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Zhanyi Zhang, Wei Hu, Guojing Shen, Haiyang Liu, Yong Hu, Xiangchun Zhou, Touming Liu, Yongzhong Xing
Previous studies suggested that Hd1 promoted heading under short-day conditions (SD) and delayed heading under long-day conditions (LD). However in this study, Hd1 was demonstrated to consistently promote heading date in Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) background by upregulating Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 expression under both SD and LD. While the high photoperiod sensitivity of Hd1 was observed in Minghui 63 (MH63) background, with heading being suppressed in LD but promoted in SD. Comparative analysis of two sets of near isogenic lines of Hd1 in MH63 and ZS97 backgrounds indicated that the alternative functions of Hd1 in promoting or suppressing heading under LD are dependent on the previously cloned flowering repressor gene Ghd7...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yu-Jun Zhu, Ye-Yang Fan, Kai Wang, De-Run Huang, Wen-Zhen Liu, Jie-Zheng Ying, Jie-Yun Zhuang
Important role of flowering genes in enhancing grain productivity in rice has become well recognized for a number of key genes regulating the florigen production, but little has been known for the two florigen genes themselves. In this study, pleiotropism of Rice Flowering Locus T 1 (RFT1), one of the two florigen genes in rice, was firstly evaluated using near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying RFT1 alleles from the indica rice cultivars Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and Milyang 46, respectively, and then determined by transformation of the RFT1 (ZS97) allele into a japonica rice variety, Zhonghua 11...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kunpeng Liu, Yu Yu, Aiwu Dong, Wen-Hui Shen
Chromatin-based epigenetic information plays an important role in developmental gene regulation, in response to environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Histone H3 lysine 4 di/trimethylation (H3K4me2/3) is abundant in euchromatin and is generally associated with transcriptional activation. Strikingly, however, enzymes catalyzing H3K4me2/3 remain poorly characterized in crops so far. Here, we investigated the function of the rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 701 (SDG701) gene by molecular and biochemical characterization of the gene product, and by studying effects of its loss or gain of function on plant growth and development...
May 18, 2017: New Phytologist
Hongna Zhang, Jiyuan Shen, Yongzan Wei, Houbin Chen
BACKGROUND: Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is an economically important evergreen fruit tree widely cultivated in subtropical areas. Low temperature is absolutely required for floral induction of litchi, but its molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Leaves of litchi played a key role during floral induction and could be the site of low temperature perception. Therefore, leaves were treated under different temperature (15 °C/25 °C), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) performed with leaf samples for the de novo assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses to investigate low temperature-induced gene expression changes...
May 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
Atsushi Oda, Yohei Higuchi, Tamotsu Hisamatsu
A wide variety of physiological processes including flowering are controlled by the circadian clock in plants. In Arabidopsis, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) constitute the central oscillator, and their gain of function and loss of function disrupt the circadian clock and affect flowering time through FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a gene encoding a florigen. Chrysanthemum is a typical short-day (SD) plant and responds to shortening of day length by the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase...
June 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Cheng Qin, Weiwei Chen, Jiajia Shen, Linming Cheng, Femi Akande, Ke Zhang, Chen Yuan, Chunyang Li, Pengcheng Zhang, Nongnong Shi, Qi Cheng, Yule Liu, Stephen Jackson, Yiguo Hong
Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T (FT) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
Lior Tal, Gilgi Friedlander, Netta Segal Gilboa, Tamar Unger, Shlomit Gilad, Yuval Eshed
Enlargement and doming of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a hallmark of the transition from vegetative growth to flowering. While this change is widespread, its role in the flowering process is unknown. The late termination (ltm) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant shows severely delayed flowering and precocious doming of the vegetative SAM LTM encodes a kelch domain-containing protein, with no link to known meristem maintenance or flowering time pathways. LTM interacts with the TOPLESS corepressor and with several transcription factors that can provide specificity for its functions...
