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Mark A A Minow, Luis M Ávila, Katie Turner, Elena Ponzoni, Iride Mascheretti, Forest M Dussault, Lewis Lukens, Vincenzo Rossi, Joseph Colasanti
Temperate maize was domesticated from its tropical ancestor, teosinte. Whereas temperate maize is an autonomous day-neutral plant, teosinte is an obligate short-day plant that requires uninterrupted long nights to induce flowering. Leaf-derived florigenic signals trigger reproductive growth in both teosinte and temperate maize. To study the genetic mechanisms underlying floral inductive pathways in maize and teosinte, mRNA and small RNA genome-wide expression analyses were conducted on leaf tissue from plants that were induced or not induced to flower...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yohei Higuchi
Flowering time regulation has significant effects on the agricultural and horticultural industries. Plants respond to changing environments and produce appropriate floral inducers (florigens) or inhibitors (anti-florigens) that determine flowering time. Recent studies have demonstrated that members of two homologous proteins, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), act as florigen and anti-florigen, respectively. Studies in diverse plant species have revealed universal but diverse roles of the FT/TFL1 gene family in many developmental processes...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Xiao Luo, Zheng Gao, Yizhong Wang, Zhijuan Chen, Wenju Zhang, Jirong Huang, Hao Yu, Yuehui He
Many plants sense the seasonal cues, day length or photoperiod changes, to align the timing of the developmental transition to flowering with changing seasons for reproductive success. Inductive day lengths through the photoperiod pathway induce the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or FT relatives that encode a major mobile florigen to promote flowering. In Arabidopsis thaliana, under inductive long days the photoperiod pathway output CONSTANS (CO) accumulates toward the end of the day, and associates with the B and C subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) to form the NF-CO complex that acts to promote FT expression near dusk, whereas Polycomb group (PcG) proteins function to silence FT expression...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Motomu Endo, Masayasu Yoshida, Youhei Sasaki, Katsuya Negishi, Kobo Horikawa, Yasufumi Daimon, Ken-Ichi Kurotani, Michitaka Notaguchi, Mitsutomo Abe, Takashi Araki
In many plants, timing of flowering is regulated by day length. In Arabidopsis, florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, is synthesized in leaf phloem companion cells in response to long days and is transported to the shoot apical meristem (SAM) through the phloem. The temporal aspects of florigen transportation have been studied in various plants by physiological experiments. Nevertheless, little is known how FT protein transportation is regulated in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed heat-shock based transient FT induction in a single leaf blade and detected the FT protein in shoot apex by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE)...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Willian B Silva, Mateus H Vicente, Jessenia M Robledo, Diego S Reartes, Renata C Ferrari, Ricardo Bianchetti, Wagner L Araújo, Luciano Freschi, Lázaro E P Peres, Agustin Zsögön
The SELF PRUNING ( SP ) gene is a key regulator of growth habit in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ). It is an ortholog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 , a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein with antiflorigenic activity in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). A spontaneous loss-of-function mutation ( sp ) has been bred into several industrial tomato cultivars, as it produces a suite of pleiotropic effects that are favorable for mechanical harvesting, including determinate growth habit, short plant stature, and simultaneous fruit ripening...
April 2018: Plant Physiology
Richa Pasriga, Lae-Hyeon Cho, Jinmi Yoon, Gynheung An
Flowering time is determined by florigens. These genes include, Heading date 3a ( Hd3a ) and Rice FT 1 ( RFT1 ) in rice, which are specifically expressed in the vascular tissues of leaves at the floral transition stage. To study the cis -regulatory elements present in the promoter region of Hd3a , we generated transgenic plants carrying the 1.75-kb promoter fragment of Hd3a that was fused to the β-glucuronidase ( GUS ) reporter gene. Plants expressing this construct conferred a vascular cell-specific expression pattern for the reporter gene...
