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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345647/sexual-epigenetics-gender-specific-methylation-of-a-gene-in-the-sex-determining-region-of-populus-balsamifera
#1
Katharina Bräutigam, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Marc Champigny, Shawn Mansfield, Carl Douglas, Malcolm M Campbell, Quentin Cronk
Methylation has frequently been implicated in gender determination in plants. The recent discovery of the sex determining region (SDR) of balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, pinpointed 13 genes with differentiated X and Y copies. We tested these genes for differential methylation using whole methylome sequencing of xylem tissue of multiple individuals grown under field conditions in two common gardens. The only SDR gene to show a marked pattern of gender-specific methylation is PbRR9, a member of the two component response regulator (type-A) gene family, involved in cytokinin signalling...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344153/plant-hormone-cytokinins-control-cell-cycle-progression-and-plastid-replication-in-apicomplexan-parasites
#2
Syed Bilal Ahmad Andrabi, Michiru Tahara, Ryuma Matsubara, Tomoko Toyama, Hiroka Aonuma, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Makoto Suematsu, Kazuyuki Tanabe, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Kisaburo Nagamune
Cytokinins are plant hormones that are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell and plastid development. Here, we show that the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei, an opportunistic human pathogen and a rodent malaria agent, respectively, produce cytokinins via a biosynthetic pathway similar to that in plants. Cytokinins regulate the growth and cell cycle progression of T. gondii by mediating expression of the cyclin gene TgCYC4. A natural form of cytokinin, trans-zeatin (t-zeatin), upregulated expression of this cyclin, while a synthetic cytokinin, thidiazuron, downregulated its expression...
March 23, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338758/mistletoe-infestation-mediates-alteration-of-the-phytohormone-profile-and-anti-oxidative-metabolism-in-bark-and-wood-of-its-host-pinus-sylvestris
#3
Bin Hu, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Yumiko Takebayashi, Franziska S Peters, Jörg Schumacher, Monika Eiblmeier, Leila Arab, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Andrea Polle, Heinz Rennenberg
European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) has largely infested Central European forests and causes high mortality probability particularly in dry years. However, little information is available about the consequences of mistletoe infestation for metabolic processes in bark and wood of its host, despite their important roles in infestation defense. We analyzed the tissue hydration, carbohydrate composition, phytohormone profile, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidant levels in bark and wood of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L...
February 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337744/tknockdown-of-an-inflorescence-meristem-specific-cytokinin-oxidase-osckx2-in-rice-reduces-yield-penalty-under-salinity-stress-condition
#4
Rohit Joshi, Khirod Kumar Sahoo, Amit Kumar Tripathi, Ritesh Kumar, Brijesh Kumar Gupta, Ashwani Pareek, Sneh Lata Singla-Pareek
Cytokinins play a significant role in determining grain yield in plants. Cytokinin oxidases catalyze irreversible degradation of cytokinins and hence modulate cellular cytokinin levels. Here, we studied the role of an inflorescence meristem-specific rice cytokinin oxidase - OsCKX2, in reducing yield penalty under salinity stress conditions. We utilized an RNAi-based approach to study the function of OsCKX2 in maintaining grain yield under salinity stress condition. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-based estimation revealed a significant increase in cytokinins in the inflorescence meristem of OsCKX2-knockdown plants...
March 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334245/coordinated-nitrogen-and-carbon-remobilization-for-nitrate-assimilation-in-leaf-sheath-and-root-and-associated-cytokinin-signals-during-early-regrowth-of-lolium-perenne
#5
Jessica Roche, Matthew H Turnbull, Qianqian Guo, Ondrej Novák, Jana Späth, Steven P Gieseg, Paula E Jameson, Jonathan Love
Background and Aims: The efficiency of N assimilation in response to defoliation is a critical component of plant regrowth and forage production. The aim of this research was to test the effect of the internal C/N balance on NO3- assimilation and to estimate the associated cytokinin signals following defoliation of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L. 'Grasslands Nui') plants. Methods: Plants, manipulated to have contrasting internal N content and contrasting availability of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), were obtained by exposure to either continuous light or short days (8:16 h light-dark), and watered with modified N-free Hoagland medium containing either high (5 m m ) or low (50 μ m ) NO3- as sole N source...
