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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925474/aberrant-cerebro-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-and-minimal-self-disturbance-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#1
Minji Bang, Hae-Jeong Park, Chongwon Pae, Kyoungri Park, Eun Lee, Seung-Koo Lee, Suk Kyoon An
BACKGROUND: In the tradition of phenomenology, minimal selfdisturbance has been suggested as a manifestation of the core pathogenesis of schizophrenia; however, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Here, in line with the concept of "cognitive dysmetria," we investigated the cerebro-cerebellar default mode network (DMN) connectivity and its association with pre-reflective minimal selfdisturbance in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES)...
June 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907493/reduced-higher-dimensional-resting-state-fmri-dynamism-in-clinical-high-risk-individuals-for-schizophrenia-identified-by-meta-state-analysis
#2
Eva Mennigen, Robyn L Miller, Barnaly Rashid, Susanna L Fryer, Rachel L Loewy, Barbara K Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon, Vince D Calhoun
New techniques to investigate functional network connectivity in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data have recently emerged. One novel approach, called meta-state analysis, goes beyond the mere cross-correlation of time courses of distinct brain areas and explores temporal dynamism in more detail, allowing for connectivity states to overlap in time and capturing global dynamic behavior. Previous studies have shown that patients with chronic schizophrenia exhibit reduced neural dynamism compared to healthy controls, but it is not known whether these alterations extend to earlier phases of the illness...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785841/effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-neurites-relevant-to-schizophrenia-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Xu-Feng Huang, Xueqin Song
Although antipsychotic drugs are mainly used for treating schizophrenia, they are widely used for treating various psychiatric diseases in adults, the elderly, adolescents and even children. Today, about 1.2% of the worldwide population suffers from psychosis and related disorders, which translates to about 7.5 million subjects potentially targeted by antipsychotic drugs. Neurites project from the cell body of neurons and connect neurons to each other to form neural networks. Deficits in neurite outgrowth and integrity are implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766653/organic-psychosis-the-pathobiology-and-treatment-of-delusions
#4
REVIEW
Eileen Maria Joyce
Organic or secondary psychosis can be seen in diverse conditions such as toxic/metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and stroke. Poststroke psychosis is a rare phenomenon, but its study has significantly contributed to the understanding of delusion formation. The evidence from case studies of patients with focal strokes shows that delusions develop following unilateral damage of the right hemisphere. The majority of patients with right hemisphere stroke do not develop delusions however, and advanced neuroimaging analysis has elucidated why this symptom develops in only a small proportion...
May 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726413/a-new-machine-learning-framework-for-understanding-the-link-between-cannabis-use-and-first-episode-psychosis
#5
Wajdi Alghamdi, Daniel Stamate, Daniel Stahl, Alexander Zamyatin, Robin Murray, Marta Di Forti
Lately, several studies started to investigate the existence of links between cannabis use and psychotic disorders. This work proposes a refined Machine Learning framework for understanding the links between cannabis use and 1st episode psychosis. The novel framework concerns extracting predictive patterns from clinical data using optimised and post-processed models based on Gaussian Processes, Support Vector Machines, and Neural Networks algorithms. The cannabis use attributes' predictive power is investigated, and we demonstrate statistically and with ROC analysis that their presence in the dataset enhances the prediction performance of the models with respect to models built on data without these specific attributes...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685647/in-defense-of-free-will-neuroscience-and-criminal-responsibility
#6
REVIEW
Paul G Nestor
Is neuroscience the death of free will and if so, does this mean the imminent demise of the psycho-legal practices related to insanity and criminal responsibility? For many scholars of neuro-jurisprudence, recent advances in brain sciences suggesting that the perception of free will is merely illusory, an epiphenomenon of unconscious brain activity, do indeed undermine our traditional understandings of moral and legal responsibility. In this paper, however, we reject this radical claim and argue that neuroscientific evidence can indeed reveal how free will actually works and how its underlying neural and perceptual machinery gives rise to our sense of responsibility for our actions...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672091/resting-state-connectivity-dynamics-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis
#7
Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Vijay A Mittal
Clarifying dynamic fluctuations in resting-state connectivity in individuals at risk for psychosis (termed clinical high risk [CHR]) may inform understanding of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, which have been associated with dysconnectivity and aberrant salience processing. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) investigations provide insight into how neural networks exchange information over time. Currently, there are no published DFC studies involving CHR individuals. This is notable, because understanding how networks may come together and disassociate over time could lend insight into the neural communication that underlies psychosis development and symptomatology...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529413/correlation-between-levels-of-delusional-beliefs-and-perfusion-of-the-hippocampus-and-an-associated-network-in-a-non-help-seeking-population
