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Plasticity AND synapse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315865/proteomic-analysis-of-mouse-cortex-postsynaptic-density-following-neonatal-brain-hypoxia-ischemia
#1
Guo Shao, Yongqiang Wang, Shenheng Guan, Alma L Burlingame, Fuxin Lu, Renatta Knox, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
Proteomics of the synapses and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) have provided a deep understanding of protein composition and signal networks in the adult brain, which underlie neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the architecture and organization of PSDs in the immature brain, and how it is modified by brain injury in an early developing stage. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis was performed on PSDs prepared from cortices of postnatal day 9 naïve mice or pups which had suffered hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306698/oral-application-of-magnesium-l-threonate-attenuates-vincristine-induced-allodynia-and-hyperalgesia-by-normalization-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#2
Ting Xu, Dai Li, Xin Zhou, Han-Dong Ouyang, Li-Jun Zhou, Hang Zhou, Hong-Mei Zhang, Xu-Hong Wei, Guosong Liu, Xian-Guo Liu
BACKGROUND: Antineoplastic agents, including vincristine, often induce neuropathic pain and magnesium deficiency clinically, but the causal link between them has not been determined. No drug is available for treating this form of neuropathic pain. METHODS: Injection of vincristine (0.1 mg · kg · day, intraperitoneally, for 10 days) was used to induce nociceptive sensitization, which was accessed with von Frey hairs and the plantar tester in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
March 17, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303089/protease-activated-receptor-2-par2-induces-long-term-depression-in-the-hippocampus-through-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4
#3
Efrat Shavit-Stein, Avital Artan-Furman, Ekaterina Feingold, Marina Ben Shimon, Zeev Itzekson-Hayosh, Joab Chapman, Andreas Vlachos, Nicola Maggio
Protease activated receptors (PARs) are involved in regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity in the brain. While it is well-accepted that PAR1 mediates long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic strength, the role of PAR2 in synaptic plasticity remains not well-understood. In this study, we assessed the role of PAR2-signaling in plasticity at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Using field potential recordings, we report that PAR2-activation leads to long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission through a protein kinase A -dependent, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 -mediated mechanism, which requires the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298428/autoantibodies-to-synaptic-receptors-and-neuronal-cell-surface-proteins-in-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#4
REVIEW
Josep Dalmau, Christian Geis, Francesc Graus
Investigations in the last 10 years have revealed a new category of neurological diseases mediated by antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins. There are currently 16 such diseases all characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal proteins involved in synaptic signaling and plasticity. In clinical practice these findings have changed the diagnostic and treatment approach to potentially lethal, but now treatable, neurological and psychiatric syndromes previously considered idiopathic or not even suspected to be immune-mediated...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297674/nanoscale-structural-plasticity-of-the-active-zone-matrix-modulates-presynaptic-function
#5
Oleg O Glebov, Rachel E Jackson, Christian M Winterflood, Dylan M Owen, Ellen A Barker, Patrick Doherty, Helge Ewers, Juan Burrone
The active zone (AZ) matrix of presynaptic terminals coordinates the recruitment of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and synaptic vesicles to orchestrate neurotransmitter release. However, the spatial organization of the AZ and how it controls vesicle fusion remain poorly understood. Here, we employ super-resolution microscopy and ratiometric imaging to visualize the AZ structure on the nanoscale, revealing segregation between the AZ matrix, VGCCs, and putative release sites. Long-term blockade of neuronal activity leads to reversible AZ matrix unclustering and presynaptic actin depolymerization, allowing for enrichment of AZ machinery...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297672/identification-of-intrinsic-axon-growth-modulators-for-intact-cns-neurons-after-injury
#6
Kathren L Fink, Francesc López-Giráldez, In-Jung Kim, Stephen M Strittmatter, William B J Cafferty
Functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI) because axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) fail to regenerate. However, modest levels of spontaneous functional recovery are typically observed after trauma and are thought to be mediated by the plasticity of intact circuitry. The mechanisms underlying intact circuit plasticity are not delineated. Here, we characterize the in vivo transcriptome of sprouting intact neurons from Ngr1 null mice after partial SCI. We identify the lysophosphatidic acid signaling modulators LPPR1 and LPAR1 as intrinsic axon growth modulators for intact corticospinal motor neurons after adjacent injury...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296020/memristive-devices-with-highly-repeatable-analog-states-boosted-by-graphene-quantum-dots
#7
Changhong Wang, Wei He, Yi Tong, Yishu Zhang, Kejie Huang, Li Song, Shuai Zhong, Rajasekaran Ganeshkumar, Rong Zhao
Memristive devices, having a huge potential as artificial synapses for low-power neural networks, have received tremendous attention recently. Despite great achievements in demonstration of plasticity and learning functions, little progress has been made in the repeatable analog resistance states of memristive devices, which is, however, crucial for achieving controllable synaptic behavior. The controllable behavior of synapse is highly desired in building neural networks as it helps reduce training epochs and diminish error probability...
