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Weiqiang Li, Rie Nishiyama, Yasuko Watanabe, Chien Van Ha, Mikiko Kojima, Ping An, Lei Tian, Chunjie Tian, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Ethylene is involved in regulation of various aspects of plant growth and development. Physiological and genetic analyses have indicated the existence of crosstalk between ethylene and other phytohormones, including auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), brassinosteroid (BR) and strigolactone (SL) in regulation of different developmental processes. However, the effects of ethylene on the biosynthesis and contents of these hormones are not fully understood...
May 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Motlalepula Pholo, Beatrix Coetzee, Hans J Maree, Philip R Young, James R Lloyd, Jens Kossmann, Paul N Hills
Transcriptomic analysis indicates that the bacterial signalling molecule lumichrome enhances plant growth through a combination of enhanced cell division and cell enlargement, and possibly enhances photosynthesis. Lumichrome (7,8 dimethylalloxazine), a novel multitrophic signal molecule produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria, has previously been shown to elicit growth promotion in different plant species (Phillips et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:12275-12280, , 1999)...
May 17, 2018: Planta
Kira C M Neller, Alexander Klenov, Juan C Guzman, Katalin A Hudak
The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana , displays broad-spectrum resistance to plant viruses and is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator. However, little is known about the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in this non-model plant. To investigate the control of miRNAs in gene expression, we sequenced the small RNA transcriptome of pokeweed treated with jasmonic acid (JA), a hormone that mediates pathogen defense and stress tolerance. We predicted 145 miRNAs responsive to JA, most of which were unique to pokeweed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qi-Zhang Li, Yu-Zhou Chang, Kai-Qi Su, Xiao-Lei Wang, Xiao-Hui Bai, Xuan-Wei Zhou
Ganoderma mushrooms for medicinal use contain various bioactive compounds, but the genetic elements available for these medicinal mushrooms are still limited. In this study we cloned and analyzed the promoters of fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP) genes from G. lucidum and G. atrum. FIP gene expression was induced by different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA), and messenger RNA expression was detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results provided 5' upstream sequences of FIP genes from G...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Monika Heyer, Sandra S Scholz, Dagmar Voigt, Michael Reichelt, Didier Aldon, Ralf Oelmüller, Wilhelm Boland, Axel Mithöfer
Calcium is an important second messenger in plants that is released into the cytosol early after recognition of various environmental stimuli. Decoding of such calcium signals by calcium sensors is the key for the plant to react appropriately to each stimulus. Several members of Calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) act as calcium sensors and some are known to mediate both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Here, we study the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CML9 in different stress responses. CML9 was reported earlier as defense regulator against Pseudomonas syringae...
2018: PloS One
Kun-Yu Tu, Shin-Fu Tsai, Tzu-Wei Guo, Hou-Ho Lin, Zhi-Wei Yang, Chung-Ta Liao, Wen-Po Chuang
Atmospheric temperature increases along with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. This is a major concern for agroecosystems. Although the impact of an elevated temperature or increased CO2 has been widely reported, there are few studies investigating the combined effect of these two environmental factors on plant-insect interactions. In this study, plant responses (phenological traits, defensive enzyme activity, secondary compounds, defense-related gene expression and phytohormone) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) -susceptible and resistant rice under various conditions (environment, soil type, variety, C...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Ondřej Novák, Kristýna Floková
The methodology described here represents an improved strategy for analysis of a broad range of stress-related plant hormones including jasmonates, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and auxin metabolites. The method conditions are optimized in order to reduce the background effect of complicated plant matrix, allow effective preconcentration and thus perform highly sensitive profiling of multiple plant hormones by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS).
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yu Ai, Ziqiang Zhu
As a plant-specific flavonoid type metabolite, anthocyanin is an important plant-sourced nutrition. Although anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway has been revealed, how to modulate anthocyanin production by endogenous molecules is still elusive. Here, we investigated the role of melatonin in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana and found that melatonin suppresses anthocyanin synthesis. Moreover, melatonin was able to significantly inhibit jasmonate-stimulated anthocyanin production...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ibrahim Abouelsaad, Sylvie Renault
Jasmonic acid (JA) has been mostly studied in responses to biotic stresses, such as herbivore attack and pathogenic infection. More recently, the involvement of JA in abiotic stresses including salinity was highlighted; yet, its role in salt stress remained unclear. In the current study, we compared the physiological and biochemical responses of wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv Castlemart and its JA-deficient mutant defenseless-1 (def-1) under salt stress to investigate the role of JA. Plant growth, photosynthetic pigment content, ion accumulation, oxidative stress-related parameters, proline accumulation and total phenolic compounds, in addition to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities, were measured in both genotypes after 14 days of 100 mM NaCl treatment...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Sergi Munné-Bosch, Bárbara Simancas, Maren Müller
Ethylene signaling plays a major role in the regulation of plant growth, but its cross-talk with other phytohormones is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether or not a defect in ethylene signaling, particularly in the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor, alters plant growth and influences the contents of other phytohormones. With this aim, a hormonal profiling approach using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to unravel organ-specific responses (in roots, leaves and fruits) in the ein3-1 mutant and wild-type A...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Sharleen L Balogh, Dezene P W Huber, B Staffan Lindgren