#8
Rick P F Wolthusen, Garth Coombs, Emily A Boeke, Stefan Ehrlich, Stephanie N DeCross, Shahin Nasr, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Delusions are a defining and common symptom of psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that subclinical and clinical delusions may represent distinct stages on a phenomenological and biological continuum. However, few studies have tested whether subclinical psychotic experiences are associated with neural changes that are similar to those observed in clinical psychosis. For example, it is unclear if overactivity of the hippocampus, a replicated finding of neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia, is also present in individuals with subclinical psychotic symptoms...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484909/propranolol-for-treating-emotional-behavioural-autonomic-dysregulation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Ilyas Sagar-Ouriaghli, Kate Lievesley, Paramala J Santosh
OBJECTIVES: To date, there is no single medication prescribed to alleviate all the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, 2016). Both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and drugs for psychosis possess therapeutic drawbacks when managing anxiety and aggression in ASD. This review sought to appraise the use of propranolol as a pharmacological alternative when managing emotional, behavioural and autonomic dysregulation (EBAD) and other symptoms...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380275/in-schizophrenia-depression-anxiety-and-physiosomatic-symptoms-are-strongly-related-to-psychotic-symptoms-and-excitation-impairments-in-episodic-memory-and-increased-production-of-neurotoxic-tryptophan-catabolites-a-multivariate-and-machine-learning-study
#10
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
The depression, anxiety and physiosomatic symptoms (DAPS) of schizophrenia are associated with negative symptoms and changes in tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) patterning. The aim of this study is to delineate the associations between DAPS and psychosis, hostility, excitation, and mannerism (PHEM) symptoms, cognitive tests as measured using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) and IgA/IgM responses to TRYCATs. We included 40 healthy controls and 80 participants with schizophrenia...
April 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352661/mechanistic-insights-into-the-genetics-of-affective-psychosis-from-prader-willi-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Lucie C S Aman, Katherine E Manning, Joyce E Whittington, Anthony J Holland
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are common, severe, and disabling psychotic disorders, which are difficult to research. We argue that the genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), which is associated with a high risk of affective psychotic illness, can provide a window into genetic mechanisms and associated neural pathways. People with PWS can all show non-psychotic psychopathology and problem behaviours, but the prevalence of psychotic illness differs markedly by genetic subtype; people with PWS due to chromosome 15 maternal uniparental disomy have higher prevalence of psychotic illness compared with patients with PWS due to 15q11-13 deletions of paternal origin...
April 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247465/cannabinoid-glutamate-interactions-and-neural-oscillations-implications-for-psychosis
#12
REVIEW
Mohamed A Sherif, Jose A Cortes-Briones, Mohini Ranganathan, Patrick D Skosnik
Preclinical and clinical data suggest that the cannabinoid and glutamatergic systems are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ), the prototypical psychotic disorder. This has led to distinct "cannabis" and "ketamine" models of SZ, respectively. However, these two models need not be mutually exclusive. Indeed, in several brain regions implicated in the putative neural circuitry of SZ (e.g., hippocampus, frontal cortex, cerebellum), cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1Rs) and glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have direct and indirect interactions...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202110/aberrant-temporal-connectivity-in-persons-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#13
Tiziano Colibazzi, Zhen Yang, Guillermo Horga, Yan Chao-Gan, Cheryl M Corcoran, Kristin Klahr, Gary Brucato, Ragy Girgis, Anissa Abi-Dargham, Michael P Milham, Bradley S Peterson
Background: Schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder, involves abnormalities in functional connectivity (FC) across distributed neural networks, which are thought to antedate the emergence of psychosis. In a cohort of adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, we applied data-driven approaches to resting-state fMRI data so as to systematically characterize FC abnormalities during this period and determine whether these abnormalities are associated with psychosis risk and severity of psychotic symptoms...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136642/common-and-distinct-structural-features-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-the-european-network-on-psychosis-affective-disorders-and-cognitive-trajectory-enpact-study
#14
Eleonora Maggioni, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Igor Nenadic, Francesco Benedetti, Christian Gaser, Heinrich Sauer, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Sara Poletti, Veronica Marinelli, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Paolo Brambilla
