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hallucination neural network

F Thomas, V Moulier, A Valéro-Cabré, D Januel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are among the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia and have been linked to likely disturbances of structural and functional connectivity within frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical networks involved in language and auditory functions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that alterations in the functional connectivity activity of the default-mode network (DMN) may also subtend hallucinations. Noninvasive neurostimulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have the ability to modulate activity of targeted cortical sites and their associated networks, showing a high potential for modulating altered connectivity subtending schizophrenia...
October 11, 2016: Revue Neurologique
Stephen Grossberg, Sohrob Kazerounian
Magnuson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 1481-1492 (2015)] makes claims for Interactive Activation (IA) models and against Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) models of speech perception. Magnuson also presents simulations that claim to show that the TRACE model can simulate phonemic restoration, which was an explanatory target of the cARTWORD ART model. The theoretical analysis and review herein show that these claims are incorrect. More generally, the TRACE and cARTWORD models illustrate two diametrically opposed types of neural models of speech and language...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
If hallucinations are not fundamentally different from normal wakeful experiences, then the neural basis of hallucinations has to be essentially that of consciousness in general. The additional insight that consciousness reflects the formation (as opposed to consolidation) of event (episodic) memories links the pathophysiology of hallucinations to the hippocampus. Perceptions and misperceptions, insofar as they are consciously experienced, constitute contextualized and unitary phenomena (which are embedded as discrete events in the stream of consciousness); they are experiential manifestations of activity patters that recurrently emerge in the CA3 network of the hippocampus (and that are secondarily consolidated into retrievable and declarable memories)...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Thomas Fovet, Natasza Orlov, Miriam Dyck, Paul Allen, Klaus Mathiak, Renaud Jardri
Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sjoerd J H Ebisch, André Aleman
Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging evidence for disrupted communication between neural networks subserving the so-called intrinsic self and extrinsic self. This disruption might be mainly caused by impaired integrity of key brain hubs. The intrinsic self has been associated with cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing, autobiographical memory, and emotional evaluation...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Flavie Waters, Jan Dirk Blom, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Allan J Cheyne, Ben Alderson-Day, Peter Woodruff, Daniel Collerton
By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Robert J Thoma, Charlotte Chaze, Jeffrey David Lewine, Vince D Calhoun, Vincent P Clark, Juan Bustillo, Jon Houck, Judith Ford, Rose Bigelow, Corbin Wilhelmi, Julia M Stephen, Jessica A Turner
Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH ("AVH-on" versus "AVH-off"), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Luis M Colon-Perez, Kelvin Tran, Khalil Thompson, Michael C Pace, Kenneth Blum, Bruce A Goldberger, Mark S Gold, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Barry Setlow, Marcelo Febo
The abuse of 'bath salts' has raised concerns because of their adverse effects, which include delirium, violent behavior, and suicide ideation in severe cases. The bath salt constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has been closely linked to these and other adverse effects. The abnormal behavioral pattern produced by acute high-dose MDPV intake suggests possible disruptions of neural communication between brain regions. Therefore, we determined if MDPV exerts disruptive effects on brain functional connectivity, particularly in areas of the prefrontal cortex...
August 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Maila de C Neves, Dante G Duarte, Maicon R Albuquerque, Rodrigo Nicolato, Fernando S Neves, Fábio L de Souza-Duran, Geraldo Busatto, Humberto Corrêa
OBJECTIVE: Approximately one-half of all patients affected by bipolar disorder present with psychotic features on at least one occasion. Several studies have found that alterations in the activity of mesolimbic and prefrontal regions are related to aberrant salience in psychotic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structural correlates of a history of hallucinations in a sample of euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). METHODS: The sample consisted of 21 euthymic patients with BD-I and no comorbid axis I DSM-IV-TR disorders...
March 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Jasper Looijestijn, Jan Dirk Blom, André Aleman, Hans W Hoek, Rutger Goekoop
The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks...
December 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Toshiyuki Ohtani, Sylvain Bouix, Amanda E Lyall, Taiga Hosokawa, Yukiko Saito, Eric Melonakos, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Larry J Seidman, Jill Goldstein, Raquelle Mesholam-Gately, Tracey Petryshen, Joanne Wojcik, Marek Kubicki
INTRODUCTION: The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and rostral part of anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) have been suggested to be involved in the neural network of salience and emotional processing, and associated with specific clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering the schizophrenia dysconnectivity hypothesis, the connectivity abnormalities between mOFC and rACC might be associated with clinical characteristics in first episode schizophrenia patients (FESZ). METHODS: After parcellating mOFC into the anterior and posterior part, diffusion properties of the mOFC-rACC white matter connections for 21 patients with FESZ and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were examined using stochastic tractography, one of the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) methods for examining tracts between adjacent gray matter (GM) regions...
