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Plasticity AND synapse

Christoph T Schanzenbächer, Sivakumar Sambandan, Julian D Langer, Erin M Schuman
Homeostatic scaling adjusts the strength of synaptic connections up or down in response to large changes in input. To identify the landscape of proteomic changes that contribute to opposing forms of homeostatic plasticity, we examined the plasticity-induced changes in the newly synthesized proteome. Cultured rat hippocampal neurons underwent homeostatic up-scaling or down-scaling. We used BONCAT (bio-orthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging) to metabolically label, capture, and identify newly synthesized proteins, detecting and analyzing 5,940 newly synthesized proteins using mass spectrometry and label-free quantitation...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Laiyuan Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Jinyi Lin, Jie Yang, Linghai Xie, Mingdong Yi, Wen Li, Haifeng Ling, Changjin Ou, Wei Huang
Most simulations of neuroplasticity in memristors, which are potentially used to develop artificial synapses, are confined to the basic biological Hebbian rules. However, the simplex rules potentially can induce excessive excitation/inhibition, even collapse of neural activities, because they neglect the properties of long-term homeostasis involved in the frameworks of realistic neural networks. Here, we develop organic CuPc-based memristors of which excitatory and inhibitory conductivities can implement both Hebbian rules and homeostatic plasticity, complementary to Hebbian patterns and conductive to the long-term homeostasis...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jeroen Aerts, Annelies Laeremans, Laurens Minerva, Kurt Boonen, Budamgunta Harshavardhan, Rudi D'hooge, Dirk Valkenborg, Geert Baggerman, Lutgarde Arckens
The Morris water maze (MWM) spatial learning task has been demonstrated to involve a cognitive switch of action control to serve the transition from an early towards a late learning phase. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this switch are largely unknown. We employed MALDI MS imaging (MSI) to screen for changes in expression of small proteins in brain structures implicated in the different learning phases. We compared mice trained for 3days and 30days in the MWM, reflecting an early and a late learning phase in relation to the acquisition of a spatial learning task...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Meagan E Ita, Nathan D Crosby, Ben A Bulka, Beth A Winkelstein
STUDY DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry labeled pre- and post-synaptic structural markers to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the spinal superficial dorsal horn at 14 days after painful facet joint injury in the rat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain and synapse density in the spinal cord after facet injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a major contributor to disability and often becomes chronic...
October 17, 2016: Spine
George S Vidal, Maja Djurisic, Kiana Brown, Richard W Sapp, Carla J Shatz
Synapse density on cortical pyramidal neurons is modulated by experience. This process is highest during developmental critical periods, when mechanisms of synaptic plasticity are fully engaged. In mouse visual cortex, the critical period for ocular dominance (OD) plasticity coincides with the developmental pruning of synapses. At this time, mice lacking paired Ig-like receptor B (PirB) have excess numbers of dendritic spines on L5 neurons; these spines persist and are thought to underlie the juvenile-like OD plasticity observed in adulthood...
September 2016: ENeuro
Rodrigo Fabrizzio Inácio, Renata Gacielle Zanon, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Henrique Marques de Souza, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Liana Verinaud, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Astrocytes are multifunctional glial cells that actively participate in synaptic plasticity in health and disease. Little is known about molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells that result in synaptic stability or elimination. In this sense, the main histocompatibility complex of class I (MHC I) has been shown to play a role in the synaptic plasticity process during development and after lesion of the CNS. MHC I levels in neurons appear to be influenced by astrocyte secreted molecules, which may generate endoplasmic reticulum stress...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Anthony Holtmaat, Pico Caroni
Learning and memory are associated with the formation and modification of neuronal assemblies: populations of neurons that encode what has been learned and mediate memory retrieval upon recall. Functional studies of neuronal assemblies have progressed dramatically thanks to recent technological advances. Here we discuss how a focus on assembly formation and consolidation has provided a powerful conceptual framework to relate mechanistic studies of synaptic and circuit plasticity to behaviorally relevant aspects of learning and memory...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Miguel A Gonzalez-Lozano, Patricia Klemmer, Titia Gebuis, Chopie Hassan, Pim van Nierop, Ronald E van Kesteren, August B Smit, Ka Wan Li
Development of the brain involves the formation and maturation of numerous synapses. This process requires prominent changes of the synaptic proteome and potentially involves thousands of different proteins at every synapse. To date the proteome analysis of synapse development has been studied sparsely. Here, we analyzed the cortical synaptic membrane proteome of juvenile postnatal days 9 (P9), P15, P21, P27, adolescent (P35) and different adult ages P70, P140 and P280 of C57Bl6/J mice. Using a quantitative proteomics workflow we quantified 1560 proteins of which 696 showed statistically significant differences over time...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Mahua Chatterjee, Fernando Perez de Los Cobos Pallares, Alex Loebel, Michael Lukas, Veronica Egger
During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and variations thereof...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Beatrice Vignoli, Giulia Battistini, Riccardo Melani, Robert Blum, Spartaco Santi, Nicoletta Berardi, Marco Canossa
Glial cells respond to neuronal activation and release neuroactive molecules (termed "gliotransmitters") that can affect synaptic activity and modulate plasticity. In this study, we used molecular genetic tools, ultra-structural microscopy, and electrophysiology to assess the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cortical gliotransmission in vivo. We find that glial cells recycle BDNF that was previously secreted by neurons as pro-neurotrophin following long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing electrical stimulation...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Manyu Wang, Pei-Yi Chen, Chien-Hsiang Wang, Tzu-Ting Lai, Pei-I Tsai, Ying-Ju Cheng, Hsiu-Hua Kao, Cheng-Ting Chien
