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delusion neural network

N Boublay, A M Schott, P Krolak-Salmon
Assessing morphological, perfusion and metabolic brain changes preceding or associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) will help in the understanding of pathophysiological underlying processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aimed to highlight the main findings on significant associations between neuroimaging and NPSs, the pathophysiology to elucidate possible underlying mechanisms, and methodological issues to aid future research. Research papers published from January 1990 to October 2015 were identified in the databases PsycInfo, Embase, PubMed and Medline, using key words related to NPSs and imaging techniques...
October 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Sjoerd J H Ebisch, André Aleman
Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging evidence for disrupted communication between neural networks subserving the so-called intrinsic self and extrinsic self. This disruption might be mainly caused by impaired integrity of key brain hubs. The intrinsic self has been associated with cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing, autobiographical memory, and emotional evaluation...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Maria Cristina Patru, David H Reser
Delusions are a hallmark positive symptom of schizophrenia, although they are also associated with a wide variety of other psychiatric and neurological disorders. The heterogeneity of clinical presentation and underlying disease, along with a lack of experimental animal models, make delusions exceptionally difficult to study in isolation, either in schizophrenia or other diseases. To date, no detailed studies have focused specifically on the neural mechanisms of delusion, although some studies have reported characteristic activation of specific brain areas or networks associated with them...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jasper Looijestijn, Jan Dirk Blom, André Aleman, Hans W Hoek, Rutger Goekoop
The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks...
December 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Henriette D Heering, Godefridus J C Koevoets, Laura Koenders, Marise W J Machielsen, Carin J Meijer, Manabu Kubota, Jessica de Nijs, Wiepke Cahn, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Lieuwe de Haan, Rene S Kahn, Neeltje E M van Haren
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that specific psychotic symptom clusters may be explained by patterns of biological abnormalities. The presence of first rank symptoms (FRS) has been associated with cognitive abnormalities, e.g., deficits in self-monitoring or in the experience of agency, suggesting that a specific network of neural abnormalities might underlie FRS. Here, we investigate differences in cortical and subcortical brain volume between patients with and without FRS. METHODS: Three independent patient samples (referred to as A, B, and C) with different mean ages and in different illness stages were included, leading to a total of 348 patients within the schizophrenia-spectrum...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Toshiyuki Ohtani, Sylvain Bouix, Amanda E Lyall, Taiga Hosokawa, Yukiko Saito, Eric Melonakos, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Larry J Seidman, Jill Goldstein, Raquelle Mesholam-Gately, Tracey Petryshen, Joanne Wojcik, Marek Kubicki
INTRODUCTION: The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and rostral part of anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) have been suggested to be involved in the neural network of salience and emotional processing, and associated with specific clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering the schizophrenia dysconnectivity hypothesis, the connectivity abnormalities between mOFC and rACC might be associated with clinical characteristics in first episode schizophrenia patients (FESZ). METHODS: After parcellating mOFC into the anterior and posterior part, diffusion properties of the mOFC-rACC white matter connections for 21 patients with FESZ and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were examined using stochastic tractography, one of the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) methods for examining tracts between adjacent gray matter (GM) regions...
October 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
David L Perez, Hong Pan, Daniel S Weisholtz, James C Root, Oliver Tuescher, David B Fischer, Tracy Butler, David R Vago, Nancy Isenberg, Jane Epstein, Yulia Landa, Thomas E Smith, Adam J Savitz, David A Silbersweig, Emily Stern
Persecutory delusions are a clinically important symptom in schizophrenia associated with social avoidance and increased violence. Few studies have investigated the neurobiology of persecutory delusions, which is a prerequisite for developing novel treatments. The aim of this two-paradigm functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study is to characterize social "real world" and linguistic threat brain activations linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia (n=26) using instructed-fear/safety and emotional word paradigms...
