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Plasticity AND synapse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529531/the-protective-effect-of-lavender-essential-oil-and-its-main-component-linalool-against-the-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-d-galactose-and-aluminum-trichloride-in-mice
#1
Pan Xu, Kezhu Wang, Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Li Gao, Ming Yan, Silafu Aibai, Yanyan Yang, Xinmin Liu
Lavender essential oil (LO) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It was extracted from Lavandula angustifolia Mill. This study was designed to investigate the effects of lavender essential oil (LO) and its active component, linalool (LI), against cognitive impairment induced by D-galactose (D-gal) and AlCl3 in mice and to explore the related mechanisms. Our results revealed that LO (100 mg/kg) or LI (100 mg/kg) significantly protected the cognitive impairments as assessed by the Morris water maze test and step-though test...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521778/cortical-kainate-receptors-and-behavioral-anxiety
#2
REVIEW
Min Zhuo
The study of glutamatergic synapses mainly focuses on the memory-related hippocampus. Recent studies in the cortical areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) show that excitatory synapses can undergo long-term plastic changes in adult animals. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of cortical synapses may play important roles in chronic pain and anxiety. In addition to NMDA and AMPA receptors, kainate (KA) receptors have been found to play roles in synaptic transmission, regulation and presynaptic forms of LTP...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521135/synaptotagmin-7-mediated-asynchronous-release-boosts-high-fidelity-synchronous-transmission-at-a-central-synapse
#3
Fujun Luo, Thomas C Südhof
Synchronous release triggered by Ca(2+) binding to synaptotagmin-1, -2, or -9 is thought to drive fast synaptic transmission, whereas asynchronous release induced by Ca(2+) binding to synaptotagmin-7 is thought to produce delayed synaptic signaling, enabling prolonged synaptic computations. However, it is unknown whether synaptotagmin-7-dependent asynchronous release performs a physiological function at fast synapses lacking a prolonged signaling mode, such as the calyx of Held synapse. Here, we show at the calyx synapse that synaptotagmin-7-dependent asynchronous release indeed does not produce a prolonged synaptic signal after a stimulus train and does not contribute to short-term plasticity, but induces a steady-state, asynchronous postsynaptic current during stimulus trains...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521126/structural-and-functional-architecture-of-ampa-type-glutamate-receptors-and-their-auxiliary-proteins
#4
REVIEW
Ingo H Greger, Jake F Watson, Stuart G Cull-Candy
AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ion channels that together with other ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the NMDA and kainate receptors, mediate a majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Whereas NMDA receptors gate channels with slow kinetics, responsible primarily for generating long-term synaptic potentiation and depression, AMPARs are the main fast transduction elements at synapses and are critical for the expression of plasticity. The kinetic and conductance properties of AMPARs are laid down during their biogenesis and are regulated by post-transcriptional RNA editing, splice variation, post-translational modification, and subunit composition...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520784/presynaptic-a%C3%AE-40-prevents-synapse-addition-in-the-adult-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#5
Begoña López-Arias, Enrique Turiégano, Ignacio Monedero, Inmaculada Canal, Laura Torroja
Complexity in the processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, which generates a mixture of βamyloid peptides, lies beneath the difficulty in understanding the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, whether Aβ peptides have any physiological role in neurons is an unresolved question. By expressing single, defined Aβ peptides in Drosophila, specific effects can be discriminated in vivo. Here, we show that in the adult neuromuscular junction (NMJ), presynaptic expression of Aβ40 hinders the synaptic addition that normally occurs in adults, yielding NMJs with an invariable number of active zones at all ages tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520739/timing-dependent-ltp-and-ltd-in-mouse-primary-visual-cortex-following-different-visual-deprivation-models
#6
Yatu Guo, Wei Zhang, Xia Chen, Junhong Fu, Wenbo Cheng, Desheng Song, Xiaolei Qu, Zhuo Yang, Kanxing Zhao
Visual deprivation during the critical period induces long-lasting changes in cortical circuitry by adaptively modifying neuro-transmission and synaptic connectivity at synapses. Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is considered a strong candidate for experience-dependent changes. However, the visual deprivation forms that affect timing-dependent long-term potentiation(LTP) and long-term depression(LTD) remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated the temporal window changes of tLTP and tLTD, elicited by coincidental pre- and post-synaptic firing, following different modes of 6-day visual deprivation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502891/regulated-transport-of-signaling-proteins-from-synapse-to-nucleus
#7
REVIEW
Wendy A Herbst, Kelsey C Martin
Synapse-to-nucleus communication is essential for neural development, plasticity, and repair. In addition to fast electrochemical signaling, neurons employ a slower mechanism of protein transport from synapse-to-nucleus. This mechanism provides potential advantages, including the encoding of spatial information. Many synaptonuclear signaling proteins are transported from the postsynaptic compartment to the nucleus in an activity-dependent manner. The phosphorylation state of two such proteins, CRTC1 and Jacob, is dependent on the stimulus type...
