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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306799/purine-salvage-in-plants
#1
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ashihara, Claudio Stasolla, Tatsuhito Fujimura, Alan Crozier
Purine bases and nucleosides are produced by turnover of nucleotides and nucleic acids as well as from some cellular metabolic pathways. Adenosine released from the S-adenosyl-L-methionine cycle is linked to many methyltransferase reactions, such as the biosynthesis of caffeine and glycine betaine. Adenine is produced by the methionine cycles, which is related to other biosynthesis pathways, such those for the production of ethylene, nicotianamine and polyamines. These purine compounds are recycled for nucleotide biosynthesis by so-called "salvage pathways"...
January 4, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301955/the-cytokinin-oxidase-dehydrogenase-ckx1-is-a-membrane-bound-protein-requiring-homooligomerization-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-for-its-cellular-activity
#2
Michael C E Niemann, Henriette Weber, Tomáš Hluska, Georgeta Leonte, Samantha M Anderson, Ondrej Novak, Alessandro Senes, Tomas Werner
Degradation of the plant hormone cytokinin is controlled by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) enzymes. The molecular and cellular behavior of these proteins is still largely unknown. In this study, we show that CKX1 is a type-II single-pass membrane protein that predominantly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This indicates that this CKX isoform is a bona fide ER protein directly controlling the cytokinin which triggers the signaling from the ER. By using various approaches, we demonstrate that CKX1 forms homodimers and homooligomers in vivo...
January 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299612/characterisation-of-a-novel-quantitative-trait-locus-gn4-1-for-grain-number-and-yield-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#3
Yong Zhou, Yajun Tao, Yuan Yuan, Yanzhou Zhang, Jun Miao, Ron Zhang, Chuandeng Yi, Zhiyun Gong, Zefeng Yang, Guohua Liang
A novel QTL for grain number, GN4-1, was identified and fine-mapped to an ~ 190-kb region on the long arm of rice chromosome 4. Rice grain yield is primarily determined by three components: number of panicles per plant, grain number per panicle and grain weight. Among these traits, grain number per panicle is the major contributor to grain yield formation and is a crucial trait for yield improvement. In this study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for rice grain number on chromosome 4, designated GN4-1 (a QTL for Grain Number on chromosome 4), using advanced segregating populations derived from the crosses between an elite indica cultivar 'Zhonghui 8006' (ZH8006) and a japonica rice 'Wuyunjing 8' (WYJ8)...
January 3, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284741/converging-energy-and-hormonal-signalling-control-meristem-activity-leaf-initiation-and-growth
#4
Binish Mohammed, Sara Farahi Bilooei, Robert Doczi, Elliot Grove, Saana Railo, Klaus Palme, Franck Anicet Ditengou, László Bögre, Enrique Lopez-Juez
The development of leaf primordia is subject to light control of meristematic activity. Light regulates the expression of thousands of genes with roles in cell proliferation, organ development and differentiation of photosynthetic cells. Previous work has highlighted roles for hormone homeostasis and the energy-dependent TOR kinase in meristematic activity, yet a picture of how these two regulatory mechanisms depend on light perception and interact with each other is yet to emerge. Their relevance beyond leaf initiation is also unclear...
December 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275214/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-comparative-analysis-between-male-and-benzyladenine-induced-female-inflorescence-buds-of-plukenetia-volubilis
#5
Qiantang Fu, Longjian Niu, Mao-Sheng Chen, Yan-Bin Tao, Xiulan Wang, Huiying He, Bang-Zhen Pan, Zeng-Fu Xu
Plukenetia volubilis is a promising oilseed crop due to its seeds being rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid. P. volubilis is monoecious, with separate male and female flowers on the same inflorescence. We previously reported that male flowers were converted to female flowers by exogenous cytokinin (6-benzyladenine, 6-BA) treatment in P. volubilis. To identify candidate genes associated with floral sex differentiation of P. volubilis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis on control male inflorescence buds (MIB) and female inflorescence buds (FIB) induced by 6-BA using Illumina sequencing technology...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275195/nitric-oxide-mediated-integrative-alterations-in-plant-metabolism-to-confer-abiotic-stress-tolerance-no-crosstalk-with-phytohormones-and-no-mediated-post-translational-modifications-in-modulating-diverse-plant-stress
#6
REVIEW
Fareen Sami, Mohammad Faizan, Ahmad Faraz, Husna Siddiqui, Mohammad Yusuf, Shamsul Hayat
Nitric oxide (NO) is a major signaling biomolecule associated with signal transduction in plants. The beneficial role of NO in plants, exposed to several abiotic stresses shifted our understanding as it being not only free radical, released from the toxic byproducts of oxidative metabolism but also helps in plant sustenance. An explosion of research in plant NO biology during the last two decades has revealed that NO is a key signal associated with plant growth, germination, photosynthesis, leaf senescence, pollen growth and reorientation...
