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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449231/resource-partitioning-in-tolerant-and-intolerant-macaques
#1
Nancy Rebout, Christine Desportes, Bernard Thierry
The clumped distribution of food resources promotes food defensibility and can lead to the monopolizing of resources by high-ranking individuals. However, the balance of power is set at different levels according to societies, meaning that resource partitioning should vary between them. This study investigates whether dominance asymmetry and resource partitioning are related in non-human primates by comparing two species with contrasting social styles, namely rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) which display strong social intolerance and a steep gradient of dominance, and Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana), which exhibit higher levels of tolerance and more balanced dominance relationships...
April 27, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448981/safety-and-efficacy-of-a-fully-covered-self-expandable-metallic-stent-in-benign-airway-stenosis
#2
Marc Fortin, Yves Lacasse, Xavier Elharrar, Rachid Tazi-Mezalek, Sophie Laroumagne, Julien Guinde, Philippe Astoul, Hervé Dutau
BACKGROUND: The use of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) in benign airway disease was the object of a boxed warning from the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2005 due to the risk of stent-related complications and difficulties associated with their removal. Third-generation fully covered SEMS have been commercialized since this warning and theoretically should not present the same difficulties associated with removal as they cannot become embedded in the airway mucosa...
April 28, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446633/lactose-intolerance-lct-13910c-t-genotype-is-associated-with-plasma-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-in-caucasians-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#3
Ohood Alharbi, Ahmed El-Sohemy
Background: The LCT-13910C>T gene variant is associated with lactose intolerance (LI) in different ethnic groups. Individuals with LI often limit or avoid dairy consumption, a major dietary source of vitamin D in North America, which may lead to inadequate vitamin D intake.Objective: The objective was to determine the prevalence of genotypes predictive of LI in different ethnic groups living in Canada and to determine whether the LCT genotype is associated with plasma 25(OH)D concentrations.Methods: Blood samples were drawn from a total of 1495 men and women aged 20-29 y from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study for genotyping and plasma 25(OH)D analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437585/chronic-intestinal-electrical-stimulation-improves-glucose-intolerance-and-insulin-resistance-in-diet-induced-obesity-rats
#4
Shiying Li, Weijian Zhu, Sujuan Zhang, Jiande Dz Chen
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a contributing factor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to study the therapeutic potential of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) for obesity and associated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats. METHODS: DIO rats were divided into two groups to receive sham or IES for 8 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit tests were performed...
April 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431310/characterization-of-bacterial-communities-of-donkey-milk-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#5
Maria de Los Dolores Soto Del Rio, Alessandra Dalmasso, Tiziana Civera, Maria Teresa Bottero
The interest in donkey milk (DM) is growing because of its functional properties and nutritional value, especially for children with allergies and food intolerances. However, most of the available reports of DM microbiota are based on culture-dependent methods to investigate food safety issues and the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to determine the composition of DM bacterial communities using a high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach. Bulk milk samples from Italian donkey dairy farms from two consecutive years were analysed using the MiSeq Illumina platform...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427013/the-accelerated-path-of-ceritinib-translating-pre-clinical-development-into-clinical-efficacy
#6
REVIEW
Tony S K Mok, Lucio Crino, Enriqueta Felip, Ravi Salgia, Tommaso De Pas, Daniel S W Tan, Laura Q M Chow
The discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2007 led to the development and subsequent approval of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib in 2011. However, despite its clinical efficacy, resistance to crizotinib invariably develops. There is now a next generation of ALK inhibitors, including two that have been approved-ceritinib and alectinib-and others that are in development-brigatinib, lorlatinib and X-396. Ceritinib and the other next-generation ALK inhibitors are more potent than crizotinib and can overcome tumor cell resistance mechanisms...
