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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096190/gain-of-function-mutants-of-the-cytokinin-receptors-ahk2-and-ahk3-regulate-plant-organ-size-flowering-time-and-plant-longevity
#1
Isabel Bartrina, Helen Jensen, Ondrej Novak, Miroslav Strnad, Tomas Werner, Thomas Schmülling
The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3 and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion and only very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087658/are-winter-and-summer-dormancy-symmetrical-seasonal-adaptive-strategies-the-case-of-temperate-herbaceous-perennials
#2
REVIEW
Lauren M Gillespie, Florence A Volaire
BACKGROUND: Dormancy in higher plants is an adaptive response enabling plant survival during the harshest seasons and has been more explored in woody species than in herbaceous species. Nevertheless, winter and summer shoot meristem dormancy are adaptive strategies that could play a major role in enhancing seasonal stress tolerance and resilience of widespread herbaceous plant communities. SCOPE: This review outlines the symmetrical aspects of winter and summer dormancy in order to better understand plant adaptation to severe stress, and highlight research priorities in a changing climate...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079933/co-expression-of-peppermint-geranyl-diphosphate-synthase-small-subunit-enhances-monoterpene-production-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants
#3
Jun-Lin Yin, Woon-Seng Wong, In-Cheol Jang, Nam-Hai Chua
Monoterpenes are important for plant survival and useful to humans. In addition to their function in plant defense, monoterpenes are also used as flavors, fragrances and medicines. Several metabolic engineering strategies have been explored to produce monoterpene in tobacco but only trace amounts of monoterpenes have been detected. We investigated the effects of Solanum lycopersicum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (SlDXS), Arabidopsis thaliana geranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (AtGPS) and Mentha × piperita geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit (MpGPS...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073951/nod-factors-potentiate-auxin-signaling-for-transcriptional-regulation-and-lateral-root-formation-in-medicago-truncatula
#4
Violaine Herrbach, Ximena Chirinos, David Rengel, Kokoévi Agbevenou, Rémy Vincent, Stéphanie Pateyron, Stéphanie Huguet, Sandrine Balzergue, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Clare Gough, Sandra Bensmihen
Nodulation (Nod) factors (NFs) are symbiotic molecules produced by rhizobia that are essential for establishment of the rhizobium-legume endosymbiosis. Purified NFs can stimulate lateral root formation (LRF) in Medicago truncatula, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Using a combination of reporter constructs, pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that NFs act on early steps of LRF in M. truncatula, independently of the ethylene signaling pathway and of the cytokinin receptor MtCRE1, but in interaction with auxin...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069895/brassinosteroid-induced-transcriptional-repression-and-dephosphorylation-dependent-protein-degradation-negatively-regulate-bin2-interacting-aif2-a-br-signaling-negative-regulator-bhlh-transcription-factor
#5
Yoon Kim, Ji-Hye Song, Seon-U Park, You-Seung Jeong, Soo-Hwan Kim
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant polyhydroxy-steroids that play important roles in plant growth and development via extensive signal integration through direct interactions between regulatory components of different signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that diverse helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) family proteins are actively involved in control of BR signaling pathways and interact with other signaling pathways. In this study, we show that ATBS1-INTERACTING FACTOR 2 (AIF2), a nuclear-localized atypical bHLH transcription factor, specifically interacts with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) among other BR-signaling molecules...
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068194/the-erf-required-for-nodulation1-ern1-transcription-factor-is-required-for-infection-thread-formation-in-lotus-japonicus
#6
Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Euan K James, Simon Kelly, Niels Sandal, Jens Stougaard
Several hundred genes are transcriptionally regulated during infection thread formation and development of nitrogen fixing root nodules. We have characterized a set of Lotus japonicus mutants impaired in root nodule formation and found that the causative gene, Ern1, encodes a protein with a characteristic APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor domain. Phenotypic characterisation of four ern1 alleles shows that infection pockets are formed but root hair infection threads are absent...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054231/regulation-of-root-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-by-phytohormone-secreting-epiphytic-methylobacteria
#7
Jana Klikno, Ulrich Kutschera
In numerous experimental studies, seedlings of the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana have been raised on sterile mineral salt agar. However, under natural conditions, no plant has ever grown in an environment without bacteria. Here, we document that germ-free (gnotobiotic) seedlings, raised on mineral salt agar without sucrose, develop very short root hairs. In the presence of a soil extract that contains naturally occurring microbes, root hair elongation is promoted; this effect can be mimicked by the addition of methylobacteria to germ-free seedlings...