March 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334013/correction-centering-the-organizing-center-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-shoot-apical-meristem-by-a-combination-of-cytokinin-signaling-and-self-organization
#6
Milad Adibi, Saiko Yoshida, Dolf Weijers, Christian Fleck
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147830.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330565/phytohormone-profiling-in-relation-to-osmotic-adjustment-in-nacl-treated-plants-of-the-halophyte-tomato-wild-relative-species-solanum-chilense-comparatively-to-the-cultivated-glycophyte-solanum-lycopersicum
#7
Emna Gharbi, Juan-Pablo Martínez, Hela Benahmed, Imène Hichri, Petre I Dobrev, Václav Motyka, Muriel Quinet, Stanley Lutts
A holistic approach was used to investigate the hormonal profile in relation with osmotic adjustment under salinity in Solanum lycopersicum and its halophyte wild relative Solanum chilense. Plants were subjected to 125mM NaCl for 7days. Solanum chilense displayed a contrasting behaviour comparatively to S. lycopersicum, not only for mineral nutrition, but also regarding the modalities of osmotic adjustment and phytohormonal profiling. The extent of osmotic adjustment was higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320293/regulatory-peptides-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
B F Vanyushin, V V Ashapkin, N I Aleksandrushkina
Many different peptides regulating cell differentiation, growth, and development are found in plants. Peptides participate in regulation of plant ontogenesis starting from pollination, pollen tube growth, and the very early stages of embryogenesis, including formation of embryo and endosperm. They direct differentiation of meristematic stem cells, formation of tissues and individual organs, take part in regulation of aging, fruit maturation, and abscission of plant parts associated with apoptosis. Biological activity of peptides is observed at very low concentrations, and it has mainly signal nature and hormonal character...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314933/major-genes-determining-yield-related-traits-in-wheat-and-barley
#9
REVIEW
Anna Nadolska-Orczyk, Izabela K Rajchel, Wacław Orczyk, Sebastian Gasparis
Current development of advanced biotechnology tools allows us to characterize the role of key genes in plant productivity. The implementation of this knowledge in breeding strategies might accelerate the progress in obtaining high-yielding cultivars. The achievements of the Green Revolution were based on a specific plant ideotype, determined by a single gene involved in gibberellin signaling or metabolism. Compared with the 1950s, an enormous increase in our knowledge about the biological basis of plant productivity has opened new avenues for novel breeding strategies...
March 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314149/cytokinin-response-in-pepper-plants-capsicum-annuum-l-exposed-to-silver-nanoparticles
#10
Tomislav Vinković, Ondrej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Walter Goessler, Darija Domazet Jurašin, Nada Parađiković, Ivana Vinković Vrček
The increasing development of different nanomaterials, such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and their practical use in agriculture and biotechnology has created a strong need for elucidations of biological effects and risk assessments of AgNPs in plants. This study was aimed to investigate AgNPs effects on metal uptake and their biodistribution in pepper plants as well as on morphological parameters and hormonal responses of the isoprenoid cytokinin (CK) family. In addition, the comparison of effects silver form, nanoparticles vs...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292856/light-regulated-expression-of-sensor-histidine-kinase-cki1-controls-cytokinin-related-development
#11
Tereza Dobisova, Vendula Hrdinova, Candela Cuesta, Sarka Michlickova, Ivana Urbankova, Romana Hejatkova, Petra Žádníková, Marketa Pernisova, Eva Benkova, Jan Hejatko
In plants, the multistep phosphorelay (MSP) pathway mediates a range of regulatory processes, including those activated by cytokinins. The crosstalk between cytokinin response and light is known for a long time. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactionbetween light and cytokinin signaling remains elusive. In the screen for upstream regulators we identified a LONG PALE HYPOCOTYL (LPH) gene whose activity is indispensable for spatiotemporally correct expression of CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT-1 (CKI1), encoding the constitutively active sensor histidine kinase that activates MSP signaling...
March 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289131/brc1-expression-regulates-bud-activation-potential-but-is-not-necessary-or-sufficient-for-bud-growth-inhibition-in-arabidopsis
#12
Madeleine Seale, Tom Bennett, Ottoline Leyser
The degree of shoot branching in Arabidopsis is determined by the activation of axillary buds. Bud activity is regulated by diverse environmental and developmental signals, often mediated via plant hormones including auxin, strigolactone and cytokinin. The transcription factor, BRANCHED1 (BRC1), has been proposed to integrate these regulatory signals. This idea is based on increased branching in brc1 mutants, the effects of bud-regulating hormones on BRC1 expression, and a general correlation between BRC1 expression and bud growth inhibition...
March 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282395/bacillus-aryabhattai-srb02-tolerates-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-promotes-the-growth-of-soybean-by-modulating-the-production-of-phytohormones
#13
Yeon-Gyeong Park, Bong-Gyu Mun, Sang-Mo Kang, Adil Hussain, Raheem Shahzad, Chang-Woo Seo, Ah-Yeong Kim, Sang-Uk Lee, Kyeong Yeol Oh, Dong Yeol Lee, In-Jung Lee, Byung-Wook Yun
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are diverse, naturally occurring bacteria that establish a close association with plant roots and promote the growth and immunity of plants. Established mechanisms involved in PGPR-mediated plant growth promotion include regulation of phytohormones, improved nutrient availability, and antagonistic effects on plant pathogens. In this study, we isolated a bacterium from the rhizospheric soil of a soybean field in Chungcheong buk-do, South Korea. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacterium was identified as Bacillus aryabhattai strain SRB02...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277934/the-modified-base-isopentenyladenosine-and-its-derivatives-in-trna
#14
Ulrich Schweizer, Simon Bohleber, Noelia Fradejas-Villar
Base 37 in tRNA, 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, is occupied by a purine base that is thought to stabilize codon recognition by stacking interactions on the first Watson-Crick base pair. If the first codon position forms an A.U or U·A base pair, the purine is likely further modified in all domains of life. One of the first base modifications found in tRNA is N(6)-isopentenyl adenosine (i(6)A) present in a fraction of tRNAs in bacteria and eukaryotes, which can be further modified to 2-methyl-thio-N(6)-isopentenyladenosine (ms(2)i(6)A) in a subset of tRNAs...
