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Hao Liu, Shuangyu Dong, Fengwei Gu, Wei Liu, Guili Yang, Ming Huang, Wuming Xiao, Yongzhu Liu, Tao Guo, Hui Wang, Zhiqiang Chen, Jiafeng Wang
The regulation of innate immunity and plant growth, along with the trade-off between them, affects the defense and recovery mechanisms of the plant after it is attacked by pathogens. Although it is known that hormonal crosstalk plays a major role in regulating interaction of plant growth and PAMP-triggered immunity, the relationship between plant growth and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) remains unclear. In a large-scale yeast two-hybrid screening for Pik-H4-interacting proteins, a homeodomain transcription factor OsBIHD1 was identified, which is previously known to function in biotic and abiotic stress responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vladyslav Oles, Alexander Panchenko, Andrei Smertenko
Rise of atmospheric CO2 is one of the main causes of global warming. Catastrophic climate change can be avoided by reducing emissions and increasing sequestration of CO2. Trees are known to sequester CO2 during photosynthesis, and then store it as wood biomass. Thus, breeding of trees with higher wood yield would mitigate global warming as well as augment production of renewable construction materials, energy, and industrial feedstock. Wood is made of cellulose-rich xylem cells produced through proliferation of a specialized stem cell niche called cambium...
2017: PloS One
Stéfanie Menezes de Moura, Sinara Artico, Cássio Lima, Sarah Muniz Nardeli, Ana Berbel, Osmundo Brilhante Oliveira-Neto, Maria Fátima Grossi-de-Sá, Cristina Ferrándiz, Francisco Madueño, Márcio Alves-Ferreira
Expression analysis of the AG -subfamily members from G. hirsutum during flower and fruit development. Reproductive development in cotton, including the fruit and fiber formation, is a complex process; it involves the coordinated action of gene expression regulators, and it is highly influenced by plant hormones. Several studies have reported the identification and expression of the transcription factor family MADS-box members in cotton ovules and fibers; however, their roles are still elusive during the reproductive development in cotton...
February 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Sun Young Kim, Yun Shang, Se-Hwan Joo, Seong-Ki Kim, Kyoung Hee Nam
Since the BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1) was firstly identified as a co-receptor of BRI1 that mediates brassinosteroids (BR) signaling, the functional roles of BAK1, as a versatile co-receptor for various ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptor-like kinase (RLKs), are being extended to involvement with plant immunity, cell death, stomatal development and ABA signaling in plants. During more than a decade of research on the BAK1, it has been known that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BAK1 tagged with various reporters do not fully represent its natural functions...
January 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Miao Chen, Zhimin Zhang, Minzhuo Liu, Chen Qiu, Hua Yang, Xiaoqing Chen
A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-functionalized, gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-immobilized paper strip was developed to realize label-free rapid detection of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant tissues. The AuNPs paper strip was fabricated through utilizing poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) as the linker and concentrator for the directly immobilized AuNPs on paper, which can circumvent many drawbacks of the existing SERS substrates. An enhancement factor of 1.13×10(8), high reproducibility (relative standard deviation of 4...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Priti Krishna, Bishun D Prasad, Tawhidur Rahman
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of plant steroidal hormones that play essential roles in plant growth and development. Systematic studies had first been undertaken concomitantly to determine both the effects of exogenous BR on stress phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus (rapeseed) seedlings and the expression of stress marker genes in BR-treated and untreated seedlings. When reproducible and convincing evidence of the role of BR in stress tolerance had been obtained, molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of BR to confer tolerance against heat, cold, drought, and salt stress, as well as pathogen resistance were studied with several molecular approaches and tools...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
David Blasco-Escámez, Fidel Lozano-Elena, Norma Fàbregas, Ana I Caño-Delgado
Roots anchor plants to the soil and are essential for a successful plant growth and adaptation to the environment. Research on the primary root in the plant model system Arabidopsis thaliana has yielded important advances in the molecular and cellular understanding of root growth and development. Several studies have uncovered how the hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) control cell cycle and differentiation programs through different cell-specific signaling pathways that are key for root growth and development...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sara Martins, Grégory Vert, Yvon Jaillais
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are sterol-derived hormones that control plant growth and development. The BR receptor complex is encoded by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and members of the SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE family. For activation and deactivation, the BR receptor complex uses different posttranslational modifications and recruits various partner proteins. Here, we describe optimized immunoprecipitation protocols and variants for biochemical analyses of posttranslational modifications of BRI1 and of protein-protein interactions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Walter van Dongen, Luc van Heerde, Sjef Boeren, Sacco C de Vries
A combination of coimmunoprecipitation (coIP) of tagged proteins followed by protein identification and quantitation using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LCMS/MS) has proven to be a reliable method to qualitatively characterize membrane-bound receptor complexes from plants. Success depends on a range of parameters, such as abundance and stability of the complex and functionality of the tagged receptors, efficiency of the protein complex isolation procedure, MS equipment, and analysis software in use...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Simon J Unterholzner, Wilfried Rozhon, Brigitte Poppenberger