April 2017: Plant Cell
Ryo Okada, Yasue Nemoto, Naokuni Endo-Higashi, Takeshi Izawa
For genetically homogeneous crops, the timing of flowering is determined largely by the cultivation environment and is strongly associated with the yield and quality of the harvest(1). Flowering time and other agronomical traits are often tightly correlated, which can lead to difficulty excluding the effects of flowering time when evaluating the characteristics of different genetic varieties(2). Here, we describe the development of transgenic rice plants whose flowering time can be controlled by specific agrochemicals...
March 27, 2017: Nature Plants
Chaonan Li, Shanshan Zhu, Huan Zhang, Liping Chen, Maohong Cai, Jiachang Wang, Juntao Chai, Fuqing Wu, Zhijun Cheng, Xiuping Guo, Xin Zhang, Jianmin Wan
LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors which are involved in many biological process of plant development, including lateral organ development, photomorphogenesis, pathogen response, pollen development and plant regeneration. Here, we report new functions of LBD proteins that participate in the regulation of heading date and yield in rice. OsLBD37 and OsLBD38 are two class II type LBD proteins, function as transcriptional activators. Overexpression of OsLBD37 and OsLBD38 separately causes delayed heading date and increased yield...
May 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shiyong Song, Ying Chen, Lu Liu, Yanwen Wang, Shengjie Bao, Xuan Zhou, Zhi Wei Norman Teo, Chuanzao Mao, Yinbo Gan, Hao Yu
Flowering time is a critical agronomic trait that determines successful seed production and adaptation of crop plants. Photoperiodic control of this process in flowering plants is mediated by the long-distance mobile signal called florigen partly encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis thaliana and its orthologs in other plant species. Despite the progress in understanding FT transport in the dicot model Arabidopsis, the mechanisms of florigen transport in monocots, which provide most of the biomass in agriculture, are unknown...
March 2017: Plant Cell
Jing Sun, Heng Wang, Liping Ren, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen, Jiafu Jiang
The chrysanthemum genome harbors three FT-like genes: CmFTL1 and CmFTL3 are thought to act as regulators of floral induction under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, respectively, whereas the function of CmFTL2 is currently unclear. The objective of the present research was to explore the function of CmFTL2 in the determination of flowering time of the photo-insensitive chrysanthemum cultivar 'Floral Yuuka', both in response to variation in the photoperiod and to the exogenous provision of sucrose...
2017: Horticulture Research
Xuelian Guo, Chao Yu, Le Luo, Huihua Wan, Ni Zhen, Tingliang Xu, Jiongrui Tan, Huitang Pan, Qixiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: The floral transition plays a vital role in the life of ornamental plants. Despite progress in model plants, the molecular mechanisms of flowering regulation remain unknown in perennial plants. Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' is a unique plant that can flower continuously year-round. In this study, gene expression profiles associated with the flowering transition were comprehensively analyzed during floral transition in the rose. RESULTS: According to the transcriptomic profiles, 85,663 unigenes and 1,637 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 32 unigenes were involved in the circadian clock, sugar metabolism, hormone, and autonomous pathways...
