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Breast Cancer stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146734/humanized-mice-in-studying-efficacy-and-mechanisms-of-pd-1-targeted-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
Minan Wang, Li-Chin Yao, Mingshan Cheng, Danying Cai, Jan Martinek, Chong-Xian Pan, Wei Shi, Ai-Hong Ma, Ralph W De Vere White, Susan Airhart, Edison T Liu, Jacques Banchereau, Michael A Brehm, Dale L Greiner, Leonard D Shultz, Karolina Palucka, James G Keck
Establishment of an in vivo small animal model of human tumor and human immune system interaction would enable preclinical investigations into the mechanisms underlying cancer immunotherapy. To this end, non-obese diabetic (NOD).Cg-Prkdc(scid)IL2rg(tm1Wjl) /Sz (null; NSG) mice were transplanted with human (h)CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells, which leads to the development of human hematopoietic and immune systems [humanized NSG (HuNSG)]. HuNSG mice received human leukocyte antigen partially matched tumor implants from patient-derived xenografts [PDX; nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), sarcoma, bladder cancer, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)] or from a TNBC cell line-derived xenograft (CDX)...
November 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145336/expression-of-hormone-receptors-in-low-grade-adenosquamous-carcinoma-of-the-breast-a-case-report
#2
Hai-Bo Wu, An-Li Zhang, Wei Wang, Heng Li
RATIONALE: Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma (LGASC) is a rare subtype of metaplastic breast carcinoma which is generally recognized as a characteristic subgroup of triple-negative breast cancers previously. However, in this study, we reported for the first time a case of LGASC with hormone receptors expression. PATIENT CONCERNS: Pathological analysis of breast tumor specimen obtained by a 42-year-old female patient was performed. Morphologically, it composed of glandular structures with scattered squamous differentiation accompanied by haphazard arrangement of spindle cell stroma...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144008/a-copper-ii-phenanthroline-metallopeptide-that-targets-and-disrupts-mitochondrial-function-in-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#3
Kristine Laws Laws, Ganka Bineva-Todd, Arvin Eskandari, Chunxin Lu, Nicola O'Reilly, Kogularamanan Suntharalingam
The breast cancer stem cell (CSC) and bulk breast cancer cell potency of a series of metallopeptides, 1-4 containing dichloro(1,10-phenanthroline) copper(II) and various organelle-targeting peptide sequences, is reported. The mitochondrial-targeting metallopeptide, 1 exploits the higher mitochondrial load in breast CSCs over corresponding non-CSCs, and the vulnerability of breast CSCs to mitochondrial damage, to potently and selectivity kill breast CSCs. Strikingly, 1 reduces the formation and size of mammospheres to a better extent than salinomycin, an established CSC-potent agent...
November 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142594/micrornas-a-subpopulation-of-regulators-are-involved-in-breast-cancer-progression-through-regulating-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#4
Xuemei Fan, Wei Chen, Ziyi Fu, Lihua Zeng, Yongmei Yin, Hongyan Yuan
Cancer stem cells (CSCs; also known as tumor-initiating cells) are essential effectors of tumor progression due to their self-renewal capacity, differentiation potential, tumorigenic ability and resistance to chemotherapy, all of which contribute to cancer relapse, metastasis and a poor prognosis. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been identified to be involved in the processes of BC initiation, growth and recurrence. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs of 19-23 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through various mechanisms, and serve critical roles in cancer progression...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138265/targeted-delivery-of-stat-3-modulator-to-breast-cancer-stem-like-cells-down-regulates-a-series-of-stem-ness-genes
#5
Santosh K Misra, Arun De, Dipanjan Pan
Cancer stem cells are known to be controlled by pathways that are dormant in normal adult cells, e.g. PTEN, which is a negative regulator of transcription factor STAT3. STAT3 regulates genes that are involved in stem cell self-renewal and thus represents a novel therapeutic target of enormous clinical significance. Studies on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been also significantly correlated with STATs. We describe here for the first time a novel strategy to selectively target CSCs and to induce downregulation of STAT3 downstream target genes reducing expression of series of 'stem-ness genes' in treated tumors...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137951/triple-negative-breast-cancer-stem-cells-and-african-ancestry
#6
REVIEW
Evelyn Jiagge, Dhananjay Chitale, Lisa A Newman
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are more common among African ancestry populations, such as African Americans and western, sub-Saharan Africans, compared to European ancestry populations. This phenotype prevalence contributes to breast cancer outcome disparities between African Americans and Caucasian Americans. Breast cancer stem cells represent the tumor subpopulation responsible for metastatic virulence and ongoing research seeks to characterize the extent to which TNBC versus non-TNBC stem cells may differ...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137267/tumacrophage-macrophages-transformed-into-tumor-stem-like-cells-by-virulent-genetic-material-from-tumor-cells
#7
Yizhuang Zhang, Na Zhou, Xiuyan Yu, Xuehui Zhang, Shanxin Li, Zhen Lei, Ruobi Hu, Hui Li, Yiqing Mao, Xi Wang, Jinshu Zhang, Yuan Li, Hongyan Guo, David M Irwin, Gang Niu, Huanran Tan
