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Marine Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330310/diversity-and-bioactive-potentials-of-culturable-heterotrophic-bacteria-from-the-surficial-sediments-of-the-arabian-sea
#1
Abdulaziz Anas, Charulatha Nilayangod, C Jasmin, Saradavey Vinothkumar, P S Parameswaran, Shanta Nair
Marine sediments accommodate plethora of diverse microorganisms with varying ecological functions. In the present study, we isolated bacteria from surficial sediments of south east Arabian Sea (AS) and evaluated their bioactive potentials. A total of 131 isolates belonging to the phylum: γ-Proteobacteria (63%), Bacillales (34%) and Micrococcaceae (3%) were isolated. Among these, about 40% of the isolates showed the presence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes such as PKS or NRPS or both. Organic extracts of nearly 50% of these organisms were cytotoxic to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and were bactericidal to human pathogens, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330235/antimicrobial-activities-of-a-promising-glycolipid-biosurfactant-from-a-novel-marine-staphylococcus-saprophyticus-sbps-15
#2
P Mani, G Dineshkumar, T Jayaseelan, K Deepalakshmi, C Ganesh Kumar, S Senthil Balan
Biosurfactants have gained a renewed interest in the recent years for their commercial application in diverse research areas. Recent evidences suggest that the antimicrobial activities exhibited by biosurfactants make them promising molecules for the application in the field of therapeutics. Marine microbes are well known for their unique metabolic and functional properties; however, few reports are available till date regarding their biosurfactant production and antimicrobial potential. In an ongoing survey for bioactive microbial metabolites from microbes isolated from diverse ecological niches, a marine Staphylococcus saprophyticus SBPS 15 isolated from the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal site, Puducherry, India, was identified as a promising biosurfactant producer based on multiple screening methods...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329771/capacity-shortfalls-hinder-the-performance-of-marine-protected-areas-globally
#3
David A Gill, Michael B Mascia, Gabby N Ahmadia, Louise Glew, Sarah E Lester, Megan Barnes, Ian Craigie, Emily S Darling, Christopher M Free, Jonas Geldmann, Susie Holst, Olaf P Jensen, Alan T White, Xavier Basurto, Lauren Coad, Ruth D Gates, Greg Guannel, Peter J Mumby, Hannah Thomas, Sarah Whitmee, Stephen Woodley, Helen E Fox
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used globally to conserve marine resources. However, whether many MPAs are being effectively and equitably managed, and how MPA management influences substantive outcomes remain unknown. We developed a global database of management and fish population data (433 and 218 MPAs, respectively) to assess: MPA management processes; the effects of MPAs on fish populations; and relationships between management processes and ecological effects. Here we report that many MPAs failed to meet thresholds for effective and equitable management processes, with widespread shortfalls in staff and financial resources...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328985/construction-and-evaluation-of-a-high-density-snp-array-for-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#4
Haigang Qi, Kai Song, Chunyan Li, Wei Wang, Busu Li, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are widely used in genetics and genomics research. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is an economically and ecologically important marine bivalve, and it possesses one of the highest levels of genomic DNA variation among animal species. Pacific oyster SNPs have been extensively investigated; however, the mechanisms by which these SNPs may be used in a high-throughput, transferable, and economical manner remain to be elucidated. Here, we constructed an oyster 190K SNP array using Affymetrix Axiom genotyping technology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327713/metabolism-of-2-3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate-by-marine-bacteria
#5
Ersin Celik, Michael Maczka, Nils Bergen, Thorsten Brinkhoff, Stefan Schulz, Jeroen S Dickschat
Both enantiomers of the sulfoquinovose breakdown product 2,3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate, an important sulfur metabolite produced by marine algae, were synthesised in a (34)S-labelled form and used in feeding experiments with marine bacteria. The labelling was efficiently incorporated into the sulfur-containing antibiotic tropodithietic acid and sulfur volatiles by the algal symbiont Phaeobacter inhibens, but not into sulfur volatiles released by marine bacteria associated with crustaceans. The ecological implications and the relevance of these findings for the global sulfur cycle are discussed...