October 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Javier Gilabert-Juan, Ana Rosa Sáez, Guillermo Lopez-Campos, Noelia Sebastiá-Ortega, Rocio González-Martínez, Juan Costa, Josep María Haro, Luis F Callado, J Javier Meana, Juán Nacher, Julio Sanjuán, María Dolores Moltó
Auditory hallucinations (AH) are clinical hallmarks of schizophrenia, however little is known about molecular genetics of these symptoms. In this study, gene expression profiling of postmortem brain samples from prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients without AH (SNA), patients with AH (SA) and control subjects were compared. Genome-wide expression analysis was conducted using samples of three individuals of each group and the Affymetrix GeneChip Human-Gene 1.0 ST-Array. This analysis identified the Axon Guidance pathway as one of the most differentially expressed network among SNA, SA and CNT...
October 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Ben Alderson-Day, Susanne Weis, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Peter Moseley, David Smailes, Charles Fernyhough
Inner speech has been implicated in important aspects of normal and atypical cognition, including the development of auditory hallucinations. Studies to date have focused on covert speech elicited by simple word or sentence repetition, while ignoring richer and arguably more psychologically significant varieties of inner speech. This study compared neural activation for inner speech involving conversations ('dialogic inner speech') with single-speaker scenarios ('monologic inner speech'). Inner speech-related activation differences were then compared with activations relating to Theory-of-Mind (ToM) reasoning and visual perspective-taking in a conjunction design...
January 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Sultan Tarlacı, Massimo Pregnolato
The concepts of quantum brain, quantum mind and quantum consciousness have been increasingly gaining currency in recent years, both in scientific papers and in the popular press. In fact, the concept of the quantum brain is a general framework. Included in it are basically four main sub-headings. These are often incorrectly used interchangeably. The first of these and the one which started the quantum mind/consciousness debate was the place of consciousness in the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics...
May 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Georg Northoff
While several hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been suggested, the exact role of the recently highlighted intrinsic resting state activity of the brain remains unclear. Based on recent findings, we therefore developed what we call the 'resting state hypotheses' of AVH. Our hypothesis suggest that AVH may be traced back to abnormally elevated resting state activity in auditory cortex itself, abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by anterior cortical midline regions as part of the default-mode network, and neural confusion between auditory cortical resting state changes and stimulus-induced activity...
December 2014: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Nailin Yao, Shirley Pang, Charlton Cheung, Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Kui Kai Lau, John Suckling, Kevin Yu, Henry Ka-Fung Mak, Grainne McAlonan, Shu-Leong Ho, Siew-Eng Chua
BACKGROUND: Visual hallucinations are an important non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease (PD) and carry a negative prognosis. Their biological basis is uncertain, but may relate to the activity of resting state networks in brain. We therefore aimed to investigate functional activity of brain in patients with visual hallucinations (PDVH) in resting state compared to patients without hallucinations (PDnonVH) and a healthy control group (HC). METHODS: Resting state functional MRI was acquired and the primary analysis compared the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) across groups...
February 2015: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Frédéric Blanc, Vincent Noblet, Nathalie Philippi, Benjamin Cretin, Jack Foucher, Jean-Paul Armspach, François Rousseau
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the neural basis of hallucinations Alzheimer's disease (AD) by applying voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to anatomical and functional data from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative. METHODS: AD patients with hallucinations, based on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q) (AD-hallu group; n = 39), were compared to AD patients without hallucinations matched for age, sex, educational level, handedness and MMSE (AD-c group; n = 39). Focal brain volume on MRI was analyzed and compared between the two groups according to the VBM method...
2014: PloS One
Anna Alonso-Solís, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Eva Grasa, Maria J Portella, Mireia Rabella, Rosa Blanca Sauras, Alexandra Roldán, Fidel Núñez-Marín, Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Víctor Pérez, Enric Alvarez, Iluminada Corripio
To understand the neural mechanism that underlies treatment resistant auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), is still an important issue in psychiatric research. Alterations in functional connectivity during rest have been frequently reported in patients with schizophrenia. Though the default mode network (DN) appears to be abnormal in schizophrenia patients, little is known about its role in resistant AVH. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) data with a 3T scanner from 19 schizophrenia patients with chronic AVH resistant to pharmacological treatment, 14 schizophrenia patients without AVH and 20 healthy controls...
February 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Christian Knöchel, Silke Matura, Michael Stäblein, David Prvulovic, Konrad Maurer, David E J Linden, Vincent van de Ven
We have previously reported altered functional asymmetry of the primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and their relatives during auditory processing. In this study, we investigated whether schizophrenia patients have altered intrinsic functional organization of Heschl's gyrus (HG) during rest. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured functional connectivity between bilateral HG and the whole brain in 24 SZ patients, 22 unaffected first-degree relatives and 24 matched healthy controls...
December 2014: Schizophrenia Research
James M Shine, Rebecca Keogh, Claire O'Callaghan, Alana J Muller, Simon J G Lewis, Joel Pearson
Visual hallucinations occur when our conscious experience does not accurately reflect external reality. However, these dissociations also regularly occur when we imagine the world around us in the absence of visual stimulation. We used two novel behavioural paradigms to objectively measure visual hallucinations and voluntary mental imagery in 19 individuals with Parkinson's disease (ten with visual hallucinations; nine without) and ten healthy, age-matched controls. We then used this behavioural overlap to interrogate the connectivity both within and between the major attentional control networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
January 7, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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