Tumor-associated macrophages are regarded as tumor-enhancers as they have key roles in the subversion of adaptive immunity and in inflammatory circuits that promote tumor progression. Here, we show that cancer cells can subvert macrophages yielding cells that have gained pro-tumor functions. When macrophages isolated from mice or humans are co-cultured with dead cancer cell line cells, induced to undergo apoptosis to mimic chemotherapy, up-regulation of pro-tumor gene expression was identified. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cancer cells by macrophages resulted in their transformation into tumor stem (initiating)-like cells, as indicated by the expression of epithelial markers (e...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137220/stromal-cyclin-d1-promotes-heterotypic-immune-signaling-and-breast-cancer-growth
#8
Timothy G Pestell, Xuanmao Jiao, Mukesh Kumar, Amy R Peck, Marco Prisco, Shengqiong Deng, Zhiping Li, Adam Ertel, Mathew C Casimiro, Xiaoming Ju, Agnese Di Rocco, Gabriele Di Sante, Sanjay Katiyar, Alison Shupp, Michael P Lisanti, Pooja Jain, Kongming Wu, Hallgeir Rui, Douglas C Hooper, Zuoren Yu, Aaron R Goldman, David W Speicher, Lisa Laury-Kleintop, Richard G Pestell
The cyclin D1 gene encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that drives cell autonomous cell cycle progression and proliferation. Herein we show cyclin D1 abundance is increased >30-fold in the stromal fibroblasts of patients with invasive breast cancer, associated with poor outcome. Cyclin D1 transformed hTERT human fibroblast to a cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype. Stromal fibroblast expression of cyclin D1 (cyclin D1(Stroma)) in vivo, enhanced breast epithelial cancer tumor growth, restrained apoptosis, and increased autophagy...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137219/functional-characterization-of-lysine-specific-demethylase-2-lsd2-kdm1b-in-breast-cancer-progression
#9
Lin Chen, Shauna N Vasilatos, Ye Qin, Tiffany A Katz, Chunyu Cao, Hao Wu, Nilgun Tasdemir, Kevin M Levine, Steffi Oesterreich, Nancy E Davidson, Yi Huang
Flavin-dependent histone demethylases govern histone H3K4 methylation and act as important chromatin modulators that are extensively involved in regulation of DNA replication, gene transcription, DNA repair, and heterochromatin gene silencing. While the activities of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) in facilitating breast cancer progression have been well characterized, the roles of its homolog LSD2 (KDM1B) in breast oncogenesis are relatively less understood. In this study, we showed that LSD2 protein level was significantly elevated in malignant breast cell lines compared with normal breast epithelial cell line...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135607/targeting-the-perivascular-niche-in-brain-tumors
#10
Giorgio Seano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121666/sox9-is-a-proliferation-and-stem-cell-factor-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-possess-widespread-prognostic-significance-in-different-cancer-types
#11
Georg Richtig, Ariane Aigelsreiter, Daniela Schwarzenbacher, Anna Lena Ress, Jan Basri Adiprasito, Verena Stiegelbauer, Gerald Hoefler, Silvia Schauer, Tobias Kiesslich, Peter Kornprat, Thomas Winder, Florian Eisner, Armin Gerger, Herbert Stoeger, Rudolf Stauber, Carolin Lackner, Martin Pichler
SOX9 has been previously shown to be involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other types of cancer. However, prognostic studies so far involved rather small cohorts or lack external validation and experimental data. In this study, we firstly determined the histological expression pattern of SOX9 in human HCC by immunohistochemistry (n = 84) and evaluated its prognostic value. External cohorts of publicly available datasets were used to validate its prognostic relevance in HCC (n = 359) and other types of cancer including breast (n = 3951), ovarian (n = 1306), lung (n = 1926) and gastric cancer (n = 876)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120753/mitochondrial-oxphos-induced-by-rb1-deficiency-in-breast-cancer-implications-for-anabolic-metabolism-stemness-and-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Eldad Zacksenhaus, Mariusz Shrestha, Jeff C Liu, Ioulia Vorobieva, Philip E D Chung, YoungJun Ju, Uri Nir, Zhe Jiang
A switch from catabolic to anabolic metabolism, a major hallmark of cancer, enables rapid cell duplication, and is driven by multiple oncogenic alterations, including PIK3CA mutation, MYC amplification, and TP53 loss. However, tumor growth requires active mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Recently, loss of the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor in breast cancer was shown to induce mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) and OXPHOS. Here, we discuss how increased OXPHOS can enhance anabolic metabolism and cell proliferation, as well as cancer stemness and metastasis...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120751/breast-cancer-multiple-subtypes-within-a-tumor
#13
REVIEW
Syn Kok Yeo, Jun-Lin Guan
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and stratification of tumors is paramount to achieve better clinical outcomes. While it is common to stratify and treat breast tumors as a single entity, insights from studies on intratumoral heterogeneity and cancer stem cells raise the possibility that multiple breast cancer subtypes may coexist within a tumor. A role for plasticity in driving dynamic conversions between breast cancer subtypes is proposed, and the clinical implications include a need for combinatorial therapeutic strategies that account for the discrete disease entities and their plasticity...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113223/cd44-cd24-phenotype-predicts-a-poor-prognosis-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#14
Hui Wang, Li Wang, Ying Song, Shuhuai Wang, Xu Huang, Qijia Xuan, Xinmei Kang, Qingyuan Zhang
