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Muhammad A Farooq, Kangni Zhang, Faisal Islam, Jian Wang, Habib U R Athar, Aamir Nawaz, Zafar Ullah Zafar, Jianxiang Xu, Weijun Zhou
Brassica napus plants exposed to 200 μM arsenic (As) exhibited high-level of stress condition, which led to inhibit growth, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and disrupted cellular ultra-structures. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alleviated the As-induced oxidative stress and improves the plant growth and photosynthesis. In this study, we investigated changes in the B. napus leaf proteome in order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in MeJA -induced As tolerance. Our study identified 177 proteins were differentially expressed in cultivar ZS 758; while 200 differentially expressed proteins were accumulated in zheda 622, when exposed to As alone and MeJA+As treatments, respectively...
March 12, 2018: Proteomics
Dedong Min, Fujun Li, Xinhua Zhang, Xixi Cui, Pan Shu, Lulu Dong, Chuntao Ren
MYC2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a master regulator in Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. However, the functions of SlMYC2 in MeJA-mediated fruit chilling tolerance are far from being clearly understood. Thus, in present work, we constructed SlMYC2-silenced tomato fruit by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and investigated the function of SlMYC2 in MeJA-induced tomato fruit chilling tolerance. The results showed that MeJA treatment markedly induced the SlMYC2 expression, increased proline content, lycopene content and antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, inhibited the increase of electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content, and effectively reduced the chilling injury (CI) incidence and CI index...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jiang Li, Caili Li, Shanfa Lu
Cytosine DNA methylation is highly conserved epigenetic modification involved in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes. It was established and maintained by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases) in plants. Through genome-wide identification, eight putative SmC5-MTase genes were identified from the genome of Salvia miltiorrhiza , a well-known traditional Chinese medicine material and an emerging model medicinal plant. Based on conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis, eight SmC5-MTase genes were divided into four subfamilies, including MET , CMT , DRM and DNMT2 ...
2018: PeerJ
Hyun G Kong, Teak S Shin, Tae H Kim, Choong-Min Ryu
The volatile compound 2,3-butanediol, which is produced by certain strains of root-associated bacteria, consists of three stereoisomers, namely, two enantiomers (2R,3R- and 2S,3S-butanediol) and one meso compound (2R,3S-butanediol). The ability of 2,3-butanediol to induce plant resistance against pathogenic fungi and bacteria has been investigated; however, little is known about its effects on induced resistance against viruses in plants. To investigate the effects of 2,3-butanediol on plant systemic defense against viruses, we evaluated the disease control capacity of each of its three stereoisomers in pepper...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Reshma John, P P Shajitha, Aneesha Devassy, Linu Mathew
20-Hydroxyecdysone is one of the most common ecdysteroids in plants with potential therapeutic applications. In this study, cell suspension cultures of Achyranthes aspera were raised in shake flasks to investigate the production of 20-hydroxyecdysone. The quantification and characterization of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the cultures were done by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-quadrupole time-of- flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF) analyses. For raising the suspension, calli initiated from in vitro grown leaf explants were cultured in liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with combinations of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1 ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (1 mg L-1 )...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Nadia Napoli, Roberta Ghelli, Patrizia Brunetti, Angelo De Paolis, Valentina Cecchetti, Tomohiko Tsuge, Giovanna Serino, Minami Matsui, Giovanni Mele, Gianmarco Rinaldi, Gianna Aurora Palumbo, Fabrizio Barozzi, Paolo Costantino, Maura Cardarelli
In addition to the full-length transcript ARF8.1, a splice variant (ARF8.2) of the Auxin Response Factor gene ARF8 has been reported. Here, we identified an intron-retaining variant of ARF8.2, ARF8.4, whose translated product is imported into the nucleus and has tissue-specific localization in Arabidopsis thaliana. By inducibly expressing each variant in arf8-7 flowers, we show that ARF8.4 fully complements the short-stamen phenotype of the mutant and restores the expression of AUX/IAA19, encoding a key regulator of stamen elongation...
