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Yanchen Tian, Min Fan, Zhaoxia Qin, Hongjun Lv, Minmin Wang, Zhe Zhang, Wenying Zhou, Na Zhao, Xiaohui Li, Chao Han, Zhaojun Ding, Wenfei Wang, Zhi-Yong Wang, Ming-Yi Bai
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is an important signaling molecule in plant developmental processes and stress responses. However, whether H2 O2 -mediated signaling crosstalks with plant hormone signaling is largely unclear. Here, we show that H2 O2 induces the oxidation of the BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1) transcription factor, which functions as a master regulator of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Oxidative modification enhances BZR1 transcriptional activity by promoting its interaction with key regulators in the auxin-signaling and light-signaling pathways, including AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR6 (ARF6) and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4)...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
M V Efimova, V A Khripach, E V Boyko, M K Malofii, L V Kolomeichuk, O K Murgan, A N Vidershpun, E A Mukhamatdinova, V V Kuznetsov
This is the first study to show that brief pretreatment of potato plants with two brassinosteroids differing in structure causes in plants the ability to react to delayed salt stress by accumulation of compounds with antioxidant activity and by increased salt tolerance.
January 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Ulrich Hohmann, Julia Santiago, Joël Nicolet, Vilde Olsson, Fabio M Spiga, Ludwig A Hothorn, Melinka A Butenko, Michael Hothorn
Plant-unique membrane receptor kinases with leucine-rich repeat ectodomains (LRR-RKs) can sense small molecule, peptide, and protein ligands. Many LRR-RKs require SERK-family coreceptor kinases for high-affinity ligand binding and receptor activation. How one coreceptor can contribute to the specific binding of distinct ligands and activation of different LRR-RKs is poorly understood. Here we quantitatively analyze the contribution of SERK3 to ligand binding and activation of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the peptide hormone receptor HAESA...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiao-Tong Luo, Bao-Dong Cai, Lei Yu, Jun Ding, Yu-Qi Feng
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are regarded as the sixth plant hormone that is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Sensitive quantification of BRs will be greatly benefit to illuminate the detail mechanisms about how BRs play crucial role in plant developmental processes such as cell division, cell expansion, cytodifferentiation, seed germination, vegetative growth and resisting biological or abiotic stress. In the current study, we developed a method for rapid and sensitive determination of endogenous BRs in plant tissues by combining LC-MS and a novel sample preparation strategy, in which the plant tissue extract was supplied to solid phase boronate affinity labeling and extraction, followed by desorption and salt-induced phase transition extraction for further purification...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Weige Huo, Bodi Li, Jiebing Kuang, Pingan He, Zhihao Xu, Jinxiang Wang
Brassinosteroids are important phytohormones for plant growth and development. In soybean ( Glycine max ), BR receptors have been identified, but the genes encoding BR biosynthesis-related enzymes remain poorly understood. Here, we found that the soybean genome encodes eight steroid reductases (GmDET2a to GmDET2h). Phylogenetic analysis grouped 105 steroid reductases from moss, fern and higher plants into five subgroups and indicated that the steroid reductase family has experienced purifying selection. GmDET2a and GmDET2b, homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana steroid 5 α -reductase AtDET2, are proteins of 263 amino acids...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yiheng He, Jiaying Li, Qiuyan Ban, Shoukun Han, Jingping Rao
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are phytohormones that regulate numerous processes including fruit ripening. In this study, persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruit were treated with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) or brassinazole (Brz, a BR biosynthesis inhibitor) and then stored at ambient temperature. The results show that endogenous BR contents gradually increased during persimmon fruit ripening. EBR treatment significantly increased both the content of water soluble pectin (WSP) and the activities of polygalacturonase (PG), pectate lyase (PL) and endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (EGase), but significantly reduced the content of acid soluble pectin (ASP) and cellulose, resulting in rapid fruit softening...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lidong Cao, Hong Zhang, Hongjun Zhang, Li Yang, Miaomiao Wu, Puguo Zhou, Qiliang Huang
The discovery of brassinolide in 1979, a milestone in brassinosteroids research, has sparked great interest of brassinolide analogs (BLs) in agricultural applications. Among these BLs, propionylbrassinolide has captured considerable attention because it shows plant growth regulating activity with an excellent durability. Two impurities of propionylbrassinolide were isolated and purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the chemical structures were confirmed. For simultaneous separation and determination of propionylbrassinolide and impurities, an efficient analytical method based on HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed...