Cancer stem cells are enriched in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor tissues, which present strong capacities of proliferation and tumorigenicity. The present study detected the distribution of cancer stem cell markers cluster of differentiation (CD)44/CD24 and analyzed the clinical outcomes of different CD44/CD24 phenotypes in patients with TNBC. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed with regard to the prognostic value of cancer stem cell markers CD44/CD24, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and other baseline clinical characteristics, including tumor size, lymph node involved, adjuvant chemotherapy, Ki-67, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1, cellular tumor antigen p53, vimentin and basal-like status...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113221/sparc-inhibits-breast-cancer-bone-metastasis-and-may-be-a-clinical-therapeutic-target
#15
Jingjing Ma, Sheng Gao, Xiju Xie, Erhu Sun, Min Zhang, Qian Zhou, Cheng Lu
Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in females worldwide, and metastasis to bone is an important characteristic of malignancy. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of breast cancer to bone metastasis of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of SPARC in primary breast tumors and bone metastatic foci. Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect the expression level of SPARC in several types of breast cancer cell...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110637/constitutional-mutation-in-cdkn2a-is-associated-with-long-term-survivorship-in-multiple-myeloma-a-case-report
#16
Vallari Shah, Kevin D Boyd, Richard S Houlston, Martin F Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Multiple Myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells associated with significantly reduced survival. Long term survivorship from myeloma is very rare and despite advances in its treatment the disease is generally considered incurable. We report a patient diagnosed with myeloma carrying a germline mutation of a tumour suppressor gene who has effectively been cured. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old woman was diagnosed with IgG lambda myeloma in 1985. She was treated with melphalan chemotherapy followed by high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell rescue and since remained in complete remission despite not having received any additional therapy...
November 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110616/diallyl-disulfide-inhibits-breast-cancer-stem-cell-progression-and-glucose-metabolism-by-targeting-cd44-pkm2-ampk-signaling
#17
Xinhua Xie, Xiaojia Huang, Hailin Tang, Feng Ye, Lu Yang, Xiaofang Guo, Zhi Tian, Cheng Peng, Xiaoming Xie
It has been reported that diallyl disulfide (DADS) has anti-proliferative activity in many cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions of DADS and the underlying mechanisms of its effect in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Mammosphere formation assay, glucose consumption assay, lactate production assay and mouse xenograft experiments were performed to explore the functions of DADS in BCSCs. ATPase activity assay, western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay were conduct to explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of DADS in BCSCs...
October 24, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109788/decrease-in-lymphoid-specific-helicase-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-is-associated-with-metastasis-and-genome-instability
#18
Jiantao Jia, Ying Shi, Ling Chen, Weiwei Lai, Bin Yan, Yiqun Jiang, Desheng Xiao, Sichuan Xi, Ya Cao, Shuang Liu, Yan Cheng, Yongguang Tao
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification as a hallmark in cancer. Conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes plays an important biological role in embryonic stem cells, development, aging and disease. Lymphoid specific helicase (LSH), a chromatin remodeling factor, is regarded as a reader of 5-hmC. Recent reports show that the level of 5-hmC is altered in various types of cancers. However, the change in 5-hmC levels in cancer and associated metastasis is not well defined...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109519/network-pharmacology-based-validation-of-tams-cxcl-1-as-key-mediator-of-xiaopi-formula-preventing-breast-cancer-development-and-metastasis
#19
Neng Wang, Yifeng Zheng, Jiangyong Gu, Youli Cai, Shengqi Wang, Fengxue Zhang, Jianping Chen, Honglin Situ, Yi Lin, Zhiyu Wang
Network pharmacology has become a powerful means of understanding the mechanisms underlying the action of Chinese herbs in cancer treatment. This study aims to validate the preventive effects and molecular mechanisms of a clinical prescription XIAOPI formula against breast cancer. In vivo breast cancer xenograft data showed that XIAOPI delayed breast cancer development and efficiently inhibited lung metastasis, accompanied by prolonged survival benefits and decreased cancer stem cell subpopulations. However, similar phenomenon were not observed in a cell model...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109259/proof-of-region-specific-multipotent-progenitors-in-human-breast-epithelia
#20
Agla J Fridriksdottir, René Villadsen, Mikkel Morsing, Marie Christine Klitgaard, Jiyoung Kim, Ole William Petersen, Lone Rønnov-Jessen
The human breast parenchyma consists of collecting ducts and terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs). The TDLU is the site of origin of most breast cancers. The reason for such focal susceptibility to cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we take advantage of a region-specific heterogeneity in luminal progenitors to interrogate the differentiation repertoire of candidate stem cells in TDLUs. We show that stem-like activity in serial passage culture and in vivo breast morphogenesis relies on the preservation of a myoepithelial phenotype...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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