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Shiyong Song, Ying Chen, Lu Liu, Yanwen Wang, Shengjie Bao, Xuan Zhou, Zhi Wei Norman Teo, Chuanzao Mao, Yinbo Gan, Hao Yu
Flowering time is a critical agronomic trait that determines successful seed production and adaptation of crop plants. Photoperiodic control of this process in flowering plants is mediated by the long-distance mobile signal called florigen partly encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis and its orthologs in other plant species. Despite the progress in understanding FT transport in the dicot model Arabidopsis, the mechanisms of florigen transport in monocots, which provide most of the biomass in agriculture, are unknown...
March 2, 2017: Plant Cell
Jing Sun, Heng Wang, Liping Ren, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen, Jiafu Jiang
The chrysanthemum genome harbors three FT-like genes: CmFTL1 and CmFTL3 are thought to act as regulators of floral induction under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, respectively, whereas the function of CmFTL2 is currently unclear. The objective of the present research was to explore the function of CmFTL2 in the determination of flowering time of the photo-insensitive chrysanthemum cultivar 'Floral Yuuka', both in response to variation in the photoperiod and to the exogenous provision of sucrose...
2017: Horticulture Research
Xuelian Guo, Chao Yu, Le Luo, Huihua Wan, Ni Zhen, Tingliang Xu, Jiongrui Tan, Huitang Pan, Qixiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: The floral transition plays a vital role in the life of ornamental plants. Despite progress in model plants, the molecular mechanisms of flowering regulation remain unknown in perennial plants. Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' is a unique plant that can flower continuously year-round. In this study, gene expression profiles associated with the flowering transition were comprehensively analyzed during floral transition in the rose. RESULTS: According to the transcriptomic profiles, 85,663 unigenes and 1,637 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 32 unigenes were involved in the circadian clock, sugar metabolism, hormone, and autonomous pathways...
February 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
Zhengrui Qin, Jiajie Wu, Shuaifeng Geng, Nan Feng, Fengjuan Chen, Xingchen Kong, Gaoyuan Song, Kai Chen, Aili Li, Long Mao, Liang Wu
Appropriate flowering timing is crucial for plant reproductive success. The florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and the bZIP transcription factor FD, functioning at core nodes in multiple flowering pathways. There are two FT homologues, FT1 and FT2, in Brachypodium distachyon. Here we show that FT2 undergoes age-dependent alternative splicing (AS), resulting in two splice variants (FT2α and FT2β). The FT2β-encoded protein cannot interact with FD or 14-3-3s but is able to form heterodimers with FT2α and FT1, thereby interfering with the florigen-mediated assembly of the flowering initiation complex...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
Shanshan Zhu, Jiachang Wang, Maohong Cai, Huan Zhang, Fuqing Wu, Yang Xu, Chaonan Li, Zhijun Cheng, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Peike Sheng, Mingming Wu, Jiulin Wang, Cailin Lei, Jie Wang, Zhichao Zhao, Chuanyin Wu, Haiyang Wang, Jianmin Wan
Heading date is an important agronomic trait related to crop yield. Many genes related to heading date have already been identified in rice (Oryza sativa), and a complicated, preliminary regulatory genetic network has also already been established, but the protein regulatory network is poorly understood. We have identified a novel heading date regulator, Heme Activator Protein like 1 (OsHAPL1), which inhibits flowering under long-day conditions. OsHAPL1 is a nuclear-localized protein that is highly expressed in leaves in a rhythmic manner...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Chin-Jit Teo, Kenta Takahashi, Kanae Shimizu, Ko Shimamoto, Ken-Ichiro Taoka
Photoperiod-regulated flowering and potato tuber formation involve leaf-produced mobile signals, florigen and tuberigen, respectively. The major protein component of florigen has been identified as the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein. In rice, an FT-like protein, Heading date 3a (Hd3a), induces flowering by making the florigen activation complex (FAC) through interactions with 14-3-3 and OsFD1, a rice FD-like protein. In potato, StSP6A, an FT-like protein, was identified as a major component of tuberigen. However, the molecular mechanism of how StSP6A triggers tuber formation remains elusive...
December 27, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sebastian Soyk, Niels A Müller, Soon Ju Park, Inga Schmalenbach, Ke Jiang, Ryosuke Hayama, Lei Zhang, Joyce Van Eck, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Zachary B Lippman
Plants evolved so that their flowering is triggered by seasonal changes in day length. However, day-length sensitivity in crops limits their geographical range of cultivation, and thus modification of the photoperiod response was critical for their domestication. Here we show that loss of day-length-sensitive flowering in tomato was driven by the florigen paralog and flowering repressor SELF-PRUNING 5G (SP5G). SP5G expression is induced to high levels during long days in wild species, but not in cultivated tomato because of cis-regulatory variation...
January 2017: Nature Genetics
Yachao Mao, Jing Sun, Peipei Cao, Rong Zhang, Qike Fu, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen, Jiafu Jiang
As the junction of floral development pathways, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein called 'florigen' plays an important role in the process of plant flowering through signal integration. We isolated four transcripts encoding different isoforms of a FT orthologous gene CmFTL1, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivar 'Jimba'. Sequence alignments suggested that the four transcripts are related to the intron 1. Expression analysis showed that four alternative splicing (AS) forms of CmFTL1 varied depending on the developmental stage of the flower...
2016: Horticulture Research
Tezera W Wolabu, Million Tadege
Sorghum is a short day plant with strong photoperiod response and its cultivation for grain in temperate regions necessitated the development of photoperiod insensitive mutants that can flower rapidly in the long days of summer. Wild type genotypes grow vegetatively in summer accumulating significant biomass before floral transition ensues during the shorter days of fall. Thus, photoperiod insensitive mutants are grown for grain production while photoperiod sensitive wild type genotypes are grown for forage and biomass feedstock production in the United States...
