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Gaurav Charaya, N K Rakha, Sushila Maan, Aman Kumar, Tarun Kumar, Ricky Jhambh
AIM: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Laia Solano-Gallego, Javier Millán
Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Vincenzo Lorusso, Michiel Wijnveld, Maria S Latrofa, Akinyemi Fajinmi, Ayodele O Majekodunmi, Abraham G Dogo, Augustine C Igweh, Domenico Otranto, Frans Jongejan, Susan C Welburn, Kim Picozzi
In April 2008, whole blood samples were collected from 36 dromedary camels in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria. Following PCR and reverse line blotting, twenty-two samples (61%) resulted positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and three (8%) for Theileria/Babesia spp., with three (8%) cases of co-infections being found. Both sequence and BLAST analyses identified Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Theileria/Babesia spp. positive cases as Anaplasma platys and Theileria ovis, respectively. This is the first report of the detection of A...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Ömer Orkun, Hasan Emir, Zafer Karaer
We aimed to determine the ticks of the Anatolian wild sheep and to define their tick-borne pathogens while molecularly studying their relationships with those of the domestic sheep. Furthermore, another aim of this study is to investigate tick paralysis resulting in the death of the Anatolian wild sheep. Ticks and blood samples were collected from the wild sheep whilst tick samples were also collected from hares, guinea fowls, chickens, and a turkey living in the Anatolian wild sheep breeding area. While PCR amplification was carried out for the detection of Babesia spp...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Miguel Angel Ayala-Valdovinos, Clemente Lemus-Flores, Jorge Galindo-García, Jacinto Bañuelos-Pineda, Javier Germán Rodríguez-Carpena, David Sánchez-Chiprés, Theodor Duifhuis-Rivera
Theileria equi infection prevalence was calculated from 1000 blood samples obtained from apparently healthy horses in western Mexico. Samples were sent to the Animal Biotechnology Laboratory of the University of Guadalajara (Mexico) for T. equi diagnosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was used as a diagnostic method to detect pathogen DNA. Using primers for the merozoite antigen-1 (EMA-1) gene, 19.70±2.47% of the horses (95% CI, 17.23-22.17%) tested positive for T. equi. There was no significant association between gender and T...
September 23, 2016: Parasitology International
Kimberly R McDermid, Andrei Snyman, Frederick J Verreynne, John P Carroll, Banie L Penzhorn, Michael J Yabsley
African lion ( Panthera leo ) numbers are decreasing rapidly and populations are becoming smaller and more fragmented. Infectious diseases are one of numerous issues threatening free-ranging lion populations, and low-density populations are particularly at risk. We collected data on the prevalence and diversity of viral and parasitic pathogens in a small lion population in eastern Botswana. During 2012 and 2014, blood samples were collected from 59% (n=13) of the adult-subadult lions in the Northern Tuli Game Reserve in eastern Botswana...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jane H Kinnaird, Meetali Singh, Victoria Gillan, William Weir, Ewen Dd Calder, Isabel Hostettler, Utpal Tatu, Eileen Devaney, Brian R Shiels
HSP90 chaperones are essential regulators of cellular function, as they ensure the appropriate conformation of multiple key client proteins. Four HSP90 isoforms were identified in the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. Partial characterisation was undertaken for three and localisation confirmed for cytoplasmic (TA12105); endoplasmic reticulum (TA06470) and apicoplast (TA10720) forms. ATPase activity and binding to the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin, were demonstrated for recombinant TA12105 and all three native forms could be isolated to varying extents by binding to geldanamycin beads...
September 20, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Vishvanath Nene, W Ivan Morrison
Despite having different cell tropism, the pathogenesis and immunobiology of the diseases caused by Theileria parva and T. annulata are remarkably similar. Live vaccines have been available for both parasites for over 40 years, but although they provide strong protection, practical disadvantages have limited their widespread application. Efforts to develop alternative vaccines using defined parasite antigens have focused on the sporozoite and intracellular schizont stages of the parasites. Experimental vaccination studies using viral vectors expressing T...
September 20, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Lorraine Michelet, Guy Joncour, Elodie Devillers, Alessandra Torina, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Sarah I Bonnet, Sara Moutailler
Insular environments provide ideal natural conditions to study disease ecology, especially emerging diseases, due to clear differentiation between local and long-distance transmission. Such environments are of particular interest regarding tick-borne pathogens (TBP), since animal exchange with the mainland (along with any ticks they carry) is limited, and because such locations could lie on migratory routes for birds carrying ticks. Therefore both tick species and TBP may display different prevalence than those observed on the continent...
October 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Simon Peter Musinguzi, Keisuke Suganuma, Masahito Asada, Dusit Laohasinnarong, Thillaiampalam Sivakumar, Naoaki Yokoyama, Boniface Namangala, Chihiro Sugimoto, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Xuenan Xuan, Noboru Inoue
We screened cattle and goats from the districts of Chama, Monze and Mumbwa in Zambia for animal African trypanosomes, Babesia bigemina and Theileria parva using PCRs; 38.1% of the samples tested positive for at least one of the parasite species. The most common parasite was Trypanosoma vivax (19.8%). Its incidence was significantly higher in goats than in cattle, (P<0.05). B. bigemina was found in samples from all the three areas, making it the most widespread of the parasites in Zambia. Among the tested samples, 12...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Shan Goh, Daniel Ngugi, Regina Lizundia, Isabel Hostettler, Kerry Woods, Keith Ballingall, Niall D MacHugh, W Ivan Morrison, Willie Weir, Brian Shiels, Dirk Werling
As part of an international effort to develop vaccines for Theileria lestoquardi, we undertook a limited screen to test T. lestoquardi orthologues of antigens recognised by CD8+ T lymphocyte responses against T. annulata and T. parva in cattle. Five MHC defined sheep were immunized by live T. lestoquardi infection and their CD8+ T lymphocyte responses determined. Thirteen T. lestoquardi orthologues of T. parva and T. annulata genes, previously shown to be targets of CD8+ T lymphocyte responses of immune cattle, were expressed in autologous fibroblasts and screened for T cell recognition using an IFNγ assay...