May 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502772/representations-of-novelty-and-familiarity-in-a-mushroom-body-compartment
#8
Daisuke Hattori, Yoshinori Aso, Kurtis J Swartz, Gerald M Rubin, L F Abbott, Richard Axel
Animals exhibit a behavioral response to novel sensory stimuli about which they have no prior knowledge. We have examined the neural and behavioral correlates of novelty and familiarity in the olfactory system of Drosophila. Novel odors elicit strong activity in output neurons (MBONs) of the α'3 compartment of the mushroom body that is rapidly suppressed upon repeated exposure to the same odor. This transition in neural activity upon familiarization requires odor-evoked activity in the dopaminergic neuron innervating this compartment...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501325/a-role-for-nmdar-dependent-cerebellar-plasticity-in-adaptive-control-of-saccades-in-humans
#9
S Colnaghi, P Colagiorgio, M Versino, G Koch, E D'Angelo, S Ramat
BACKGROUND: Saccade pulse amplitude adaptation is mediated by the dorsal cerebellar vermis and fastigial nucleus. Long-term depression at the parallel fibre-Purkinjie cell synapses has been suggested to provide a cellular mechanism for the corresponding learning process. The mechanisms and sites of this plasticity, however, are still debated. OBJECTIVE: To test the role of cerebellar plasticity phenomena on adaptive saccade control. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over the posterior vermis on saccade amplitude adaptation and spontaneous recovery of the initial response...
May 5, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497576/the-space-where-aging-acts-focus-on-the-gabaergic-synapse
#10
REVIEW
Aleksandra Rozycka, Monika Liguz-Lecznar
As it was established that aging is not associated with massive neuronal loss, as was believed in the mid-20th Century, scientific interest has addressed the influence of aging on particular neuronal subpopulations and their synaptic contacts, which constitute the substrate for neural plasticity. Inhibitory neurons represent the most complex and diverse group of neurons, showing distinct molecular and physiological characteristics and possessing a compelling ability to control the physiology of neural circuits...
May 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496137/tumor-suppressor-menin-is-required-for-subunit-specific-nachr-%C3%AE-5-transcription-and-nachr-dependent-presynaptic-facilitation-in-cultured-mouse-hippocampal-neurons
#11
Angela M Getz, Fenglian Xu, Frank Visser, Roger Persson, Naweed I Syed
In the central nervous system (CNS), cholinergic transmission induces synaptic plasticity that is required for learning and memory. However, our understanding of the development and maintenance of cholinergic circuits is limited, as the factors regulating the expression and clustering of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) remain poorly defined. Recent studies from our group have implicated calpain-dependent proteolytic fragments of menin, the product of the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene, in coordinating the transcription and synaptic clustering of nAChRs in invertebrate central neurons...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495974/long-term-depression-of-intrinsic-excitability-accompanied-by-the-synaptic-depression-in-the-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#12
Hyun Geun Shim, Dong Cheol Jang, Jaegeon Lee, Geehoon Chung, Sukchan Lee, Yong Gyu Kim, Da Eun Jeon, Sang Jeong Kim
Long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fibres (PF) to cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) synapse is implicated in the output of PC, the sole output of the cerebellar cortex. Besides the synaptic plasticity, intrinsic excitability is also one of the components which determines the PC output. Although long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability (LTP-IE) has been suggested, it has yet to be investigated how PF-PC LTD modifies intrinsic excitability of PC. Here, we show that pairing of the PF and climbing fibre (CF) for PF-PC LTD induction evokes long-term depression of intrinsic excitability (LTD-IE) in the cerebellar PCs from male C57BL/6 mice...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494864/distinct-translaminar-glutamatergic-circuits-to-gabaergic-interneurons-in-the-neonatal-auditory-cortex
#13
Rongkang Deng, Joseph P Y Kao, Patrick O Kanold
GABAergic activity is important in neocortical development and plasticity. Because the maturation of GABAergic interneurons is regulated by neural activity, the source of excitatory inputs to GABAergic interneurons plays a key role in development. We show, by laser-scanning photostimulation, that layer 4 and layer 5 GABAergic interneurons in the auditory cortex in neonatal mice (<P7) receive extensive translaminar glutamatergic input via NMDAR-only synapses. Extensive translaminar AMPAR-mediated input developed during the second postnatal week, whereas NMDAR-only presynaptic connections decreased...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485032/a-synaptic-transistor-based-on-quasi-2d-molybdenum-oxide
#14
Chuan Sen Yang, Da Shan Shang, Nan Liu, Gang Shi, Xi Shen, Ri Cheng Yu, Yong Qing Li, Young Sun
Biological synapses store and process information simultaneously by tuning the connection between two neighboring neurons. Such functionality inspires the task of hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing systems. Ionic/electronic hybrid three-terminal memristive devices, in which the channel conductance can be modulated according to the history of applied voltage and current, provide a more promising way of emulating synapses by a substantial reduction in complexity and energy consumption. 2D van der Waals materials with single or few layers of crystal unit cells have been a widespread innovation in three-terminal electronic devices...