January 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045578/cytokinin-response-factor-5-has-transcriptional-activity-governed-by-its-c-terminal-domain
#8
Bernd Striberny, Anthony E Melton, Rainer Schwacke, Kirsten Krause, Karsten Fischer, Leslie R Goertzen, Aaron M Rashotte
Cytokinin Response Factors (CRFs) are AP2/ERF transcription factors involved in cytokinin signal transduction. CRF proteins consist of a N-terminal dimerization domain (CRF domain), an AP2 DNA-binding domain, and a clade-specific C-terminal region of unknown function. Using a series of sequential deletions in yeast-two-hybrid assays, we provide evidence that the C-terminal region of Arabidopsis CRF5 can confer transactivation activity. Although comparative analyses identified evolutionarily conserved protein sequence within the C-terminal region, deletion experiments suggest that this transactivation domain has a partially redundant modular structure required for activation of target gene transcription...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042677/contrasting-patterns-of-cytokinins-between-years-in-senescing-aspen-leaves
#9
Erik Edlund, Ondrej Novak, Michal Karady, Karin Ljung, Stefan Jansson
Cytokinins are plant hormones that typically block or delay leaf senescence. We profiled 34 different cytokinins/cytokinin metabolites (including precursors, conjugates and degradation products) in leaves of a free-growing mature aspen (Populus tremula) before and after the initiation of autumnal senescence over three consecutive years. The levels and profiles of individual cytokinin species, or classes/groups, varied greatly between years, despite the fact that the onset of autumn senescence was at the same time each year, and senescence was not associated with depletion of either active or total cytokinin levels...
January 1, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040882/unbranched3-regulates-branching-by-modulating-cytokinin-biosynthesis-and-signaling-in-maize-and-rice
#10
Yanfang Du, Lei Liu, Manfei Li, Shuang Fang, Xiaomeng Shen, Jinfang Chu, Zuxin Zhang
UNBRANCHED3 (UB3), a member of the SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) gene family, regulates kernel row number by negatively modulating the size of the inflorescence meristem in maize. However, the regulatory pathway by which UB3 mediates branching remains unknown. We introduced the UB3 into rice and maize to reveal its effects in the two crop plants, respectively. Furthermore, we performed transcriptome sequencing and protein-DNA binding assay to elucidate the regulatory pathway of UB3. We found that UB3 could bind and regulate the promoters of LONELY GUY1 (LOG1) and Type-A response regulators (ARRs), which participate in cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling...
January 1, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040774/comparative-omics-of-the-fusarium-fujikuroi-species-complex-highlights-differences-in-genetic-potential-and-metabolite-synthesis
#11
Eva-Maria Niehaus, Martin Münsterkötter, Robert H Proctor, Daren W Brown, Amir Sharon, Yifat Idan, Liat Oren-Young, Christian M Sieber, Ondřej Novák, Aleš Pěnčík, Danuše Tarkowská, Kristýna Hromadová, Stanley Freeman, Marcel Maymon, Meirav Elazar, Sahar A Youssef, El Said M El-Shabrawy, Abdel Baset A Shalaby, Petra Houterman, Nelson L Brock, Immo Burkhardt, Elena A Tsavkelova, Jeroen S Dickschat, Petr Galuszka, Ulrich Güldener, Bettina Tudzynski
Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share 90% sequence similarity, they can differ in host plant specificity and life style. FFC species can also produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including the mycotoxins fumonisins, fusarins, fusaric acid, and beauvericin, and the phytohormones gibberellins, auxins, and cytokinins...
December 31, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032995/comprehensive-profiling-of-phytohormones-in-honey-by-sequential-liquid-liquid-extraction-coupled-with-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#12
Qing Wang, Wen-Jing Cai, Lei Yu, Jun Ding, Yu-Qi Feng
Honey exhibits various nutritional and medicinal functions, which are highly related to the active components, thus the exploration of new compounds in honey is of great importance. As honey is a by-product of flower nectar, which is rich in phytohormones, the existence of phytohormones in honeys is anticipated. In this research, a method for comprehensive profiling of 49 phytohormones in honey was developed by sequential liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019048/temporal-and-spatial-changes-in-gene-expression-metabolite-accumulation-and-phytohormone-content-in-rice-seedlings-grown-under-drought-stress-conditions
#13
Daisuke Todaka, Yu Zhao, Takuya Yoshida, Madoka Kudo, Satoshi Kidokoro, Junya Mizoi, Ken-Suke Kodaira, Yumiko Takebayashi, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Kiminori Toyooka, Mayuko Sato, Alisdair R Fernie, Kazuo Shinozaki, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki
To analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying plant responses to different levels of drought stress, we developed a soil matric potential (SMP)-based irrigation system that precisely controls soil moisture. Using this system, rice seedlings were grown under three different drought levels, denoted Md1, Md2 and Md3, with SMP values set to -9.8, -31.0, and -309.9 kPa, respectively. Although the Md1 treatment did not alter the visible phenotype, the Md2 treatment caused stomatal closure and shoot growth retardation (SGR)...
