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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933609/the-role-of-electrical-and-jasmonate-signalling-in-the-recognition-of-captured-prey-in-the-carnivorous-sundew-plant-drosera-capensis
#1
Miroslav Krausko, Zdeněk Perutka, Marek Šebela, Olga Šamajová, Jozef Šamaj, Ondřej Novák, Andrej Pavlovič
The carnivorous sundew plant (Drosera capensis) captures prey using sticky tentacles. We investigated the tentacle and trap reactions in response to the electrical and jasmonate signalling evoked by different stimuli to reveal how carnivorous sundews recognize digestible captured prey in their traps. We measured the electrical signals, phytohormone concentration, enzyme activities and Chla fluorescence in response to mechanical stimulation, wounding or insect feeding in local and systemic traps. Seven new proteins in the digestive fluid were identified using mass spectrometry...
December 9, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933078/citrus-leprosis-virus-c-infection-results-in-hypersensitive-like-response-suppression-of-the-ja-et-plant-defense-pathway-and-promotion-of-the-colonization-of-its-mite-vector
#2
Gabriella D Arena, Pedro L Ramos-González, Maria A Nunes, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Luis E A Camargo, Elliot W Kitajima, Marcos A Machado, Juliana Freitas-Astúa
Leprosis is a serious disease of citrus caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, genus Cilevirus) whose transmission is mediated by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions around the feeding sites of viruliferous mites. To get insight into this unusual pathosystem, we evaluated the expression profiles of genes involved in defense mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis upon infestation with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites by using reverse-transcription qPCR...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932419/jasmonic-acid-enhances-al-induced-root-growth-inhibition
#3
Zhong-Bao Yang, Chunmei He, Yanqi Ma, Marco Herde, Zhaojun Ding
Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root-growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root-growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root-growth inhibition...
December 8, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931186/transcriptome-profiling-reveals-differential-gene-expression-of-detoxification-enzymes-in-a-hemimetabolous-tobacco-pest-after-feeding-on-jasmonate-silenced-nicotiana-attenuata-plants
#4
Cristina M Crava, Christoph Brütting, Ian T Baldwin
BACKGROUND: The evolutionary arms race between plants and insects has driven the co-evolution of sophisticated defense mechanisms used by plants to deter herbivores and equally sophisticated strategies that enable phytophagous insects to rapidly detoxify the plant's defense metabolites. In this study, we identify the genetic determinants that enable the mirid, Tupiocoris notatus, to feed on its well-defended host plant, Nicotiana attenuata, an outstanding model for plant-insect interaction studies...
December 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931000/thorium-impact-on-tobacco-root-transcriptome
#5
Kateřina Mazari, Přemysl Landa, Sylva Přerostová, Karel Müller, Radomíra Vaňková, Petr Soudek, Tomáš Vaněk
Thorium is natural actinide metal with potential use in nuclear energetics. Contamination by thorium, originated from mining activities or spills, represents environmental risk due to its radioactivity and chemical toxicity. A promising approach for cleaning of contaminated areas is phytoremediation, which need to be based, however, on detail understanding of the thorium effects on plants. In this study we investigated transcriptomic response of tobacco roots exposed to 200μM thorium for one week. Thorium application resulted in up-regulation of 152 and down-regulation of 100 genes (p-value <0...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927998/role-and-functioning-of-bhlh-transcription-factors-in-jasmonate-signalling
#6
REVIEW
Jonas Goossens, Jan Mertens, Alain Goossens
Plant growth, development and interaction with the environment involve the action of multiple phytohormones. Transcription factors (TFs) of diverse families play essential roles in the signalling cascades triggered by the perception of a particular hormone. TFs may act alone or in a combinatorial fashion with other TFs, and may act specifically in a single hormonal signalling cascade or as signalling hubs for multiple hormones. In the signalling cascades triggered by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA), which modulates a diverse, but specific, range of aspects of plant growth, development and defence, the TFs of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family play an essential and often conserved role in the plant kingdom...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925401/dickeya-dadantii-pectic-enzymes-necessary-for-virulence-are-also-responsible-for-activation-of-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-innate-immune-system
#7
Dominique Expert, Oriane Patrit, Vladimir E Shevchik, Claude Perino, Virginie Boucher, Creze Christophe, Estelle Wenes, Mathilde Fagard
Soft-rot diseases of plants attributed to Dickeya dadantii result from lysis of plant cell wall due to pectic enzymes released by the bacterial cell by a type II secretion system (T2SS). A. thaliana can express several lines of defence against this bacterium. We employed bacterial mutants with defective envelope structures or secreted proteins to examine early plant defence reactions. We focused on the production of AtrbohD-dependent ROS, callose deposition and cell death as indicators of these reactions. We observed a significant reduction in ROS and callose formation with a bacterial mutant where genes encoding five pectate lyases (Pels) were disrupted...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925291/herbivore-perception-decreases-photosynthetic-carbon-assimilation-and-reduces-stomatal-conductance-by-engaging-12-oxo-phytodienoic-acid-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-4-and-cytokinin-perception
#8
Ivan D Meza-Canales, Stefan Meldau, Jorge A Zavala, Ian T Baldwin
Herbivory-induced changes in photosynthesis have been documented in many plant species, however the complexity of photosynthetic regulation and analysis has thwarted progress in understanding the mechanism involved, particularly those elicited by herbivore-specific elicitors. Here we analyzed the early photosynthetic gas-exchange responses in Nicotiana attenuata plants after wounding and elicitation with Manduca sexta oral-secretions, and the pathways regulating these responses. Elicitation with M. sexta oral-secretions rapidly decreased photosynthetic carbon-assimilation (AC ) in treated and systemic (untreated, vascularly connected) leaves, which were associated with changes in stomatal conductance, rather than with changes in Rubisco activity and RuBP-turnover...