February 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
Zhengrui Qin, Jiajie Wu, Shuaifeng Geng, Nan Feng, Fengjuan Chen, Xingchen Kong, Gaoyuan Song, Kai Chen, Aili Li, Long Mao, Liang Wu
Appropriate flowering timing is crucial for plant reproductive success. The florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and the bZIP transcription factor FD, functioning at core nodes in multiple flowering pathways. There are two FT homologues, FT1 and FT2, in Brachypodium distachyon. Here we show that FT2 undergoes age-dependent alternative splicing (AS), resulting in two splice variants (FT2α and FT2β). The FT2β-encoded protein cannot interact with FD or 14-3-3s but is able to form heterodimers with FT2α and FT1, thereby interfering with the florigen-mediated assembly of the flowering initiation complex...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
Shanshan Zhu, Jiachang Wang, Maohong Cai, Huan Zhang, Fuqing Wu, Yang Xu, Chaonan Li, Zhijun Cheng, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Peike Sheng, Mingming Wu, Jiulin Wang, Cailin Lei, Jie Wang, Zhichao Zhao, Chuanyin Wu, Haiyang Wang, Jianmin Wan
Heading date is an important agronomic trait related to crop yield. Many genes related to heading date have already been identified in rice (Oryza sativa), and a complicated, preliminary regulatory genetic network has also already been established, but the protein regulatory network is poorly understood. We have identified a novel heading date regulator, Heme Activator Protein like 1 (OsHAPL1), which inhibits flowering under long-day conditions. OsHAPL1 is a nuclear-localized protein that is highly expressed in leaves in a rhythmic manner...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Chin-Jit Teo, Kenta Takahashi, Kanae Shimizu, Ko Shimamoto, Ken-Ichiro Taoka
Photoperiod-regulated flowering and potato tuber formation involve leaf-produced mobile signals, florigen and tuberigen, respectively. The major protein component of florigen has been identified as the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein. In rice, an FT-like protein, Heading date 3a (Hd3a), induces flowering by making the florigen activation complex (FAC) through interactions with 14-3-3 and OsFD1, a rice FD-like protein. In potato, StSP6A, an FT-like protein, was identified as a major component of tuberigen. However, the molecular mechanism of how StSP6A triggers tuber formation remains elusive...
February 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sebastian Soyk, Niels A Müller, Soon Ju Park, Inga Schmalenbach, Ke Jiang, Ryosuke Hayama, Lei Zhang, Joyce Van Eck, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Zachary B Lippman
Plants evolved so that their flowering is triggered by seasonal changes in day length. However, day-length sensitivity in crops limits their geographical range of cultivation, and thus modification of the photoperiod response was critical for their domestication. Here we show that loss of day-length-sensitive flowering in tomato was driven by the florigen paralog and flowering repressor SELF-PRUNING 5G (SP5G). SP5G expression is induced to high levels during long days in wild species, but not in cultivated tomato because of cis-regulatory variation...
January 2017: Nature Genetics
Yachao Mao, Jing Sun, Peipei Cao, Rong Zhang, Qike Fu, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen, Jiafu Jiang
As the junction of floral development pathways, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein called 'florigen' plays an important role in the process of plant flowering through signal integration. We isolated four transcripts encoding different isoforms of a FT orthologous gene CmFTL1, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivar 'Jimba'. Sequence alignments suggested that the four transcripts are related to the intron 1. Expression analysis showed that four alternative splicing (AS) forms of CmFTL1 varied depending on the developmental stage of the flower...
2016: Horticulture Research
Tezera W Wolabu, Million Tadege
Sorghum is a short day plant with strong photoperiod response and its cultivation for grain in temperate regions necessitated the development of photoperiod insensitive mutants that can flower rapidly in the long days of summer. Wild type genotypes grow vegetatively in summer accumulating significant biomass before floral transition ensues during the shorter days of fall. Thus, photoperiod insensitive mutants are grown for grain production while photoperiod sensitive wild type genotypes are grown for forage and biomass feedstock production in the United States...
December 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Matteo Riboni, Alice Robustelli Test, Massimo Galbiati, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Peike Sheng, Fuqing Wu, Junjie Tan, Huan Zhang, Weiwei Ma, Liping Chen, Jiachang Wang, Jie Wang, Shanshan Zhu, Xiuping Guo, Jiulin Wang, Xin Zhang, Zhijun Cheng, Yiqun Bao, Chuanyin Wu, Xuanming Liu, Jianmin Wan
Flowering time determines the adaptability of crop plants to different local environments, thus being one of the most important agronomic traits targeted in breeding programs. Photoperiod is one of the key factors that control flowering in plant. A number of genes that participate in the photoperiod pathway have been characterized in long-day plants such as Arabidopsis, as well as in short-day plants such as Oryza sativa. Of those, CONSTANS (CO) as a floral integrator promotes flowering in Arabidopsis under long day conditions...
September 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
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