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psychosis neural network

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089250/pathology-of-behavior-in-pd-what-is-known-and-what-is-not
#1
REVIEW
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Simon J G Lewis
Abnormal behavior in Parkinson's disease (PD) stems from a complex orchestration of impaired neural networks that result from PD-related neurodegeneration across multiple levels. Typically, cellular and tissue abnormalities generate neurochemical changes and disrupt specific regions of the brain, in turn creating impaired neural circuits and dysfunctional global networks. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the array of pathological changes that have been linked to different behavioral symptoms of PD such as depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue, impulse control disorders, psychosis, sleep disorders and dementia...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009070/effects-of-aripiprazole-and-haloperidol-on-neural-activation-during-a-simple-motor-task-in-healthy-individuals-a-functional-mri-study
#2
Rhianna Goozee, Owen O'Daly, Rowena Handley, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Grant McQueen, Kathryn Hubbard, Carmine Pariante, Valeria Mondelli, Antje A T S Reinders, Paola Dazzan
The dopaminergic system plays a key role in motor function and motor abnormalities have been shown to be a specific feature of psychosis. Due to their dopaminergic action, antipsychotic drugs may be expected to modulate motor function, but the precise effects of these drugs on motor function remain unclear. We carried out a within-subject, double-blind, randomized study of the effects of aripiprazole, haloperidol and placebo on motor function in 20 healthy men. For each condition, motor performance on an auditory-paced task was investigated...
December 23, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007987/connectomic-correlates-of-response-to-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#3
Nicolas A Crossley, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Chris Chaddock, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Antje A T S Reinders, Valeria Mondelli, Marta DiForti, Andrew Simmons, Anthony S David, Shitij Kapur, Carmine M Pariante, Robin M Murray, Paola Dazzan
Connectomic approaches using diffusion tensor imaging have contributed to our understanding of brain changes in psychosis, and could provide further insights into the neural mechanisms underlying response to antipsychotic treatment. We here studied the brain network organization in patients at their first episode of psychosis, evaluating whether connectome-based descriptions of brain networks predict response to treatment, and whether they change after treatment. Seventy-six patients with a first episode of psychosis and 74 healthy controls were included...
December 21, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995059/working-memory-circuit-as-a-function-of-increasing-age-in-healthy-adolescence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#4
Julia Andre, Marco Picchioni, Ruibin Zhang, Timothea Toulopoulou
Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382) that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-30 years)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887704/aberrant-modulation-of-brain-activation-by-emotional-valence-during-self-referential-processing-among-patients-with-delusions-of-reference
#5
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872267/endophenotypes-epigenetics-polygenicity-and-more-irv-gottesman-s-dynamic-legacy
#6
David L Braff, Carol A Tamminga
First, we describe the hallmark contributions of Irv Gottesman's pioneering scholarship for schizophrenia research including concepts of polygenicity, gene × environment interactions, epigenetics and the endophenotype concept. Gottesman and colleagues' twin studies showed that genes, not social factors, mediate schizophrenia risk. He then showed that schizophrenia is highly polygenic. Next, he introduced the concept of epigenetics into schizophrenia research. Gottesman then introduced the quantitative endophenotype concept...
