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Matteo Riboni, Alice Robustelli Test, Massimo Galbiati, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Peike Sheng, Fuqing Wu, Junjie Tan, Huan Zhang, Weiwei Ma, Liping Chen, Jiachang Wang, Jie Wang, Shanshan Zhu, Xiuping Guo, Jiulin Wang, Xin Zhang, Zhijun Cheng, Yiqun Bao, Chuanyin Wu, Xuanming Liu, Jianmin Wan
Flowering time determines the adaptability of crop plants to different local environments, thus being one of the most important agronomic traits targeted in breeding programs. Photoperiod is one of the key factors that control flowering in plant. A number of genes that participate in the photoperiod pathway have been characterized in long-day plants such as Arabidopsis, as well as in short-day plants such as Oryza sativa. Of those, CONSTANS (CO) as a floral integrator promotes flowering in Arabidopsis under long day conditions...
September 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Joanna Putterill, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
The great hunt for florigen, the universal, long distance flowering regulator proposed by Chailakhan in the 1930s, resulted in the discovery a decade ago that FT-like proteins fulfilled the predictions for florigen. They are small (∼175 amino acids), globular, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) proteins, phloem-expressed, graft-transmissible and able to move to the shoot apex to act as potent stimulators of flowering in many plants. Genes that regulate Arabidopsis FT protein movement and some features of Arabidopsis FT protein that make it an effective florigen have recently been identified...
June 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Roisin C McGarry, Sarah F Prewitt, Samantha Culpepper, Yuval Eshed, Eliezer Lifschitz, Brian G Ayre
Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a day-neutral annual row-crop. Residual perennial traits, however, complicate irrigation and crop management, and more determinate architectures are desired. Cotton simultaneously maintains robust monopodial indeterminate shoots and sympodial determinate shoots. We questioned if and how the FLOWERING LOCUS T/SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT)-like and TERMINAL FLOWER1/SELF-PRUNING (SP)-like genes control the balance of monopodial and sympodial growth in a woody perennial with complex growth habit...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Ji Hoon Ahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature Plants
Yang Zhu, Lu Liu, Lisha Shen, Hao Yu
Flowering plants perceive photoperiodic signals in leaves to generate mobile stimuli required for the induction of flower formation at shoot apices. Although FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) has been identified as part of the mobile floral stimuli in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms underlying long-distance movement of FT from leaves to shoot apices remain largely unclear. Here we show that a heavy-metal-associated (HMA) domain-containing protein, SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1), is activated by CONSTANS (CO) under long-day conditions and regulates long-distance movement of FT in Arabidopsis...
2016: Nature Plants
Bo Bai, Jie Zhao, Yaping Li, Fang Zhang, Jinjun Zhou, Fan Chen, Xianzhi Xie
B-box (BBX) proteins are zinc finger proteins containing B-box domains, which have roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. However, little is known concerning rice BBXs. Herein, we identified a rice BBX protein, Oryza sativa BBX14 (OsBBX14). OsBBX14 is highly expressed in flag leaf blades. OsBBX14 expression shows a diurnal rhythm under photoperiodic conditions and subsequent continuous white light. OsBBX14 is located in the nucleus and has transcriptional activation potential. OsBBX14-overexpression (OsBBX14-OX) lines exhibited delayed heading date under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, whereas RNAi lines of OsBBX14 lines had similar heading dates to the WT...
June 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Xuehui Sun, Zhiguo Zhang, Jinxia Wu, Xuean Cui, Dan Feng, Kai Wang, Ming Xu, Li Zhou, Xiao Han, Xiaofeng Gu, Tiegang Lu
Rice is a facultative short-day plant (SDP), and the regulatory pathways for flowering time are conserved, but functionally modified, in Arabidopsis and rice. Heading date 1 (Hd1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO), is a key regulator that suppresses flowering under long-day conditions (LDs), but promotes flowering under short-day conditions (SDs) by influencing the expression of the florigen gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a). Another key regulator, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), is an evolutionarily unique gene with no orthologs in Arabidopsis, which acts as a flowering activator under both SD and LD by promoting the rice florigen genes Hd3a and RICE FLOWERING LOCUST 1 (RFT1)...
March 2016: PLoS Genetics
Norioko Yamagishi, Chunjiang Li, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa
Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5-12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lae-Hyeon Cho, Jinmi Yoon, Richa Pasriga, Gynheung An
In plants, flowering time is elaborately controlled by various environment factors. Ultimately, florigens such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or FT-like molecules induce flowering. In rice (Oryza sativa), Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) is a major inducer of florigen gene expression. Although Ehd1 is highly homologous to the type-B response regulator (RR) family in the cytokinin signaling pathway, its precise molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we showed that the C-terminal portion of the protein containing the GARP DNA-binding (G) domain can promote flowering when overexpressed...