March 15, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290985/synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-require-ampa-receptor-anchoring-via-its-n-terminal-domain
#8
Jake F Watson, Hinze Ho, Ingo H Greger
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are selectively recruited during activity-dependent plasticity to increase synaptic strength. A prerequisite for faithful signal transmission is the positioning and clustering of AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms underlying this positioning have largely been ascribed to the receptor cytoplasmic C-termini and to AMPAR-associated auxiliary subunits, both interacting with the postsynaptic scaffold. Here, using mouse organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that the extracellular AMPAR N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects midway into the synaptic cleft, plays a fundamental role in this process...
March 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285823/input-specific-plasticity-and-homeostasis-at-the-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junction
#9
Zachary L Newman, Adam Hoagland, Krishan Aghi, Kurtresha Worden, Sabrina L Levy, Jun Ho Son, Luke P Lee, Ehud Y Isacoff
Synaptic connections undergo activity-dependent plasticity during development and learning, as well as homeostatic re-adjustment to ensure stability. Little is known about the relationship between these processes, particularly in vivo. We addressed this with novel quantal resolution imaging of transmission during locomotive behavior at glutamatergic synapses of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. We find that two motor input types, Ib and Is, provide distinct forms of excitatory drive during crawling and differ in key transmission properties...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285821/grasp1-regulates-synaptic-plasticity-and-learning-through-endosomal-recycling-of-ampa-receptors
#10
Shu-Ling Chiu, Graham Hugh Diering, Bing Ye, Kogo Takamiya, Chih-Ming Chen, Yuwu Jiang, Tejasvi Niranjan, Charles E Schwartz, Tao Wang, Richard L Huganir
Learning depends on experience-dependent modification of synaptic efficacy and neuronal connectivity in the brain. We provide direct evidence for physiological roles of the recycling endosome protein GRASP1 in glutamatergic synapse function and animal behavior. Mice lacking GRASP1 showed abnormal excitatory synapse number, synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal-dependent learning and memory due to a failure in learning-induced synaptic AMPAR incorporation. We identified two GRASP1 point mutations from intellectual disability (ID) patients that showed convergent disruptive effects on AMPAR recycling and glutamate uncaging-induced structural and functional plasticity...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284900/crosstalk-between-glia-extracellular-matrix-and-neurons
#11
Inseon Song, Alexander Dityatev
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in the central nervous system form highly organized ECM structures around cell somata, axon initial segments, and synapses and play prominent roles in early development by guiding cell migration, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, and by regulating closure of the critical period of development, synaptic plasticity and stability, cognitive flexibility, and axonal regeneration in adults. Major components of neural ECM, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), tenascin-R and hyaluronic acid, are synthesized by both neurons and glial cells...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284708/visual-experience-regulates-the-development-of-long-term-synaptic-modifications-induced-by-low-frequency-stimulation-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#12
Taketoshi Sugimura, Mariko Yamamoto, Kazumasa Yamada, Yukio Komatsu, Yumiko Yoshimura
Manipulation of visual experience can considerably modify visual responses of visual cortical neurons even in adulthood in the mouse, although the modification is less profound than that observed during the critical period. Our previous studies demonstrated that low-frequency (2Hz) stimulation for 15minutes applied to layer 4 induces T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory synapses in layer 2/3 neurons of visual cortex during the critical period. In this study, we investigated whether low-frequency stimulation could induce synaptic plasticity in adult mice...
