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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442422/effects-of-low-frequency-rtms-treatment-on-brain-networks-for-inner-speech-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#1
Leonie Bais, Edith Liemburg, Ans Vercammen, Richard Bruggeman, Rikus Knegtering, André Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) targeting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remains under debate. We assessed the influence of a 1Hz rTMS treatment on neural networks involved in a cognitive mechanism proposed to subserve AVH. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (N=24) experiencing medication-resistant AVH completed a 10-day 1Hz rTMS treatment. Participants were randomized to active stimulation of the left or bilateral TPJ, or sham stimulation...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377723/multiple-psychopharmacological-effects-of-the-traditional-japanese-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-and-the-brain-regions-it-affects
#2
REVIEW
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350371/a-neurophysiological-perspective-on-a-preventive-treatment-against-schizophrenia-using-transcranial-electric-stimulation-of-the-corticothalamic-pathway
#3
REVIEW
Didier Pinault
Schizophrenia patients are waiting for a treatment free of detrimental effects. Psychotic disorders are devastating mental illnesses associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Ongoing brain network gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations, naturally implicated in integrative function, are excessively amplified during hallucinations, in at-risk mental states for psychosis and first-episode psychosis. So, gamma oscillations represent a bioelectrical marker for cerebral network disorders with prognostic and therapeutic potential...
March 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287968/style-transfer-via-texture-synthesis
#4
Michael Elad, Peyman Milanfar
Style transfer is a process of migrating a style from a given image to the content of another, synthesizing a new image, which is an artistic mixture of the two. Recent work on this problem adopting convolutional neural-networks (CNN) ignited a renewed interest in this field, due to the very impressive results obtained. There exists an alternative path toward handling the style transfer task, via the generalization of texture synthesis algorithms. This approach has been proposed over the years, but its results are typically less impressive compared with the CNN ones...
May 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130005/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-with-and-without-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-a-preliminary-report
#5
Xiao Chang, Guusje Collin, Yibin Xi, Longbiao Cui, Lianne H Scholtens, Iris E Sommer, Huaning Wang, Hong Yin, René S Kahn, Martijn P van den Heuvel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a cardinal feature of schizophrenia that has been associated with activation in language processing areas, in concert with higher-order cognitive brain networks. It remains to be determined whether, and if so how, the functional dynamics between these brain regions contributes to the emergence of AVH. The current study recruited 36 first-episode medication-naïve schizophrenia patients, including 18 patients with AVH, 18 patients free of AVH and 18 controls matched on age, gender and level of education...
January 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125578/functional-connectivity-anomalies-in-adolescents-with-psychotic-symptoms
#6
Francesco Amico, Erik O'Hanlon, Dominik Kraft, Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Mary Clarke, Ian Kelleher, Niamh Higgins, Helen Coughlan, Daniel Creegan, Mark Heneghan, Emmet Power, Lucy Power, Jessica Ryan, Thomas Frodl, Mary Cannon
BACKGROUND: Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research suggests that, prior to the onset of psychosis, high risk youths already exhibit brain abnormalities similar to those present in patients with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to describe the functional organization of endogenous activation in young adolescents who report auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in view of the "distributed network" hypothesis of psychosis. We recruited 20 young people aged 13-16 years who reported AVHs and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender and handedness from local schools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116236/the-neural-correlates-and-clinical-characteristics-of-psychosis-in-the-frontotemporal-dementia-continuum-and-the-c9orf72-expansion
#7
Emma M Devenney, Ramon Landin-Romero, Muireann Irish, Michael Hornberger, Eneida Mioshi, Glenda M Halliday, Matthew C Kiernan, John R Hodges
OBJECTIVE: This present study aims to address the gap in the literature regarding the severity and underlying neural correlates of psychotic symptoms in frontotemporal dementia with and without the C9orf72 gene expansion. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (20 with concomitant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and 23 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological assessments, detailed clinical interview for assessment of psychosis symptoms, brain MRI and genetic testing...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024236/cerebral-blood-flow-and-its-connectivity-features-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-a-perfusion-study
#8
Long-Biao Cui, Gang Chen, Zi-Liang Xu, Lin Liu, Hua-Ning Wang, Li Guo, Wen-Ming Liu, Ting-Ting Liu, Shun Qi, Kang Liu, Wei Qin, Jin-Bo Sun, Yi-Bin Xi, Hong Yin
The goal of the study was to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its connectivity (an across-subject covariance measure) patterns of schizophrenia (SZ) patients with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). A total of demographically matched 25 SZ patients with AVHs, 25 without AVHs, and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting state perfusion imaging using a pulsed arterial spin labeling sequence. CBF and its connectivity were analyzed and then CBF topological properties were calculated. AVHs patients exhibited decreased CBF in the bilateral superior and middle frontal gyri and postcentral gyri, and right supplementary motor area compared with SZ patients without AVHs...