March 7, 2018: Plant Cell
Xiaohui Li, Rui Yang, Haimin Chen
The Mediator complex is at the core of transcriptional regulation and plays a central role in plant immunity. The MEDIATOR25 (MED25) subunit of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates jasmonate-dependent resistance to Botrytis cinerea through interacting with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor of jasmonate signaling, MYC2. Another Mediator subunit, MED8, acts independently or together with MED25 in plant immunity. However, unlike MED25, the underlying action mechanisms of MED8 in regulating B. cinerea resistance are still unknown...
2018: PloS One
Chunyan Jiao, Cheng Song, Siyan Zheng, Yingpeng Zhu, Qing Jin, Yongping Cai, Yi Lin
Alkaloids are the main active ingredients in the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale . Based on the published genomic and transcriptomic data, a proposed terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthesis pathway may be present in D. officinale . In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) with a high-yielding production of alkaloids were obtained by the optimization of tryptophan, secologanin and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. The results showed that the total alkaloid content was 2.05 times greater than that of the control group when the PLBs were fed with 9 µM tryptophan, 6 µM secologanin and 100 µM MeJA after 36 days...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Guaiqiang Chai, Chunlian Li, Feng Xu, Yang Li, Xue Shi, Yong Wang, Zhonghua Wang
BACKGROUND: The cuticle covers the surface of the polysaccharide cell wall of leaf epidermal cells and forms an essential diffusion barrier between the plant and the environment. The cuticle is composed of cutin and wax. Cuticular wax plays an important role in the survival of plants by serving as the interface between plants and their biotic and abiotic environments, especially restricting nonstomatal water loss. Leaf cuticular waxes of hexaploid wheat at the seedling stage mainly consist of primary alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, alkane and esters...
March 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Minta Chaiprasongsuk, Chi Zhang, Ping Qian, Xinlu Chen, Guanglin Li, Robert N Trigiano, Hong Guo, Feng Chen
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GAs), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) exist in methyl ester forms in plants in addition to their free acid forms. The enzymes that catalyze methylation of these carboxylic acid phytohormones belong to a same protein family, the SABATH methyltransferases. While the genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated from a small number of flowering plants, little is known about their occurrence and evolution in non-flowering plants. Here, we report the systematic characterization of the SABATH family from Norway spruce (Picea abies), a gymnosperm...
March 1, 2018: Phytochemistry
Rezwan Tariq, Chunlian Wang, Tengfei Qin, Feifei Xu, Yongchao Tang, Ying Gao, Zhiyuan Ji, Kaijun Zhao
Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ( Xoo ), is an overwhelming disease in rice-growing regions worldwide. Our previous studies revealed that the executor R gene Xa23 confers broad-spectrum disease resistance to all naturally occurring biotypes of Xoo . In this study, comparative transcriptomic profiling of two near-isogenic lines (NILs), CBB23 (harboring Xa23 ) and JG30 (without Xa23 ), before and after infection of the Xoo strain, PXO99A , was done by RNA sequencing, to identify genes associated with the resistance...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sandra S Scholz, Wolfgang Schmidt-Heck, Reinhard Guthke, Alexandra C U Furch, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Ralf Oelmüller
Verticillium dahliae is a soil-borne vascular pathogen that causes severe wilt symptoms in a wide range of plants. Co-culture of the fungus with Arabidopsis roots for 24 h induces many changes in the gene expression profiles of both partners, even before defense-related phytohormone levels are induced in the plant. Both partners reprogram sugar and amino acid metabolism, activate genes for signal perception and transduction, and induce defense- and stress-responsive genes. Furthermore, analysis of Arabidopsis expression profiles suggests a redirection from growth to defense...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Osvaldo Filipe, David De Vleesschauwer, Ashley Haeck, Kristof Demeestere, Monica Höfte
Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase-1 (SnRK1) belongs to a family of evolutionary conserved kinases with orthologs in all eukaryotes, ranging from yeasts (SnF1) to mammals (AMP-Activated kinase). These kinases sense energy deficits caused by nutrient limitation or stress and coordinate the required adaptations to maintain energy homeostasis and survival. In plants, SnRK1 is a global regulator of plant metabolism and is also involved in abiotic stress responses. Its role in the response to biotic stress, however, is only starting to be uncovered...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiao Han, Yanru Hu, Gensong Zhang, Yanjuan Jiang, Xiaolan Chen, Diqiu Yu
Stomata are ports that facilitate gas and water vapor exchange between plants and their environment. Stomatal development is strictly regulated by endogenous signals and environmental cues. Jasmonate is an important signal that modulates multiple physiological processes in plants, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying its interactions with other developmental signaling pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we show that jasmonate negatively regulates stomatal development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cotyledons...