May 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484240/paternal-spatial-training-enhances-offspring-s-cognitive-performance-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-wild-type-but-not-improve-memory-deficit-in-alzheimer-s-mice
#15
Shujuan Zhang, Xiaoguang Li, Zhouyi Wang, Yanchao Liu, Yuan Gao, Lu Tan, Enjie Liu, Qiuzhi Zhou, Cheng Xu, Xin Wang, Gongping Liu, Haote Chen, Jian-Zhi Wang
Recent studies suggest that spatial training can maintain associative memory capacity in Tg2576 mice, but it is not known whether the beneficial effects can be inherited from the trained fathers to their offspring. Here, we exposed male wild-type and male 3XTg Alzheimer disease (AD) mice (3-m old) respectively to spatial training for one week and assessed the transgenerational effects in the F1 offspring when they were grown to 7-m old. We found that the paternal spatial training significantly enhanced progeny's spatial cognitive performance and synaptic transmission in wild-type mice...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484012/metaplasticity-mechanisms-restore-plasticity-and-associativity-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Qin Li, Sheeja Navakkode, Martin Rothkegel, Tuck Wah Soong, Sreedharan Sajikumar, Martin Korte
Dynamic regulation of plasticity thresholds in a neuronal population is critical for the formation of long-term plasticity and memory and is achieved by mechanisms such as metaplasticity. Metaplasticity tunes the synapses to undergo changes that are necessary prerequisites for memory storage under physiological and pathological conditions. Here we discovered that, in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) mice (age 3-4 mo), a prominent mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), late long-term potentiation (LTP; L-LTP) and its associative plasticity mechanisms such as synaptic tagging and capture (STC) were impaired already in presymptomatic mice...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483975/developmental-disruption-of-recurrent-inhibitory-feedback-results-in-compensatory-adaptation-in-the-renshaw-cell-motor-neuron-circuit
#17
Anders Enjin, Sharn Perry, Markus M Hilscher, Chetan Nagaraja, Martin Larhammar, Henrik Gezelius, Anders Eriksson, Katarina E Leão, Klas Kullander
When activating muscles, motor neurons in the spinal cord also activate Renshaw cells, which provide recurrent inhibitory feedback to the motor neurons. The tight coupling with motor neurons suggests that Renshaw cells have an integral role in movement, a role that is yet to be elucidated. Here we used the selective expression of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor alpha 2 (Chrna2) in mice to genetically target the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in Renshaw cells. Loss of VIAAT from Chrna2(Cre) expressing Renshaw cells did not impact any aspect of drug-induced fictive locomotion in the neonatal mouse, nor did it change gait, motor coordination or grip strength in adult mice of both sexes...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481020/activation-of-ryanodine-receptors-is-required-for-pka-mediated-downregulation-of-a-type-k-channels-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#18
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sang-Chan Jeon, Moon-Suk Kang, Seon-Hee Kim, Su-Yong Eun, Soo-Hee Jin, Sung-Cherl Jung
A-type K(+) channels (IA channels) contribute to learning and memory mechanisms by regulating neuronal excitabilities in the CNS, and their expression level is targeted by Ca(2+) influx via synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) during long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it is not clear how local synaptic Ca(2+) changes induce IA downregulation throughout the neuron, extending from the active synapse to the soma. In this study, we tested if two major receptors of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ryanodine (RyRs), and IP3 (IP3 R) receptors, are involved in Ca(2+) -mediated IA downregulation in cultured hippocampal neurons of rats...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476947/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-persistently-alters-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-endocannabinoid-mediated-excitatory-synaptic-plasticity-in-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons
#19
Kathryn Hausknecht, Ying-Ling Shen, Rui-Xiang Wang, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Roh-Yu Shen
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) leads to increased addiction risk which could be mediated by enhanced excitatory synaptic strength in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. Previous studies have shown that PE enhances excitatory synaptic strength by facilitating an anti-Hebbian form of long-term potentiation (LTP). In this study, we investigated the effect of PE on endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in VTA DA neurons. Rats were exposed to moderate (3 g/kg/day) or high (6 g/kg/day) level of ethanol during gestation...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474539/induced-neural-activity-promotes-an-oligodendroglia-regenerative-response-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-and-improves-motor-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Qun Li, Thierry Houdayer, Su Liu, Visar Belegu
Myelination in central nervous system (CNS) is a dynamic process that includes birth of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), their differentiation into oligodendrocytes, and ensheathment of axons. Regulation of myelination by neuronal activity has emerged as a new mechanism of CNS plasticity. Indeed, activity-dependent myelination has been shown to regulate sensory, motor and cognitive functions. In this work, we aimed to employ this mechanism of CNS plasticity by utilizing induced neuronal activity to promote remyelination and functional recovery in a subchronic model of SCI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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