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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913097/effect-of-24-epibrassinolide-on-brassica-napus-alternative-respiratory-pathway-guard-cells-movements-and-phospholipid-signaling-under-salt-stress
#1
Michael Derevyanchuk, Sergii Kretynin, Oksana Iakovenko, Raisa Litvinovskaya, Vladimir Zhabinskii, Jan Martinec, Yaroslav Blume, Vladimir Khripach, Volodymyr Kravets
Using Brassica napus roots we observed statistically significant increase in alternative respiratory pathway in response to exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) under optimal conditions and salinity. Also we observed activation of phospholipid signaling under the same conditions in response to EBL by measuring levels of lipid second messengers - diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA). We found that brassinosteroids cause closure of stomata in isolated leaf disks while inhibitors of alternative oxidase cancelled these effects...
November 29, 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900723/small-grain-11-controls-grain-size-grain-number-and-grain-yield-in-rice
#2
Na Fang, Ran Xu, Luojiang Huang, Baolan Zhang, Penggen Duan, Na Li, Yuehua Luo, Yunhai Li
BACKGROUND: Grain size is one of key agronomic traits that determine grain yield in rice. Several regulators of grain size have been identified in rice, but the mechanisms that determine grain size and yield remain largely unknown. RESULTS: Here we characterize a small grain (smg11) mutant in rice, which exhibits small grains, dense panicles and the increased number of grains per panicle. Cloning and sequence analyses of the SMG11 gene reveal that smg11 is a new allele of DWARF2 (D2), which encodes a cytochrome P450 (CYP90D2) involved in brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway...
December 2016: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884939/regulation-of-sugar-transporter-activity-for-antibacterial-defense-in-arabidopsis
#3
Kohji Yamada, Yusuke Saijo, Hirofumi Nakagami, Yoshitaka Takano
Microbial pathogens strategically acquire metabolites from their hosts during infection. Here we show that the host can intervene to prevent such metabolite loss to pathogens. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of sugar transporter 13 (STP13) is required for antibacterial defense in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana STP13 physically associates with the flagellin receptor flagellin-sensitive 2 (FLS2) and its co-receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1). BAK1 phosphorylates STP13 at threonine 485, which enhances its monosaccharide uptake activity to compete with bacteria for extracellular sugars...
November 24, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879391/rice-leaf-angle-and-grain-size-are-affected-by-the-osbul1-transcriptional-activator-complex
#4
Seonghoe Jang, Gynheung An, Hsing-Yi Li
Rice atypical HLH protein Oryza sativa BRASSINOSTEROID UPREGULATED 1-LIKE 1 (OsBUL1) is preferentially expressed in the laminar joint where it controls cell elongation and positively affects leaf angles. OsBUL1 knockout mutant (osbul1) and transgenic rice for double stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi) of OsBUL1 produced erected leaves with smaller grains whereas OsBUL1 overexpressors and an activation tagging line of OsBUL1 exhibited increased laminar inclination and grain size. Moreover, OsBUL1 expression was induced by brassinolide (BL) and osbul1 did not respond to BL treatment...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864771/hormone-profiling-in-plant-tissues
#5
Maren Müller, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Plant hormones are for a long time known to act as chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. Furthermore, plant hormones simultaneously coordinate physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To study the hormonal regulation of physiological processes, three main approaches have been used (1) exogenous application of hormones, (2) correlative studies through measurements of endogenous hormone levels, and (3) use of transgenic and/or mutant plants altered in hormone metabolism or signaling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864768/hormone-receptor-glycosylation
#6
Ulrike Vavra, Christiane Veit, Richard Strasser
Glycosylation is essential for all trees of life. N-glycosylation is one of the most common covalent protein modifications and influences a large variety of cellular processes including protein folding, quality control and protein-receptor interactions. Despite recent progress in understanding of N-glycan biosynthesis, our knowledge of N-glycan function on individual plant proteins is still very limited. In this respect, plant hormone receptors are an interesting group of proteins as several of these proteins are present at distinct sites in the secretory pathway or at the plasma membrane and have numerous potential N-glycosylation sites...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856707/brassinosteroids-modulate-aba-induced-stomatal-closure-in-arabidopsis
#7
Yunmi Ha, Yun Shang, Kyoung Hee Nam
Stomatal movement in response to water availability is an important physiological process in the survival of land plants. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate stomatal closure. The physiological functions of ABA and BRs, including germination, cell elongation and stomatal movement, are generally known to be antagonistic. Here, we investigated how BRs affect stomatal movement alone and in combination with ABA. We demonstrate that brassinoslide (BL), the most active BR, promotes stomatal closure in an ABA-independent manner...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824062/transcriptome-analysis-uncovers-key-regulatory-and-metabolic-aspects-of-soybean-embryonic-axes-during-germination
#8
Daniel Bellieny-Rabelo, Eduardo Alves Gamosa De Oliveira, Elaneda Silva Ribeiro, Evenilton Pessoa Costa, Antônia Elenir Amâncio Oliveira, Thiago Motta Venancio
Soybean (Glycine max) is a major legume crop worldwide, providing a critical source of protein and oil. The release of the soybean genome fuelled several transcriptome projects comprising multiple developmental stages and environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the global transcriptional patterns of embryonic axes during germination remain unknown. Here we report the analysis of ~1.58 billion RNA-Seq reads from soybean embryonic axes at five germination stages. Our results support the early activation of processes that are critical for germination, such as glycolysis, Krebs cycle and cell wall remodelling...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815670/novel-rice-mutants-overexpressing-the-brassinosteroid-catabolic-gene-cyp734a4
#9
Wenjing Qian, Chao Wu, Yaping Fu, Guocheng Hu, Zhengquan He, Wenzhen Liu
Moderate overexpression of CYP734A4 improves grain number per main panicle and seed setting rate. Brassinosteroid (BR) homeostasis and signaling are crucial for plant growth and development. CYP734A genes encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases that control the level of bioactive BRs by degrading BRs. However, fertile plants overexpressing CYP734As have not been reported in rice. Here, we isolated a novel semi-dominant mutant brd3-D, in which T-DNA was inserted approximately 4 kb upstream of the CYP734A4 gene (GenBank Accession AB488667), causing its overexpression...