January 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814962/neural-complexity-as-a-potential-translational-biomarker-for-psychosis
#7
Brandon Hager, Albert C Yang, Roscoe Brady, Shashwath Meda, Brett Clementz, Godfrey D Pearlson, John A Sweeney, Carol Tamminga, Matcheri Keshavan
BACKGROUND: The adaptability of the human brain to the constantly changing environment is reduced in patients with psychotic disorders, leading to impaired cognitive functions. Brain signal complexity, which may reflect adaptability, can be readily quantified via resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. We hypothesized that resting-state brain signal complexity is altered in psychotic disorders, and is correlated with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We assessed 156 healthy controls (HC) and 330 probands, including 125 patients with psychotic bipolar disorder (BP), 107 patients with schizophrenia (SZ), 98 patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and 230 of their unaffected first-degree relatives (76 BPR, 79 SADR, and 75 SZR) from four sites of the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761399/disruptions-in-neural-connectivity-associated-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-a-depth-inversion-illusion-in-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#8
Tina Gupta, Steven M Silverstein, Jessica A Bernard, Brian P Keane, Thomas V Papathomas, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Derek J Dean, Raeana E Newberry, Ivanka Ristanovic, Vijay A Mittal
Patients with psychosis exhibit a reduced susceptibility to depth inversion illusions (DII) in which a physically concave surface is perceived as convex (e.g., the hollow mask illusion). Here, we examined the extent to which lessened susceptibility to DII characterized youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. In this study, 44 UHR participants and 29 healthy controls judged the apparent convexity of face-like human masks, two of which were concave and the other convex. One of the concave masks was painted with realistic texture to enhance the illusion; the other was shown without such texture...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747152/corticolimbic-dysfunction-during-facial-and-prosodic-emotional-recognition-in-first-episode-psychosis-patients-and-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk
#9
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Jonathan P Roiser, Gemma Modinos, Irina Falkenberg, Carly Samson, Philip McGuire, Paul Allen
Emotional processing dysfunction is widely reported in patients with chronic schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis (FEP), and has been linked to functional abnormalities of corticolimbic regions. However, corticolimbic dysfunction is less studied in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), particularly during processing prosodic voices. We examined corticolimbic response during an emotion recognition task in 18 UHR participants and compared them with 18 FEP patients and 21 healthy controls (HC). Emotional recognition accuracy and corticolimbic response were measured during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using emotional dynamic facial and prosodic voice stimuli...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622139/disrupted-anatomic-networks-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#10
J Eric Schmitt, James Yi, Monica E Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, David R Roalf, Amy Cassidy, Margaret C Souders, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H Zackai, Ruben C Gur, Beverly S Emanuel, Raquel E Gur
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an uncommon genetic disorder with an increased risk of psychosis. Although the neural substrates of psychosis and schizophrenia are not well understood, aberrations in cortical networks represent intriguing potential mechanisms. Investigations of anatomic networks within 22q11DS are sparse. We investigated group differences in anatomic network structure in 48 individuals with 22q11DS and 370 typically developing controls by analyzing covariance patterns in cortical thickness among 68 regions of interest using graph theoretical models...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453953/elucidating-neural-network-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-in-bipolar-disorder-toward-a-harmonized-methodological-approach
#11
Henry W Chase, Mary L Phillips
Bipolar disorder (BD), a mood disorder characterized by emotional lability and dysregulation, is associated with alterations in functional connectivity, particularly as assessed using functional MRI. Here, we provide an overview of the extant literature, and themes that have emerged within it. We identified published research describing functional connectivity in BD using PubMed and follow-up searches. The most consistent evidence favors abnormally heightened functional connectivity between the amygdala and the lateral regions of the ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC), both during rest or emotional processing...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429661/neural-correlates-of-reward-processing-in-adults-with-22q11-deletion-syndrome
#12
Esther D A van Duin, Liesbet Goossens, Dennis Hernaus, Fabiana da Silva Alves, Nicole Schmitz, Koen Schruers, Therese van Amelsvoort
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and associated with an increased risk to develop psychosis. The gene coding for catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) is located at the deleted region, resulting in disrupted dopaminergic neurotransmission in 22q11DS, which may contribute to the increased vulnerability for psychosis. A dysfunctional motivational reward system is considered one of the salient features in psychosis and thought to be related to abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381929/neural-response-to-modulating-the-probability-that-actions-of-self-or-other-result-in-auditory-tones-a-parametric-fmri-study-into-causal-ambiguity
#13
Christophe E de Bézenac, Vanessa Sluming, André Gouws, Rhiannon Corcoran
In normal circumstances we can easily distinguish between changes to the external world brought about by our own actions from those with external causes. However, in certain contexts our sense of ownership and agency over acts is not so clear. Neuroimaging studies have implicated a number of regions in the sense of agency, some of which have been shown to vary continuously with action-outcome discordance. However, little is known about dynamic, ambiguous contexts characterised by a lack of information for self-other differentiation, yet such ambiguous states are important in relation to symptoms and levels of consciousness that characterise certain mental health conditions...