February 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742234/brain-connectivity-and-auditory-hallucinations-in-search-of-novel-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-therapeutic-approaches-for-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
F Thomas, V Moulier, A Valéro-Cabré, D Januel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are among the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia and have been linked to likely disturbances of structural and functional connectivity within frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical networks involved in language and auditory functions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that alterations in the functional connectivity activity of the default-mode network (DMN) may also subtend hallucinations. Noninvasive neurostimulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have the ability to modulate activity of targeted cortical sites and their associated networks, showing a high potential for modulating altered connectivity subtending schizophrenia...
November 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586743/phoneme-restoration-and-empirical-coverage-of-interactive-activation-and-adaptive-resonance-models-of-human-speech-processing
#10
Stephen Grossberg, Sohrob Kazerounian
Magnuson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 1481-1492 (2015)] makes claims for Interactive Activation (IA) models and against Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) models of speech perception. Magnuson also presents simulations that claim to show that the TRACE model can simulate phonemic restoration, which was an explanatory target of the cARTWORD ART model. The theoretical analysis and review herein show that these claims are incorrect. More generally, the TRACE and cARTWORD models illustrate two diametrically opposed types of neural models of speech and language...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492675/hallucinatory-experience-as-aberrant-event-memory-formation-implications-for-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
If hallucinations are not fundamentally different from normal wakeful experiences, then the neural basis of hallucinations has to be essentially that of consciousness in general. The additional insight that consciousness reflects the formation (as opposed to consolidation) of event (episodic) memories links the pathophysiology of hallucinations to the hippocampus. Perceptions and misperceptions, insofar as they are consciously experienced, constitute contextualized and unitary phenomena (which are embedded as discrete events in the stream of consciousness); they are experiential manifestations of activity patters that recurrently emerge in the CA3 network of the hippocampus (and that are secondarily consolidated into retrievable and declarable memories)...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445865/translating-neurocognitive-models-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-into-therapy-using-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-to-treat-voices
#12
Thomas Fovet, Natasza Orlov, Miriam Dyck, Paul Allen, Klaus Mathiak, Renaud Jardri
Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374147/the-fragmented-self-imbalance-between-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-self-networks-in-psychotic-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Sjoerd J H Ebisch, André Aleman
Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging evidence for disrupted communication between neural networks subserving the so-called intrinsic self and extrinsic self. This disruption might be mainly caused by impaired integrity of key brain hubs. The intrinsic self has been associated with cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing, autobiographical memory, and emotional evaluation...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358492/what-is-the-link-between-hallucinations-dreams-and-hypnagogic-hypnopompic-experiences
#14
Flavie Waters, Jan Dirk Blom, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Allan J Cheyne, Ben Alderson-Day, Peter Woodruff, Daniel Collerton
By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065889/functional-mri-evaluation-of-multiple-neural-networks-underlying-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#15
Robert J Thoma, Charlotte Chaze, Jeffrey David Lewine, Vince D Calhoun, Vincent P Clark, Juan Bustillo, Jon Houck, Judith Ford, Rose Bigelow, Corbin Wilhelmi, Julia M Stephen, Jessica A Turner
Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH ("AVH-on" versus "AVH-off"), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997298/the-psychoactive-designer-drug-and-bath-salt-constituent-mdpv-causes-widespread-disruption-of-brain-functional-connectivity
#16
Luis M Colon-Perez, Kelvin Tran, Khalil Thompson, Michael C Pace, Kenneth Blum, Bruce A Goldberger, Mark S Gold, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Barry Setlow, Marcelo Febo
The abuse of 'bath salts' has raised concerns because of their adverse effects, which include delirium, violent behavior, and suicide ideation in severe cases. The bath salt constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has been closely linked to these and other adverse effects. The abnormal behavioral pattern produced by acute high-dose MDPV intake suggests possible disruptions of neural communication between brain regions. Therefore, we determined if MDPV exerts disruptive effects on brain functional connectivity, particularly in areas of the prefrontal cortex...