April 2016: Plant Physiology
Akiko Satake, Motohide Seki, Makoto Iima, Takashi Teramoto, Yasumasa Nishiura
The ability to continue flowering after loss of inductive environmental cues that trigger flowering is termed floral commitment. Reversible transition involving a switch from floral development back to vegetative development has been found in Arabidopsis mutants and many plant species. Although the molecular basis for floral commitment remains unclear, recent studies suggest that the persistent activity of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) at inflorescences is required for floral commitment in Arabidopsis thaliana. Because FT encodes a mobile signal, florigen, which is generally transported from leaves to meristems through the phloem, understanding the transportation dynamics of FT is required to explore the role of FT on floral commitment...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Tezera W Wolabu, Fei Zhang, Lifang Niu, Shweta Kalve, Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur, Michael G Muszynski, Million Tadege
Sorghum is a typical short-day (SD) plant and its use in grain or biomass production in temperate regions depends on its flowering time control, but the underlying molecular mechanism of floral transition in sorghum is poorly understood. Here we characterized sorghum FLOWERING LOCUS T (SbFT) genes to establish a molecular road map for mechanistic understanding. Out of 19 PEBP genes, SbFT1, SbFT8 and SbFT10 were identified as potential candidates for encoding florigens using multiple approaches. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SbFT1 clusters with the rice Hd3a subclade, while SbFT8 and SbFT10 cluster with the maize ZCN8 subclade...
May 2016: New Phytologist
Nozomi Kawamoto, Motomu Endo, Takashi Araki
Regulation of flowering time is crucial for reproductive success of plants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is a central component of florigen and forms a ternary complex with 14-3-3 and FD, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the shoot apex and promotes flowering. This complex formation requires phosphorylation of threonine residue at position 282 of FD. A calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK33 is responsible for the phosphorylation. However, possibly due to functional redundancy among calcium-dependent protein kinases, impact of the loss of CPK33 reported in the previous study was rather limited...
2015: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Qingzhe Zhai, Xin Zhang, Fangming Wu, Hailong Feng, Lei Deng, Li Xu, Min Zhang, Qiaomei Wang, Chuanyou Li
Flowering time of plants must be tightly regulated to maximize reproductive success. Plants have evolved sophisticated signaling network to coordinate the timing of flowering in response to their ever-changing environmental conditions. Besides being a key immune signal, the lipid-derived plant hormone jasmonate (JA) also regulates a wide range of developmental processes including flowering time. Here, we report that the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)-dependent signaling pathway delays the flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting the expression of the florigen gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)...
October 2015: Plant Cell
Ianis G Matsoukas
Florigens, the leaf-derived signals that initiate flowering, have been described as 'mysterious', 'elusive' and the 'Holy Grail' of plant biology. They are synthesized in response to appropriate photoperiods and move through the phloem tissue. It has been proposed that their composition is complex. The evidence that flowering locus T (FT) protein and its paralogue twin sister of FT (TSF) act as florigen, or represent at least part of it, in diverse plant species has attracted considerable attention. In Arabidopsis thaliana, inductive photoperiodic conditions perceived in the leaf lead to stabilization of CONSTANS protein, which induces FT and TSF transcription...
2015: Essays in Biochemistry
Guangyu Guo, Kun Xu, Xiaomei Zhang, Jinlong Zhu, Mingyang Lu, Fulu Chen, Linpo Liu, Zhang-Ying Xi, Andreas Bachmair, Qingshan Chen, Yong-Fu Fu
The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is a highly conserved florigen gene among flowering plants. Soybean genome encodes six homologs of FT, which display flowering activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their contributions to flowering time in different soybean cultivars, especially in field conditions, are unclear. We employed six soybean cultivars with different maturities to extensively investigate expression patterns of GmFTLs (Glycine max FT-like) and GmCOLs (Glycine max CO-like) in the field conditions...
2015: PloS One
Chengxia Li, Huiqiong Lin, Jorge Dubcovsky
The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is a central component of a mobile flowering signal (florigen) that is transported from leaves to the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Two FT monomers and two DNA-binding bZIP transcription factors interact with a dimeric 14-3-3 protein bridge to form a hexameric protein complex. This complex, designated as the 'florigen activation complex' (FAC), plays a critical role in flowering. The wheat homologue of FT, designated FT1 (= VRN3), activates expression of VRN1 in the leaves and the SAM, promoting flowering under inductive long days...
October 2015: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mitsutomo Abe, Hidetaka Kaya, Ayako Watanabe-Taneda, Mio Shibuta, Ayako Yamaguchi, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Israel Ausín, Takashi Araki, Carlos Alonso-Blanco
In many flowering plants, the transition to flowering is primarily affected by seasonal changes in day length (photoperiod). An inductive photoperiod promotes flowering via synthesis of a floral stimulus, called florigen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is an essential component of florigen, which is synthesized in leaf phloem companion cells and is transported through phloem tissue to the shoot apical meristem where floral morphogenesis is initiated. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the long-distance transport of FT protein remains elusive...
September 2015: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yang-Seok Lee, Dong-Yeon Lee, Lae-Hyeon Cho, Gynheung An
BACKGROUND: Rice is a facultative short-day plant that flowers under long days (LD) after a lengthy vegetative phase. Although several inhibitors that delay flowering have been identified, the process by which rice eventually flowers under non-permissive LD conditions is not well understood. RESULTS: Overexpression of miR172 reduced flowering time significantly, suggesting its role as an inducer. Levels of miR172 increased as plants aged, further supporting our findings...
December 2014: Rice
Greg S Golembeski, Takato Imaizumi
One mechanism through which flowering in response to seasonal change is brought about is by sensing the fluctuation in day-length; the photoperiod. Flowering induction occurs through the production of the florigenic protein FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its movement from the phloem companion cells in the leaf vasculature into the shoot apex, where meristematic reprogramming occurs. FT activation in response to photoperiod condition is accomplished largely through the activity of the transcription factor CONSTANS (CO)...
2015: Arabidopsis Book
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