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Tian Tian Tan, Hitoshi Endo, Ryosuke Sano, Tetsuya Kurata, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Misato Ohtani, Taku Demura
Arabidopsis thaliana VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN1 (VND1) to VND7 encode a group of NAC domain transcription factors that function as master regulators of xylem vessel element differentiation. These transcription factors activate the transcription of genes required for secondary cell wall formation and programmed cell death - key events in xylem vessel element differentiation. Because constitutive overexpression of VND6 and VND7 induces ectopic xylem vessel element differentiation, functional studies of VND proteins have largely focused on these two proteins...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Kaijie Zheng, Yating Wang, Na Zhang, Qiming Jia, Xutong Wang, Chunjiang Hou, Jin-Gui Chen, Shucai Wang
Auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development including cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation, which are achieved largely by rapid regulation of auxin response genes. However, the functions of a large number of auxin response genes remain uncharacterized. Paclobutrazol Resistance (PRE) proteins are non-DNA binding basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that have been shown to be involved in gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling, and light responses in Arabidopsis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fang Liu, Pandi Wang, Xiaobo Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Xiaohong Yan, Donghui Fu, Gang Wu
This review presents genetic and molecular basis of crop height using a rice crop model. Height is controlled by multiple genes with potential to be manipulated through breeding strategies to improve productivity. Height is an important factor affecting crop architecture, apical dominance, biomass, resistance to lodging, tolerance to crowding and mechanical harvesting. The impressive increase in wheat and rice yield during the 'green revolution' benefited from a combination of breeding for high-yielding dwarf varieties together with advances in agricultural mechanization, irrigation and agrochemical/fertilizer use...
November 6, 2017: Planta
Yun-Jeong Han, Young Soon Kim, Ok-Jin Hwang, Jeehee Roh, Keya Ganguly, Seong-Ki Kim, Ildoo Hwang, Jeong-Il Kim
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are naturally occurring steroidal hormones that play diverse roles in various processes during plant growth and development. Thus, genetic manipulation of endogenous BR levels might offer a way of improving the agronomic traits of crops, including plant architecture and stress tolerance. In this study, we produced transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) overexpressing a BR-inactivating enzyme, Arabidopsis thaliana BR-related acyltransferase 1 (AtBAT1), which is known to catalyze the conversion of BR intermediates to inactive acylated conjugates...
2017: PloS One
Li-Qin Li, Xue Zou, Meng-Sheng Deng, Jie Peng, Xue-Li Huang, Xue Lu, Chen-Cheng Fang, Xi-Yao Wang
Sprouting regulation in potato tubers is important for improving commercial value and producing new plants. Camphor shows flexible inhibition of tuber sprouting and prolongs the storage period of potato, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. The results of the present study suggest that camphor inhibition caused bud growth deformities and necrosis, but after moving to more ventilated conditions, new sprouts grew from the bud eye of the tuber. Subsequently, the sucrose and fructose contents as well as polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were assessed after camphor inhibition...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yun Lin, Zhigang Zhao, Shirong Zhou, Linglong Liu, Weiyi Kong, Haiyuan Chen, Wuhua Long, Zhiming Feng, Ling Jiang, Jianmin Wan
Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate several aspects of plant growth and development. Although extensive studies have shown that BR signaling is conservative in higher plants, the molecular mechanism of regulating plant architecture in rice still remains to be explored. Here, we characterized a rice mutant named top bending panicle1 (tbp1). Compared to wild type, tbp1 mutant plants displayed semi-dwarf stature, erect leaves, small and round grains, as well as more tillers. Remarkably, the panicles of tbp1 plants were shorter and denser, and the tops of the panicles were curved by rolling of the base of flag leaves, which was later verified as due to reduced bulliform cell numbers...
October 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xiaoli Wang, Chenxi Xu, Xiaofeng Cai, Quanhua Wang, Shaojun Dai
Heat stress is a major abiotic stress posing a serious threat to plants. Heat-responsive mechanisms in plants are complicated and fine-tuned. Heat signaling transduction and photosynthesis are highly sensitive. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanism in heat stressed-signaling transduction and photosynthesis is necessary to protect crop yield. Current high-throughput proteomics investigations provide more useful information for underlying heat-responsive signaling pathways and photosynthesis modulation in plants...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chris Gehring, Ilona S Turek
The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Eunkyeong Jeon, Na Young Kang, Chuloh Cho, Pil Joon Seo, Mi Chung Suh, Jungmook Kim
The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN/ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE (LBD/ASL) gene family members play key roles in diverse aspects of plant development. Previous studies have shown that LBD16, 18, 29, and 33 are critical for integrating the plant hormone auxin to control lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we show that LBD14 is expressed exclusively in the root where it promotes lateral root (LR) emergence. Repression of LBD14 expression by ABA correlates with the inhibitory effects of ABA on LR emergence...
October 11, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Maria Filek, Elżbieta Rudolphi-Skórska, Apolonia Sieprawska, Miroslav Kvasnica, Anna Janeczko
Steroids constitute one of the most important groups of compounds of regulatory properties both in the animal and plant kingdom. In plants, steroids such as brassinosteroids or progesterone, by binding to protein receptors in cell membranes, regulate growth and initiate processes leading to increased tolerance to stress conditions. Due to their structural similarities to sterols, these steroids may also directly interact with cellular membranes. Our aim was to determine the changes of the structural parameters of lipid membranes under the influence of hydrophobic steroid compounds, i...
