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Marine Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426712/the-culturable-mycobiota-of-flabellia-petiolata-first-survey-of-marine-fungi-associated-to-a-mediterranean-green-alga
#1
Giorgio Gnavi, Laura Garzoli, Anna Poli, Valeria Prigione, Gaëtan Burgaud, Giovanna Cristina Varese
Algae-inhabiting marine fungi represent a taxonomically and ecologically interesting group of microorganisms still largely neglected, especially in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the culturable mycobiota associated with Flabellia petiolata, a green alga frequently retrieved in the Mediterranean basin. Twenty algal thalli were collected from two different sampling sites in the Mediterranean Sea (Elba Island, Italy). A polyphasic approach showed the presence of a relevant alga-associated mycobiota with 64 taxa identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425963/a-multi-platform-optical-sensor-for-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-algae-classification
#2
Chee-Loon Ng, Qing-Qing Chen, Jia-Jing Chua, Harold F Hemond
Differentiation among major algal groups is important for the ecological and biogeochemical characterization of water bodies, and for practical management of water resources. It helps to discern the taxonomic groups that are beneficial to aquatic life from the organisms causing harmful algal blooms. An LED-induced fluorescence (LEDIF) instrument capable of fluorescence, absorbance, and scattering measurements; is used for in vivo and in vitro identification and quantification of four algal groups found in freshwater and marine environments...
April 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424662/untangling-genomes-of-novel-planctomycetal-and-verrucomicrobial-species-from-monterey-bay-kelp-forest-metagenomes-by-refined-binning
#3
John Vollmers, Martinique Frentrup, Patrick Rast, Christian Jogler, Anne-Kristin Kaster
The kelp forest of the Pacific temperate rocky marine coastline of Monterey Bay in California is a dominant habitat for large brown macro-algae in the order of Laminariales. It is probably one of the most species-rich, structurally complex and productive ecosystems in temperate waters and well-studied in terms of trophic ecology. However, still little is known about the microorganisms thriving in this habitat. A growing body of evidence suggests that bacteria associated with macro-algae represent a huge and largely untapped resource of natural products with chemical structures that have been optimized by evolution for biological and ecological purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424102/gaining-insights-into-the-ecological-role-of-the-new-zealand-sole-peltorhamphus-novaezeelandiae-through-parasites
#4
T Anglade, H S Randhawa
Despite the fact that tapeworms comprise the bulk of parasite communities of sharks in marine ecosystems, little is known about their life cycles and, more specifically, about the potential intermediate hosts they utilize as transmission routes. In the absence of morphological features required for specific identification of larval tapeworms from potential intermediate hosts, recent molecular advances have contributed to linking larval and adult parasites and, in some instances, uncovering unknown trophic links...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423029/evaluating-dispersal-potential-of-an-invasive-fish-by-the-use-of-aerobic-scope-and-osmoregulation-capacity
#5
Jane W Behrens, Mikael van Deurs, Emil A F Christensen
Non-indigenous species (NIS) can impact marine biodiversity and ecosystem structure and function. Once introduced into a new region, secondary dispersal is limited by the physiology of the organism in relation to the ambient environment and by complex interactions between a suite of ecological factors such as presence of predators, competitors, and parasites. Early prediction of dispersal potential and future 'area of impact' is challenging, but also a great asset in taking appropriate management actions. Aerobic scope (AS) in fish has been linked to various fitness-related parameters, and may be valuable in determining dispersal potential of aquatic invasive species in novel environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422135/genomic-evidence-of-hybridization-between-two-independent-invasions-of-european-green-crab-carcinus-maenas-in-the-northwest-atlantic
#6
N W Jeffery, C DiBacco, B F Wringe, R R E Stanley, L C Hamilton, P N Ravindran, I R Bradbury
Invasive species have been associated with significant negative impacts in their introduced range often outcompeting native species, yet the long-term evolutionary dynamics of biological invasions are not well understood. Hybridization, either among waves of invasion or between native and introduced populations, could alter the ecological and evolutionary impacts of invasions yet has rarely been studied in marine invasive species. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) invaded eastern North America twice from northern and southern locations in its native range...
