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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516384/a-mutant-in-the-csdet2-gene-leads-to-a-systemic-brassinosteriod-deficiency-and-super-compact-phenotype-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l
#1
Shanshan Hou, Huanhuan Niu, Qianyi Tao, Shenhao Wang, Zhenhui Gong, Sen Li, Yiqun Weng, Zheng Li
A novel dwarf cucumber mutant, scp-2, displays a typical BR biosynthesis-deficient phenotype, which is due to a mutation in CsDET2 for a steroid 5-alpha-reductase. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of plant hormones that play important roles in the development of plant architecture, and extreme dwarfism is a typical outcome of BR-deficiency. Most cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) varieties have an indeterminate growth habit, and dwarfism may have its value in manipulation of plant architecture and improve production in certain production systems...
May 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507175/a-mutation-in-the-bhlh-domain-of-the-spch-transcription-factor-uncovers-a-br-dependent-mechanism-for-stomatal-development
#2
Alberto de Marcos, Anaxi Houbaert, Magdalena Triviño, Dolores Delgado, Mar Martín-Trillo, Eugenia Russinova, Carmen Fenoll, Montaña Mena
The asymmetric cell divisions necessary for stomatal lineage initiation and progression in Arabidopsis thaliana require the function of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). Mutants lacking SPCH do not produce stomata or lineages. Here, we isolated a new spch 5 allele carrying a point mutation in the bHLH domain that displayed normal growth, but had an extremely low number of sometimes clustered stomata in the leaves, whereas the hypocotyls were stomataless. In vivo tracking of leaf epidermal cell divisions, combined with marker lines and genetic analysis, showed that the spch 5 leaf phenotype is dosage dependent and results from the decreased ability to initiate and amplify lineages, defects in asymmetric cell fate allocation, and misorientation of asymmetric division planes...
May 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507137/arabidopsis-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-protein-llg1-associates-with-and-modulates-fls2-to-regulate-innate-immunity
#3
Qiujing Shen, Gildas Bourdais, Huairong Pan, Silke Robatzek, Dingzhong Tang
Plants detect and respond to pathogen invasion with membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate downstream immune responses. Here we report that Arabidopsis thaliana LORELEI-LIKE GPI-ANCHORED PROTEIN 1 (LLG1), a coreceptor of the receptor-like kinase FERONIA, regulates PRR signaling. In a forward genetic screen for suppressors of enhanced disease resistance 1 (edr1), we identified the point mutation llg1-3, which suppresses edr1 disease resistance but does not affect plant growth and development...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502860/structure-activity-relationship-of-brassinosteroids-and-their-agricultural-practical-usages
#4
REVIEW
Jinna Liu, Di Zhang, Xiaoyu Sun, Tingle Ding, Beilei Lei, Cunli Zhang
Brassinosteroids (BRs) control several important agronomic traits, such as strengthening resistance to diverse adversity, improving the quality, and increasing crop yield. Their chemical structures and varieties, specific methods for the evaluation of bioactivities, structure-activity relationships, potential novel compounds, and practical agricultural uses were summarized. The findings allow the examination of brassinosteriods in two important issues: 1) Do the results of different bioevaluation protocols provide similar activities for BRs? And 2) which bioevaluated compounds would proof to have a greater potential for application in agricultural usages?...
May 11, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501193/immunoaffinity-chromatography-combined-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-a-new-tool-for-the-selective-capture-and-analysis-of-brassinosteroid-plant-hormones
#5
Jana Oklestkova, Danuše Tarkowská, Luděk Eyer, Tomáš Elbert, Aleš Marek, Zora Smržová, Ondřej Novák, Milan Fránek, Vladimir N Zhabinskii, Miroslav Strnad
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant-specific steroid hormones that play essential roles in the regulation of many important physiological processes in plant life. Their extremely low concentrations (~pmoles/g FW) in plant tissue and huge differences in polarity of individual members within the BR family hamper their detection and quantification. To address this problem, an immunoaffinity sorbent with broad specificity and high capacity for different BR metabolites containing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a BR spacer (20S)-2α,3α-dihydroxy-7-oxa-7α-homo-5α-pregnane-6-one-20 carboxylic acid (BR4812) was used for the rapid and highly selective isolation of endogenous BRs containing a 2α,3α-diol in ring A from minute plant samples...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500704/meta-analysis-of-the-transcriptome-reveals-a-core-set-of-shade-avoidance-genes-in-arabidopsis
#6
Romina Sellaro, Manuel Pacín, Jorge J Casal
The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light input perceived by photo-sensory receptors, initiating a signaling cascade that adjusts plant growth and physiology. Thousands of genes can change their expression during this process, but the structure of the transcriptional circuit is poorly understood. Here we present a meta-analysis of transcriptome data from Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to neighbor signals in different contexts, including organs where growth is promoted or inhibited by these signals...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500288/light-perception-in-aerial-tissues-enhances-dwf4-accumulation-in-root-tips-and-induces-root-growth
#7
Jun Sakaguchi, Yuichiro Watanabe
