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psychosis neural network

Tina Gupta, Steven M Silverstein, Jessica A Bernard, Brian P Keane, Thomas V Papathomas, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Derek J Dean, Raeana E Newberry, Ivanka Ristanovic, Vijay A Mittal
Patients with psychosis exhibit a reduced susceptibility to depth inversion illusions (DII) in which a physically concave surface is perceived as convex (e.g., the hollow mask illusion). Here, we examined the extent to which lessened susceptibility to DII characterized youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. In this study, 44 UHR participants and 29 healthy controls judged the apparent convexity of face-like human masks, two of which were concave and the other convex. One of the concave masks was painted with realistic texture to enhance the illusion; the other was shown without such texture...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Jonathan P Roiser, Gemma Modinos, Irina Falkenberg, Carly Samson, Philip McGuire, Paul Allen
Emotional processing dysfunction is widely reported in patients with chronic schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis (FEP), and has been linked to functional abnormalities of corticolimbic regions. However, corticolimbic dysfunction is less studied in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), particularly during processing prosodic voices. We examined corticolimbic response during an emotion recognition task in 18 UHR participants and compared them with 18 FEP patients and 21 healthy controls (HC). Emotional recognition accuracy and corticolimbic response were measured during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using emotional dynamic facial and prosodic voice stimuli...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
J Eric Schmitt, James Yi, Monica E Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, David R Roalf, Amy Cassidy, Margaret C Souders, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H Zackai, Ruben C Gur, Beverly S Emanuel, Raquel E Gur
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an uncommon genetic disorder with an increased risk of psychosis. Although the neural substrates of psychosis and schizophrenia are not well understood, aberrations in cortical networks represent intriguing potential mechanisms. Investigations of anatomic networks within 22q11DS are sparse. We investigated group differences in anatomic network structure in 48 individuals with 22q11DS and 370 typically developing controls by analyzing covariance patterns in cortical thickness among 68 regions of interest using graph theoretical models...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Henry W Chase, Mary L Phillips
Bipolar disorder (BD), a mood disorder characterized by emotional lability and dysregulation, is associated with alterations in functional connectivity, particularly as assessed using functional MRI. Here, we provide an overview of the extant literature, and themes that have emerged within it. We identified published research describing functional connectivity in BD using PubMed and follow-up searches. The most consistent evidence favors abnormally heightened functional connectivity between the amygdala and the lateral regions of the ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC), both during rest or emotional processing...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Esther D A van Duin, Liesbet Goossens, Dennis Hernaus, Fabiana da Silva Alves, Nicole Schmitz, Koen Schruers, Therese van Amelsvoort
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and associated with an increased risk to develop psychosis. The gene coding for catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) is located at the deleted region, resulting in disrupted dopaminergic neurotransmission in 22q11DS, which may contribute to the increased vulnerability for psychosis. A dysfunctional motivational reward system is considered one of the salient features in psychosis and thought to be related to abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Christophe E de Bézenac, Vanessa Sluming, André Gouws, Rhiannon Corcoran
In normal circumstances we can easily distinguish between changes to the external world brought about by our own actions from those with external causes. However, in certain contexts our sense of ownership and agency over acts is not so clear. Neuroimaging studies have implicated a number of regions in the sense of agency, some of which have been shown to vary continuously with action-outcome discordance. However, little is known about dynamic, ambiguous contexts characterised by a lack of information for self-other differentiation, yet such ambiguous states are important in relation to symptoms and levels of consciousness that characterise certain mental health conditions...