April 19, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421523/response-of-marine-benthic-fauna-to-thin-layer-capping-with-activated-carbon-in-a-large-scale-field-experiment-in-the-grenland-fjords-norway
#7
Göran S Samuelsson, Caroline Raymond, Stefan Agrenius, Morten Schaanning, Gerard Cornelissen, Jonas S Gunnarsson
A field experiment with thin-layer capping was conducted in the Grenland fjords, Norway, for remediation in situ of mercury and dioxin-contaminated sediments. Experimental fields at 30 and 95 m depth were capped with (i) powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed with clay (AC+cla`y), (ii) clay, and (iii) crushed limestone. Ecological effects on the benthic community and species-feeding guilds were studied 1 and 14 months after capping, and a total of 158 species were included in the analyses. The results show that clay and limestone had only minor effects on the benthic community, while AC+clay caused severe perturbations...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419783/high-occurrence-of-bathyarchaeota-mcg-in-the-deep-sea-sediments-of-south-china-sea-quantified-using-newly-designed-pcr-primers
#8
Tiantian Yu, Qianyong Liang, Mingyang Niu, Fengping Wang
The archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota, which is composed of a large number of diverse lineages, is widespread and abundant in marine sediments. Environmental factors that control the distribution, abundance, and evolution of this largely diversified archaeal phylum are currently unclear. In this study, a new pair of specific primers that target the major marine subgroups of bathyarchaeotal 16S rRNA genes was designed and evaluated to investigate the distribution and abundance of Bathyarchaeota in marine sediments...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419734/the-life-sulfuric-microbial-ecology-of-sulfur-cycling-in-marine-sediments
#9
REVIEW
Kenneth Wasmund, Marc Mußmann, Alexander Loy
Almost the entire seafloor is covered with sediments that can be more than 10,000 m thick and represent a vast microbial ecosystem that is a major component of Earth's element and energy cycles. Notably, a significant proportion of microbial life in marine sediments can exploit energy conserved during transformations of sulfur compounds among different redox states. Sulfur cycling, which is primarily driven by sulfate reduction, is tightly interwoven with other important element cycles (carbon, nitrogen, iron, manganese) and therefore has profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418097/genome-and-epigenome-of-a-novel-marine-thaumarchaeota-strain-suggest-viral-infection-phosphorothioation-dna-modification-and-multiple-restriction-systems
#10
Nathan A Ahlgren, Yangyang Chen, David M Needham, Alma E Parada, Rohan Sachdeva, Vicki Trinh, Ting Chen, Jed A Fuhrman
Marine Thaumarchaeota are abundant ammonia-oxidizers but have few representative laboratory-cultured strains. We report the cultivation of Candidatus Nitrosomarinus catalina SPOT01, a novel strain that is less warm-temperature tolerant than other cultivated Thaumarchaeota. Using metagenomic recruitment, strain SPOT01 comprises a major portion of Thaumarchaeota (4-54%) in temperate Pacific waters. Its complete 1.36 Mbp genome possesses several distinguishing features: putative phosphorothioation (PT) DNA modification genes; a region containing probable viral genes; and putative urea utilization genes...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416118/a-magnetic-map-leads-juvenile-european-eels-to-the-gulf-stream
#11
Lewis C Naisbett-Jones, Nathan F Putman, Jessica F Stephenson, Sam Ladak, Kyle A Young
Migration allows animals to track the environmental conditions that maximize growth, survival, and reproduction [1-3]. Improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying migrations allows for improved management of species and ecosystems [1-4]. For centuries, the catadromous European eel (Anguilla anguilla) has provided one of Europe's most important fisheries and has sparked considerable scientific inquiry, most recently owing to the dramatic collapse of juvenile recruitment [5]. Larval eels are transported by ocean currents associated with the Gulf Stream System from Sargasso Sea breeding grounds to coastal and freshwater habitats from North Africa to Scandinavia [6, 7]...
April 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415134/an-arctic-predator-prey-system-in-flux-climate-change-impacts-on-coastal-space-use-by-polar-bears-and-ringed-seals
#12
Charmain D Hamilton, Kit M Kovacs, Rolf A Ims, Jon Aars, Christian Lydersen
1.Climate change is impacting different species at different rates, leading to alterations in biological interactions with ramifications for wider ecosystem functioning. Understanding these alterations can help improve predictive capacity and inform management efforts designed to mitigate against negative impacts. 2.We investigated how the movement and space use patterns of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in coastal areas in Svalbard, Norway, have been altered by a sudden decline in sea ice that occurred in 2006...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413103/do-larval-types-affect-genetic-connectivity-at-sea-testing-hypothesis-in-two-sibling-marine-gastropods-with-contrasting-larval-development
#13
Maria Vittoria Modica, Valeria Russini, Giulia Fassio, Marco Oliverio
In marine environments, connectivity among populations of benthic invertebrates is provided primarily by dispersion of larvae, with the duration of pelagic larval phase (PLD) supposed to represent one of the major factor affecting connectivity. In marine gastropods, PLD is linked to specific larval development types, which may be entirely intracapsular (thus lacking a pelagic dispersal), or include a short pelagic lecithotrophic or a long planktotrophic phase. In the present study, we investigated two sibling species of the cosmopolitan neogastropod genus Columbella (commonly known as dove shells): Columbella adansoni Menke, 1853, from the Macaronesian Atlantic archipelagos, with planktotrophic development, and Columbella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, from the Mediterranean Sea, with intracapsular development...
