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delusion neural network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575506/limbic-interference-during-social-action-planning-in-schizophrenia
#1
Katharina Stegmayer, Stephan Bohlhalter, Tim Vanbellingen, Andrea Federspiel, Roland Wiest, René M Müri, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
Schizophrenia is characterized by social interaction deficits contributing to poor functional outcome. Hand gesture use is particularly impaired, linked to frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal grey matter deficits. The functional neural correlates of impaired gesturing are currently unclear. We therefore investigated aberrant brain activity during impaired gesturing in schizophrenia. We included 22 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, and education level. We obtained functional magnetic resonance imaging data using an event-related paradigm to assess brain activation during gesture planning and execution...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553118/psychosis-in-parkinsonism-an-unorthodox-approach
#2
REVIEW
Marco Onofrj, Danilo Carrozzino, Aurelio D'Amico, Roberta Di Giacomo, Stefano Delli Pizzi, Astrid Thomas, Valeria Onofrj, John-Paul Taylor, Laura Bonanni
Psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently considered as the occurrence of hallucinations and delusions. The historical meaning of the term psychosis was, however, broader, encompassing a disorganization of both consciousness and personality, including behavior abnormalities, such as impulsive overactivity and catatonia, in complete definitions by the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Our review is aimed at reminding that complex psychotic symptoms, including impulsive overactivity and somatoform disorders (the last being a recent controversial entity in PD), were carefully described in postencephalitic parkinsonism (PEP), many decades before dopaminergic treatment era, and are now described in other parkinsonisms than PD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347214/delusions-and-the-right-hemisphere-a-review-of-the-case-for-the-right-hemisphere-as-a-mediator-of-reality-based-belief
#3
Lindsey Gurin, Sonja Blum
Delusions are beliefs that remain fixed despite evidence that they are incorrect. Although the precise neural mechanism of delusional belief remains to be elucidated, there is a predominance of right-hemisphere lesions among patients with delusional syndromes accompanied by structural pathology, suggesting that right-hemisphere lesions, or networks with key nodes in the right hemisphere, may be playing a role. The authors discuss the potential theoretical basis and empiric support for a specific right-hemisphere role in delusion production, drawing on its roles in pragmatic communication; perceptual integration; attentional surveillance and anomaly/novelty detection; and belief updating...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116236/the-neural-correlates-and-clinical-characteristics-of-psychosis-in-the-frontotemporal-dementia-continuum-and-the-c9orf72-expansion
#4
Emma M Devenney, Ramon Landin-Romero, Muireann Irish, Michael Hornberger, Eneida Mioshi, Glenda M Halliday, Matthew C Kiernan, John R Hodges
OBJECTIVE: This present study aims to address the gap in the literature regarding the severity and underlying neural correlates of psychotic symptoms in frontotemporal dementia with and without the C9orf72 gene expansion. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (20 with concomitant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and 23 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological assessments, detailed clinical interview for assessment of psychosis symptoms, brain MRI and genetic testing...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887704/aberrant-modulation-of-brain-activation-by-emotional-valence-during-self-referential-processing-among-patients-with-delusions-of-reference
#5
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435186/neuroimaging-correlates-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review-of-20%C3%A2-years-of-research
#6
REVIEW
N Boublay, A M Schott, P Krolak-Salmon
Assessing morphological, perfusion and metabolic brain changes preceding or associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) will help in the understanding of pathophysiological underlying processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aimed to highlight the main findings on significant associations between neuroimaging and NPSs, the pathophysiology to elucidate possible underlying mechanisms, and methodological issues to aid future research. Research papers published from January 1990 to October 2015 were identified in the databases PsycInfo, Embase, PubMed and Medline, using key words related to NPSs and imaging techniques...
October 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374147/the-fragmented-self-imbalance-between-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-self-networks-in-psychotic-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Sjoerd J H Ebisch, André Aleman
Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging evidence for disrupted communication between neural networks subserving the so-called intrinsic self and extrinsic self. This disruption might be mainly caused by impaired integrity of key brain hubs. The intrinsic self has been associated with cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing, autobiographical memory, and emotional evaluation...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617532/a-new-perspective-on-delusional-states%C3%A2-%C3%A2-evidence-for-claustrum-involvement
#8
REVIEW
Maria Cristina Patru, David H Reser
Delusions are a hallmark positive symptom of schizophrenia, although they are also associated with a wide variety of other psychiatric and neurological disorders. The heterogeneity of clinical presentation and underlying disease, along with a lack of experimental animal models, make delusions exceptionally difficult to study in isolation, either in schizophrenia or other diseases. To date, no detailed studies have focused specifically on the neural mechanisms of delusion, although some studies have reported characteristic activation of specific brain areas or networks associated with them...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26432501/an-integrated-network-model-of-psychotic-symptoms
#9
REVIEW
Jasper Looijestijn, Jan Dirk Blom, André Aleman, Hans W Hoek, Rutger Goekoop
The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks...
