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Lidiya B Vysotskaya, Tatyana N Arkhipova, Guzel R Kudoyarova, Stanislav Yu Veselov
Inhibition of lettuce plant growth under increased planting density was accompanied by accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) in the shoots of competing plants. To check causal relationship between these responses we studied the effect of decreased synthesis of ABA on growth indexes and hormonal balance of lettuce plants under elevated density of their planting (one (single) or three (competing) plants per pot). Herbicide fluridone was used to inhibit ABA synthesis. Preliminary experiments with single plants showed that presence of fluridone in the soil solution at rather low concentration (0...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Lauren A E Erland, Mukund R Shukla, Amritpal S Singh, Susan J Murch, Praveen K Saxena
Melatonin and serotonin are important signaling and stress mitigating molecules that play important roles across growth and development in plants. Despite many well-documented responses, a systematic investigation of the entire metabolic pathway (tryptophan, tryptamine and N-acetylserotonin) does not exist, leaving many open questions. The objective of this study was to determine the responses of Hypericum perforatum (L.) to melatonin, serotonin and their metabolic precursors. Two well characterized germplasm lines (#4 and 112) created by mutation and a haploid breeding program were compared to wildtype to identify specific responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
Charles Hodgens, Zachary L Nimchuk, Joseph J Kieber
Genetic manipulation of organisms using CRISPR/Cas9 technology generally produces small insertions/deletions (indels) that can be difficult to detect. Here, we describe a technique to easily and rapidly identify such indels. Sequence-identified mutations that alter a restriction enzyme recognition site can be readily distinguished from wild-type alleles using a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) technique. If a restriction site is created or altered by the mutation such that only one allele contains the restriction site, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a restriction digest can be used to distinguish the two alleles...
2017: PloS One
Xueyi Tian, Pu Zou, Mingzhi Miao, Zulin Ning, Jingping Liao
Proper establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity is essential for the development of lateral organs, while former researches were mostly focused on the polarity regulation in leaves, and little is known in stamens, especially in the asymmetric ones. Canna indica (Zingiberales: Cannaceae) is a widely cultivated ornamental plant and the representative species to study the evolutionary development of Zingiberales. The androecium of Canna indica comprises 3-4 petaloid staminodes and a fertile stamen (FS), which consists of a one-theca anther and a petaloid appendage...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Tian Tian Tan, Hitoshi Endo, Ryosuke Sano, Tetsuya Kurata, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Misato Ohtani, Taku Demura
Arabidopsis thaliana VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN1 (VND1) to VND7 encode a group of NAC domain transcription factors that function as master regulators of xylem vessel element differentiation. These transcription factors activate the transcription of genes required for secondary cell wall formation and programmed cell death - key events in xylem vessel element differentiation. Because constitutive overexpression of VND6 and VND7 induces ectopic xylem vessel element differentiation, functional studies of VND proteins have largely focused on these two proteins...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Shikha Singh, Anita Singh, Prabhat Kumar Srivastava, Sheo Mohan Prasad
The supplementation of plant hormones may enhance the tolerance capacity of plants against certain environmental stresses by increasing their physiological functioning and detoxification capacity. To answer the question that whether a phytohormone 'kinetin' (KN, 6-furfuylaminopurine), one of the artificial cytokinins could ameliorate the cadmium induced toxicity in tomato seedlings, the effect of KN was assessed in differentially cadmium (Cd1: 3mgkg(-1) sand and Cd2: 9mgkg(-1) sand) intoxicated tomato seedlings by estimating the changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS, viz...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Yolanda Durán-Medina, Joanna Serwatowska, J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Stefan de Folter, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez
The gynoecium is the female reproductive system in flowering plants. It is a complex structure formed by different tissues, some that are essential for reproduction and others that facilitate the fertilization process and nurture and protect the developing seeds. The coordinated development of these different tissues during the formation of the gynoecium is important for reproductive success. Both hormones and genetic regulators guide the development of the different tissues. Auxin and cytokinin in particular have been found to play important roles in this process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaoming Fan, Deyi Yuan, Xiaoming Tian, Zhoujun Zhu, Meilan Liu, Heping Cao
Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi) nut provides a rich source of starch and nutrients as food and feed, but its yield is restricted by a low ratio of female to male flowers. Little is known about the developmental programs underlying sex differentiation of the flowers. To investigate the involvement of phytohormones during sex differentiation, we described the morphology of male and female floral organs and the cytology of flower sex differentiation, analyzed endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GAs), cytokinins (CKs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the flowers, investigated the effects of exogenous hormones on flower development, and evaluated the expression profiles of genes related to biosyntheses and signaling pathways of these four hormones using RNA-Seq combined with qPCR...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf, Haroon Khan
Galls, the abnormal growths in plants, induced by virus, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, arthropods, or even other plants, are akin to cancers in fauna. The galls which occur in a myriad of forms are phytochemically-distinct from the normal plant tissues, for these are the sites of tug-of-war, just like the granuloma in animals. To counter the stressors, in the form of the effector proteins of the invaders, the host plants elaborate a large repertoire of metabolites, which they normally will not produce. Perturbation of the jasmonic acid pathway, and the overexpression of auxin, and cytokinin, promote the tissue proliferation and the resultant galls...
October 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jinyuan Tao, Huwei Sun, Pengyuan Gu, Zhihao Liang, Xinni Chen, Jiajing Lou, Guohua Xu, Yali Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cytokinins play many essential roles in plant growth and development, mainly through signal transduction pathways. Although the cytokinin signaling pathway in rice has been clarified, no synthetic reporter for cytokinin signaling output has been reported for rice. The sensitive synthetic reporter two-component signaling sensor (TCSn) is used in the model plant Arabidopsis; however, whether the reporter reflects the cytokinin signaling output pattern in rice remains unclear...
2017: Plant Methods
Zhi-Dan Wang, Ning Yan, Zheng-Hong Wang, Xiao-Huan Zhang, Jing-Ze Zhang, Hui-Min Xue, Li-Xia Wang, Qi Zhan, Ying-Ping Xu, De-Ping Guo
We report a transcriptome assembly and expression profiles from RNA-Seq data and identify genes responsible for culm gall formation in Zizania latifolia induced by Ustilago esculenta. The smut fungus Ustilago esculenta can induce culm gall in Zizania latifolia, which is used as a vegetable in Asian countries. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of culm gall formation is still unclear. To characterize the processes underlying this host-fungus association, we performed transcriptomic and expression profiling analyses of culms from Z...
October 26, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Jekaterina Truskina, Teva Vernoux
Plants are characterized by their ability to produce new organs post-embryonically throughout their entire life cycle. In particular development of all above-ground organs relies almost entirely on the function of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). The SAM performs a dual role by maintaining a pool of undifferentiated cells and simultaneously driving cell differentiation to initiate organogenesis. Both processes require strict coordination between individual cells which leads to formation of reproducible morphological and molecular patterns within SAM...
October 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Vincent Goyet, Estelle Billard, Jean-Bernard Pouvreau, Marc-Marie Lechat, Sandra Pelletier, Muriel Bahut, Fabrice Monteau, Lukáš Spíchal, Philippe Delavault, Grégory Montiel, Philippe Simier
The heterotrophic lifestyle of parasitic plants relies on the development of the haustorium, a specific infectious organ required for attachment to host roots. While haustorium development is initiated upon chemodetection of host-derived molecules in hemiparasitic plants, the induction of haustorium formation remains largely unknown in holoparasitic species such as Phelipanche ramosa . This work demonstrates that the root exudates of the host plant Brassica napus contain allelochemicals displaying haustorium-inducing activity on P...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
M B Arnao, J Hernández-Ruiz
Background: Plant melatonin appears to be a multi-regulatory molecule, similar to those observed in animals, with many specific functions in plant physiology. In recent years, the number of studies on melatonin in plants has increased significantly. One of the most studied actions of melatonin in plants is its effect on biotic and abiotic stress, such as that produced by drought, extreme temperatures, salinity, chemical pollution and UV radiation, among others. Scope: This review looks at studies in which some aspects of the relationship between melatonin and the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid are presented...
