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Mónica L García-Gómez, Eugenio Azpeitia, Elena R Álvarez-Buylla
The study of the concerted action of hormones and transcription factors is fundamental to understand cell differentiation and pattern formation during organ development. The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model to address this. It has a stem cell niche near its tip conformed of a quiescent organizer and stem or initial cells around it, then a proliferation domain followed by a transition domain, where cells diminish division rate before transiting to the elongation zone; here, cells grow anisotropically prior to their final differentiation towards the plant base...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Aude M Gourieroux, Bruno P Holzapfel, Margaret E McCully, Geoffrey R Scollary, Suzy Y Rogiers
The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Laura Calvo-Begueria, Bert Cuypers, Sabine Van Doorslaer, Stefania Abbruzzetti, Stefano Bruno, Herald Berghmans, Sylvia Dewilde, Javier Ramos, Cristiano Viappiani, Manuel Becana
Plant hemoglobins (Hbs) are found in nodules of legumes and actinorhizal plants but also in non-symbiotic organs of monocots and dicots. Non-symbiotic Hbs (nsHbs) have been classified into two phylogenetic groups. Class 1 nsHbs show an extremely high O2 affinity and are induced by hypoxia and nitric oxide (NO), whereas class 2 nsHbs have moderate O2 affinity and are induced by cold and cytokinins. The functions of nsHbs are still unclear, but some of them rely on the capacity of hemes to bind diatomic ligands and catalyze the NO dioxygenase (NOD) reaction (oxyferrous Hb + NO → ferric Hb + nitrate)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maria V Yamburenko, Joseph J Kieber, G Eric Schaller
Inflorescence development in cereals, including such important crops as rice, maize, and wheat, directly affects grain number and size and is a key determinant of yield. Cytokinin regulates meristem size and activity and, as a result, has profound effects on inflorescence development and architecture. To clarify the role of cytokinin action in inflorescence development, we used the NanoString nCounter system to analyze gene expression in the early stages of rice panicle development, focusing on 67 genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis, degradation, and signaling...
2017: PloS One
Yong-Feng Zhang, Guo-Long Li, Xue-Feng Wang, Ya-Qing Sun, Shao-Ying Zhang
In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), taproot weight and sucrose content are the important determinants of yield and quality. However, high yield and low sucrose content are two tightly bound agronomic traits. The advances in next-generation sequencing technology and the publication of sugar beet genome have provided a method for the study of molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of these two agronomic traits. In this work, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses in the high taproot yield cultivar SD13829 and the high sucrose content cultivar BS02 at five developmental stages...
2017: PloS One
Shuai Wang, Shu Wang, Qi Sun, Leiyun Yang, Ying Zhu, Yaping Yuan, Jian Hua
The phytohormone cytokinin (CK) is not only essential for plant growth and development but also impacts plant immunity. A mutant screen in a constitutively active plant immune receptor mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1, constitutive1) identified a suppressor mutation of SNC1-induced defense responses in an ABC transporter coding gene ABCG14. ABCG14 transports CK from roots to the shoots, and the suppression of the SNC1-mediated defense response by the loss of ABCG14 is due to a deficiency of trans-zeatin (tZ)-type CK in the shoot...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Tian-Qi Zhang, Heng Lian, Chuan-Miao Zhou, Lin Xu, Yuling Jiao, Jia-Wei Wang
Plant cells are totipotent and competent to regenerate from differentiated organs. It has been known for six decades that cytokinin-rich medium induces shoot regeneration from callus cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. The homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) is essential for de novo establishment of the shoot stem cell niche in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that WUS-positive cells (WUS+) mark the shoot progenitor region during regeneration. A cytokinin-rich environment initially promotes the removal of the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 at the WUS locus in a cell-cycle-dependent manner...