INTRODUCTION: Although schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share elements of pathology, their neural underpinnings are still under investigation. Here, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collected from a large sample of BD and SCZ patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed in terms of gray matter volume (GMV) using both voxel based morphometry (VBM) and a region of interest (ROI) approach. METHODS: The analysis was conducted on two datasets, Dataset1 (802 subjects: 243 SCZ, 176 BD, 383 HC) and Dataset2, a homogeneous subset of Dataset1 (301 subjects: 107 HC, 85 BD and 109 SCZ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050393/distinct-processing-of-ambiguous-speech-in-people-with-non-clinical-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#15
Ben Alderson-Day, César F Lima, Samuel Evans, Saloni Krishnan, Pradheep Shanmugalingam, Charles Fernyhough, Sophie K Scott
Auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices) are typically associated with psychosis, but a minority of the general population also experience them frequently and without distress. Such 'non-clinical' experiences offer a rare and unique opportunity to study hallucinations apart from confounding clinical factors, thus allowing for the identification of symptom-specific mechanisms. Recent theories propose that hallucinations result from an imbalance of prior expectation and sensory information, but whether such an imbalance also influences auditory-perceptual processes remains unknown...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972591/altered-activation-and-connectivity-in-a-hippocampal-basal-ganglia-midbrain-circuit-during-salience-processing-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#16
T Winton-Brown, A Schmidt, J P Roiser, O D Howes, A Egerton, P Fusar-Poli, N Bunzeck, A A Grace, E Duzel, S Kapur, P McGuire
Animal models of psychosis propose that abnormal hippocampal activity drives increased subcortical dopamine function, which is thought to contribute to aberrant salience processing and psychotic symptoms. These effects appear to be mediated through connections between the hippocampus, ventral striatum/pallidum and the midbrain. The aim of the present study was to examine the activity and connectivity in this pathway in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network during reward, novelty and aversion processing between 29 UHR subjects and 32 healthy controls...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794975/altered-structural-network-architecture-is-predictive-of-the-presence-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-patients-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#17
Maria C Padula, Elisa Scariati, Marie Schaer, Corrado Sandini, Marie Christine Ottet, Maude Schneider, Dimitri Van De Ville, Stephan Eliez
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) represents a homogeneous model of schizophrenia particularly suitable for the search of neural biomarkers of psychosis. Impairments in structural connectivity related to the presence of psychotic symptoms have been reported in patients with 22q11DS. However, the relationships between connectivity changes in patients with different symptomatic profiles are still largely unknown and warrant further investigations. In this study, we used structural connectivity to discriminate patients with 22q11DS with ( N  = 31) and without ( N  = 31) attenuated positive psychotic symptoms...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735641/risk-and-resilience-brain-networks-in-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#18
Eleni P Ganella, Caio Seguin, Cali F Bartholomeusz, Sarah Whittle, Chad Bousman, Cassandra M J Wannan, Maria A Di Biase, Christina Phassouliotis, Ian Everall, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
BACKGROUND: Genes, molecules and neural circuits that are associated with, or confer risk to developing schizophrenia have been studied and mapped. It is hypothesized that certain neural systems may counterbalance familial risk of schizophrenia, and thus confer resilience to developing the disorder. This study sought to identify resting-state functional brain connectivity (rs-FC) representing putative risk or resilience endophenotypes in schizophrenia. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was performed in 42 individuals with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 16 unaffected first-degree family members (UFM) and 42 healthy controls...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710394/altered-brain-network-connectivity-as-a-potential-endophenotype-of-schizophrenia
#19
Peng Li, Teng-Teng Fan, Rong-Jiang Zhao, Ying Han, Le Shi, Hong-Qiang Sun, Si-Jing Chen, Jie Shi, Xiao Lin, Lin Lu
Abnormal functional brain connectivity could be considered an endophenotype of psychosis in schizophrenia. Identifying candidate endophenotypes may serve as a tool for elucidating its biological and neural mechanisms. The present study investigated the similarities and differences of features of brain network connectivity between patients and their first-degree relatives. Independent component analysis was conducted on imaging data collected from 34 healthy controls, 33 schizophrenia patients, and 30 unaffected first-degree relatives...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595456/altered-brain-wiring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-structural-connectome-based-analysis
#20
Apurva Shah, Abhishek Lenka, Jitender Saini, Shivali Wagle, Rajini M Naduthota, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal, Madhura Ingalhalikar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects the motor system. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated deficits in anisotropy as well as increased diffusivity in the sub-cortical structures, primarily in the substantia nigra in PD. However, the clinical spectrum of PD is not limited to motor symptoms; rather, it encompasses several nonmotor symptoms such as depression, psychosis, olfactory dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. These nonmotor symptoms underscore PD as a complex neurological disorder arising from dysfunction of several network components...
August 2017: Brain Connectivity
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