Many attempts have been made to characterize the activities of brassinosteroids (BRs), which are important plant hormones. The crosstalk between light perception and the BR signalling pathway has been extensively studied regarding its effects on photomorphogenesis, especially in elongating etiolated hypocotyls. In contrast, how and where the light induces BR biosynthesis remain uncharacterized. DWF4 is one of the main enzymes involved in the BR biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. We established DWF4-GUS A...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497809/receptor-like-protein-elt1-promotes-brassinosteroid-signaling-through-interacting-with-and-suppressing-the-endocytosis-mediated-degradation-of-receptor-bri1
#8
Bao-Jun Yang, Wen-Hui Lin, Fang-Fang Fu, Zhi-Hong Xu, Hong-Wei Xue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487714/both-light-induced-sa-accumulation-and-eti-mediators-contribute-to-the-cell-death-regulated-by-bak1-and-bkk1
#9
Yang Gao, Yujun Wu, Junbo Du, Yanyan Zhan, Doudou Sun, Jianxin Zhao, Shasha Zhang, Jia Li, Kai He
Receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1 modulate multiple cellular processes including brassinosteroid signaling and PRR-mediated PTI in Arabidopsis. Our previous reports also demonstrated that bak1 bkk1 double mutants exhibit a spontaneous cell death phenotype under normal growth condition. With an unknown mechanism, the cell death in bak1 bkk1 is significantly suppressed when grown in dark but can be quickly induced by light. Furthermore, little is known about intrinsic components involved in BAK1 and BKK1-regulated cell death pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482335/nitric-oxide-mediates-brassinosteroid-induced-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-camellia-sinensis-l
#10
Xin Li, Lan Zhang, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Zhi-Xin Li, Ji-Peng Wei, Chen Shen, Peng Yan, Li-Ping Zhang, Wen-Yan Han
Flavonoids are one of the key secondary metabolites determining the quality of tea. Although exogenous brassinosteroid (BR), a steroidal plant hormone, can stimulate polyphenol biosynthesis in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.), the relevance of endogenous BR in flavonoid accumulation and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that BR enhances flavonoid concentration in tea leaves by inducing an increase in the endogenous concentration of nitric oxide (NO). Notably, exogenous BR increased levels of flavonoids as well as NO in a concentration dependent manner, while suppression of BR levels by an inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, brassinazole (BRz), decreased the concentrations of both flavonoids and NO in tea leaves...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482142/the-brassinosteroid-receptor-bri1-can-generate-cgmp-enabling-cgmp-dependent-downstream-signaling
#11
Janet I Wheeler, Aloysius Wong, Claudius Marondedze, Arnoud J Groen, Lusisizwe Kwezi, Lubna Freihat, Jignesh Vyas, Misjudeen A Raji, Helen R Irving, Chris Gehring
The brassinosteroid receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) is a member of the leucine rich repeat receptor like kinase family. The intracellular kinase domain of BRI1 is an active kinase and also encapsulates a guanylate cyclase catalytic centre. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we confirmed that the recombinant cytoplasmic domain of BRI1 generates pmol amounts of cGMP per μg protein with a preference for magnesium over manganese as a co-factor. Importantly, a functional BRI1 kinase is essential for optimal cGMP generation...
May 8, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481299/integrative-rna-and-mirna-profile-analysis-reveals-a-likely-role-of-br-and-auxin-signaling-in-branch-angle-regulation-of-b-napus
#12
Hongtao Cheng, Mengyu Hao, Wenxiang Wang, Desheng Mei, Rachel Wells, Jia Liu, Hui Wang, Shifei Sang, Min Tang, Rijin Zhou, Wen Chu, Li Fu, Qiong Hu
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is the second largest oilseed crop worldwide and one of the most important oil crops in China. As a component of plant architecture, branch angle plays an important role in yield performance, especially under high-density planting conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of branch angle are still largely not understood. Two oilseed rape lines with significantly different branch angles were used to conduct RNA- and miRNA-profiling at two developmental stages, identifying differential expression of a large number of genes involved in auxin- and brassinosteroid (BR)-related pathways...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479230/characterization-of-synthetic-ecdysteroid-analogues-as-functional-mimics-of-brassinosteroids-in-plant-growth
#13
Jutiporn Thussagunpanit, Kanapol Jutamanee, Sureeporn Homvisasevongsa, Apichart Suksamrarn, Ayumi Yamagami, Takeshi Nakano, Tadao Asami
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroidal hormones that play important roles in many stages of plant growth. Several plant species produce ecdysteroids, which are known as insect molting steroid hormones. In this study, we evaluated the biological activities of three hydroxysteroidal compounds, 20-hydroxyecdysone (ECD), 7,8-dihydro-8α-20-hydroxyecdysone (DHECD), and 7,8-dihydro-5a,8a-20-hydroxyecdysone (a-DHECD), and compared their activities with that of brassinolide (BL), the most potent BR. In rice, DHECD and a-DHECD enhanced the degree of lamina inclination, as do BRs...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461403/scanning-for-new-bri1-receptor-mutations-via-tilling-analysis
#14
Chao Sun, Kan Yan, Jian-Ting Han, Liang Tao, Minghui Lv, Tao Shi, Yong-Xing He, Michael Wierzba, Frans Tax, Jia Li
Identification and characterization of a mutational spectrum for a specific protein can help to elucidate its detailed cellular functions. BRI1, a multidomain transmembrane receptor-like kinase, is a major receptor of brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis. Within the last two decades, over 20 different bri1 mutant alleles have been identified, which helped to determine the significance of each domain within BRI1. To further understand molecular mechanisms of BRI1, we tried to identify additional alleles via TILLING...