November 4, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815033/brassinosteroid-induced-changes-of-lipid-composition-in-leaves-of-pisum-sativum-l-during-senescence
#10
Evgenia Fedina, Andrey Yarin, Faimya Mukhitova, Alexander Blufard, Ivan Chechetkin
The effect of steroid phytohormone 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the composition of some lipid classes (free fatty acids, triacylglycerols and galactolipids) in detached pea leaves was studied for the first time. EBR (0.1μM) promoted senescence and increased the content of 14:0, 16:0 and 18:1 free fatty acids as well as 18:2 and 18:3 bound to triacylglycerols in the detached leaves in contrast to mock-treated leaves. The content of all identified fatty acids bound to galactolipids decreased in the detached leaves treated with EBR compared to that in mock-treated leaves...
November 2, 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810675/local-and-systemic-hormonal-responses-in-pepper-leaves-during-compatible-and-incompatible-pepper-tobamovirus-interactions
#11
Michał Dziurka, Anna Janeczko, Csilla Juhász, Gábor Gullner, Jana Oklestková, Ondrej Novák, Diana Saja, Andrzej Skoczowski, István Tóbiás, Balázs Barna
Phytohormone levels and the expression of genes encoding key enzymes participating in hormone biosynthetic pathways were investigated in pepper leaves inoculated with two different tobamoviruses. Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) inoculation led to the development of hypersensitive reaction (incompatible interaction), while Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) inoculation resulted in a systemic, compatible interaction. ObPV-inoculation markedly increased not only the levels of salicylic acid (SA) (73-fold) and jasmonic acid (8-fold) but also those of abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, cis-zeatin, cis-zeatin-9-riboside and trans-zeatin-9-riboside in the inoculated pepper leaves 3 days post inoculation...
October 14, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803931/brassinolide-increases-potato-root-growth-in-vitro-in-a-dose-dependent-way-and-alleviates-salinity-stress
#12
Yueqing Hu, Shitou Xia, Yi Su, Huiqun Wang, Weigui Luo, Shengying Su, Langtao Xiao
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that regulate various physiological processes, such as root development and stress tolerance. In the present study, we showed that brassinolide (BL) affects potato root in vitro growth in a dose-dependent manner. Low BL concentrations (0.1 and 0.01 μg/L) promoted root elongation and lateral root development, whereas high BL concentrations (1-100 μg/L) inhibited root elongation. There was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between root activity and BL concentrations within a range from 0...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803191/transcriptional-analysis-of-serk1-and-serk3-coreceptor-mutants
#13
G Wilma van Esse, Colette A Ten Hove, Francesco Guzzonato, H Peter van Esse, Mark Boekschoten, Lars Ridder, Jacques Vervoort, Sacco C de Vries
Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) are ligand-binding coreceptors that are able to combine with different ligand-perceiving receptors such as BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE2. Phenotypical analysis of serk single mutants is not straightforward because multiple pathways can be affected, while redundancy is observed for a single phenotype. For example, serk1serk3 double mutant roots are insensitive toward brassinosteroids but have a phenotype different from bri1 mutant roots...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794018/class-iii-hd-zips-govern-vascular-cell-fate-an-hd-view-on-patterning-and-differentiation
#14
REVIEW
Prashanth Ramachandran, Annelie Carlsbecker, J Peter Etchells
Plant vasculature is required for the transport of water and solutes throughout the plant body. It is constituted of xylem, specialized for transport of water, and phloem, that transports photosynthates. These two differentiated tissues are specified early in development and arise from divisions in the procambium, which is the vascular meristem during primary growth. During secondary growth, the xylem and phloem are further expanded via differentiation of cells derived from divisions in the cambium. Almost all of the developmental fate decisions in this process, including vascular specification, patterning, and differentiation, are regulated by transcription factors belonging to the class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP III) family...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791461/looking-bak-again-is-an-old-acquaintance-of-innate-immunity-involved-in-the-detection-of-herbivores
#15
Dominik Klauser, Pascale Flury, Thomas Boller, Sebastian Merker
The membrane-based receptor-like kinase BAK1 has been reported to interact with a number of other membrane-based receptors to contribute to a variety of signaling responses to exogenous and endogenous cues. These include brassinosteroid hormones as well as conserved microbe-derived and endogenous patterns. More recently, several lines of evidence have been reported to expand this concept also to the detection and deterrence of insect herbivores. We hereby present results that further support this hypothesis as they show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, herbivore oral secretions trigger two hallmark responses of plant innate immunity and that these responses are significantly reduced in plants that lack functional BAK1 receptors...
