which regulate local inflammation. The inflammatory state of PVAT has an important role in vascular disease; a pro-inflammatory state has been related with atherosclerosis development, whereas an anti-inflammatory one is protective. Cold exposure beneficially affects immune responses and, could thus impact the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of one-week of cold exposure at 4°C of ferrets on aortic PVAT (aPVAT) versus subcutaneous adipose tissue...
March 2, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236429/adiponectin-improves-endothelial-function-in-mesenteric-arteries-of-high-fat-fed-wistar-rats-role-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue
#5
Cristina M Sena, Ana Pereira, Rosa Fernandes, Liliana Letra, Raquel M Seiça
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adiponectin, the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and vascular physiology. Thus, we investigated the effects of exogenous administration of adiponectin on metabolism, vascular reactivity and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) of rat mesenteric arteries in high-fat fed Wistar rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of adiponectin were investigated on nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and independent vasorelaxation in isolated rat mesenteric arteries from 12-month-old male Wistar rats fed with high-fat diet during 4 months (HFD) and compared with age-matched control Wistar rats (W12m)...
February 25, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228728/perivascular-adipose-tissue-s-impact-on-norepinephrine-induced-contraction-of-mesenteric-resistance-arteries
#6
Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Janice M Thompson, Stephanie W Watts
Background: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) can decrease vascular contraction to NE. We tested the hypothesis that metabolism and/or uptake of vasoactive amines by mesenteric PVAT (MPVAT) could affect NE-induced contraction of the mesenteric resistance arteries. Methods: Mesenteric resistance vessels (MRV) and MPVAT from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. RT-PCR and Western blots were performed to detect amine metabolizing enzymes. The Amplex® Red Assay was used to quantify oxidase activity by detecting the oxidase reaction product H2O2 and the contribution of PVAT on the mesenteric arteries' contraction to NE was measured by myography...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188070/-inflammation-in-the-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-atherosclerosis
#7
Nadjiba Hamlat-Khennaf, Samia Neggazi, Hanene Ayari, Patrick Feugier, Giampiero Bricca, Souhila Aouichat-Bouguerra, Michel Beylot
In atherosclerosis studies, there are few data, especially in men, on the biology of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) compared to that of other adipose tissue (AT), on amendments in obesity, and its possible role in the development of atherosclerosis. We conducted an ex vivo human study on pericarotid adipose tissue-collected in the immediate vicinity (PVATp) and away from the plate (tapas)-and subcutaneous (SC) neck gathered during surgery from patients suffering from atheromatous carotid disease. In addition, we conducted a study in obese Zucker rats (models of obesity and insulin resistance) and Wistar rats subjected to moderate stress...
February 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150299/role-of-pvat-on-coronary-atherosclerosis-and-vein-graft-patency-friend-or-foe
#8
REVIEW
M S Fernández Alfonso, M Gil-Ortega, I Aranguez, D Souza, M Dreifaldt, B Somoza, M R Dashwood
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases multiple factors and adipokines with paracrine effects on both vascular structure and function. This influence is variable depending on regional differences in PVAT among blood vessels and with changes in adiposity. Considerable evidence demonstrates the association between coronary PVAT and the development and progression of coronary artery disease, associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, angiogenesis, vascular remodeling and blood clotting. However, PVAT also has a protective role on vascular grafts, especially the no-touch saphenous vein, in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass...
February 1, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147449/exercise-effects-on-perivascular-adipose-tissue-endocrine-and-paracrine-determinants-of-vascular-function
#9
REVIEW
B C S Boa, J S Yudkin, V W M van Hinsbergh, E Bouskela, E C Eringa
Obesity is a global epidemic, accompanied by increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue hypertrophy is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, which alters secretion of adipose tissue-derived bioactive products, known as adipokines. Adipokines determine vessel wall properties such as smooth muscle tone and vessel wall inflammation. Exercise is a mainstay of prevention of chronic, non-communicable diseases, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in particular. Aside from reducing adipose tissue mass, exercise has been shown to reduce inflammatory activity in this tissue...
February 1, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141700/endothelial-and-perivascular-adipose-tissue-abnormalities-in-obesity-related-vascular-dysfunction-novel-targets-for-treatment
#10
Francesca Schinzari, Manfredi Tesauro, Carmine Cardillo
The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063251/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vascular-disease
#11
REVIEW
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055105/restoration-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-function-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-without-changing-bodyweight
#12
Ning Xia, Sabrina Weisenburger, Egon Koch, Martin Burkart, Gisela Reifenberg, Ulrich Förstermann, Huige Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We have recently shown that a reduced function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) contributes crucially to obesity-induced vascular dysfunction in mice. The current study was conducted to test the hypothesis that vascular dysfunction in obesity can be reversed by in vivo improvement of PVAT eNOS activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 22 weeks to induce obesity...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009486/vascular-hyperpolarization-in-human-physiology-and-cardiovascular-risk-conditions-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
F Schinzari, M Tesauro, C Cardillo
Hyperpolarization causing smooth muscle relaxation contributes to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, particularly in small-calibre arteries and arterioles. It may also become a compensatory vasodilator mechanism upregulated in states with impaired nitric oxide (NO) availability. Bioassay of vascular hyperpolarization in the human circulation has been hampered by the complexity of mechanisms involved and the limited availability of investigational tools. Firm evidence, however, supports the notion that hyperpolarization participates in the regulation of resting vasodilator tone and vascular reactivity in healthy subjects...