December 21, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273417/an-appraisal-on-synthetic-and-pharmaceutical-perspectives-of-pyrazolo-4-3-d-pyrimidine-scaffold
#7
REVIEW
Srinivasulu Cherukupalli, Girish A Hampannavar, Sampath Chinnam, Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Nisar Sayyad, Francis Kayamba, Rajeshwar Reddy Aleti, Rajshekhar Karpoormath
Pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine, a fused heterocycle bearing pyrazole and pyrimidine portions has gained a significant attention in the field of bioorganic and medicinal chemistry. Pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives have demonstrated numerous pharmacological activities particularly, anti-cancer, anti-infectious, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenosine antagonists and cytokinin antagonists etc. This review extensively unveils the synthetic and pharmacological diversity with special emphasis on structural variations around pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold...
October 25, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249045/longitudinal-patterning-in-roots-a-gata2-auxin-interaction-underlies-and-maintains-the-root-transition-domain
#8
Keni Jiang, Vincent Yung, Taisei Chiba, Lewis J Feldman
In Arabidopsis thaliana root meristems the GATA2 transcription factor is a marker for the root transition domain, is auxin regulated, and functions to restrict cell division activity. The growing part of roots is comprised of three discrete regions; the proliferative domain (PD), an elongation zone, and interposed between these two, the transition domain (TD), which is the focus of this investigation. Within the TD, it is hypothesized that cells are reprogrammed, losing the capacity to divide and begin to differentiate...
December 16, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240991/consequences-of-sphaeropsis-tip-blight-disease-for-the-phytohormone-profile-and-anti-oxidative-metabolism-of-its-pine-host
#9
Bin Hu, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Johanna Bußkamp, Gitta J Langer, Franziska S Peters, Jörg Schumacher, Monika Eiblmeier, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Heinz Rennenberg
Phytopathogenic fungi infections induce plant defense responses that mediate changes in metabolic and signaling processes with severe consequences for plant growth and development. Sphaeropsis tip blight, induced by the endophytic fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea that spreads from stem tissues to the needles, is the most widespread disease of conifer forests causing dramatic economic losses. However, metabolic consequences of this disease on bark and wood tissues of its host are largely unexplored. Here we show that diseased host pines experience tissue dehydration in both bark and wood...
December 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239473/polyamines-regulating-phytic-acid-degradation-in-mung-bean-sprouts
#10
Ting Zhou, Pei Wang, Runqiang Yang, Zhenxin Gu
BACKGROUND: Polyamines are essentially involved in cell division and differentiation. Transport of polyamine is ATP dependent, while phytic acid is the major reserve of phosphate essential to the energy-producing machinery of cells. Thus, polyamines might enhance phytic acid degradation during mung bean germination. In this study, different polyamines [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)] and dicyclohexylamine (DCHA, a Spd synthesis inhibitor) were applied to investigate the function of polyamines on phytic acid degradation...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238355/effect-of-the-winter-wheat-cheyenne-5a-substituted-chromosome-on-dynamics-of-abscisic-acid-and-cytokinins-in-freezing-sensitive-chinese-spring-genetic-background
#11
Balázs Kalapos, Aliz Novák, Petre Dobrev, Pavel Vítámvás, Ferenc Marincs, Gábor Galiba, Radomira Vanková
The effect of short- and long-term cold treatment on the abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (CK) metabolism, and their main biosynthesis- and signaling-related genes were investigated in freezing-sensitive and freezing-tolerant wheat genotypes. Varieties Cheyenne and Chinese Spring substituted with the 5A Cheyenne chromosome, which represented freezing-tolerant genotypes, were compared with the freezing-sensitive Chinese Spring. Hormone levels and gene expression data indicated that the short- and long-term cold treatments are associated with specific regulation of the accumulation of cold-protective proteins and phytohormone levels, as well as the expression profiles of the hormone-related genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233938/regulation-of-hormonal-control-cell-reprogramming-and-patterning-during-de-novo-root-organogenesis
#12
Estefano Bustillo-Avendaño, Sergio Ibáñez, Oscar Sanz, Jessica Aline Sousa Barross, Inmaculada Gude, Juan Perianez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis Micol, Juan Carlos Del Pozo, Miguel A Moreno-Risueno, Jose Manuel Perez-Perez
Body regeneration through formation of new organs is a major question in developmental biology. We investigated de novo root formation using whole leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that local cytokinin biosynthesis and auxin biosynthesis in the leaf blade followed by auxin long-distance transport to the petiole leads to proliferation of J0121-marked xylem-associated tissues and others through signaling of INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE28 (IAA28), CRANE (IAA18), WOODEN LEG, and ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS1 (ARR1), ARR10 and ARR12...