February 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eirini Kaiserli
Light and hormones tightly regulate plant growth and development by both synergistic and antagonistic actions. In the current issue of Developmental Cell, Liang et al. (2018) uncover how the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 mediates inhibition of plant growth via direct interactions with key transcriptional regulators of brassinosteroid signaling.
February 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
Lai Wei, Xuan Zhang, Zhihai Zhang, Huanhuan Liu, Zhongwei Lin
The applications of semi-dwarf genes such as sd1 and Rht1 in rice and wheat resulted in the first "green revolution" in the 1960s. However, such semi-dwarf genes that can efficiently reduce plant stature and have few negative yield traits have not yet been identified in maize. In this study, a new allele of Brachytic2 gene (qpa1) encoding P-glycoprotein was rapidly fine-mapped using a modified method. The qpa1, containing a 241-bp deletion in the last exon, had no negative effect on yield, but greatly modified the plant architecture including significantly reduced plant height and ear height, increased stalk diameter and erected leaf...
February 23, 2018: Heredity
Nemanja Vukašinović, Eugenia Russinova
The movement and differential distribution of endogenous plant hormones are the determining factors for many developmental processes. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of plant steroidal hormones that promote growth and development. Although synthesis and signalling of BRs are well described and characterized, the exit mechanism of these compounds from the cell remains uncharacterizd. Whether BRs are able to move within the apoplast and whether the BR synthesis in one cell can trigger the signalling in its neighbours is also unknown...
February 17, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Han Yong Lee, Gyeong Mee Yoon
The gaseous hormone ethylene influences many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to a variety of stresses. The biosynthesis of ethylene is tightly regulated by various internal and external stimuli, and the primary target of the regulation is the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis. We have previously demonstrated that the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis is a common feature of most of the phytohormones in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings via the modulation of the protein stability of ACS...
February 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Zhiqiang Zhang, Liping Xu
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant-specific steroidal hormones, the homeostasis of which is crucial for various aspects of plant growth and development. However, to date, the BR inactivation process has not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel BAHD family acyltransferase gene, BRASSINOSTEROID INACTIVATOR2 (BIA2), involved in BR inactivation. Plants overexpressing BIA2 displayed typical BR-deficient phenotypes, which were rescued by exogenous BR treatment. Real-time qRT-PCR and transcriptome analyses showed that virtually all of the BR-biosynthetic gene expression levels were increased, whereas the expression of many BR- inactivation genes was reduced in OE-BIA2 plants...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lei Wang, Elias Einig, Marilia Almeida-Trapp, Markus Albert, Judith Fliegmann, Axel Mithöfer, Hubert Kalbacher, Georg Felix
The discovery in tomato of systemin, the first plant peptide hormone1,2 , was a fundamental change for the concept of plant hormones. Numerous other peptides have since been shown to play regulatory roles in many aspects of the plant life, including growth, development, fertilization and interactions with symbiotic organisms3-6 . Systemin, an 18 amino acid peptide derived from a larger precursor protein7 , was proposed to act as the spreading signal that triggers systemic defence responses observed in plants after wounding or attack by herbivores1,7,8 ...
February 19, 2018: Nature Plants
Haojie Yan, Yaofei Zhao, Hua Shi, Juan Li, Yingchun Wang, Dingzhong Tang
Arabidopsis immune receptor FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) rapidly forms a complex to activate pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) upon perception of the bacterial protein flagellin. The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-SIGNALINGKINASE1 (BSK1) interacts with FLS2 and is critical for the activation of PTI. However, it is unknown how BSK1 transduces signals to activate downstream immune responses. We identified Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase5 (MAPKKK5) as a potential substrate of BSK1 by whole-genome phosphorylation analysis...