September 2016: Biological Psychology
Sjoerd J H Ebisch, André Aleman
Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging evidence for disrupted communication between neural networks subserving the so-called intrinsic self and extrinsic self. This disruption might be mainly caused by impaired integrity of key brain hubs. The intrinsic self has been associated with cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing, autobiographical memory, and emotional evaluation...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
M Steffens, B Becker, C Neumann, A M Kasparbauer, I Meyhöfer, B Weber, M A Mehta, R Hurlemann, U Ettinger
The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has been proposed to model symptoms of psychosis. Smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are an established biomarker of schizophrenia. SPEM performance has been shown to be impaired in the schizophrenia spectrum and during ketamine administration in healthy volunteers. However, the neural mechanisms mediating SPEM impairments during ketamine administration are unknown. In a counter-balanced, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, 27 healthy participants received intravenous racemic ketamine (100 ng/mL target plasma concentration) on one of two assessment days and placebo (intravenous saline) on the other...
June 25, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Raphael Underwood, Veena Kumari, Emmanuelle Peters
Cognitive models of psychosis propose that maladaptive appraisals of anomalous experiences contribute to distress and disability in psychosis. Attentional, attributional and reasoning biases are hypothesised to drive these threat-based appraisals. Experimental and self-report data have provided support for the presence of these biases in psychosis populations, but recently there have been calls for neurobiological data to be integrated into these findings. Currently, little investigation has been conducted into the neural correlates of maladaptive appraisals...
May 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Melissa Fisher, Alexander Herman, Dustin B Stephens, Sophia Vinogradov
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric syndrome characterized by psychosis. It is also a neurodevelopmental disorder. In the earliest phases of the illness, at-risk individuals exhibit subtle, nonspecific symptoms, including cognitive dysfunction and progressive brain volumetric loss. Generally, schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal/inefficient neural system operations and neural oscillatory activity, as well as functional disconnectivity across frontal-temporo parietal and frontal-subcortical networks; it thus may best be described as a widespread neural oscillatory connectomopathy...
February 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Luis M Colon-Perez, Kelvin Tran, Khalil Thompson, Michael C Pace, Kenneth Blum, Bruce A Goldberger, Mark S Gold, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Barry Setlow, Marcelo Febo
The abuse of 'bath salts' has raised concerns because of their adverse effects, which include delirium, violent behavior, and suicide ideation in severe cases. The bath salt constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has been closely linked to these and other adverse effects. The abnormal behavioral pattern produced by acute high-dose MDPV intake suggests possible disruptions of neural communication between brain regions. Therefore, we determined if MDPV exerts disruptive effects on brain functional connectivity, particularly in areas of the prefrontal cortex...
August 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Amedeo Minichino, Fiza Singh, Jaime Pineda, Elisabeth Friederich, Kristin S Cadenhead
There is evidence of genetic and neural system overlap in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Early Psychosis (EP). Five datasets were pooled to compare mu suppression index (MSI), a proxy of mirror neuron activity, in EP, high functioning ASD, and healthy subjects (HS). ASDs and EPs with "active" negative symptoms showed significant differences in mu suppression, in response to Biological Motion/point-light display animation, compared to HS. Preliminary findings suggest that similar neural network deficits in ASD and EP could be driven by the expression of negative symptoms in the latter group of patients...
April 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Avinash Ramyead, Erich Studerus, Michael Kometer, Ulrike Heitz, Ute Gschwandtner, Peter Fuhr, Anita Riecher-Rössler
OBJECTIVES: In chronic schizophrenic psychoses, oscillatory abnormalities predominantly occur in prefrontal cortical regions and are associated with reduced communication across cortical areas. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether similar alterations can be observed in patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP), a state characterised by pathological features occurring in both late prodromal patients and initial phases of frank schizophrenic psychoses. METHODS: We assessed resting-state electroencephalographic data of 31 antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients and 29 healthy controls (HC)...