September 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374147/the-fragmented-self-imbalance-between-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-self-networks-in-psychotic-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Sjoerd J H Ebisch, André Aleman
Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging evidence for disrupted communication between neural networks subserving the so-called intrinsic self and extrinsic self. This disruption might be mainly caused by impaired integrity of key brain hubs. The intrinsic self has been associated with cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing, autobiographical memory, and emotional evaluation...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342447/effects-of-ketamine-on-brain-function-during-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements
#15
M Steffens, B Becker, C Neumann, A M Kasparbauer, I Meyhöfer, B Weber, M A Mehta, R Hurlemann, U Ettinger
The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has been proposed to model symptoms of psychosis. Smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are an established biomarker of schizophrenia. SPEM performance has been shown to be impaired in the schizophrenia spectrum and during ketamine administration in healthy volunteers. However, the neural mechanisms mediating SPEM impairments during ketamine administration are unknown. In a counter-balanced, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, 27 healthy participants received intravenous racemic ketamine (100 ng/mL target plasma concentration) on one of two assessment days and placebo (intravenous saline) on the other...
June 25, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137974/cognitive-and-neural-models-of-threat-appraisal-in-psychosis-a-theoretical-integration
#16
REVIEW
Raphael Underwood, Veena Kumari, Emmanuelle Peters
Cognitive models of psychosis propose that maladaptive appraisals of anomalous experiences contribute to distress and disability in psychosis. Attentional, attributional and reasoning biases are hypothesised to drive these threat-based appraisals. Experimental and self-report data have provided support for the presence of these biases in psychosis populations, but recently there have been calls for neurobiological data to be integrated into these findings. Currently, little investigation has been conducted into the neural correlates of maladaptive appraisals...
May 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111135/neuroscience-informed-computer-assisted-cognitive-training-in-schizophrenia
#17
Melissa Fisher, Alexander Herman, Dustin B Stephens, Sophia Vinogradov
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric syndrome characterized by psychosis. It is also a neurodevelopmental disorder. In the earliest phases of the illness, at-risk individuals exhibit subtle, nonspecific symptoms, including cognitive dysfunction and progressive brain volumetric loss. Generally, schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal/inefficient neural system operations and neural oscillatory activity, as well as functional disconnectivity across frontal-temporo parietal and frontal-subcortical networks; it thus may best be described as a widespread neural oscillatory connectomopathy...
February 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997298/the-psychoactive-designer-drug-and-bath-salt-constituent-mdpv-causes-widespread-disruption-of-brain-functional-connectivity
#18
Luis M Colon-Perez, Kelvin Tran, Khalil Thompson, Michael C Pace, Kenneth Blum, Bruce A Goldberger, Mark S Gold, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Barry Setlow, Marcelo Febo
The abuse of 'bath salts' has raised concerns because of their adverse effects, which include delirium, violent behavior, and suicide ideation in severe cases. The bath salt constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has been closely linked to these and other adverse effects. The abnormal behavioral pattern produced by acute high-dose MDPV intake suggests possible disruptions of neural communication between brain regions. Therefore, we determined if MDPV exerts disruptive effects on brain functional connectivity, particularly in areas of the prefrontal cortex...
August 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26970656/biological-motion-induced-mu-suppression-is-reduced-in-early-psychosis-ep-patients-with-active-negative-symptoms-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd
#19
Amedeo Minichino, Fiza Singh, Jaime Pineda, Elisabeth Friederich, Kristin S Cadenhead
There is evidence of genetic and neural system overlap in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Early Psychosis (EP). Five datasets were pooled to compare mu suppression index (MSI), a proxy of mirror neuron activity, in EP, high functioning ASD, and healthy subjects (HS). ASDs and EPs with "active" negative symptoms showed significant differences in mu suppression, in response to Biological Motion/point-light display animation, compared to HS. Preliminary findings suggest that similar neural network deficits in ASD and EP could be driven by the expression of negative symptoms in the latter group of patients...
April 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26899507/neural-oscillations-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-a-first-psychotic-episode
#20
Avinash Ramyead, Erich Studerus, Michael Kometer, Ulrike Heitz, Ute Gschwandtner, Peter Fuhr, Anita Riecher-Rössler
OBJECTIVES: In chronic schizophrenic psychoses, oscillatory abnormalities predominantly occur in prefrontal cortical regions and are associated with reduced communication across cortical areas. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether similar alterations can be observed in patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP), a state characterised by pathological features occurring in both late prodromal patients and initial phases of frank schizophrenic psychoses. METHODS: We assessed resting-state electroencephalographic data of 31 antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients and 29 healthy controls (HC)...
June 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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