March 8, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283561/alteration-of-neuronal-excitability-and-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-of-mental-illness
#13
Gregg W Crabtree, Ziyi Sun, Mirna Kvajo, Jantine Ac Broek, Karine Fénelon, Heather McKellar, Lan Xiao, Bin Xu, Sabine Bahn, James M O'Donnell, Joseph A Gogos
Employing a genetic mouse model that faithfully recapitulates a DISC1 genetic alteration strongly associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, we examined the impact of this mutation within the prefrontal cortex. Although cortical layering, cytoarchitecture and proteome were found to be largely unaffected, electrophysiological examination of the mPFC revealed both neuronal hyper-excitability and alterations in short-term synaptic plasticity consistent with enhanced neurotransmitter release...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280960/neurobiology-of-local-and-intercellular-bdnf-signaling
#14
REVIEW
Sasi Manju, Beatrice Vignoli, Marco Canossa, Robert Blum
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of secreted proteins. Signaling cascades induced by BDNF and its receptor, the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB, link neuronal growth and differentiation with synaptic plasticity. For this reason, interference with BDNF signaling has emerged as a promising strategy for potential treatments in psychiatric and neurological disorders. In many brain circuits, synaptically released BDNF is essential for structural and functional long-term potentiation, two prototypical cellular models of learning and memory formation...
March 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279812/astrocytic-modulation-of-neuronal-excitability-through-k-spatial-buffering
#15
REVIEW
Alba Bellot-Saez, Orsolya Kékesi, John W Morley, Yossi Buskila
The human brain contains two major cell populations, neurons and glia. While neurons are electrically excitable and capable of discharging short voltage pulses known as action potentials, glial cells are not. However, astrocytes, the prevailing subtype of glia in the cortex, are highly connected and can modulate the excitability of neurons by changing the concentration of potassium ions in the extracellular environment, a process called K(+) clearance. During the past decade, astrocytes have been the focus of much research, mainly due to their close association with synapses and their modulatory impact on neuronal activity...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278355/functional-and-structural-plasticity-in-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-associated-with-chronic-pain
#16
REVIEW
Woojin Kim, Sun Kwang Kim, Junichi Nabekura
Tissue or nerve injury induces widespread plastic changes from the periphery and spinal cord up to the cortex, resulting in chronic pain. Although many clinicians and researchers have extensively studied altered nociceptive signaling and neural circuit plasticity at the spinal cord level, effective treatments to ameliorate chronic pain are still insufficient. For about the last two decades, the rapid development in macroscopic brain imaging studies on humans and animal models have revealed maladaptive plastic changes in the 'pain matrix' brain regions, which may subsequently contribute to chronic pain...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275718/context-dependent-modulation-of-excitatory-synaptic-strength-by-synaptically-released-zinc
#17
Bopanna I Kalappa, Thanos Tzounopoulos
Synaptically released zinc inhibits baseline excitatory neurotransmission; however, the role of this neuromodulator on short-term plasticity during different levels of synaptic activity remains largely unknown. This lack of knowledge prevents our understanding of information transfer across zinc-releasing synapses, including 50% of excitatory synapses in cortical areas. We used in vitro electrophysiology in mouse brain slices and discovered that the effects of zinc on excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitudes are context-dependent...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275057/activity-dependent-increases-in-ca-2-i-contribute-to-digital-analog-plasticity-at-a-molluscan-synapse
#18
Bjoern Ch Ludwar, Colin G Evans, Monica Cambi, Elizabeth C Cropper
In a type of short-term plasticity that is observed in a number of systems, synaptic transmission is potentiated by depolarizing changes in the membrane potential of the presynaptic neuron prior to spike initiation. This digital-analog form of plasticity is graded. The more depolarized the neuron, the greater the increase in the efficacy of synaptic transmission. In a number of systems, including the system under investigation here, this type of modulation is calcium dependent, and its graded nature is presumably a consequence of a direct relationship between the [Ca(+2)]i and the effect on synaptic transmission...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274265/reduced-cgmp-levels-in-csf-of-ad-patients-correlate-with-severity-of-dementia-and-current-depression
#19
Raphael Hesse, Ludwig Lausser, Pauline Gummert, Florian Schmid, Anke Wahler, Cathrin Schnack, Katja S Kroker, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani, Hans A Kestler, Holger Rosenbrock, Christine A F von Arnim
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting memory. That disorder is thought to be a consequence of neuronal network disturbances and synapse loss. Decline in cognitive function is associated with a high burden of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) such as depression. The cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) are essential second messengers that play a crucial role in memory processing as well as synaptic plasticity and are potential therapeutic targets...
March 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270301/synapses-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Jae Ryul Bae, Sung Hyun Kim
Synapse is a basic structural and functional component for neural communication in the brain. To initiate and maintain continuous functional neural information flow, the presynaptic terminal is a structurally and functionally essential place as an initiator for communication. It contains synaptic vesicles (SV) filled with neurotransmitter, active zone for release place, and a number of proteins for SV fusion and retrieval. The structural and functional synaptic plasticity is one of the representative characteristics however it is also highly vulnerable in various pathological circumstances...
March 8, 2017: BMB Reports
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