The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in western Canada provides an opportunity to study the selection and heritability of tree defenses. We examined terpenoid-based defenses of seedling lodgepole pines which were offspring of mature trees subjected to high levels of mountain pine beetle selective pressure. Seedlings were grown from one of three types of cones: old cones on live trees; young cones on live trees; and cones on trees killed by beetles. Offspring thus represented crosses of non-surviving (NS) x surviving (S), S x S, and NS x NS parents, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Wenzhi Cao, Yao Wang, Min Shi, Xiaolong Hao, Weiwei Zhao, Yu Wang, Jie Ren, Guoyin Kai
Tanshinones, one group of bioactive diterpenes, were widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. WRKYs play important roles in plant metabolism, but their regulation mechanism in Salvia miltiorrhiza remains elusive. In this study, one WRKY transcription factor SmWRKY1 was isolated and functionally characterized from S. miltiorrhiza . Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed SmWRKY1 shared high homology with other plant WRKYs such as CrWRKY1. SmWRKY1 was found predominantly expressed in leaves and stems, and was responsive to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and nitric oxide (NO) treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Narges Moradtalab, Markus Weinmann, Frank Walker, Birgit Höglinger, Uwe Ludewig, Guenter Neumann
Low soil temperature in spring is a major constraint for the cultivation of tropical and subtropical crops in temperate climates, associated with inhibition of root growth and activity, affecting early growth and frequently plant performance and final yield. This study was initiated to investigate the physiological base of cold-protective effects induced by supplementation with silicon (Si), widely recommended as a stress-protective mineral nutrient. Maize was used as a cold-sensitive model plant, exposed to chilling stress and low root-zone temperature (RZT) during early growth in a lab to field approach...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Liming Wu, Ziyang Huang, Xi Li, Liumin Ma, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Jia Liu, Rainer Borriss, Zhen Wu, Xuewen Gao
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogens. This study analyzed the mechanism by which FZB42 restricts leaf disease caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in Nicotiana benthamiana . The oomycete foliar pathogen P. nicotianae is able to reopen stomata which had been closed by the plant innate immune response to initiate penetration and infection. Here, we showed that root colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 restricted pathogen-mediated stomatal reopening in N...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jinbo Li, Kaixuan Zhang, Yu Meng, Jianping Hu, Mengqi Ding, Jiahui Bian, Mingli Yan, Jianming Han, Meiliang Zhou
Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) are a class of antimicrobial metabolites involved in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens, including Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea. The agmatine coumaroyl transferase (AtACT) is the key enzyme to catalyze the last reaction in the biosynthesis of HCAAs, including p-coumaroylagmatine (CouAgm) and feruloylagmatine in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is currently unknown about the regulatory mechanism of the AtACT gene expression. Yeast one-hybrid screening using the AtACT promoter as bait isolated the key positive regulator ORA59 that is involved in jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) mediated plant defense responses...
May 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi, Manuel Rubio, Nadali Babaeian, Alfonso Albacete, Pedro Martínez-Gómez
Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar "Garrigues" onto the "GF305" peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting "Garrigues" onto "GF305" prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus...
May 3, 2018: Viruses
Ansar Hussain, Xia Li, Yahong Weng, Zhiqin Liu, Muhammad Furqan Ashraf, Ali Noman, Sheng Yang, Muhammad Ifnan, Shanshan Qiu, Yingjie Yang, Deyi Guan, Shuilin He
The WRKY web, which is comprised of a subset of WRKY transcription factors (TFs), plays a crucial role in the regulation of plant immunity, however, the mode of organization and operation of this network remains obscure, especially in non-model plants such as pepper ( Capsicum annuum ). Herein, CaWRKY22 , a member of a subgroup of IIe WRKY proteins from pepper, was functionally characterized in pepper immunity against Ralstonia Solanacearum . CaWRKY22 was found to target the nuclei, and its transcript level was significantly upregulated by Ralstonia Solanacearum inoculation (RSI) and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA), Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), or ethephon (ETH)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Adrián Garrido-Bigotes, Nicolás E Figueroa, Pablo M Figueroa, Carlos R Figueroa
Jasmonates (JAs) are signalling molecules involved in stress responses, development and secondary metabolism biosynthesis, although their roles in fleshy-fruit development and ripening processes are not well known. In strawberry fruit, it has been proposed that JAs could regulate the early development through the activation of the JAs biosynthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that JA treatment increases anthocyanin content in strawberry fruit involving the bioactive jasmonate biosynthesis. Nevertheless, JA signalling pathway, of which main components are the COI1-JAZ co-receptor and the MYC transcription factors (TFs), has not been characterized in strawberry until now...
2018: PloS One
Ling Chuang, Chi-Hsiang Wen, Yi-Ru Lee, Yan-Liang Lin, Li-Ren Hsu, Sheng-Yang Wang, Fang-Hua Chu
Terpenoids are a large group of important secondary metabolites that are involved in a variety of physiological mechanisms, and many are used commercially in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. During the past decade, the topic of seasonal variation in terpenoid biosynthesis has garnered increasing attention. Formosan sweet gum ( Liquidambar formosana Hance) is a deciduous tree species. The expression of terpene synthase and accumulation of terpenoids in leaves may vary in different seasons. Here, four sesquiterpene synthases (i...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Alexander N Grechkin, Anna V Ogorodnikova, Alevtina M Egorova, Fakhima K Mukhitova, Tatiana M Ilyina, Bulat I Khairutdinov
Young roots of wheat, barley, and sorghum, as well as methyl jasmonate pretreated rice seedlings, undergo an unprecedented allene oxide synthase pathway targeted to previously unknown oxylipins 1 - 3 . These Favorskii-type products, (4 Z )-2-pentyl-4-tridecene-1,13-dioic acid ( 1 ), (2' Z )-2-(2'-octenyl)-decane-1,10-dioic acid ( 2 ), and (2' Z ,5' Z )-2-(2',5'-octadienyl)-decane-1,10-dioic acid ( 3 ), have a carboxy function at the side chain, as revealed by their MS and NMR spectral data. Compounds 1 - 3 were the major oxylipins detected, along with the related α-ketols...
May 2018: ChemistryOpen
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