October 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
Márcio L Aumond, Artur T de Araujo, Camila F de Oliveira Junkes, Márcia R de Almeida, Hélio N Matsuura, Fernanda de Costa, Arthur G Fett-Neto
The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus, the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Adrien Corot, Hanaé Roman, Odile Douillet, Hervé Autret, Maria-Dolores Perez-Garcia, Sylvie Citerne, Jessica Bertheloot, Soulaiman Sakr, Nathalie Leduc, Sabine Demotes-Mainard
Bud outgrowth is a key process in the elaboration of yield and visual quality in rose crops. Although light intensity is well known to affect bud outgrowth, little is known on the mechanisms involved in this regulation. The objective of this work was to test if the control of bud outgrowth pattern along the stem by photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) is mediated by sugars, cytokinins and/or abscisic acid in intact rose plants. Rooted cuttings of Rosa hybrida 'Radrazz' were grown in growth chambers under high PPFD (530 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) until the floral bud visible stage...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zemao Yang, An Yan, Ruike Lu, Zhigang Dai, Qing Tang, Chaohua Cheng, Ying Xu, Jianguang Su
Soil salinity, a major environmental stress, reduces agricultural productivity by restricting plant development and growth. Jute (Corchorus spp.), a commercially important bast fiber crop, includes two commercially cultivated species, Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius. We conducted high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of 24 C. capsularis and C. olitorius samples under salt stress and found 127 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs); additionally, 4489 and 492 common DEGs were identified in the root and leaf tissues, respectively, of both Corchorus species...
2017: PloS One
Christophe Gaillochet, Thomas Stiehl, Christian Wenzl, Juan-José Ripoll, Lindsay J Bailey-Steinitz, Lanxin Li, Anne Pfeiffer, Andrej Miotk, Jana P Hakenjos, Joachim Forner, Martin F Yanofsky, Anna Marciniak-Czochra, Jan U Lohmann
Plant meristems carry pools of continuously active stem cells, whose activity is controlled by developmental and environmental signals. After stem cell division, daughter cells that exit the stem cell domain acquire transit amplifying cell identity before they are incorporated into organs and differentiate. In this study, we used an integrated approach to elucidate the role of HECATE (HEC) genes in regulating developmental trajectories of shoot stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our work reveals that HEC function stabilizes cell fate in distinct zones of the shoot meristem thereby controlling the spatio-temporal dynamics of stem cell differentiation...
October 23, 2017: ELife
Marike Visser, Glynnis Cook, Johan T Burger, Hans J Maree
BACKGROUND: Small RNA (sRNA) associated gene regulation has been shown to play a significant role during plant-pathogen interaction. In commercial citrus orchards co-infection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and viroids occur naturally. METHODS: A next-generation sequencing-based approach was used to study the sRNA and transcriptional response in grapefruit to the co-infection of CTV and Citrus dwarfing viroid. RESULTS: The co-infection resulted in a difference in the expression of a number of sRNA species when comparing healthy and infected plants; the majority of these were derived from transcripts processed in a phased manner...
October 23, 2017: Virology Journal
Zhao-Yun Cao, You-Ning Ma, Li-Hua Sun, Ren-Xiang Mou, Zhi-Wei Zhu, Ming-Xue Chen
Coconut contains many uncharacterized cytokinins that have important physiological effects in plants and humans. In this work, a method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for identification and quantification of six cytokinin nucleotide monophosphates in coconut flesh. Excellent separation was achieved using a low-coverage C18 bonded-phase column with an acidic mobile phase, which greatly improved the retention of target compounds. To enable high-throughput analysis, a single-step solid-phase extraction using mixed-mode anion-exchange cartridges was employed for sample preparation...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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