December 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Matteo Riboni, Alice Robustelli Test, Massimo Galbiati, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Peike Sheng, Fuqing Wu, Junjie Tan, Huan Zhang, Weiwei Ma, Liping Chen, Jiachang Wang, Jie Wang, Shanshan Zhu, Xiuping Guo, Jiulin Wang, Xin Zhang, Zhijun Cheng, Yiqun Bao, Chuanyin Wu, Xuanming Liu, Jianmin Wan
Flowering time determines the adaptability of crop plants to different local environments, thus being one of the most important agronomic traits targeted in breeding programs. Photoperiod is one of the key factors that control flowering in plant. A number of genes that participate in the photoperiod pathway have been characterized in long-day plants such as Arabidopsis, as well as in short-day plants such as Oryza sativa. Of those, CONSTANS (CO) as a floral integrator promotes flowering in Arabidopsis under long day conditions...
September 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Joanna Putterill, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
The great hunt for florigen, the universal, long distance flowering regulator proposed by Chailakhan in the 1930s, resulted in the discovery a decade ago that FT-like proteins fulfilled the predictions for florigen. They are small (∼175 amino acids), globular, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) proteins, phloem-expressed, graft-transmissible and able to move to the shoot apex to act as potent stimulators of flowering in many plants. Genes that regulate Arabidopsis FT protein movement and some features of Arabidopsis FT protein that make it an effective florigen have recently been identified...
June 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Roisin C McGarry, Sarah F Prewitt, Samantha Culpepper, Yuval Eshed, Eliezer Lifschitz, Brian G Ayre
Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a day-neutral annual row-crop. Residual perennial traits, however, complicate irrigation and crop management, and more determinate architectures are desired. Cotton simultaneously maintains robust monopodial indeterminate shoots and sympodial determinate shoots. We questioned if and how the FLOWERING LOCUS T/SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT)-like and TERMINAL FLOWER1/SELF-PRUNING (SP)-like genes control the balance of monopodial and sympodial growth in a woody perennial with complex growth habit...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Ji Hoon Ahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature Plants
Yang Zhu, Lu Liu, Lisha Shen, Hao Yu
Flowering plants perceive photoperiodic signals in leaves to generate mobile stimuli required for the induction of flower formation at shoot apices. Although FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) has been identified as part of the mobile floral stimuli in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms underlying long-distance movement of FT from leaves to shoot apices remain largely unclear. Here we show that a heavy-metal-associated (HMA) domain-containing protein, SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1), is activated by CONSTANS (CO) under long-day conditions and regulates long-distance movement of FT in Arabidopsis...
2016: Nature Plants
Bo Bai, Jie Zhao, Yaping Li, Fang Zhang, Jinjun Zhou, Fan Chen, Xianzhi Xie
B-box (BBX) proteins are zinc finger proteins containing B-box domains, which have roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. However, little is known concerning rice BBXs. Herein, we identified a rice BBX protein, Oryza sativa BBX14 (OsBBX14). OsBBX14 is highly expressed in flag leaf blades. OsBBX14 expression shows a diurnal rhythm under photoperiodic conditions and subsequent continuous white light. OsBBX14 is located in the nucleus and has transcriptional activation potential. OsBBX14-overexpression (OsBBX14-OX) lines exhibited delayed heading date under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, whereas RNAi lines of OsBBX14 lines had similar heading dates to the WT...
June 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Xuehui Sun, Zhiguo Zhang, Jinxia Wu, Xuean Cui, Dan Feng, Kai Wang, Ming Xu, Li Zhou, Xiao Han, Xiaofeng Gu, Tiegang Lu
Rice is a facultative short-day plant (SDP), and the regulatory pathways for flowering time are conserved, but functionally modified, in Arabidopsis and rice. Heading date 1 (Hd1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO), is a key regulator that suppresses flowering under long-day conditions (LDs), but promotes flowering under short-day conditions (SDs) by influencing the expression of the florigen gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a). Another key regulator, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), is an evolutionarily unique gene with no orthologs in Arabidopsis, which acts as a flowering activator under both SD and LD by promoting the rice florigen genes Hd3a and RICE FLOWERING LOCUST 1 (RFT1)...
March 2016: PLoS Genetics
Norioko Yamagishi, Chunjiang Li, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa
Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5-12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lae-Hyeon Cho, Jinmi Yoon, Richa Pasriga, Gynheung An
In plants, flowering time is elaborately controlled by various environment factors. Ultimately, florigens such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or FT-like molecules induce flowering. In rice (Oryza sativa), Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) is a major inducer of florigen gene expression. Although Ehd1 is highly homologous to the type-B response regulator (RR) family in the cytokinin signaling pathway, its precise molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we showed that the C-terminal portion of the protein containing the GARP DNA-binding (G) domain can promote flowering when overexpressed...
2016: Plant Physiology
Akiko Satake, Motohide Seki, Makoto Iima, Takashi Teramoto, Yasumasa Nishiura
The ability to continue flowering after loss of inductive environmental cues that trigger flowering is termed floral commitment. Reversible transition involving a switch from floral development back to vegetative development has been found in Arabidopsis mutants and many plant species. Although the molecular basis for floral commitment remains unclear, recent studies suggest that the persistent activity of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) at inflorescences is required for floral commitment in Arabidopsis thaliana. Because FT encodes a mobile signal, florigen, which is generally transported from leaves to meristems through the phloem, understanding the transportation dynamics of FT is required to explore the role of FT on floral commitment...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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