August 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26785108/neural-correlates-of-hallucinations-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
Maila de C Neves, Dante G Duarte, Maicon R Albuquerque, Rodrigo Nicolato, Fernando S Neves, Fábio L de Souza-Duran, Geraldo Busatto, Humberto Corrêa
OBJECTIVE: Approximately one-half of all patients affected by bipolar disorder present with psychotic features on at least one occasion. Several studies have found that alterations in the activity of mesolimbic and prefrontal regions are related to aberrant salience in psychotic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structural correlates of a history of hallucinations in a sample of euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). METHODS: The sample consisted of 21 euthymic patients with BD-I and no comorbid axis I DSM-IV-TR disorders...
March 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26432501/an-integrated-network-model-of-psychotic-symptoms
#18
REVIEW
Jasper Looijestijn, Jan Dirk Blom, André Aleman, Hans W Hoek, Rutger Goekoop
The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks...
December 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26277547/abnormal-white-matter-connections-between-medial-frontal-regions-predict-symptoms-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#19
Toshiyuki Ohtani, Sylvain Bouix, Amanda E Lyall, Taiga Hosokawa, Yukiko Saito, Eric Melonakos, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Larry J Seidman, Jill Goldstein, Raquelle Mesholam-Gately, Tracey Petryshen, Joanne Wojcik, Marek Kubicki
INTRODUCTION: The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and rostral part of anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) have been suggested to be involved in the neural network of salience and emotional processing, and associated with specific clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering the schizophrenia dysconnectivity hypothesis, the connectivity abnormalities between mOFC and rACC might be associated with clinical characteristics in first episode schizophrenia patients (FESZ). METHODS: After parcellating mOFC into the anterior and posterior part, diffusion properties of the mOFC-rACC white matter connections for 21 patients with FESZ and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were examined using stochastic tractography, one of the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) methods for examining tracts between adjacent gray matter (GM) regions...
October 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26243375/semaphorin-and-plexin-gene-expression-is-altered-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-schizophrenia-patients-with-and-without-auditory-hallucinations
#20
Javier Gilabert-Juan, Ana Rosa Sáez, Guillermo Lopez-Campos, Noelia Sebastiá-Ortega, Rocio González-Martínez, Juan Costa, Josep María Haro, Luis F Callado, J Javier Meana, Juán Nacher, Julio Sanjuán, María Dolores Moltó
Auditory hallucinations (AH) are clinical hallmarks of schizophrenia, however little is known about molecular genetics of these symptoms. In this study, gene expression profiling of postmortem brain samples from prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients without AH (SNA), patients with AH (SA) and control subjects were compared. Genome-wide expression analysis was conducted using samples of three individuals of each group and the Affymetrix GeneChip Human-Gene 1.0 ST-Array. This analysis identified the Axon Guidance pathway as one of the most differentially expressed network among SNA, SA and CNT...
October 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
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