Most signaling cascades ultimately lead to changes in gene expression by modulating the activity of transcription factors (TFs). The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is a simple but powerful in vitro method for investigation of specific protein-DNA interactions. It makes use of the fact that protein-DNA complexes have a lower electrophoretic mobility in gels than free DNA has. The application of labeled probes in combination with unlabeled competitors allows investigation of DNA-binding specificity and identification of binding motifs with single base-pair resolution...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yu Luo, Eugenia Russinova
Plasma membrane-localized receptors are essential for cellular communication and signal transduction. In Arabidopsis thaliana, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) is one of the receptors that is activated by binding to its ligand, the brassinosteroid (BR) hormone, at the cell surface to regulate diverse plant developmental processes. The availability of BRI1 in the plasma membrane is related to its signaling output and is known to be controlled by the dynamic endomembrane trafficking. Advances in fluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy techniques enabled us to gain a better understanding of plasma membrane receptor dynamics in living cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
David Frigola, Ana I Caño-Delgado, Marta Ibañes
Mathematical modeling of biological processes is a useful tool to draw conclusions that are contained in the data, but not directly reachable, as well as to make predictions and select the most efficient follow-up experiments. Here we outline a method to model systems of a few proteins that interact transcriptionally and/or posttranscriptionally, by representing the system as Ordinary Differential Equations and to study the model dynamics and stationary states. We exemplify this method by focusing on the regulation by the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling component BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 ETHYL METHYL SULFONATE SUPPRESSOR1 (BES1) of BRAVO, a quiescence-regulating transcription factor expressed in the quiescent cells of Arabidopsis thaliana roots...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kristina Vragović, Elizabeth Bartom, Sigal Savaldi-Goldstein
Hormonal signaling pathways control almost every aspect of plant physiology and development. Extensive analysis of hormonal signaling output, i.e., gene expression, has therefore been the focus of many studies. These analyses have been primarily conducted on total extracts derived from a mixture of tissues and cell types, consequentially limiting delineation of precise models. In this chapter, methods for tissue-specific functional genomics are overviewed, in which hormonal responses are analyzed at the transcriptional and the translational levels...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Trevor Nolan, Sanzhen Liu, Hongqing Guo, Lei Li, Patrick Schnable, Yanhai Yin
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many growth and developmental processes. BRs signal to regulate BR-INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1 (BES1) and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1) transcription factors (TFs), which, in turn, regulate several hundreds of transcription factors (termed BES1/BZR1-targeted TFs or BTFs) and thousands of genes to mediate various BR responses. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) with BES1/BZR1 and BTFs is an important approach to identify BR target genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rosa Lozano-Durán, Youssef Belkhadir
Pathway cross-communication cannot be simply tackled by studying isolated signaling systems. Yet understanding how signal transduction pathways attenuate or reinforce each other in vivo is a challenging task. In plants, biosynthesis and signaling of brassinosteroids (BRs) finely regulate growth and defense programs through a complex array of mechanistic and physiological interactions. Conversely, induction of defenses also impacts on the BR biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. In this chapter, we present an experimental framework to study the physiological connection between BR-controlled growth and defenses...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sandi Paulišić, Maria José Molina-Contreras, Irma Roig-Villanova, Jaime F Martínez-García
Light perception and hormone signaling in plants are likely connected at multiple points. Light conditions, perceived by photoreceptors, control plant responses by altering hormone concentration, tissue sensitivity, or a combination of both. Whereas it is relatively straightforward to assess the light effects on hormone levels, hormone sensitivity is subjected to interpretation. In Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, hypocotyl length is strongly affected by light conditions. As hypocotyl elongation also depends on brassinosteroids (BRs), assaying this response provides a valuable and easy way to measure the responsiveness of seedlings to BRs and the impact of light...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Claudia Corvalán, Sunghwa Choe
Environmental conditions can affect stability of proteins at transcriptional or posttranscriptional levels to modulate their functions. Here we describe a method to observe changes in protein stability under different light conditions. In brief, Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were maintained under various light regimes from continuous light to total darkness or transitions from light to dark, whereafter total protein was extracted from plants. Proteins were measured and resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hongning Tong, Chengcai Chu
Identification of related mutants contributed a lot to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Establishment of methods to test for the hormone sensitivity is essential for the characterization of the mutants associated with BR responses. Here, we describe detailed procedures for the physiological analysis of BR responses that are regularly applied to test the BR sensitivity of mutants by evaluating the growth of different tissues of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Johan M Winne, Niloufer G Irani, Jos Van den Begin, Annemieke Madder
Synthetic derivatization of hormonally active brassinosteroids (BRs) can provide useful small molecule tools to probe BR signaling pathways, such as fluorescent analogs. However, most biologically active BRs are not suitable for direct chemical conjugation techniques because their derivatization typically requires extensive synthetic work and chemistry expertise. Here, we describe an operationally simple, two-step procedure to prepare and purify an Alexa Fluor 647-castasterone (AFCS) from commercially available materials...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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