February 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273182/protocol-for-efficient-regulation-of-in-vitro-morphogenesis-in-einkorn-triticum-monococcum-l-a-recalcitrant-diploid-wheat-species
#15
Dmitry Miroshnichenko, Inna Chaban, Mariya Chernobrovkina, Sergey Dolgov
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) is A-genome diploid wheat that has a potential to become a useful model for understanding the biology and genomics in Triticeae. Unfortunately, the application of modern technologies such as genetic engineering, RNAi-based gene silencing and genome editing is not available for einkorn as there is no efficient in vitro tissue culture and plant regeneration system. In the present study an efficient and simple protocol for plant regeneration via direct or indirect somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis has been developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265997/a-systems-biology-methodology-combining-transcriptome-and-interactome-datasets-to-assess-the-implications-of-cytokinin-signaling-for-plant-immune-networks
#16
Meik Kunz, Thomas Dandekar, Muhammad Naseem
Cytokinins (CKs) play an important role in plant growth and development. Also, several studies highlight the modulatory implications of CKs for plant-pathogen interaction. However, the underlying mechanisms of CK mediating immune networks in plants are still not fully understood. A detailed analysis of high-throughput transcriptome (RNA-Seq and microarrays) datasets under modulated conditions of plant CKs and its mergence with cellular interactome (large-scale protein-protein interaction data) has the potential to unlock the contribution of CKs to plant defense...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265996/examining-h2o2-production-in-arabidopsis-leaves-upon-challenge-by-cytokinin
#17
Shahjahan Shabbir Ahmed, Ihsan Ullah, Shazia Irfan, Nazeer Ahmed
Plant cells respond to stresses and exogenous environmental stimuli. Production of altered levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of a typical cellular responses against such stimuli. These responses are detectable through various techniques including luminol-based bioassays. Luminol-based bioassays provide an excellent opportunity for detection of ROS in plant leaf tissue when challenged with some exogenous stimuli like phytohormones, cytokinins, auxins, ABA, etc. The luminol-based protocol in point aims at measuring changes in the H2O2 levels of Arabidopsis leaf discs when exposed to phytohormone cytokinins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265995/analyzing-cytokinin-responses-during-plant-nematode-interactions
#18
Florian M W Grundler, Shahid Siddique
Cyst nematodes are obligate biotrophs that induce the formation of a hypertrophied and hypermetabolic syncytial-feeding site in roots of the host plants. Cytokinin signaling is activated at the site of infection and contributes significantly to the formation of syncytium. Here, we describe a protocol for visualizing cytokinin signaling activation in Arabidopsis upon infection with cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii using promoter reporter lines, TCSn:GFP and ARR5:GUS.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265994/modulating-the-levels-of-plant-hormone-cytokinins-at-the-host-pathogen-interface
#19
Muhammad Naseem, Shabana Shams, Thomas Roitsch
Cytokinins are adenine and non-adenine derived heterogeneous class of regulatory molecules that participate in almost every aspect of plant biology. They also affect plant defense responses as well as help microbial pathogens to establish pathogenesis. The functional approaches that ensure desired and subtle modulations in the levels of plant cytokinins are highly instrumental in assessing their functions in plant immunity. Here, we describe a detailed working protocol regarding the enhanced production of cytokinins from plants that harbor isopentenyltransferase (IPT) enzyme gene under the control of 4xJERE (jasmonic acid and elicitor-responsive element) pathogen-inducible promoter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265993/real-time-genetic-manipulations-of-the-cytokinin-pathway-a-tool-for-laboratory-and-field-studies
#20
Martin Schäfer, Stefan Meldau
Although many established tools for cytokinin (CK) pathway manipulations are well suitable for the analysis of molecular interactions, their use on a whole plant scale is often limited by the induction of severe developmental defects. To circumvent this problem, different methods were developed that allow for a more precise manipulation of the CK pathway. Here we present one of these systems, the pOp6/LhGR system for chemically inducible gene expression. This system allows regulation on a spatial, temporal, and quantitative scale and therefore provides a superior tool for analyzing the role of CKs in the interactions of plants with their environment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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