December 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26283974/structural-mri-differences-between-patients-with-and-without-first-rank-symptoms-a-delusion
#10
Henriette D Heering, Godefridus J C Koevoets, Laura Koenders, Marise W J Machielsen, Carin J Meijer, Manabu Kubota, Jessica de Nijs, Wiepke Cahn, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Lieuwe de Haan, Rene S Kahn, Neeltje E M van Haren
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that specific psychotic symptom clusters may be explained by patterns of biological abnormalities. The presence of first rank symptoms (FRS) has been associated with cognitive abnormalities, e.g., deficits in self-monitoring or in the experience of agency, suggesting that a specific network of neural abnormalities might underlie FRS. Here, we investigate differences in cortical and subcortical brain volume between patients with and without FRS. METHODS: Three independent patient samples (referred to as A, B, and C) with different mean ages and in different illness stages were included, leading to a total of 348 patients within the schizophrenia-spectrum...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26277547/abnormal-white-matter-connections-between-medial-frontal-regions-predict-symptoms-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#11
Toshiyuki Ohtani, Sylvain Bouix, Amanda E Lyall, Taiga Hosokawa, Yukiko Saito, Eric Melonakos, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Larry J Seidman, Jill Goldstein, Raquelle Mesholam-Gately, Tracey Petryshen, Joanne Wojcik, Marek Kubicki
INTRODUCTION: The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and rostral part of anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) have been suggested to be involved in the neural network of salience and emotional processing, and associated with specific clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering the schizophrenia dysconnectivity hypothesis, the connectivity abnormalities between mOFC and rACC might be associated with clinical characteristics in first episode schizophrenia patients (FESZ). METHODS: After parcellating mOFC into the anterior and posterior part, diffusion properties of the mOFC-rACC white matter connections for 21 patients with FESZ and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were examined using stochastic tractography, one of the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) methods for examining tracts between adjacent gray matter (GM) regions...
October 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26208746/altered-threat-and-safety-neural-processing-linked-to-persecutory-delusions-in-schizophrenia-a-two-task-fmri-study
#12
David L Perez, Hong Pan, Daniel S Weisholtz, James C Root, Oliver Tuescher, David B Fischer, Tracy Butler, David R Vago, Nancy Isenberg, Jane Epstein, Yulia Landa, Thomas E Smith, Adam J Savitz, David A Silbersweig, Emily Stern
Persecutory delusions are a clinically important symptom in schizophrenia associated with social avoidance and increased violence. Few studies have investigated the neurobiology of persecutory delusions, which is a prerequisite for developing novel treatments. The aim of this two-paradigm functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study is to characterize social "real world" and linguistic threat brain activations linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia (n=26) using instructed-fear/safety and emotional word paradigms...
September 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25823399/creativity-and-positive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-revisited-structural-connectivity-analysis-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#13
Shuraku Son, Manabu Kubota, Jun Miyata, Hidenao Fukuyama, Toshihiko Aso, Shin-ichi Urayama, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Both creativity and schizotypy are suggested to be manifestations of the hyperactivation of unusual or remote concepts/words. However, the results of studies on creativity in schizophrenia are diverse, possibly due to the multifaceted aspects of creativity and difficulties of differentiating adaptive creativity from pathological schizotypy/positive symptoms. To date, there have been no detailed studies comprehensively investigating creativity, positive symptoms including delusions, and their neural bases in schizophrenia...
May 2015: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25533594/-what-is-more-familiar-than-i-self-other-and-familiarity-in-schizophrenia
#14
Aurely Ameller, Antoine Dereux, Caroline Dubertret, Guillaume Vaiva, Pierre Thomas, Delphine Pins
BACKGROUND: Familiarity disorders (FDs) critically impact social cognition in persons with schizophrenia. FDs can affect both relationships with people familiar to the patient and the patient's relationship with himself, in the case of a self-disorder. Skin conductance response (SCR) studies have shown that familiar and unknown faces elicit the same emotional response in persons with schizophrenia with FD. Moreover, in control subjects, one's own face and familiar faces have been shown to activate strongly overlapping neural networks, suggesting common processing...