2016: PloS One
Geoffrey Weny, James Okwee-Acai, Samuel George Okech, Gabriel Tumwine, Susan Ndyanabo, Salvatory Abigaba, Tony Goldberg
Livestock production is a major sector of the Ugandan economy. Ugandan ruminant livestock (principally cattle and goats) are susceptible to hemoparasites that can cause serious clinical disease and production losses. Kibale National park, in western Uganda is a protected forest ecosystem surrounded by small-scale farms where cattle and goats are raised.. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cattle and goats in this area and diagnosed hemoparasite infections by microscopy. We collected data on animal characteristics and management practices to assess risk factors associated with infection...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Jafar Arjmand Yamchi, Mousa Tavassoli
Tropical theileriosis is a progressive bovine lymphoproliferative disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. In this study 138 blood samples and 289 ticks were collected and examined from cattle that belonged to 10 randomly selected flocks. The Tbs-S/Tbs-A primer set was used for PCR amplification of Theileria spp. and the Ta-S/Tbs-A specific primer set was used in semi-nested PCR technique for detection of T. annulata. Blood smears of each case were examined by Giemsa staining method...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
C M Krishna Murthy, K J Ananda, J Adeppa
A study was conducted to record the prevalence of Haemoprotozoan infections in bovines of Shimoga region for a period of 1 year from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 300 blood samples were examined for the presence of haemoprotozoan parasites, of which 215 from cattle and 85 from buffaloes were examined by Giemsa staining technique. Out of 300 blood samples examined, 130 (43.3 %) were found positive for Haemoprotozoan infections. Out of 215 cattle blood samples examined, 62 (28.8 %) were positive for Theileria annulata, 27 (12...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Kalyan Sarma, H Prasad, Gunjan Das, P Behera, S K Behera, J B Rajesh, S K Borthakur
To know the prevalence of theileriosis infection, haemato-biochemical alteration and efficacy of Oxytetracycline in combination with Diaminazene aceturate injection against theileriosis in Lushai hill district of Mizoram; fifty five cross bred cattle were screened during July, 2013 to November, 2013. The prevalence of tropical theileriosis was 9.09 % based on blood smear examination. Clinical features of the disease were manifested by high rise of body temperature 104.8 ± 1.2 °F, lymphadenopathy, inability to walk, anorexia, listlessness, moderate anaemia, nasal discharge, edema of eye and corneal opacity...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Cassandra L Olds, Stephen Mwaura, David O Odongo, Glen A Scoles, Richard Bishop, Claudia Daubenberger
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the primary vector of Theileria parva, the etiological agent of East Coast fever (ECF), a devastating disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that a vaccine targeting tick proteins that are involved in attachment and feeding might affect feeding success and possibly reduce tick-borne transmission of T. parva. Here we report the evaluation of a multivalent vaccine cocktail of tick antigens for their ability to reduce R. appendiculatus feeding success and possibly reduce tick-transmission of T...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
S Ozubek, M Aktas
Blood and tick samples were collected from 333 apparently healthy sheep and 257 goats as well as 10 sheep exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis in Adana, Gaziantep, and Adiyaman Provinces in southern Turkey. Fully engorged female ticks were selected and maintained in an incubator until they oviposited. The tick carcasses and their egg masses were examined. Piroplasms compatible with Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. were observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic small ruminants. Genomic DNA isolates from blood of ovine, tick samples, and egg masses were screened for piroplasms by utilizing 18S rRNA polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blotting (RLB) assays...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Melanie Kauffmann, Steffen Rehbein, Dietmar Hamel, Walburga Lutz, Mike Heddergott, Kurt Pfister, Cornelia Silaghi
Infections with the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. can cause febrile disease in several mammalian species, including humans. Wild ruminants in Europe are suggested to serve as reservoir hosts for particular strains or species of these pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon orientalis) in Germany, and the diversity and host association of genetic variants of A...
August 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Ria R Ghai, Mathew Mutinda, Vanessa O Ezenwa
Tick-borne hemoparasites (TBHs) are a group of pathogens of concern in animal management because they are associated with a diversity of hosts, including both wild and domestic species. However, little is known about how frequently TBHs are shared across the wildlife-livestock interface in natural settings. Here, we compared the TBHs of wild Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in a region of Kenya where these species extensively overlap. Blood samples collected from each species were screened for piroplasm and rickettsial TBHs by PCR-based amplification of 18S/16S ribosomal DNA, respectively...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Candice Sant, Roger d'Abadie, Indira Pargass, Asoke K Basu, Zinora Asgarali, Roxanne A Charles, Karla C Georges
Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi is endemic in Trinidad and Tobago. Transmission occurs by ticks of the family Ixodidae. T. equi can also be transmitted transplacentally; however transplacental transmission of B. caballi is unknown. This study aims to investigate transplacental transmission of equine piroplasmosis from thoroughbred mares naturally infected via the tick vector. Whole blood and serum samples were collected from 117 mares in the fifth month of pregnancy. Blood samples were also collected from each of their foals (89 in total) within the first 36h of birth...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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