January 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000293/do-kv-7-1-channels-contribute-to-control-of-arterial-vascular-tone
#14
Dmitry Tsvetkov, Mario Kaßmann, Jean-Yves Tano, Lan Chen, Johanna Schleifenbaum, Jakob Voelkl, Florian Lang, Yu Huang, Maik Gollasch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: KV 7.1 voltage-gated potassium channels are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of diverse arteries, including mesenteric arteries. Based on pharmacological evidence using R-L3 (KV 7.1 channel opener), HMR1556, chromanol 293B (KV 7.1 channel blockers), stimulation of these channels has been suggested to evoke profound relaxation in various vascular beds of rats. However, the specificity of these drugs in vivo is uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used Kcnq1(-/-) mice and pharmacological tools to determine whether KV 7...
January 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976387/perivascular-adipose-tissue-as-a-regulator-of-vascular-disease-pathogenesis-identifying-novel-therapeutic-targets
#15
REVIEW
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Akansha Tarun, Charalambos Antoniades
Adipose tissue (AT) is an active endocrine organ with the ability to dynamically secrete a wide range of adipocytokines. Importantly, its secretory profile is altered in various cardiovascular disease states. AT surrounding vessels, or perivascular AT (PVAT), is recognized in particular as an important local regulator of vascular function and dysfunction. Specifically, PVAT has the ability to sense vascular paracrine signals and respond by secreting a variety of vasoactive adipocytokines. Due to the crucial role of PVAT in regulating many aspects of vascular biology, it may constitute a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of vascular disease pathogenesis...
November 7, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974594/complement-mediated-inhibition-of-adiponectin-regulates-perivascular-inflammation-and-vascular-injury-in-hypertension
#16
Cheng-Chao Ruan, Yu Ma, Qian Ge, Yan Li, Li-Min Zhu, Ying Zhang, Ling-Ran Kong, Qi-Hong Wu, Fanghong Li, Lixian Cheng, Allan Z Zhao, Ding-Liang Zhu, Ping-Jin Gao
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)-derived adiponectin (APN) is a secreted adipokine that protects against hypertension-related cardiovascular injury. However, the regulation of APN expression in hypertension remains to be explored. In this study, we demonstrated that down-regulation of APN was associated with complement activation in the PVAT of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice. Complement 3-deficient hypertensive mice were protected from ANP decrease in the PVAT. APN deficiency blockaded the protective effects of complement inhibition against hypertensive vascular injury...
December 14, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935022/antiatherosclerotic-effect-of-ang-1-7-non-peptide-mimetic-ave-0991-is-mediated-by-inhibition-of-perivascular-and-plaque-inflammation-in-early-atherosclerosis
#17
D S Skiba, R Nosalski, T P Mikolajczyk, M Siedlinski, F J Rios, A C Montezano, J Jawien, R Olszanecki, R Korbut, M Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, R M Touyz, T J Guzik
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis. A protective role of angiotensin-(1-7) in vascular pathologies opened a possibility for therapeutic use of small molecule non-peptide Ang-(1-7) mimetics, such as AVE0991. The mechanisms of these vaso-protective effects of a Mas receptor agonist, AVE0991, remain unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We investigated the effects of AVE0991 on the spontaneous atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, in the context of vascular inflammation and plaque stability...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930804/increased-mitochondrial-ros-generation-mediates-the-loss-of-pvat-anticontractile-effect-in-hfd-treated-obese-mice
#18
Rafael Menezes da Costa, Rafael S Fais, Carlos R P Dechandt, Paulo Louzada-Junior, Luciane C Alberici, Núbia S Lobato, Rita C Tostes
Obesity is associated with structural and functional changes in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), favoring the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vasoconstrictor and proinflammatory factors. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induces vascular dysfunction and is produced by the PVAT. We tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated PVAT dysfunction is mediated by augmented mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation due to increased TNF-α production in this tissue. Aortae from high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice displayed increased contractions to phenylephrine (PE) and loss of PVAT anticontractile effect...
December 8, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926779/3t3-l1-cells-and-perivascular-adipocytes-are-not-equivalent-in-amine-transporter-expression
#19
Alex Ismail, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Maleeha Ahmad, Stephanie W Watts
Rat perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) stores, takes up, and releases norepinephrine (NE; Ayala-Lopez et al. (2014) Pharmacol Res Perspect 2, e00041). We hypothesized that 3T3-L1 adipocytes would exhibit similar behaviors and, thus, could serve as a model for PVAT adipocytes. However, basal levels of NE were not detected in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. While incubation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with exogenous NE increased their cellular NE content, the mRNA expression of several NE transporters [e.g., norepinephrine transporter (NET)] were not detected in these cells...
January 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835742/silencing-of-cd40-in%C3%A2-vivo-reduces-progression-of-experimental-atherogenesis-through-an-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mir-125b-axis-and-reveals-new-potential-mediators-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#20
Miguel Hueso, Laura De Ramon, Estanislao Navarro, Elia Ripoll, Josep M Cruzado, Josep M Grinyo, Joan Torras
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: CD40/CD40L signaling exerts a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators in vascular inflammation and plaque formation. In this work, we investigated mRNA/miRNA expression during progression of atherosclerotic lesions through CD40 silencing. METHODS: We silenced CD40 with a specific siRNA in ApoE(-/-) mice and compared expression of mRNA/miRNA in ascending aorta with scrambled treated mice...
December 2016: Atherosclerosis
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