October 28, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790226/sterility-caused-by-floral-organ-degeneration-and-abiotic-stresses-in-arabidopsis-and-cereal-grains
#16
REVIEW
Ashley R Smith, Dazhong Zhao
Natural floral organ degeneration or abortion results in unisexual or fully sterile flowers, while abiotic stresses lead to sterility after initiation of floral reproductive organs. Since normal flower development is essential for plant sexual reproduction and crop yield, it is imperative to have a better understanding of plant sterility under regular and stress conditions. Here, we review the functions of ABC genes together with their downstream genes in floral organ degeneration and the formation of unisexual flowers in Arabidopsis and several agriculturally significant cereal grains...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752946/co-application-of-6-ketone-type-brassinosteroid-and-metal-chelator-alleviates-cadmium-toxicity-in-b-juncea-l
#17
Ravdeep Kaur, Poonam Yadav, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Amandeep Walia, Renu Bhardwaj
Plant growth regulator-assisted phytoremediation has been assessed as a novel strategy to improve phytoremediation potential of plants. In the present work, potential of castasterone, a plant growth regulator, combined with citric acid was explored for phytoremediation of cadmium in Brassica juncea seedlings. The seedlings were raised under controlled laboratory conditions for 7 days. Results revealed that 0.6 mM cadmium exposure induced toxicity in the seedlings, which was reflected through root growth inhibition, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, and loss of cell viability...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739914/reactive-oxygen-species-generating-system-and-brassinosteroids-are-linked-to-salt-stress-adaptation-mechanisms-in-rice
#18
Navdeep Kaur, Kamal Kirat, Shivani Saini, Isha Sharma, Pascal Gantet, Pratap Kumar Pati
Salinity stress is one of the major environmental challenges which adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The acquisition of salinity stress tolerance has been an interesting area of investigation for plant abiotic stress management. Recently, we investigated the interdependency of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating and scavenging system for offering salt stress adaptation in rice. In continuation to our earlier findings, in the present study we analysed the transcript level expression of different respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) genes in salt sensitive and salt tolerant cultivars of rice to corroborate this result with their activities...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739520/ethylene-and-hydrogen-peroxide-are-involved-in-brassinosteroid-induced-salt-tolerance-in-tomato
#19
Tong Zhu, Xingguang Deng, Xue Zhou, Lisha Zhu, Lijuan Zou, Pengxu Li, Dawei Zhang, Honghui Lin
Crosstalk between phytohormone pathways is essential in plant growth, development and stress responses. Brassinosteroids (BRs) and ethylene are both pivotal plant growth regulators, and the interaction between these two phytohormones in the tomato response to salt stress is still unclear. Here, we explored the mechanism by which BRs affect ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in tomato seedlings under salt stress. The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), an ethylene synthesis enzyme, and the ethylene signaling pathway were activated in plants pretreated with BRs...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733113/gene-expression-and-metabolism-preceding-soft-scald-a-chilling-injury-of-honeycrisp-apple-fruit
#20
Rachel S Leisso, Nigel E Gapper, James P Mattheis, Nathanael L Sullivan, Christopher B Watkins, James J Giovannoni, Robert J Schaffer, Jason W Johnston, Ines Hanrahan, Maarten L A T M Hertog, Bart M Nicolaï, David R Rudell
BACKGROUND: 'Honeycrisp' is an apple cultivar that is susceptible to soft scald, a chilling injury expressed as necrotic patches on the peel. Improved understanding of metabolism associated with the disorder would improve our understanding of soft scald and contribute to developing more effective management strategies for apple storage. It was expected that specific gene expression and specific metabolite levels in the peel would be linked with soft scald risk at harvest and/or specific time points during cold storage...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
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