February 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Rui Miao, Meng Wang, Wei Yuan, Yan Ren, Ying Li, Na Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Herbert J Kronzucker, Weifeng Xu
Plant root responds to soil moisture gradients through hydrotropism and remodels root growth orientation chasing soil water, a process regarded as plant acclimation to a changing soil environment. Mechanisms underlying the root hydrotropic response, however, remain poorly understood. Here, hydrotropism was examined in 31 Arabidopsis ecotypes collected from different parts of the world and grown along moisture gradients in a specially designed soil-simulation system. More detailed comparative transcriptomic, ionomic profiling, and physiological analyses were carried out on three wild types, Ws (strongly hydrotropic), Col-0 (moderately hydrotropic), and C24 (weakly hydrotropic), and also in mutant lines showing disruptions in the root hydrotropic response...
February 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ji Hyun Youn, Tae-Woo Kim, Se-Hwan Joo, Seung-Hyun Son, Jeehee Roh, Sunyoung Kim, Tae-Wuk Kim, Seong-Ki Kim
DWARF1 (DWF1) is a sterol C-24 reductase that catalyzes the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol (24-MCHR) to campesterol (CR) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A loss-of-function mutant, dwf1, showed similar phenotypic abnormalities to brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient mutants. These abnormalities were reversed in the wild-type phenotype by exogenous application of each castasterone (CS) and brassinolide (BL), but not dolichosterone (DS). Accumulation of DS and decreased CS were found in quantitative analysis of endogenous BRs in dwf1...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jinggeng Zhou, Derui Liu, Ping Wang, Xiyu Ma, Wenwei Lin, Sixue Chen, Kiril Mishev, Dongping Lu, Rahul Kumar, Isabelle Vanhoutte, Xiangzong Meng, Ping He, Eugenia Russinova, Libo Shan
Plants largely rely on plasma membrane (PM)-resident receptor-like kinases (RLKs) to sense extracellular and intracellular stimuli and coordinate cell differentiation, growth, and immunity. Several RLKs have been shown to undergo internalization through the endocytic pathway with a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we show that endocytosis and protein abundance of the Arabidopsis brassinosteroid (BR) receptor, BR INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1), are regulated by plant U-box (PUB) E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB12- and PUB13-mediated ubiquitination...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiangyan Zhou, Ning Zhang, Jiangwei Yang, Xun Tang, Yikai Wen, Huaijun Si
The DWARF4 (DWF4) gene encodes a C-22 hydroxylase which is pivotal for brassinosteroids (BRs) biosynthesis. In this research, aimed to understand the molecular mechanism of DWF4 on regulation of potatoes tolerance to salt stress, DWF4 was cloned from potato, named as StDWF4. Its 1476 bp open reading frame encodes a protein of 491 amino acids. The StDWF4-overexpressing (OE) and interference-expressing (RNAi) transgenic potato plants were acquired using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, respectively. Tissue specific analysis using Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the StDWF4 gene expressed in the leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic and un-transgenic (NT) plants, with specially increased (StDWF4-OE)/reduced (StDWF4-RNAi) expression in the roots...
February 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xiaojuan Ran, Jian Liu, Meifang Qi, Yuejun Wang, Jingfei Cheng, Yijing Zhang
Phytohormones regulate diverse aspects of plant growth and environmental responses. Recent high-throughput technologies have promoted a more comprehensive profiling of genes regulated by different hormones. However, these omics data generally result in large gene lists that make it challenging to interpret the data and extract insights into biological significance. With the rapid accumulation of theses large-scale experiments, especially the transcriptomic data available in public databases, a means of using this information to explore the transcriptional networks is needed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marta Talarek-Karwel, Andrzej Bajguz, Alicja Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Iwona Rajewska
Brassinosteroids play an important role in the plant growth and development as well as in the adaptation of plants to environmental stresses. Studies have shown the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) in the range of concentrations 0.0001-10 μM on the green unicellular alga Acutodesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae) during 7 days of cultivation. EBL is an effective stimulator of algal growth as it causes an increase in the number of cells and the contents of selected metabolites such as proteins, monosaccharides, and photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenes, and xanthophylls)...
February 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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