March 30, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424263/the-kielin-chordin-like-protein-kcp-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#7
Abdul Soofi, Katherine I Wolf, Margo P Emont, Nathan Qi, Gabriel Martinez-Santibanez, Edward Grimley, Wesam Ostwani, Gregory R Dressler
Obesity and its associated complications, such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are reaching epidemic proportions. In mice, the TGF-beta superfamily is implicated in the regulation of white and brown adipose tissue differentiation. The Kielin/chordin-like Protein (KCP) is a secreted regulator of the TGF-beta superfamily pathways that can inhibit both TGF-beta and activin signals while enhancing bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, KCP's effects on metabolism and obesity have not been studied in animal models...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421381/lactase-non-persistence-and-lactose-intolerance
#8
REVIEW
Theodore M Bayless, Elizabeth Brown, David M Paige
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the clinical and nutritional significance of genetically determined lactase non-persistence and potential lactose and milk intolerance in 65-70% of the world's adult population. RECENT FINDINGS: Milk consumption is decreasing in the USA and is the lowest in countries with a high prevalence of lactase non-persistence. The dairy industry and Minnesota investigators have made efforts to minimize the influence of lactose intolerance on milk consumption...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407952/common-food-colorants-and-allergic-reactions-in-children-myth-or-reality
#9
REVIEW
Gavriela Feketea, Sophia Tsabouri
Various additives, including food colorants (FCs), are used in the food industry to make food appealing to consumers and to add variety. Despite the widespread usage of FCs, adverse reactions related to their consumption, including reactions triggered by immune (immediate and delayed-type hypersensitivity) and non-immune (intolerance) mechanisms, are considered rare. There is a discrepancy between the perception of patients and parents (7.4%) and the reported prevalence of adverse reactions to additives (0...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395555/alirocumab-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolaemia
#10
Giuseppe Della Pepa, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela Albarosa Rivellese
Prescription of statins for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction is the standard of care in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease; nevertheless, a large number of patients treated with statins are unable to reach the recommended LDL-C targets. Therefore, there is need for safe and effective novel therapies for the pharmacological management of hypercholesterolaemia, in addition or as alternative to lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) currently in use. Areas covered: In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved alirocumab (Praluent®; Sanofi), a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemic patients unable to meet LDL-C targets, as an adjunct to diet in addition/alternative to LLT...
April 11, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385663/a-curated-gluten-protein-sequence-database-to-support-development-of-proteomics-methods-for-determination-of-gluten-in-gluten-free-foods
#11
Sophie Bromilow, Lee A Gethings, Mike Buckley, Mike Bromley, Peter R Shewry, James I Langridge, E N Clare Mills
The unique physiochemical properties of wheat gluten enable a diverse range of food products to be manufactured. However, gluten triggers coeliac disease, a condition which is treated using a gluten-free diet. Analytical methods are required to confirm if foods are gluten-free, but current immunoassay-based methods can unreliable and proteomic methods offer an alternative. However, proteomic methods require comprehensive and well annotated sequence databases which are lacking for gluten. A manually a curated database (GluPro V1...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377875/astrocyte-ikk%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-is-required-for-diet-induced-obesity-and-hypothalamic-inflammation
#12
J D Douglass, M D Dorfman, R Fasnacht, L D Shaffer, J P Thaler
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and high fat diet (HFD) consumption in rodents is associated with hypothalamic inflammation and reactive gliosis. While neuronal inflammation promotes HFD-induced metabolic dysfunction, the role of astrocyte activation in susceptibility to hypothalamic inflammation and diet-induced obesity (DIO) remains uncertain. METHODS: Metabolic phenotyping, immunohistochemical analyses, and biochemical analyses were performed on HFD-fed mice with a tamoxifen-inducible astrocyte-specific knockout of IKKβ (Gfap(CreER)Ikbkb(fl/fl), IKKβ-AKO), an essential cofactor of NF-κB-mediated inflammation...
April 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372478/investigation-of-impulsivity-in-binge-eating-rats-in-a-delay-discounting-task-and-its-prevention-by-the-d-amphetamine-prodrug-lisdexamfetamine
#13
Steven P Vickers, Simon Goddard, Richard J Brammer, Peter H Hutson, David J Heal
Freely-fed, female, rats were trained in a two-lever, delay-discounting task: one lever delivered a single chocolate-flavoured pellet immediately and the other a three-pellet reward after increasing delay (0, 4, 8, 16, 32 s). Rats were divided into two groups (i.e. binge-eating rats given irregular, limited access to chocolate in addition to normal chow and controls maintained on normal chow). Both groups exhibited increased preference for the immediate reward as the delay interval was lengthened. The discounting rate was significantly greater in binge-eating rats than non-binge-eating controls, especially as the behaviour became more established indicating that increased impulsivity and intolerance of delayed reward are part of the psychopathology of binge-eating...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362189/canakinumab-for-the-treatment-of-familial-mediterranean-fever
#14
Huri Ozdogan, Serdal Ugurlu
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent of all hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes. It is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. If not treated it may be complicated with AA amyloidosis. It is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene that encodes pyrin which is involved in the regulation of IL-1β. The mainstay of treatment is colchicine, however a subset of patients requires an alternative treatment either due to inadequate response or intolerance. The accumulating data indicates that anti IL-1 drugs are effective in treating colchicine resistant FMF cases and improving their quality of life...