April 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Miho Kaneko-Suzuki, Rie Kurihara-Ishikawa, Chiaki Okushita-Terakawa, Chojiro Kojima, Misa Nagano-Fujiwara, Izuru Ohki, Hiroyuki Tsuji, Ko Shimamoto, Ken-Ichiro Taoka
Hd3a, a rice homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), is a florigen that induces flowering. Hd3a forms a ternary 'florigen activation complex' (FAC) with 14-3-3 protein and OsFD1 transcription factor, a rice homolog of FD that induces transcription of OsMADS15, a rice homolog of APETALA1 (AP1), which leads to flowering. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) represses flowering and controls inflorescence architecture. However, the molecular basis for floral repression by TFL1 remains poorly understood. Here we show that RICE CENTRORADIALIS (RCN), rice TFL1-like proteins, compete with Hd3a for 14-3-3 binding...
March 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Chihiro Tanaka, Takafumi Itoh, Yukimoto Iwasaki, Nobuyuki Mizuno, Shuhei Nasuda, Koji Murai
The wheat florigen gene Wheat FLOWERING LOCUS T (WFT, which is identical to VRN3) is an integrator of the vernalization, photoperiod and autonomous pathways in wheat flowering. Many studies have indicated that VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) directly or indirectly up-regulates WFT expression in leaves. VRN1 encodes an APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like MADS-box transcription factor that is up-regulated by vernalization and aging, leading to promotion of flowering. In this study, the VRN1 protein was expressed as a His-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Nerina Gnesutta, Roberto Mantovani, Fabio Fornara
CONSTANS (CO) is a master regulator of flowering time, although the mechanisms underlying its role as a transcriptional regulator are not well understood. The DNA-binding domain of CO shares homology with that of NUCLEAR FACTOR YA (NF-YA), a subunit of the CCAAT-binding trimer NF-Y. Recent publications indicate that CO and its rice homolog HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1) form heterotrimers with the histone-fold subunits of NF-Y to efficiently bind promoter elements in the florigen genes. Differences in the DNA-binding specificities of NF-Y and NF-CO can be conceptualized based on our knowledge of the 3D structure of the NF-Y/CCAAT complex...
April 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Cheng Huang, Huayue Sun, Dingyi Xu, Qiuyue Chen, Yameng Liang, Xufeng Wang, Guanghui Xu, Jinge Tian, Chenglong Wang, Dan Li, Lishuan Wu, Xiaohong Yang, Weiwei Jin, John F Doebley, Feng Tian
From its tropical origin in southwestern Mexico, maize spread over a wide latitudinal cline in the Americas. This feat defies the rule that crops are inhibited from spreading easily across latitudes. How the widespread latitudinal adaptation of maize was accomplished is largely unknown. Through positional cloning and association mapping, we resolved a flowering-time quantitative trait locus to a Harbinger-like transposable element positioned 57 kb upstream of a CCT transcription factor ( ZmCCT9 ). The Harbinger-like element acts in cis to repress ZmCCT9 expression to promote flowering under long days...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yasue Nemoto, Kiyosumi Hori, Takeshi Izawa
Many short-day plants have a critical day length that fixes the schedule for flowering time, limiting the range of natural growth habitats (or growth and cultivation areas). Thus, fine-tuning of the critical day-length setting in photoperiodic flowering determines ecological niches within latitudinal clines; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the fine-tuning of the critical day-length setting in plants. Previously, we determined that florigen genes are regulated by day length, and identified several key genes involved in setting the critical day length in rice...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yanwen Wang, Lu Liu, Shiyong Song, Yan Li, Lisha Shen, Hao Yu
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Suhyun Jin, Sun Young Kim, Ji Hoon Ahn
In flowering plants, the developmental switch to the reproductive phase is tightly regulated and involves the integration of internal and external signals. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) integrate signals from multiple pathways. FT and TSF function as florigenic substances, and share high sequence similarity with mammalian Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP). Despite their strong similarity to RKIP, the kinase inhibitory activity of FT and TSF remains to be investigated. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and found that TSF interacted with FRUCTOKINASE6 (FRK6), which phosphorylates fructose for various metabolic pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vittoria Brambilla, Damiano Martignago, Daniela Goretti, Martina Cerise, Marc Somssich, Matteo de Rosa, Francesca Galbiati, Roshi Shrestha, Federico Lazzaro, Rüdiger Simon, Fabio Fornara
Plants measure day or night lengths to coordinate specific developmental changes with a favorable season. In rice ( Oryza sativa ), the reproductive phase is initiated by exposure to short days when expression of HEADING DATE 3a ( Hd3a ) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 ( RFT1 ) is induced in leaves. The cognate proteins are components of the florigenic signal and move systemically through the phloem to reach the shoot apical meristem (SAM). In the SAM, they form a transcriptional activation complex with the bZIP transcription factor OsFD1 to start panicle development...