October 10, 2017: Steroids
Keini Dressano, Paulo H O Ceciliato, Aparecida L Silva, Juan Carlos Guerrero-Abad, Tábata Bergonci, Fausto Andrés Ortiz-Morea, Marco Bürger, Marcio C Silva-Filho, Daniel S Moura
The rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) peptide negatively regulates cell expansion, and an antagonistic relationship has been demonstrated between AtRALF1, a root-specific RALF isoform in Arabidopsis, and brassinosteroids (BRs). An evaluation of the response of BR signaling mutants to AtRALF1 revealed that BRI1-associated receptor kinase1 (bak1) mutants are insensitive to AtRALF1 root growth inhibition activity. BAK1 was essential for the induction of AtRALF1-responsive genes but showed no effect on the mobilization of Ca2+ and alkalinization responses...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
Jiani Chen, Yanhai Yin
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are critical for the plant growth and development. BRs signal through the plasma membrane localized receptor-like kinases to downstream transcription factors BES1/BZR1 to regulate the expression of thousands of genes for various BR responses. In addition to the role in plant growth and development, BRs have been implicated in responses to environmental stresses such as drought. However, the mechanism through which BRs regulate drought have just begun emerging. We have recently found that a group of WRKY transcription factors, WRKY46, WRKY54, WRKY70, which are well known for the function in abiotic and biotic stress, cooperates with BES1 to mediate BR-regulated drought response...
October 13, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yunhua Xiao, Dapu Liu, Guoxia Zhang, Hongning Tong, Chengcai Chu
Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate important agronomic traits in rice, including plant height, leaf angle, and grain size. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. We previously showed that GSK2, the central negative regulator of BR signaling, targets DLT, the GRAS family protein, to regulate BR responses. Here, we identified Ovate Family Protein 1 (OFP1) as a DLT interacting protein. OFP1 was ubiquitously expressed and the protein was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of OFP1 led to enlarged leaf angles, reduced plant height, and altered grain shape, largely resembled DLT overexpression plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Huiping Bi, Weijuan Fan, Peng Zhang
Sweepoviruses have been identified globally and cause substantial yield losses and cultivar decline in sweet potato. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between sweepovirus and plant host by analyzing the function of the viral protein C4 of Sweet potato leaf curl virus-Jiangsu (SPLCV-JS), a sweepovirus cloned from diseased sweet potato plants in East China. Ectopic expression of the C4 in Arabidopsis altered plant development drastically with phenotypic changes including leaf curling, seedling twisting, deformation of floral tissues and reduction of pollen fertility, and seed number...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dagmara Jakubowska, Małgorzata Janicka
The present research aim was to define the role of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant adaptation to cadmium stress. We observed a stimulating effect of exogenous BR on the activity of two plasma membrane enzymes which play a key role in plants adaptation to cadmium stress, H(+)-ATPase (EC and NADPH oxidase (EC Using anti-phosphothreonine antibody we showed that modification of PM H(+)-ATPase activity under BR action could result from phosphorylation of the enzyme protein. Also the relative expression of genes encoding both PM H(+)-ATPase and NADPH oxidase was affected by BR...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Akanksha Singh, Paramjit Khurana
Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) belong to a small gene family of receptor-like kinases involved in signal transduction. A total of 54 genes were shortlisted from the wheat genome survey sequence of which 5 were classified as SERKs and 49 were identified as SERK-like (SERLs). Tissue- specific expression of TaSERKs at major developmental stages of wheat corroborates their indispensable role during somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. TaSERK transcripts show inherent differences in their hormonal sensitivities, i...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Jamshed, Siyu Liang, Neil M N Hickerson, Marcus A Samuel
Protein farnesylation refers to the addition of a 15-carbon farnesyl isoprenoid to the cysteine residue of the CaaX motif at the carboxy terminus of target proteins. In spite of its known roles in plant development and abiotic stress tolerance, how these processes are precisely regulated by farnesylation had remained elusive. We recently showed that CYP85A2, the cytochrome P450, which converts castasterone to brassinolide in the last step of brassinosteroid synthesis must be farnesylated in order to function in this pathway...
October 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yi Hao, Chuanxin Ma, Zetian Zhang, Youhong Song, Weidong Cao, Jing Guo, Guopeng Zhou, Yukui Rui, Liming Liu, Baoshan Xing
The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity effects of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), namely fullerene (C60), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), on a mini-ecosystem of rice grown in a loamy potted soil. We measured plant physiological and biochemical parameters and examined bacterial community composition in the CNMs-treated plant-soil system. After 30 days of exposure, all the three CNMs negatively affected the shoot height and root length of rice, significantly decreased root cortical cells diameter and resulted in shrinkage and deformation of cells, regardless of exposure doses (50 or 500 mg/kg)...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Chuanwei Yang, Lin Li
At high vegetation density, shade-intolerant plants sense a reduction in the red (660 nm) to far-red (730 nm) light ratio (R/FR) in addition to a general reduction in light intensity. These light signals trigger a spectrum of morphological changes manifested by growth of stem-like tissue (hypocotyl, petiole, etc.) instead of harvestable organs (leaves, fruits, seeds, etc.)-namely, shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Common phenotypical changes related to SAS are changes in leaf hyponasty, an increase in hypocotyl and internode elongation and extended petioles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Majken Pagter, Jessica Alpers, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka, Ellen Zuther, Dirk K Hincha
BACKGROUND: During low temperature exposure, temperate plant species increase their freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. This is accompanied by dampened oscillations of circadian clock genes and disrupted oscillations of output genes and metabolites. During deacclimation in response to warm temperatures, cold acclimated plants lose freezing tolerance and resume growth and development. While considerable effort has been directed toward understanding the molecular and metabolic basis of cold acclimation, much less information is available about the regulation of deacclimation...
September 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
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