April 10, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359800/baicalin-against-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-activation-of-akt-as160-glut4-pathway
#15
Penghua Fang, Mei Yu, Lei Zhang, Dan Wan, Mingyi Shi, Yan Zhu, Ping Bo, Zhenwen Zhang
Obesity may cause several metabolic complications, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite great advances in medicine, people still keep exploring novel and effective drugs for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to survey if baicalin might ameliorate obesity-induced insulin resistance and to explore its signal mechanisms in skeletal muscles of mice. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were given 50 mg/kg baicalin intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day for 21 days, and C2C12 myotubes were treated with 100, 200, 400 μM baicalin for 12 h in this study...
March 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352942/long-term-dietary-nitrite-and-nitrate-deficiency-causes-the-metabolic-syndrome-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-death-in-mice
#16
Mika Kina-Tanada, Mayuko Sakanashi, Akihide Tanimoto, Tadashi Kaname, Toshihiro Matsuzaki, Katsuhiko Noguchi, Taro Uchida, Junko Nakasone, Chisayo Kozuka, Masayoshi Ishida, Haruaki Kubota, Yuji Taira, Yuichi Totsuka, Shin-Ichiro Kina, Hajime Sunakawa, Junichi Omura, Kimio Satoh, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Nobuyuki Yanagihara, Shiro Maeda, Yusuke Ohya, Masayuki Matsushita, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Akira Arasaki, Masato Tsutsui
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, but whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency would induce the metabolic syndrome in mice. METHODS: To this end, we prepared a low-nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low-nitrite/nitrate chow, in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water...
March 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344921/german-guideline-for-the-management-of-adverse-reactions-to-ingested-histamine-guideline-of-the-german-society-for-allergology-and-clinical-immunology-dgaki-the-german-society-for-pediatric-allergology-and-environmental-medicine-gpa-the-german-association-of
#17
Imke Reese, Barbara Ballmer-Weber, Kirsten Beyer, Thomas Fuchs, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Ute Lepp, Bodo Niggemann, Joachim Saloga, Christiane Schäfer, Thomas Werfel, Torsten Zuberbier, Margitta Worm
Adverse food reactions are far more often perceived than objectively verified. In our scientific knowledge on non-allergic adverse reactions including the so called histamine intolerance, there are large deficits. Due to the fact that this disorder is increasingly discussed in the media and the internet, more and more people suspect it to be the trigger of their symptoms. The scientific evidence to support the postulated link between ingestion of histamine and adverse reactions is limited, and a reliable laboratory test for objective diagnosis is lacking...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341821/salicylate-food-intolerance-and-aspirin-hypersensitivity-in-nasal-polyposis
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Hossein Esmaeilzedeh, Elmira Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammad Faramarzi, Mohammad Nabavi, Mohammad Farhadi
BACKGROUND: A clear association between allergy and nasal polyposis (NP) is not determined and the role of food intolerance in patients with NP is not investigated by oral food challenge (OFC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation of salicylate food intolerance and atopy in patients with NP according to recurrence and aspirin sensitivity. METHODS: A cross sectional multicenter study was done in two tertiary centers for allergy in Iran. Adult patients with NP were selected for the study that had been referred to allergy clinics...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333098/anti-obesity-and-anti-diabetic-effect-of-neoagarooligosaccharides-on-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#19
Sun Joo Hong, Je-Hyeon Lee, Eun Joo Kim, Hea Jung Yang, Jae-Seon Park, Soon-Kwang Hong
Neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOs), mainly comprising neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose, were prepared by hydrolyzing agar with β-agarase DagA from Streptomyces coelicolor, and the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of NAOs on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice were investigated after NAOs-supplementation for 64 days. Compared to the HFD group, the HFD-0.5 group that was fed with HFD + NAOs (0.5%, w/w) showed remarkable reduction of 36% for body weight gain and 37% for food efficiency ratios without abnormal clinical signs...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325338/physicochemical-properties-and-antidiabetic-effects-of-a-polysaccharide-from-corn-silk-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#20
Yuxiang Pan, Cong Wang, Zhongqin Chen, Weiwei Li, Guoqi Yuan, Haixia Chen
This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and antidiabetic effects of a polysaccharide obtained from corn silk (PCS2). PCS2 was isolated and the physicochemical properties were characterized. The hypoglycemic effects were determined using the high-fat diet and streptozocin induced type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) insulin resistance mice. The results showed that PCS2 was a heteropolysaccharide with the average molecular weight of 45.5kDa. PCS2 was composed of d-galactose, d-mannose, d-(+)-glucose, d-(+)-xylose, l-arabinose and l-rhamnose...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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