April 4, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411302/common-and-species-specific-effects-of-phosphate-on-marine-microalgae-fatty-acids-shape-their-function-in-phytoplankton-trophic-ecology
#14
José Pedro Cañavate, Isabel Armada, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado
The use of fatty acids (FA) to infer structure of phytoplankton assemblages and as indicators of microalgae nutritional value is acquiring relevance in modern phytoplankton ecology and new advances concerning factors influencing FA variability among microalgae are demanded. In this regard, the relationship between phosphorus and FA remains particularly little studied in marine phytoplankton. In the present study, we focus on phosphate effects on FA from a diversified set of marine microalgae and provide new insights into the applicability of FA in phytoplankton trophic ecology...
April 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410030/ecological-release-from-aquatic-predation-is-associated-with-the-emergence-of-marine-blenny-fishes-onto-land
#15
Terry J Ord, Thomas C Summers, Mae M Noble, Christopher J Fulton
An ecological release from competition or predation is a frequent adaptive explanation for the colonization of novel environments, but empirical data are limited. On the island of Rarotonga, several blenny fish species appear to be in the process of colonizing land. Anecdotal observations have implied that aquatic predation is an important factor in prompting such amphibious fish behavior. We provide evidence supporting this hypothesis by demonstrating that amphibious blennies shift their abundance up and down the shoreline to remain above predatory fishes that periodically move into intertidal areas during high tide...
May 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408185/microplastic-ingestion-in-fish-larvae-in-the-western-english-channel
#16
Madeleine Steer, Matthew Cole, Richard C Thompson, Penelope K Lindeque
Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407753/genomic-characterization-of-two-novel-pathogenic-avipoxviruses-isolated-from-pacific-shearwaters-ardenna-spp
#17
Subir Sarker, Shubhagata Das, Jennifer L Lavers, Ian Hutton, Karla Helbig, Jacob Imbery, Chris Upton, Shane R Raidal
BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. carneipes) (SWPV-1) and the other from a Wedge-tailed Shearwater (A...
April 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407013/dietary-resilience-among-hunter-gatherers-of-tierra-del-fuego-isotopic-evidence-in-a-diachronic-perspective
#18
Mary Anne Tafuri, Atilio Francisco Javier Zangrando, Augusto Tessone, Sayuri Kochi, Jacopo Moggi Cecchi, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Antonio Profico, Giorgio Manzi
The native groups of Patagonia have relied on a hunter-gatherer economy well after the first Europeans and North Americans reached this part of the world. The large exploitation of marine mammals (i.e., seals) by such allochthonous groups has had a strong impact on the local ecology in a way that might have forced the natives to adjust their subsistence strategies. Similarly, the introduction of new foods might have changed local diet. These are the premises of our isotopic-based analysis. There is a large set of paleonutritional investigations through isotopic analysis on Fuegians groups, however a systematic exploration of food practices across time in relation to possible pre- and post-contact changes is still lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405925/a-survey-of-metal-concentrations-in-marine-sediment-cores-in-the-vicinity-of-an-old-mercury-mining-area-in-karaburun-aegean-sea
#19
Ebru Yesim Ozkan, Hasan Baha Buyukisik, Aynur Kontas, Mert Turkdogan
The aim of this study was to assess the historical trends of metal concentrations in coastal sediments in the vicinity of an inactive mining area, find background values and contamination levels of metals around the Karaburun peninsula, and then search for other sources of mercury in marine sediment cores using multivariate statistical analysis and report the potential ecological risks from that metal contamination. Surface sediment samples were taken from seven stations. Water depths were less than 20 m (coastal area) at stations KB07 and KB08...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404774/changes-in-the-location-of-biodiversity-ecosystem-function-hot-spots-across-the-seafloor-landscape-with-increasing-sediment-nutrient-loading
#20
Simon F Thrush, Judi E Hewitt, Casper Kraan, A M Lohrer, Conrad A Pilditch, Emily Douglas
Declining biodiversity and loss of ecosystem function threatens the ability of habitats to contribute ecosystem services. However, the form of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (BEF) and how relationships change with environmental change is poorly understood. This limits our ability to predict the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function, particularly in real-world marine ecosystems that are species rich, and where multiple ecosystem functions are represented by multiple indicators...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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