In response to environmental and physiological changes, the synapse manifests plasticity while simultaneously maintains homeostasis. Here, we analyzed mutant synapses of henji, also known as dbo, at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In henji mutants, NMJ growth is defective with appearance of satellite boutons. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that the synaptic membrane region is expanded. The postsynaptic density (PSD) houses glutamate receptors GluRIIA and GluRIIB, which have distinct transmission properties...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Minhan Ka, Yeon-Hee Kook, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch, Woo-Yang Kim
Cocaine is a highly addictive narcotic associated with dendritic spine plasticity in the striatum. However, it remains elusive whether cocaine modifies spines in a cell type-specific or region-specific manner or whether it alters different types of synapses in the brain. In addition, there is a paucity of data on the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in cocaine-induced modification of spine density. In the current study, we report that cocaine exposure differentially alters spine density, spine morphology, and the types of synapses in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Lei Zhang, Lu Huang, Kangrong Lu, Yutong Liu, Genghong Tu, Mengjuan Zhu, Li Ying, Jinlan Zhao, N Liu, Fukun Guo, Lin Zhang, Lu Zhang
Synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in cocaine addiction. The dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially regulate the cocaine-induced gene expression, structural remodeling and behavioral response. However, how these two receptors coordinately mediate the ultra-structural changes of synapses after cocaine exposure and whether these changes are behaviorally relevant are still not clear. Here, using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that D1 and D3 receptors have distinct roles in regulating cocaine-induced ultra-structural changes of synapses in the nucleus accumbens and caudoputamen...
October 12, 2016: Addiction Biology
Idan Elbaz, David Zada, Adi Tovin, Tslil Braun, Tali Lerer-Goldshtein, Gordon Wang, Philippe Mourrain, Lior Appelbaum
Sleep is tightly regulated by the circadian clock and homeostatic mechanisms. Although the sleep/wake cycle is known to be associated with structural and physiological synaptic changes that benefit the brain, the function of sleep is still debated. The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons regulate various functions including feeding, reward, sleep, and wake. Continuous imaging of single neuronal circuits in live animals is vital to understanding the role of sleep in regulating synaptic dynamics, and the transparency of the zebrafish model enables time-lapse imaging of single synapses during both day and night...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Indulekha P Sudhakaran, Mani Ramaswami
Long-term and short-term memories differ primarily in the duration of their retention. At a molecular level, long-term memory (LTM) is distinguished from short-term memory (STM) by its requirement for new gene expression. In addition to transcription (nuclear gene expression) the translation of stored mRNAs is necessary for LTM formation. The mechanisms and functions for temporal and spatial regulation of mRNAs required for LTM is a major contemporary problem, of interest from molecular, cell biological, neurobiological and clinical perspectives...
October 11, 2016: RNA Biology
Chiaki Itami, Fumitaka Kimura
Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been demonstrated in a variety of neural circuits. Recent studies reveal that it plays a fundamental role in the formation and remodeling of neuronal circuits. We show here an interaction of two distinct forms of STDP in the mouse barrel cortex causing concurrent, plastic changes, potentially a novel mechanism underlying network remodeling. We previously demonstrated that during the second postnatal week, when layer four (L4) cells are forming synapses onto L2/3 cells, L4-L2/3 synapses exhibit STDP with only long-term potentiation (t-LTP)...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Agata Mata, Laura Urrea, Silvia Vilches, Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Juan-Carlos Espinosa, Olivier Andréoletti, Alejandro M Sevillano, Juan María Torres, Jesús Rodríguez Requena, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer, Rosalina Gavín, José Antonio Del Río
Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in key cellular processes in developing and adult nervous system, including regulation of neuronal migration, synapse formation, and plasticity. Most of these roles are mediated by the intracellular phosphorylation of disabled-1 (Dab1), an intracellular adaptor molecule, in turn mediated by binding Reelin to its receptors. Altered expression and glycosylation patterns of Reelin in cerebrospinal and cortical extracts have been reported in Alzheimer's disease...
October 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
B Zhang, E Seigneur, P Wei, O Gokce, J Morgan, T C Südhof
Neuroligins are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins. Mutations in neuroligin-3 predispose to autism, but how such mutations affect synaptic function remains incompletely understood. Here we systematically examined the effect of three autism-associated mutations, the neuroligin-3 knockout, the R451C knockin, and the R704C knockin, on synaptic transmission in the calyx of Held, a central synapse ideally suited for high-resolution analyses of synaptic transmission. Surprisingly, germline knockout of neuroligin-3 did not alter synaptic transmission, whereas the neuroligin-3 R451C and R704C knockins decreased and increased, respectively, synaptic transmission...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Lulu I T Korsak, Molly E Mitchell, Katherine A Shepard, Michael R Akins
RNA localization is a key mechanism in the regulation of protein expression. In neurons, this includes the axonal transport of select mRNAs based on the recognition of axonal localization motifs in these RNAs by RNA binding proteins. Bioinformatic analyses of axonal RNAs suggest that selective inclusion of such localization motifs in mature mRNAs is one mechanism controlling the composition of the axonal transcriptome. The subsequent translation of axonal transcripts in response to specific stimuli provides precise spatiotemporal control of the axonal proteome...
March 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
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