June 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Lisa Buchy, Mariapaola Barbato, Frank P MacMaster, Signe Bray, Darren Clark, Stephanie Deighton, Jean Addington
Compared to non-clinical subjects, people with psychosis show poor cognitive insight as reflected in low Self-Reflectiveness and high Self-Certainty. Neuroimaging studies have reported that 1) low Self-Reflectiveness is associated with volumetric reductions in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), 2) higher Self-Certainty is associated with volumetric reductions in hippocampus, and 3) higher Self-Certainty is associated with fractional anisotropy in the fornix, in people with psychosis. The aims of the current study were to expand on this research by 1) performing an exploratory whole-brain cortical thickness analysis of the neural correlates of cognitive insight, to reveal whether regions outside the VLPFC are important for cognitive insight, and 2) to evaluate associations between cognitive insight and subfields of the hippocampus, which are distinct, interacting, and have different functions...
April 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Ji-Won Hur, Randolph Blake, Kang Ik K Cho, Jejoong Kim, So-Yeon Kim, Soo-Hee Choi, Do-Hyung Kang, Jun Soo Kwon
IMPORTANCE: Exploration of the ability to process socially relevant events portrayed by biological motion and to identify underlying neuronal processes can provide clues for understanding the pathophysiology of psychosis. Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) have pervasive interpersonal deficits and odd behaviors. An understanding of the neural mechanisms involved in the perception of biological motion and the relation of activity to clinical symptoms in those mechanisms is needed...
March 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich, Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Eugene D'Angelo, Larry J Seidman, Sarah Gumlak, April Kim, Kristen A Woodberry, Ashley Rober, Sahil Tembulkar, Kelsey Graber, Kyle O'Donnell, Hesham M Hamoda, Kara Kimball, Alexander Rotenberg, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Matcheri S Keshavan, Frank H Duffy
BACKGROUND: The N100 is a negative deflection in the surface EEG approximately 100 ms after an auditory signal. It has been shown to be reduced in individuals with schizophrenia and those at clinical high risk (CHR). N100 blunting may index neural network dysfunction underlying psychotic symptoms. This phenomenon has received little attention in pediatric populations. METHOD: This cross-sectional study compared the N100 response measured via the average EEG response at the left medial frontal position FC1 to 150 sinusoidal tones in participants ages 5 to 17 years with a CHR syndrome (n=29), a psychotic disorder (n=22), or healthy controls (n=17)...
December 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Jasper Looijestijn, Jan Dirk Blom, André Aleman, Hans W Hoek, Rutger Goekoop
The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks...
December 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Birgit Derntl, Tanja Maria Michel, Pamela Prempeh, Volker Backes, Andreas Finkelmeyer, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
BACKGROUND: Empathy is a basic human ability, and patients with schizophrenia show dysfunctional empathic abilities on the behavioural and neural level. AIMS: These dysfunctions may precede the onset of illness; thus, it seems mandatory to examine the empathic abilities in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. METHOD: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured 15 individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR group) and compared their empathy performance with 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients with schizophrenia...
November 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Alan Anticevic, Kristen Haut, John D Murray, Grega Repovs, Genevieve J Yang, Caroline Diehl, Sarah C McEwen, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Doreen Olvet, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Scott W Woods, Maolin Qiu, Tyrone D Cannon
IMPORTANCE: Severe neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, affect distributed neural computations. One candidate system profoundly altered in chronic schizophrenia involves the thalamocortical networks. It is widely acknowledged that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that likely affects the brain before onset of clinical symptoms. However, no investigation has tested whether thalamocortical connectivity is altered in individuals at risk for psychosis or whether this pattern is more severe in individuals who later develop full-blown illness...
September 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Cali F Bartholomeusz, Eleni P Ganella, Izelle Labuschagne, Chad Bousman, Christos Pantelis
Impairments in social cognition and poor social functioning are core features of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In recent years, there has been a move towards developing new treatment strategies that specifically target social cognitive and social behavioural deficits. Oxytocin (OXT) is one such strategy that has gained increasing attention. There is a strong rationale for studying OXT in psychosis, from both an evolutionary perspective and neurodevelopmental-cognitive model of schizophrenia. Thus, the aim of this review was to critique and examine the observational and clinical oxytocin trial literature in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders...
November 2015: Schizophrenia Research
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