March 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325881/probabilistic-models-of-species-discovery-and-biodiversity-comparisons
#6
Stewart M Edie, Peter D Smits, David Jablonski
Inferring large-scale processes that drive biodiversity hinges on understanding the phylogenetic and spatial pattern of species richness. However, clades and geographic regions are accumulating newly described species at an uneven rate, potentially affecting the stability of currently observed diversity patterns. Here, we present a probabilistic model of species discovery to assess the uncertainty in diversity levels among clades and regions. We use a Bayesian time series regression to estimate the long-term trend in the rate of species description for marine bivalves and find a distinct spatial bias in the accumulation of new species...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323277/an-alternative-polysaccharide-uptake-mechanism-of-marine-bacteria
#7
Greta Reintjes, Carol Arnosti, Bernhard M Fuchs, Rudolf Amann
Heterotrophic microbial communities process much of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton in the ocean, thus having a critical role in the global carbon cycle. A major fraction of the phytoplankton-derived substrates are high-molecular-weight (HMW) polysaccharides. For bacterial uptake, these substrates must initially be hydrolysed to smaller sizes by extracellular enzymes. We investigated polysaccharide hydrolysis by microbial communities during a transect of the Atlantic Ocean, and serendipitously discovered-using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy-that up to 26% of total cells showed uptake of fluorescently labelled polysaccharides (FLA-PS)...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322330/distribution-of-bathyarchaeota-communities-across-different-terrestrial-settings-and-their-potential-ecological-functions
#8
Xing Xiang, Ruicheng Wang, Hongmei Wang, Linfeng Gong, Baiying Man, Ying Xu
High abundance and widespread distribution of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota in marine environment have been recognized recently, but knowledge about Bathyarchaeota in terrestrial settings and their correlation with environmental parameters is fairly limited. Here we reported the abundance of Bathyarchaeota members across different ecosystems and their correlation with environmental factors by constructing 16S rRNA clone libraries of peat from the Dajiuhu Peatland, coupling with bioinformatics analysis of 16S rRNA data available to date in NCBI database...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317257/top-down-control-of-carbon-sequestration-grazing-affects-microbial-structure-and-function-in-salt-marsh-soils
#9
Peter Mueller, Dirk Granse, Stefanie Nolte, Hai Thi Do, Magdalena Weingartner, Stefan Hoth, Kai Jensen
Tidal wetlands have been increasingly recognized as long-term carbon sinks in recent years. Work on carbon sequestration and decomposition processes in tidal wetlands focused so far mainly on effects of global-change factors such as sea-level rise and increasing temperatures. However, little is known about effects of land use, such as livestock grazing, on organic matter decomposition and ultimately carbon sequestration. The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms by which large herbivores can affect organic matter decomposition in tidal wetlands...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314726/global-distribution-patterns-and-pangenomic-diversity-of-the-candidate-phylum-latescibacteria-ws3
#10
Ibrahim F Farag, Noha H Youssef, Mostafa S Elshahed
We investigated the global distribution patterns and pangenomic diversity of the candidate phylum "Latescibacteria" (WS3) in 16S rRNA gene as well as metagenomic datasets. We document distinct distribution patterns for various "Latescibacteria" orders in 16S rRNA gene datasets, with prevalence of orders sediment_1 in terrestrial, PBSIII_9 in groundwater and temperate freshwater, and GN03 in pelagic marine, saline-hypersaline, and wastewater habitats. Using a fragment recruitment approach, we identified 68.9 Mb of "Latescibacteria"-affiliated contigs in publicly available metagenomic datasets comprising 73,079 proteins...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314230/toxicity-of-diatom-polyunsaturated-aldehydes-to-marine-bacterial-isolates-reveals-their-mode-of-action
#11
Milva Pepi, Hermann J Heipieper, Cecilia Balestra, Marco Borra, Elio Biffali, Raffaella Casotti
Diatoms produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) during senescence in culture and at the end of blooms in nature and these compounds play different ecological roles, as infochemicals, allelochemicals and pheromones In order to elucidate the toxic effects of PUAs, we isolated six bacterial strains from the Mediterranean Sea during a diatom bloom and tested their tolerance to PUA in terms of growth and cell membrane properties. Based upon 16S rRNA sequencing, these bacteria were assigned to the genera Pseudomonas, Sufflavibacter, Halomonas, Vibrio, Idiomarina, and Labrenzia...
March 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303185/long-term-acclimation-to-reciprocal-light-conditions-suggests-depth-related-selection-in-the-marine-foundation-species-posidonia-oceanica
#12
Emanuela Dattolo, Lazaro Marín-Guirao, Juan M Ruiz, Gabriele Procaccini
Phenotypic differences among populations of the same species reflect selective responses to ecological gradients produced by variations in abiotic and biotic factors. Moreover, they can also originate from genetic differences among populations, due to a reduced gene flow. In this study, we examined the extent of differences in photo-acclimative traits of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile clones collected above and below the summer thermocline (i.e., -5 and -25 m) in a continuous population extending along the water depth gradient...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296886/subsequent-biotic-crises-delayed-marine-recovery-following-the-late-permian-mass-extinction-event-in-northern-italy
#13
William J Foster, Silvia Danise, Gregory D Price, Richard J Twitchett
The late Permian mass extinction event was the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic and has the longest recovery interval of any extinction event. It has been hypothesised that subsequent carbon isotope perturbations during the Early Triassic are associated with biotic crises that impeded benthic recovery. We test this hypothesis by undertaking the highest-resolution study yet made of the rock and fossil records of the entire Werfen Formation, Italy. Here, we show that elevated extinction rates were recorded not only in the Dienerian, as previously recognised, but also around the Smithian/Spathian boundary...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295830/interspecific-hybridization-causes-long-term-phylogenetic-discordance-between-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-genomes-in-freshwater-fishes
#14
Graham P Wallis, Sophia Cameron-Christie, Hannah L Kennedy, Gemma Palmer, Tessa R Sanders, David J Winter
Classification, phylogeography and the testing of evolutionary hypotheses rely on correct estimation of species phylogeny. Early molecular phylogenies often relied on mtDNA alone, which acts as a single linkage group with one history. Over the last decade, the use of multiple nuclear sequences has often revealed conflict among gene trees. This observation can be attributed to hybridization, lineage sorting, paralogy or selection. Here we use 54 groups of fishes from 48 studies to estimate the degree of concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees in two ecological grades of fishes: marine and freshwater...