February 2015: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25241043/reduced-structural-integrity-and-functional-lateralization-of-the-dorsal-language-pathway-correlate-with-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-a-combined-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Chen-Hao Wu, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Pin-Jane Chen, Tai-Li Chou, Yung-Chin Hsu, Chih-Min Liu, Hsiao-Lan Wang, Chung-Ming Chen, Mau-Sun Hua, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng
Recent studies suggest that structural and functional alterations of the language network are associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. However, the ways in which the underlying structure and function of the network are altered and how these alterations are related to each other remain unclear. To elucidate this, we used diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) to reconstruct the dorsal and ventral pathways and employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic task to obtain information about the functional activation in the corresponding regions in 18 patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched controls...
December 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24951401/neural-responses-during-social-reflection-in-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients-relationship-to-subclinical-delusions
#16
Benjamin K Brent, Larry J Seidman, Garth Coombs, Matcheri S Keshavan, Joseph M Moran, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Deficits in the capacity to reflect about the self and others ("social reflection" [SR]) have been identified in schizophrenia, as well as in people with a genetic or clinical risk for the disorder. However, the neural underpinnings of these abnormalities are incompletely understood. METHODS: Responses of a network of brain regions known to be involved in self and other processing (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and superior temporal gyrus (STG)) were measured during SR in 16 first-degree, non-psychotic relatives (RELS) of schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy controls (CONS)...
August 2014: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24920446/physiological-correlates-of-positive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#17
Silvana Galderisi, Annarita Vignapiano, Armida Mucci, Nash N Boutros
Patients with schizophrenia have been hypothesized to have a functional impairment in filtering irrelevant sensory information, which may result in positive symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions. Many evidences suggest that abnormalities in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs), resting state electroencephalography (EEG) and synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons may reflect core pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Abnormalities in amplitude and latency of the ERPs reflecting aberrations in gating and difficulties in the detection of changes in auditory stimuli, as well as defects in stimuli evaluation and integration of information are common in patients with schizophrenia...
2014: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24831391/reduced-activation-in-ventral-striatum-and-ventral-tegmental-area-during-probabilistic-decision-making-in-schizophrenia
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Franziska Rausch, Daniela Mier, Sarah Eifler, Christine Esslinger, Claudia Schilling, Frederike Schirmbeck, Susanne Englisch, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Peter Kirsch, Mathias Zink
Patients with schizophrenia suffer from deficits in monitoring and controlling their own thoughts. Within these so-called metacognitive impairments, alterations in probabilistic reasoning might be one cognitive phenomenon disposing to delusions. However, so far little is known about alterations in associated brain functionality. A previously established task for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of stimuli, was applied to 23 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy controls matched for age, gender and educational levels...
July 2014: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24820238/negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-clinical-characteristics-pathophysiological-substrates-experimental-models-and-prospects-for-improved-treatment
#19
Mark J Millan, Kevin Fone, Thomas Steckler, William P Horan
Schizophrenia is a complex and multifactorial disorder generally diagnosed in young adults at the time of the first psychotic episode of delusions and hallucinations. These positive symptoms can be controlled in most patients by currently-available antipsychotics. Conversely, they are poorly effective against concomitant neurocognitive dysfunction, deficits in social cognition and negative symptoms (NS), which strongly contribute to poor functional outcome. The precise notion of NS has evolved over the past century, with recent studies - underpinned by novel rating methods - suggesting two major sub-domains: "decreased emotional expression", incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech, and "avolition", which embraces amotivation, asociality and "anhedonia" (inability to anticipate pleasure)...
May 2014: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24798635/neuropsychiatric-symptom-clusters-targeted-for-treatment-at-earlier-versus-later-stages-of-dementia
#20
Kenneth Rockwood, Arnold Mitnitski, Matthew Richard, Matthias Kurth, Patrick Kesslak, Susan Abushakra
OBJECTIVE: To characterize clusters of neuropsychiatric symptoms targeted for tracking the disease course in people with dementia, in relation to stage. METHODS: Baseline symptoms from 2922 subjects from two datasets (one clinic based, one online) were aggregated. Common neuropsychiatric symptoms identified by patients/carers as targets of treatment using a dementia SymptomGuide™ were selected. The Global Deterioration Scale was used for clinic staging, and an artificial neural network algorithm, for staging online subjects...
April 2015: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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