December 7, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924121/overexpression-of-panax-ginseng-sesquiterpene-synthase-gene-confers-tolerance-against-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Sung-Joo Yoon, Johan Sukweenadhi, Altanzul Khorolragchaa, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Yeon-Ju Kim, Ho-Bin Kim, Mi-Jung Kim, Yu-Jin Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
Sesquiterpenes are an abundant group belonging to the terpenoid family, with a C15 structure comprise of three isoprene units. Many sesquiterpenes are volatile compounds and it act as chemical messenger in plant signalling, particularly in the defense mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses. Panax ginseng Meyer is important medicinal herbs with various reported pharmacological efficacies in which its triterpenoid saponins, called ginsenosides, were mostly studied. However, there have been few studies on volatile sesquiterpenes compounds regulation on P...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923986/defense-responses-in-aspen-with-altered-pectin-methylesterase-activity-reveal-the-hormonal-inducers-of-tyloses
#10
Joanna Leśniewska, David Öhman, Magdalena Krzesłowska, Sunita Kushwah, Maria Barciszewska-Pacak, Leszek Kleczkowski, Bjorn Sundberg, Thomas Moritz, Ewa J Mellerowicz
Tyloses are ingrowths of parenchyma cells into the lumen of embolized xylem vessels, thereby protecting the remaining xylem from pathogens. They are found in heartwood, sapwood and in abscission zones, and can be induced by various stresses, but their molecular triggers are unknown. Here we report that down-regulation of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE 1 (PtxtPME1) in aspen triggers the formation of tyloses and activation of oxidative stress. We tested whether any of the oxidative-stress related hormones could induce tyloses in intact plantlets grown in sterile culture...
December 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920785/a-jasmonate-inducible-defense-trait-transferred-from-wild-into-cultivated-tomato-establishes-increased-whitefly-resistance-and-reduced-viral-disease-incidence
#11
Rocío Escobar-Bravo, Juan M Alba, Clara Pons, Antonio Granell, Merijn R Kant, Enrique Moriones, Rafael Fernández-Muñoz
Whiteflies damage tomatoes mostly via the viruses they transmit. Cultivated tomatoes lack many of the resistances of their wild relatives. In order to increase protection to its major pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), we introgressed a trichome-based resistance trait from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato backcross line BC5S2 contains acylsucrose-producing type-IV trichomes, unlike cultivated tomatoes, and exhibits increased, yet limited protection to whiteflies at early development stages...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917194/a-network-approach-of-gene-co-expression-in-the-zea-mays-aspergillus-flavus-pathosystem-to-map-host-pathogen-interaction-pathways
#12
Bryan M Musungu, Deepak Bhatnagar, Robert L Brown, Gary A Payne, Greg OBrian, Ahmad M Fakhoury, Matt Geisler
A gene co-expression network (GEN) was generated using a dual RNA-seq study with the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus and its plant host Zea mays during the initial 3 days of infection. The analysis deciphered novel pathways and mapped genes of interest in both organisms during the infection. This network revealed a high degree of connectivity in many of the previously recognized pathways in Z. mays such as jasmonic acid, ethylene, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). For the pathogen A. flavus, a link between aflatoxin production and vesicular transport was identified within the network...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916835/synthesis-and-functions-of-jasmonates-in-maize
#13
REVIEW
Eli J Borrego, Michael V Kolomiets
Of the over 600 oxylipins present in all plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) remains the best understood in terms of its biosynthesis, function and signaling. Much like their eicosanoid analogues in mammalian system, evidence is growing for the role of the other oxylipins in diverse physiological processes. JA serves as the model plant oxylipin species and regulates defense and development. For several decades, the biology of JA has been characterized in a few dicot species, yet the function of JA in monocots has only recently begun to be elucidated...