March 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289567/hard-time-to-be-parents-sea-urchin-fishery-shifts-potential-reproductive-contribution-of-population-onto-the-shoulders-of-the-young-adults
#15
Barbara Loi, Ivan Guala, Rodrigo Pires da Silva, Gianni Brundu, Maura Baroli, Simone Farina
BACKGROUND: In Sardinia, as in other regions of the Mediterranean Sea, sustainable fisheries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have become a necessity. At harvesting sites, the systematic removal of large individuals (diameter ≥ 50 mm) seriously compromises the biological and ecological functions of sea urchin populations. Specifically, in this study, we compared the reproductive potential of the populations from Mediterranean coastal areas which have different levels of sea urchin fishing pressure...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288427/the-trophic-transfer-of-persistent-pollutants-hcb-ddts-pcbs-within-polar-marine-food-webs
#16
Simonetta Corsolini, Gianluca Sarà
Biomagnification (increase in contaminant concentrations at successively higher levels of trophic web), is a process that can transversally impair biodiversity and human health. Most research shows that biomagnification should be higher at poles with northern sites having a major tendency to biomagnify Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) through their marine food webs. We investigated the biomagnification degree into two marine trophic webs combining carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and POP analyses. We showed that the Antarctic trophic web was more depleted than the sub-Arctic one and the differences highlighted for the basal part could explain the difference in length between them...
February 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286224/phylogeny-classification-and-diversity-of-choreotrichia-and-oligotrichia-ciliophora-spirotrichea
#17
Luciana F Santoferrara, Viviana V Alder, George B McManus
Ciliated protists in the subclasses Choreotrichia and Oligotrichia are major components of marine plankton. Despite their ecological relevance, there are uncertainties in their systematics and diversity. We retrieved and curated all the GenBank ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from these groups, which were analyzed in two ways. The first approach was based on morphologically-identified sequences (including those of two families and six genera newly studied here by single-cell sequencing), and aimed at improving phylogenetic inferences using concatenated sequences of three rDNA loci...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283424/modelling-plankton-ecosystems-in-the-meta-omics-era-are-we-ready
#18
REVIEW
Krzysztof Franciszek Stec, Luigi Caputi, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Domenico D'Alelio, Federico Matias Ibarbalz, Matthew B Sullivan, Samuel Chaffron, Chris Bowler, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà, Daniele Iudicone
Recent progress in applying meta-omics approaches to the study of marine ecosystems potentially allows scientists to study the genetic and functional diversity of plankton at an unprecedented depth and with enhanced precision. However, while a range of persistent technical issues still need to be resolved, a much greater obstacle currently preventing a complete and integrated view of the marine ecosystem is the absence of a clear conceptual framework. Herein, we discuss the knowledge that has thus far been derived from conceptual and statistical modelling of marine plankton ecosystems, and illustrate the potential power of integrated meta-omics approaches in the field...
March 7, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282867/virus-resistance-is-not-costly-in-a-marine-alga-evolving-under-multiple-environmental-stressors
#19
Sarah E Heath, Kirsten Knox, Pedro F Vale, Sinead Collins
Viruses are important evolutionary drivers of host ecology and evolution. The marine picoplankton Ostreococcus tauri has three known resistance types that arise in response to infection with the Phycodnavirus OtV5: susceptible cells (S) that lyse following viral entry and replication; resistant cells (R) that are refractory to viral entry; and resistant producers (RP) that do not all lyse but maintain some viruses within the population. To test for evolutionary costs of maintaining antiviral resistance, we examined whether O...
March 8, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281667/differentiating-littering-urban-runoff-and-marine-transport-as-sources-of-marine-debris-in-coastal-and-estuarine-environments
#20
Kathryn Willis, Britta Denise Hardesty, Lorne Kriwoken, Chris Wilcox
Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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