March 1, 2018: Plant Physiology
Chao Lei, Sheng Fan, Ke Li, Yuan Meng, Jiangping Mao, Mingyu Han, Caiping Zhao, Lu Bao, Dong Zhang
Adventitious root (AR) formation, which is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors, is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. However, comprehensive proteomic data on AR formation are still lacking. The aim of this work was to study indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced AR formation in the dwarf apple rootstock 'T337'. In this study, the effect of IBA on AR formation was analysed. Subsequent to treatment with IBA, both the rooting rate and root length of 'T337' increased significantly. An assessment of hormone levels in basal stem cuttings suggested that auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were higher in basal stem cuttings that received the exogenous IBA application; while zeatin riboside, gibberellins, and jasmonic acid were lower than non-treated basal stem cuttings...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mengnan Wang, Yanxun Zhu, Rui Han, Wuchen Yin, Chunlei Guo, Zhi Li, Xiping Wang
Ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors play important roles in regulating immune responses in plants. In our study, we characterized a member of the ERF transcription factor family, VaERF20 , from the Chinese wild Vitis genotype, V. amurensis Rupr "Shuangyou". Phylogenetic analysis indicated that VaERF20 belongs to group IXc of the ERF family, in which many members are known to contribute to fighting pathogen infection. Consistent with this, expression of VaERF20 was induced by treatment with the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jin-Ae Kim, Nikita Bhatnagar, Soon Jae Kwon, Myung Ki Min, Seok-Jun Moon, In Sun Yoon, Taek-Ryoun Kwon, Sun Tae Kim, Beom-Gi Kim
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) enables plants to adapt to adverse environmental conditions through the modulation of metabolic pathways and of growth and developmental programs. We used comparative microarray analysis to identify genes exhibiting ABA-dependent expression and other hormone-dependent expression among them in Oryza sativa shoot and root. We identified 854 genes as significantly up- or down-regulated in root or shoot under ABA treatment condition. Most of these genes had similar expression profiles in root and shoot under ABA treatment condition, whereas 86 genes displayed opposite expression responses in root and shoot...
January 2018: Current Genomics
Víctor M Vergara Martínez, Samuel E Estrada-Soto, José de Jesús Arellano-García, Julio C Rivera-Leyva, Patricia Castillo-España, Angélica Flores Flores, Alexandre T Cardoso-Taketa, Irene Perea-Arango
Background: The production of triterpenes from plants for pharmacological purposes varies in concentration, due to genetic and environmental factors. In vitro culture enables the control and increase of these bioactive molecules. Objective: To evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators and elicitors in the induction of calli and the production of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in Lepechinia caulescens . Materials and Methods: Leaf explants were exposed for the induction of calli at different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Koji Noge, Shigeru Tamogami
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles play important roles in plant-insect and plant-plant interactions. The common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis, is often infested by the flea beetle, Altica oleracea, on which the predatory blue shield bug, Zicrona caerulea, is usually found. This observation suggests that the predatory bug can discriminate infested plants from intact ones to locate its prey. In this study, l-leucine-derived nitrogen-containing compounds [isovaleronitrile (3-methylbutanenitrile), (E/Z)-isovaleraldoxime and 3-methyl-1-nitrobutane] and some terpenes were identified as a characteristic volatile blend from herbivore-infested O...
March 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Akira Uchiyama, Takaomi Yaguchi, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Kento Sasaki, Naoshige Kuwata, Hideyuki Matsuura, Kosaku Takahashi
The isoleucine conjugate of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA-Ile), a new member of the jasmonate family, was recently identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and might be a signaling molecule in plants. However, the biosynthesis and function of OPDA-Ile remains elusive. This study reports an in vitro enzymatic method for synthesizing OPDA-Ile, which is catalyzed by reactions of lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase (AOS), and allene oxide cyclase (AOC) using isoleucine conjugates of α -linolenic acid (LA-Ile) as the substrate...
February 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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