September 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Shuraku Son, Manabu Kubota, Jun Miyata, Hidenao Fukuyama, Toshihiko Aso, Shin-ichi Urayama, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Both creativity and schizotypy are suggested to be manifestations of the hyperactivation of unusual or remote concepts/words. However, the results of studies on creativity in schizophrenia are diverse, possibly due to the multifaceted aspects of creativity and difficulties of differentiating adaptive creativity from pathological schizotypy/positive symptoms. To date, there have been no detailed studies comprehensively investigating creativity, positive symptoms including delusions, and their neural bases in schizophrenia...
May 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Aurely Ameller, Antoine Dereux, Caroline Dubertret, Guillaume Vaiva, Pierre Thomas, Delphine Pins
BACKGROUND: Familiarity disorders (FDs) critically impact social cognition in persons with schizophrenia. FDs can affect both relationships with people familiar to the patient and the patient's relationship with himself, in the case of a self-disorder. Skin conductance response (SCR) studies have shown that familiar and unknown faces elicit the same emotional response in persons with schizophrenia with FD. Moreover, in control subjects, one's own face and familiar faces have been shown to activate strongly overlapping neural networks, suggesting common processing...
February 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Chen-Hao Wu, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Pin-Jane Chen, Tai-Li Chou, Yung-Chin Hsu, Chih-Min Liu, Hsiao-Lan Wang, Chung-Ming Chen, Mau-Sun Hua, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng
Recent studies suggest that structural and functional alterations of the language network are associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. However, the ways in which the underlying structure and function of the network are altered and how these alterations are related to each other remain unclear. To elucidate this, we used diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) to reconstruct the dorsal and ventral pathways and employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic task to obtain information about the functional activation in the corresponding regions in 18 patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched controls...
December 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
Benjamin K Brent, Larry J Seidman, Garth Coombs, Matcheri S Keshavan, Joseph M Moran, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Deficits in the capacity to reflect about the self and others ("social reflection" [SR]) have been identified in schizophrenia, as well as in people with a genetic or clinical risk for the disorder. However, the neural underpinnings of these abnormalities are incompletely understood. METHODS: Responses of a network of brain regions known to be involved in self and other processing (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and superior temporal gyrus (STG)) were measured during SR in 16 first-degree, non-psychotic relatives (RELS) of schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy controls (CONS)...
August 2014: Schizophrenia Research
Silvana Galderisi, Annarita Vignapiano, Armida Mucci, Nash N Boutros
Patients with schizophrenia have been hypothesized to have a functional impairment in filtering irrelevant sensory information, which may result in positive symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions. Many evidences suggest that abnormalities in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs), resting state electroencephalography (EEG) and synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons may reflect core pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Abnormalities in amplitude and latency of the ERPs reflecting aberrations in gating and difficulties in the detection of changes in auditory stimuli, as well as defects in stimuli evaluation and integration of information are common in patients with schizophrenia...
2014: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Franziska Rausch, Daniela Mier, Sarah Eifler, Christine Esslinger, Claudia Schilling, Frederike Schirmbeck, Susanne Englisch, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Peter Kirsch, Mathias Zink
Patients with schizophrenia suffer from deficits in monitoring and controlling their own thoughts. Within these so-called metacognitive impairments, alterations in probabilistic reasoning might be one cognitive phenomenon disposing to delusions. However, so far little is known about alterations in associated brain functionality. A previously established task for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of stimuli, was applied to 23 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy controls matched for age, gender and educational levels...
July 2014: Schizophrenia Research
Mark J Millan, Kevin Fone, Thomas Steckler, William P Horan
Schizophrenia is a complex and multifactorial disorder generally diagnosed in young adults at the time of the first psychotic episode of delusions and hallucinations. These positive symptoms can be controlled in most patients by currently-available antipsychotics. Conversely, they are poorly effective against concomitant neurocognitive dysfunction, deficits in social cognition and negative symptoms (NS), which strongly contribute to poor functional outcome. The precise notion of NS has evolved over the past century, with recent studies - underpinned by novel rating methods - suggesting two major sub-domains: "decreased emotional expression", incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech, and "avolition", which embraces amotivation, asociality and "anhedonia" (inability to anticipate pleasure)...