December 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223877/transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-complex-and-interconnected-sucrose-signaling-cascades-in-developing-seeds-of-castor-bean
#13
Bin Wang, Yang Zhang, Mohammad Enamul Haque, Wei Xu, Fei Li, Aizhong Liu
Seeds are highly specific organs that strongly sink sucrose resources from leaf and stem tissues to trigger seed metabolism and development. In particular, for heterotrophic non-green seeds, the potential molecular mechanism underlying sucrose-driven seed development remains unanswered. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a typical non-green seed, has been considered as a model plant for seed biology study in dicotyledonous plants due to its heterotrophic seeds with persistent endosperms. In the present study, the fast-developing castor bean seeds were treated with exogenous sucrose and mannitol for four hours...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220348/the-pea-branching-rms2-gene-encodes-the-psafb4-5-auxin-receptor-and-is-involved-in-an-auxin-strigolactone-regulation-loop
#14
Yasmine Ligerot, Alexandre de Saint Germain, Tanya Waldie, Christelle Troadec, Sylvie Citerne, Nikita Kadakia, Jean-Paul Pillot, Michael Prigge, Grégoire Aubert, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Ottoline Leyser, Mark Estelle, Frédéric Debellé, Catherine Rameau
Strigolactones (SLs) are well known for their role in repressing shoot branching. In pea, increased transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes are observed in stems of highly branched SL deficient (ramosus1 (rms1) and rms5) and SL response (rms3 and rms4) mutants indicative of negative feedback control. In contrast, the highly branched rms2 mutant has reduced transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes. Grafting studies and hormone quantification led to a model where RMS2 mediates a shoot-to-root feedback signal that regulates both SL biosynthesis gene transcript levels and xylem sap levels of cytokinin exported from roots...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219729/drought-stress-responses-in-maize-are-diminished-by-piriformospora-indica
#15
Wenying Zhang, Jun Wang, Le Xu, Aiai Wang, Lan Huang, Hewei Du, Lijuan Qiu, Ralf Oelmüller
As an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, Piriformospora indica promotes plant growth and resistance to abiotic stress, including drought. Colonization of maize roots promoted the leaf size, root length and number of tap roots. Under drought stress, the maize seedlings profited from the presence of the fungus and performed visibly better than the uncolonized controls. To identify genes and biological processes involved in growth promotion and drought tolerance conferred by P. indica, the root transcriptome of colonized and uncolonized seedlings was analyzed 0, 6 and 12 h after drought stress (20% polyethylene glycol 6000)...
December 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218597/role-of-tulipa-gesneriana-teosinte-branched1-tgtb1-in-the-control-of-axillary-bud-outgrowth-in-bulbs
#16
Natalia M Moreno-Pachon, Marie-Chantal Mutimawurugo, Eveline Heynen, Lidiya Sergeeva, Anne Benders, Ikram Blilou, Henk W M Hilhorst, Richard G H Immink
Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217754/erecta-family-genes-coordinate-stem-cell-functions-between-the-epidermal-and-internal-layers-of-the-shoot-apical-meristem
#17
Yuka Kimura, Masao Tasaka, Keiko U Torii, Naoyuki Uchida
The epidermal cell layer and the tissues that lie underneath have different intrinsic functions during plant development. The stem cells within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) that give rise to aerial structures are located in the epidermal and internal tissue layers. However, our understanding of how the functions of these stem cells are coordinated across tissue layers so stem cells can behave as a single population remains limited. WUSCHEL (WUS) functions as a master regulator of stem cell activity. Here we show that loss of function in the ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinase genes can rescue the mutant phenotype of wus plants (loss of stem cells), as demonstrated by the reinstated expression of a stem cell marker gene in the SAM epidermis...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212037/a-bacterial-receptor-pcrk-senses-the-plant-hormone-cytokinin-to-promote-adaptation-to-oxidative-stress
#18
Fang-Fang Wang, Shou-Ting Cheng, Yao Wu, Bao-Zhen Ren, Wei Qian
Recognition of the host plant is a prerequisite for infection by pathogenic bacteria. However, how bacterial cells sense plant-derived stimuli, especially chemicals that function in regulating plant development, remains completely unknown. Here, we have identified a membrane-bound histidine kinase of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, PcrK, as a bacterial receptor that specifically detects the plant cytokinin 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP). 2iP binds to the extracytoplasmic region of PcrK to decrease its autokinase activity...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205819/natural-variation-of-hormone-levels-in-arabidopsis-roots-and-correlations-with-complex-root-architecture
#19
Sangseok Lee, Lidiya I Sergeeva, Dick Vreugdenhil
Studies on natural variation are an important tool to unravel the genetic basis of quantitative traits in plants. Despite the significant roles of phytohormones in plant development, including root architecture, hardly any studies were done to investigate natural variation in endogenous hormone levels in plants. Therefore, in the present study a range of hormones were quantified in root extracts of thirteen Arabidopsis thaliana accessions using a UPLC triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Root system architecture (RSA) of the set of accessions was quantified, using a new parameter (mature root unit) for complex root systems, and correlated with the phytohormone data...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204077/a-functional-genomic-perspective-on-drought-signalling-and-its-crosstalk-with-phytohormone-mediated-signalling-pathways-in-plants
#20
REVIEW
Shalini Tiwari, Charu Lata, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Vivek Prasad, Manoj Prasad
Introduction: Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that negatively influence crop performance and productivity. Plants acclimatize to drought stress conditions through altered molecular, biochemical and physiological responses. Gene and/or protein expression and regulation are thought to be modulated upon stress perception and signal transduction for providing requisite endurance to plants.Plant growth regulators or phytohormones are important molecules required for various biological processes in plants and are also central to stress signalling pathways...
December 2017: Current Genomics
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