April 7, 2017: Plant Cell
J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Víctor M Zúñiga-Mayo, Joanna Serwatowska, Ricardo A Chavez Montes, Paulina Lozano-Sotomayor, Humberto Herrera-Ubaldo, Karla L Gonzalez-Aguilera, Patricia Ballester, Juan José Ripoll, Ignacio Ezquer, Dario Paolo, Alexander Heyl, Lucia Colombo, Martin F Yanofsky, Cristina Ferrandiz, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Stefan de Folter
Fruits and seeds are the major food source on earth. Both derive from the gynoecium and, therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms that guide the development of this organ of angiosperm species. In Arabidopsis, the gynoecium is composed of two congenitally fused carpels, where two domains: medial and lateral, can be distinguished. The medial domain includes the carpel margin meristem (CMM) that is key for the production of the internal tissues involved in fertilization, such as septum, ovules, and transmitting tract...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
Qianqian Guo, Matthew Hamish Turnbull, Jiancheng Song, Jessica Roche, Ondrej Novak, Jana Späth, Paula Elizabeth Jameson, Jonathan Love
The mechanisms linking C/N balance to N uptake and assimilation are central to plant responses to changing soil nutrient levels. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of grasses both impact C partitioning, thereby creating a significant point of interaction with soil N availability. Using defoliation as an experimental treatment, we investigated the dynamic relationships between plant carbohydrate status and NO3--responsive uptake systems, transporter gene expression, and nitrate assimilation in Lolium perenne L...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jitka Frébortová, Ondřej Plíhal, Vendula Florová, Filip Kokáš, Karolina Kubiasová, Marta Greplová, Jan Šimura, Ondřej Novák, Ivo Frébort
Cytokinins are an important group of plant hormones that are also found in other organisms, including cyanobacteria. While various aspects of cytokinin function and metabolism are well understood in plants, the information is limited for cyanobacteria. In this study, we first experimentally confirmed a prenylation of tRNA by recombinant isopentenyl transferase NoIPT2 from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, whose encoding gene we previously identified in Nostoc genome along with the gene for adenylate isopentenyl transferase NoIPT1...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Wei Li, Chu Fang, Sanalkumar Krishnan, Junmei Chen, Hao Yu, Angus S Murphy, Emily Merewitz, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Richard J McAvoy, Ziniu Deng, Janice Zale, Yi Li
Plant grafting is an important technique for horticultural and silvicultural production. However, many rootstock plants suffer from undesirable lateral bud outgrowth, low grafting success rates, or poor rooting. Here we used a root-predominant gene promoter (SbUGT) to drive the expression of a tryptophan-2-mono oxygenase gene (iaaM) from Agrobacterium tumafaciens to increase auxin levels in tobacco. The transgenic plants, when used as a rootstock, displayed inhibited lateral bud outgrowth, enhanced grafting success rate, and improved root initiation...
April 4, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Robert Neil Gerard Miller, Gabriel Sergio Costa Alves, Marie-Anne Van Sluys
Background: Plants are constantly exposed to evolving pathogens and pests, with crop losses representing a considerable threat to global food security. As pathogen evolution can overcome disease resistance that is conferred by individual plant resistance genes, an enhanced understanding of the plant immune system is necessary for the long-term development of effective disease management strategies. Current research is rapidly advancing our understanding of the plant innate immune system, with this multidisciplinary subject area reflected in the content of the 18 papers in this Special Issue...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
Hogyun Seo, Kyung-Jin Kim
The Lonely Guy (LOG) protein has been identified as a crucial enzyme involved in the production of cytokinins, which are important phytohormones, in plants and plant-interacting organisms. However, C. glutamicum has an isoform (Cg1261) of LOG that contains an extended N-terminal region compared to those of known LOGs, and this type of isoforms are also found in a variety of organisms. Nevertheless, these proteins are considered as lysine decarboxylases, without their functional characterization. To investigate the function of Cg1261, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 1...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joohyun Kang, Youngsook Lee, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Enrico Martinoia
Cytokinins are phytohormones essential for cytokinesis and many other physiological and developmental processes in planta. Long-distance transport and intercellular transport have been postulated. For these processes, the existence of cytokinin transporters has been suggested. Recently, a transporter loading the xylem (AtABCG14) and another for cellular import (AtPUP14) have been discovered. AtABCG14 participates in the xylem loading process of cytokinins and contributes to the positive regulation of shoot growth...