May 1, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461270/mass-spectrometric-analyses-reveal-a-central-role-for-ubiquitylation-in-remodeling-the-arabidopsis-proteome-during-photomorphogenesis
#15
Victor Aguilar-Hernández, Do-Young Kim, Robert J Stankey, Mark Scalf, Lloyd M Smith, Richard D Vierstra
The skotomorphogenic to photomorphogenic switch is a key developmental transition in the life of seed plants. While much of the underpinning proteome remodeling is driven by light-induced changes in gene expression, the proteolytic removal of specific proteins by the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system is also likely paramount. Through mass spectrometric analysis of ubiquitylated proteins affinity purified from etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings before and after red-light irradiation, we identified a number of influential proteins whose ubiquitylation status is modified during this switch...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442716/a-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici-secreted-protein-activates-plant-immunity-at-the-cell-surface
#16
Bayantes Dagvadorj, Ahmet Caglar Ozketen, Ayse Andac, Cian Duggan, Tolga Osman Bozkurt, Mahinur S Akkaya
Pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress host immunity, mediate nutrient uptake and subsequently enable parasitism. However, on non-adapted hosts, effectors can be detected as non-self by host immune receptors and activate non-host immunity. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of effector triggered non-host resistance remain unknown. Here, we report that a small cysteine-rich protein PstSCR1 from the wheat rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) activates immunity in the non-host solanaceous model plant Nicotiana benthamiana...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440947/regulation-of-the-turnover-of-acc-synthases-by-phytohormones-and-heterodimerization-in-arabidopsis
#17
Han Yong Lee, Yi-Chun Chen, Joseph J Kieber, Gyeong Mee Yoon
Ethylene influences many aspects of plant growth and development. The biosynthesis of ethylene is highly regulated by a variety of internal and external cues. A key target of this regulation is 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthases (ACS), generally the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, which is regulated both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Prior studies have demonstrated that cytokinin and brassinosteroid (BR) act as regulatory inputs to elevate ethylene biosynthesis by increasing the stability of ACS proteins...
April 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439285/a-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-brassinosteroid-induced-protein-phosphorylation-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#18
Yuxuan Hou, Jiehua Qiu, Yifeng Wang, Zhiyong Li, Juan Zhao, Xiaohong Tong, Haiyan Lin, Jian Zhang
The group of polyhydroxysteroid phytohormones referred to as the brassinosteroids (BRs) is known to act on plant development and the stress response. BR signal transduction relies largely on protein phosphorylation. By employing a label-free, MS (Mass Spectrometry)-based phosphoproteomic approach, we report here the largest profiling of 4,034 phosphosites on 1,900 phosphoproteins from rice young seedlings and their dynamic response to BR. 1,821 proteins, including kinases, transcription factors and core components of BR and other hormone signaling pathways, were found to be differentially phosphorylated during the BR treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438793/brassinosteroid-biosynthesis-is-modulated-via-a-transcription-factor-cascade-of-cog1-pif4-and-pif5
#19
Zhuoyun Wei, Tong Yuan, Danuše Tarkowská, Jeongsik Kim, Hong Gil Nam, Ondřej Novák, Kai He, Xiaoping Gou, Jia Li
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential phytohormones regulating various developmental and physiological processes during normal growth and development. cog1-3D (cogwheel 1-3D) was identified as an activation-tagged genetic modifier of bri1-5, an intermediate BR receptor mutant. COG1 encodes a Dof-type transcription factor previously found to act as a negative regulator of the phytochrome signaling pathway. cog1-3D single mutants show an elongated hypocotyl phenotype under light conditions. Loss-of-function by ethylmethanoesulfonate (EMS) mutation or inducible expression of a dominant-negative form of COG1 results in an opposite phenotype...
April 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432333/metabolomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-maize-embryonic-callus-induced-from-immature-embryo
#20
Fei Ge, Hongmei Hu, Xing Huang, Yanling Zhang, Yanli Wang, Zhaoling Li, Chaoying Zou, Huanwei Peng, Lujiang Li, Shibin Gao, Guangtang Pan, Yaou Shen
The low ratio of embryonic callus (EC) induction has inhibited the rapid development of maize genetic engineering. Still, little is known to explain the genotype-dependence of EC induction. Here, we performed a large-scale, quantitative analysis of the maize EC metabolome and proteome at three typical induction stages in two inbred lines with a range of EC induction capabilities. Comparison of the metabolomes and proteomes suggests that the differential molecular responses begin at an early stage of development and continue throughout the process of EC formation...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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