December 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018412/the-role-and-regulation-of-abi5-aba-insensitive-5-in-plant-development-abiotic-stress-responses-and-phytohormone-crosstalk
#14
REVIEW
Anna Skubacz, Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Iwona Szarejko
ABA Insensitive 5 (ABI5) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth in the presence of ABA and abiotic stresses. ABI5 functions in the core ABA signaling, which is composed of PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, PP2C phosphatases and SnRK2 kinases, through the regulation of the expression of genes that contain the ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT (ABRE) motif within their promoter region. The regulated targets include stress adaptation genes, e...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005918/the-plant-hormone-cytokinin-confers-protection-against-oxidative-stress-in-mammalian-cells
#15
Eman M Othman, Muhammed Naseem, Eman Awad, Thomas Dandekar, Helga Stopper
Modulating key dynamics of plant growth and development, the effects of the plant hormone cytokinin on animal cells gained much attention recently. Most previous studies on cytokinin effects on mammalian cells have been conducted with elevated cytokinin concentration (in the μM range). However, to examine physiologically relevant dose effects of cytokinins on animal cells, we systematically analyzed the impact of kinetin in cultured cells at low and high concentrations (1nM-10μM) and examined cytotoxic and genotoxic conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004282/a-subclass-of-hsp70s-regulate-development-and-abiotic-stress-responses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Linna Leng, Qianqian Liang, Jianjun Jiang, Chi Zhang, Yuhan Hao, Xuelu Wang, Wei Su
Members of the HSP70 family function as molecular chaperones to maintain cellular homeostasis and help plants cope with environmental stimuli. However, due to functional redundancy and lack of effective chemical inhibitors, our knowledge of functions of individual HSP70s has remained limited. Here, we confirmed a subclass of HSP70s, including HSP70-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5, localized to the cytosol and nucleus in Arabidopsis thaliana. Histochemical analyses of promoter:GUS reporter lines showed that HSP70-1, -2, -3, and -4 genes were widely expressed, but HSP70-5 was not...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002608/ntbrc1-suppresses-axillary-branching-in-tobacco-after-decapitation
#17
Y L Gao, Z B Song, W Z Li, F C Jiao, R Wang, C J Huang, Y P Li, B W Wang
Axillary branching is controlled by a very complex mechanism involving various endogenous and environmental factors. Previous studies have shown that Tb1/BRC1 is the point of integration in the network of molecular mechanisms regulating axillary branching in plants. In this study, we cloned the Tb1/BRC1 ortholog, NtBRC1, from Nicotiana tabacum and functionally analyzed its role in the control of axillary branching in tobacco. Overexpression of NtBRC1 resulted in significant retardation of axillary branching, and downregulation of this gene resulted in significant acceleration of axillary branching after decapitation...
December 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999977/auxin-synthesis-gene-tms1-driven-by-tuber-specific-promoter-alters-hormonal-status-of-transgenic-potato-plants-and-their-responses-to-exogenous-phytohormones
#18
Oksana O Kolachevskaya, Lidiya I Sergeeva, Kristyna Floková, Irina A Getman, Sergey N Lomin, Valeriya V Alekseeva, Elena B Rukavtsova, Yaroslav I Buryanov, Georgy A Romanov
Ectopic auxin overproduction in transgenic potato leads to enhanced productivity accompanied with concerted and occasional changes in hormonal status, and causing altered response of transformants to exogenous auxin or cytokinin. Previously, we generated potato transformants expressing Agrobacterium-derived auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific patatin gene promoter (B33-promoter). Here, we studied the endogenous hormonal status and the response to exogenous phytohormones in tms1 transformants cultured in vitro...
December 20, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998756/effects-of-24-epibrassinolide-and-green-light-on-plastid-gene-transcription-and-cytokinin-content-of-barley-leaves
#19
Marina V Efimova, Radomira Vankova, Victor V Kusnetsov, Raisa P Litvinovskaya, Ilya E Zlobin, Petre Dobrev, Nina P Vedenicheva, Alina L Savchuk, Raisa A Karnachuk, Natalia V Kudryakova, Vladimir V Kuznetsov
In order to evaluate whether brassinosteroids (BS) and green light regulate the transcription of plastid genes in a cross-talk with cytokinins (CKs), transcription rates of 12 plastid genes (ndhF, rrn23, rpoB, psaA, psaB, rrn16, psbA, psbD, psbK, rbcL, atpB, and trnE/trnY) as well as the accumulation of transcripts of some photoreceptors (PHYA, CRY2, CRY1A, and CRY1B) and signaling (SERK and CAS) genes were followed in detached etiolated barley leaves exposed to darkness, green or white light ±1μm 24-epibrassinolide (EBL)...
December 18, 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995695/analysis-of-plant-hormone-profiles-in-response-to-moderate-dehydration-stress
#20
Kaoru Urano, Kyonoshin Maruyama, Yusuke Jikumaru, Yuji Kamiya, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuo Shinozaki
Plant responses to dehydration stress are mediated by highly complex molecular systems involving hormone signaling and metabolism, particularly the major stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA-dependent gene expression. To understand the roles of plant hormones and their interactions during dehydration, we analyzed the plant hormone profiles with respect to dehydration responses in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) plants and ABA biosynthesis mutants (nced3-2). We developed a procedure for moderate dehydration stress, and then investigated temporal changes in the profiles of ABA, jasmonic acid isoleucine (JA-Ile), salicylic acid (SA), cytokinin (trans-zeatin, tZ), auxin (indole-acetic acid, IAA), and gibberellin (GA4 ), along with temporal changes in the expression of key genes involved in hormone biosynthesis...
December 20, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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