March 31, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Chao Wu, Kehui Cui, Wencheng Wang, Qian Li, Shah Fahad, Qiuqian Hu, Jianliang Huang, Lixiao Nie, Pravat K Mohapatra, Shaobing Peng
Cytokinins (CTKs) regulate panicle size and mediate heat tolerance in crops. To investigate the effect of high temperature on panicle CTK expression and the role of such expression in panicle differentiation in rice, four rice varieties (Nagina22, N22; Huanghuazhan, HHZ; Liangyoupeijiu, LYPJ; and Shanyou63, SY63) were grown under normal conditions and subjected to three high temperature treatments and one control treatment in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 days during the early reproductive stage...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhenzhen Wen, Wenzhong Guo, Jinchi Li, Haisheng Lin, Chunmei He, Yunquan Liu, Qunyu Zhang, Wei Liu
Vernalization is required for floral initiation in Dendrobium. Interestingly, those beneficial effects can also be achieved by exogenous cytokinin application in greenhouses. Thus, an as yet unknown crosstalk/interaction may exist between vernalization and cytokinin signaling pathways. In this study, we showed, by de novo transcriptome assembly using RNA-seq data from both vegetative and reproductive tissue samples, that some floral transition-related genes-DnVRN1, FT, SOC1, LFY and AP1-were differentially expressed in low-temperature-challenged (LT) or thidiazuron (TDZ)-treated plants, compared to those mock-treated (CK)...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Radomira Vankova, Premysl Landa, Radka Podlipna, Petre I Dobrev, Sylva Prerostova, Lenka Langhansova, Alena Gaudinova, Katerina Motkova, Vojtech Knirsch, Tomas Vanek
At present, nanoparticles have been more and more used in a wide range of areas. However, very little is known about the mechanisms of their impact on plants, as both positive and negative effects have been reported. As plant interactions with the environment are mediated by plant hormones, complex phytohormone analysis has been performed in order to characterize the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (mean size 30nm, concentration range 0.16-100mgL(-1)) on Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Taking into account that plant hormones exhibit high tissue-specificity as well as an intensive cross-talk in the regulation of growth and development as well as defense, plant responses were followed by determination of the content of five main phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid) in apices, leaves and roots...
March 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jingjue Zeng, Xudong Zhu, Muhammad S Haider, Xicheng Wang, Cheng Zhang, Chen Wang
The type-B authentic response regulator (ARR-B) family members serve as DNA-binding transcriptional regulators, whose activities are probably regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, resulting in the rapid induction of type-A ARR genes. Type-B ARRs are believed to be involved in many biological processes, including cytokinin signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or by isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The public availability of complete peach genome sequences allows the identification of 23 ARR-B genes by HMMER and blast analysis...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Jingjing Jin, Yanwei Sun, Jing Qu, Rahmad Syah, Chin-Huat Lim, Yuzer Alfiko, NurEstyaBte Rahman, Antonius Suwanto, Genhua Yue, Limsoon Wong, Nam-Hai Chua, Jian Ye
Oil palm is the most productive oil crop in the world and composes 36% of the world production. However, the molecular mechanisms of hybrids vigor (or heterosis) between Dura, Pisifera and their hybrid progeny Tenera has not yet been well understood. Here we compared the temporal and spatial compositions of lipids and transcriptomes for two oil yielding organs mesocarp and endosperm from Dura, Pisifera and Tenera. Multiple lipid biosynthesis pathways are highly enriched in all non-additive expression pattern in endosperm, while cytokinine biosynthesis and cell cycle pathways are highly enriched both in endosperm and mesocarp...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Katharina Bräutigam, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Marc Champigny, Shawn Mansfield, Carl Douglas, Malcolm M Campbell, Quentin Cronk
Methylation has frequently been implicated in gender determination in plants. The recent discovery of the sex determining region (SDR) of balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, pinpointed 13 genes with differentiated X and Y copies. We tested these genes for differential methylation using whole methylome sequencing of xylem tissue of multiple individuals grown under field conditions in two common gardens. The only SDR gene to show a marked pattern of gender-specific methylation is PbRR9, a member of the two component response regulator (type-A) gene family, involved in cytokinin signalling...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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