May 2014: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kenneth Rockwood, Arnold Mitnitski, Matthew Richard, Matthias Kurth, Patrick Kesslak, Susan Abushakra
OBJECTIVE: To characterize clusters of neuropsychiatric symptoms targeted for tracking the disease course in people with dementia, in relation to stage. METHODS: Baseline symptoms from 2922 subjects from two datasets (one clinic based, one online) were aggregated. Common neuropsychiatric symptoms identified by patients/carers as targets of treatment using a dementia SymptomGuide™ were selected. The Global Deterioration Scale was used for clinic staging, and an artificial neural network algorithm, for staging online subjects...
April 2015: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Martina Gandola, Gabriella Bottini, Laura Zapparoli, Paola Invernizzi, Margherita Verardi, Roberto Sterzi, Ignazio Santilli, Maurizio Sberna, Eraldo Paulesu
Right brain damaged patients sometimes deny that their left arm is paralysed or even claim to have just moved it. This condition is known as anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP). Here, we used fMRI to study patients with and without AHP during the execution of a motor task. We found that the delusional belief of having moved was preceded by brain activation of the cortical regions that are implicated in motor control in the left intact hemisphere and in the spared motor regions of the right hemisphere; patients without anosognosia did not present with the same degree of activation...
February 2014: Consciousness and Cognition
Martijn P van den Heuvel, Alex Fornito
Schizophrenia--a severe psychiatric condition characterized by hallucinations, delusions, loss of initiative and cognitive function--is hypothesized to result from abnormal anatomical neural connectivity and a consequent decoupling of the brain's integrative thought processes. The rise of in vivo neuroimaging techniques has refueled the formulation of dysconnectivity hypotheses, linking schizophrenia to abnormal structural and functional connectivity in the brain at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. Over the past few years, advances in high-field structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have made it increasingly feasible to reconstruct comprehensive maps of the macroscopic neural wiring system of the human brain, know as the connectome...
March 2014: Neuropsychology Review
A Krug, M Cabanis, M Pyka, K Pauly, T Kellermann, H Walter, M Wagner, M Landsberg, N J Shah, G Winterer, W Wölwer, J Brinkmeyer, B W Müller, C Kärgel, G Wiedemann, J Herrlich, K Vogeley, L Schilbach, A Rapp, S Klingberg, T Kircher
Decisions are called decisions under uncertainty when either prior information is incomplete or the outcomes of the decision are unclear. Alterations in these processes related to decisions under uncertainty have been linked to delusions. In patients with schizophrenia, the underlying neural networks have only rarely been studied. We aimed to disentangle the neural correlates of decision-making and relate them to neuropsychological and psychopathological parameters in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects...
January 2014: Schizophrenia Research
Daniele Radaelli, Sara Poletti, Irene Gorni, Clara Locatelli, Enrico Smeraldi, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Approximately one-half of all patients affected by bipolar disorder present psychotic features at least in one occasion. This factor worsens the personal and social burden of the disease. Several studies find an altered brain activity in mesolimbic and prefrontal regions in relation to aberrant attribution of salience to stimuli in delusional patients. The aim of the present study is to investigate gray matter (GM) structural correlates of the past history of delusions in a sample of bipolar patients. The sample includes 34 delusional and 39 non-delusional bipolar patients...
January 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
Renaud Jardri, Sophie Denève
A considerable number of recent experimental and computational studies suggest that subtle impairments of excitatory to inhibitory balance or regulation are involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The current paper aims to relate, specifically and quantitatively, excitatory to inhibitory imbalance with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering that the brain constructs hierarchical causal models of the external world, we show that the failure to maintain the excitatory to inhibitory balance results in hallucinations as well as in the formation and subsequent consolidation of delusional beliefs...
November 2013: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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