November 2017: Plant Cell
Mio Shibuta, Mitsutomo Abe
In the facultative long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), encoding the mobile hormone florigen, plays an essential role in modulating the optimal timing of flowering to ensure reproductive success. Under inductive long-day conditions, the transcription of FT is activated by the CONSTANS (CO)/NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) protein complex in leaf phloem companion cells. FT is transported to the shoot apical meristem through interaction with florigen transporters, such as SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1)...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Michael Dingkuhn, Richard Pasco, Julie M Pasuquin, Jean Damo, Jean-Christophe Soulié, Louis-Marie Raboin, Julie Dusserre, Abdoulaye Sow, Baboucarr Manneh, Suchit Shrestha, Alpha Balde, Tobias Kretzschmar
Phenology and time of flowering are crucial determinants of rice adaptation to climate variation. A previous study characterized flowering responses of 203 diverse indica rices (the ORYTAGE panel) to ten environments in Senegal (six sowing dates) and Madagascar (two years and two altitudes) under irrigation in the field. This study used the physiological phenology model RIDEV V2 to heuristically estimate component traits of flowering such as cardinal temperatures (base temperature (Tbase) and optimum temperature), basic vegetative phase, photoperiod sensitivity and cold acclimation, and to conduct a genome-wide association study for these traits using 16 232 anonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhanyi Zhang, Wei Hu, Guojing Shen, Haiyang Liu, Yong Hu, Xiangchun Zhou, Touming Liu, Yongzhong Xing
Previous studies suggested that Hd1 promoted heading under short-day conditions (SD) and delayed heading under long-day conditions (LD). However in this study, Hd1 was demonstrated to consistently promote heading date in Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) background by upregulating Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 expression under both SD and LD. While the high photoperiod sensitivity of Hd1 was observed in Minghui 63 (MH63) background, with heading being suppressed in LD but promoted in SD. Comparative analysis of two sets of near isogenic lines of Hd1 in MH63 and ZS97 backgrounds indicated that the alternative functions of Hd1 in promoting or suppressing heading under LD are dependent on the previously cloned flowering repressor gene Ghd7...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yu-Jun Zhu, Ye-Yang Fan, Kai Wang, De-Run Huang, Wen-Zhen Liu, Jie-Zheng Ying, Jie-Yun Zhuang
Important role of flowering genes in enhancing grain productivity in rice has become well recognized for a number of key genes regulating the florigen production, but little has been known for the two florigen genes themselves. In this study, pleiotropism of Rice Flowering Locus T 1 (RFT1), one of the two florigen genes in rice, was firstly evaluated using near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying RFT1 alleles from the indica rice cultivars Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and Milyang 46, respectively, and then determined by transformation of the RFT1 (ZS97) allele into a japonica rice variety, Zhonghua 11...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kunpeng Liu, Yu Yu, Aiwu Dong, Wen-Hui Shen
Chromatin-based epigenetic information plays an important role in developmental gene regulation, in response to environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Histone H3 lysine 4 di/trimethylation (H3K4me2/3) is abundant in euchromatin and is generally associated with transcriptional activation. Strikingly, however, enzymes catalyzing H3K4me2/3 remain poorly characterized in crops so far. Here, we investigated the function of the rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 701 (SDG701) gene by molecular and biochemical characterization of the gene product, and by studying effects of its loss or gain of function on plant growth and development...
July 2017: New Phytologist
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