November 29, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916792/elevated-o%C3%A2-and-tylcv-infection-reduce-the-suitability-of-tomato-as-a-host-for-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#14
Hongying Cui, Yucheng Sun, Fajun Chen, Youjun Zhang, Feng Ge
The effects of elevated atmospheric ozone (O₃) levels on herbivorous insects have been well studied, but little is known about the combined effects of elevated O₃ and virus infection on herbivorous insect performance. Using open-top chambers in the field, we determined the effects of elevated O₃ and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection on wild-type (Wt) tomato and 35S tomato (jasmonic acid (JA) defense-enhanced genotype) in association with whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotype B. Elevated O₃ and TYLCV infection, alone and in combination, significantly reduced the contents of soluble sugars and free amino acids, increased the contents of total phenolics and condensed tannins, and increased salicylic acid (SA) content and the expression of SA-related genes in leaves...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910224/separating-and-identifying-the-four-stereoisomers-of-methyl-jasmonate-by-rp-hplc-and-using-cyclodextrins-in-a-novel-way
#15
Adrián Matencio, Mario J Bermejo-Gimeno, Francisco García-Carmona, José Manuel López-Nicolás
INTRODUCTION: Several authors have reported on the different bioactivities of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) stereoisomers. However, no simple, precise and cheap method for separating and identifying them using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been developed. OBJECTIVE: (1) To create a simple, precise and cheap method for separating and identifying the four stereoisomers present in commercial racemic mixtures of MeJA and (2) to identify the four stereoisomers using molecular docking techniques and coinjection...
December 2, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907207/optimized-jasmonic-acid-production-by-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-reveals-formation-of-valuable-plant-secondary-metabolites
#16
Felipe Eng, Sven Haroth, Kirstin Feussner, Dorothea Meldau, Dmitrij Rekhter, Till Ischebeck, Florian Brodhun, Ivo Feussner
Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904462/overexpression-of-a-pathogenesis-related-protein-10-enhances-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-rice
#17
Jingni Wu, Sang Gon Kim, Kyu Young Kang, Ju-Gon Kim, Sang-Ryeol Park, Ravi Gupta, Yong Hwan Kim, Yiming Wang, Sun Tae Kim
Pathogenesis-related proteins play multiple roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we characterize a rice defense related gene named "jasmonic acid inducible pathogenesis-related class 10" (JIOsPR10) to gain an insight into its functional properties. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of JIOsPR10 under salt and drought stress conditions. Constitutive over-expression JIOsPR10 in rice promoted shoot and root development in transgenic plants, however, their productivity was unaltered...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903806/oschx14-is-involved-in-the-k-homeostasis-in-rice-oryza-sativa-flowers
#18
Yi Chen, Jingkun Ma, Anthony J Miller, Bingbing Luo, Mei Wang, Zhen Zhu, Pieter B F Ouwerkerk
Previously we showed in the osjar1 mutants that the lodicule senescence which controls the closing of rice flowers was delayed. This resulted in florets staying open longer when compared with the wild type. The gene OsJAR1 is silenced in osjar1 mutants and is a key member of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. We found that K concentrations in lodicules and flowers of osjar1-2 were significantly elevated compared with the wild type, indicating that K(+) homeostasis may play a role in regulating the closure of rice flowers...
July 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898830/endoplasmic-reticulum-body-related-gene-expression-in-different-root-zones-of-arabidopsis-isolated-by-laser-assisted-microdissection
#19
Maxime Gotté, Magalie Bénard, Marie-Christine Kiefer-Meyer, Rim Jaber, John P Moore, Maïté Vicré-Gibouin, Azeddine Driouich
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are important organelles for root defense. However, little is known regarding the genetic control of their formation in root tissues. In the present study, (L.) Heynh. roots were dissected using laser-assisted microdissection (LAM) with minimal sample preparation (no fixation or embedding steps) and the expression of genes associated with ER body formation and function was assessed by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qRT-PCR) in the presence and absence of the defense phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA)...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896555/methyl-jasmonate-induced-monoterpenes-in-scots-pine-and-norway-spruce-tissues-affect-pine-weevil-orientation
#20
Lina Lundborg, Göran Nordlander, Niklas Björklund, Henrik Nordenhem, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson
In large parts of Europe, insecticide-free measures for protecting conifer plants are desired to suppress damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.). Treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a chemical elicitor already used in crop production, may enhance expression of chemical defenses in seedlings in conifer regenerations. However, in a previous experiment, MeJA treatment resulted in substantially better field protection for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) than for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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