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Li Cai, Lu Zhang, Qiantang Fu, Zeng-Fu Xu
The seed oil of Jatropha curcas is considered a potential bioenergy source that could replace fossil fuels. However, the seed yield of Jatropha is low and has yet to be improved. We previously reported that exogenous cytokinin treatment increased the seed yield of Jatropha . Cytokinin levels are directly regulated by isopentenyl transferase (IPT), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, family 735, subfamily A (CYP735A), and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX). In this study, we cloned six IPT genes, one JcCYP735A gene, and seven JcCKX genes...
2018: PeerJ
Binay Bhushan Panda, Sudhanshu Sekhar, Sushant Kumar Dash, Lamboder Behera, Birendra Prasad Shaw
BACKGROUND: Poor filling of grains in the basal spikelets of large size panicles bearing numerous spikelets has been a major limitation in attempts to increase the rice production to feed the world's increasing population. Considering that biotechnological intervention could play important role in overcoming this limitation, the role of cytokinin in grain filling was investigated based on the information on cell proliferating potential of the hormone and reports of its high accumulation in immature seeds...
May 21, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Weiqiang Li, Rie Nishiyama, Yasuko Watanabe, Chien Van Ha, Mikiko Kojima, Ping An, Lei Tian, Chunjie Tian, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Ethylene is involved in regulation of various aspects of plant growth and development. Physiological and genetic analyses have indicated the existence of crosstalk between ethylene and other phytohormones, including auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), brassinosteroid (BR) and strigolactone (SL) in regulation of different developmental processes. However, the effects of ethylene on the biosynthesis and contents of these hormones are not fully understood...
May 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Léon Otten
The transfer of T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium to plant cells is a well-understood process of natural genetic engineering. The expression of T-DNA genes in plants leads to tumors, hairy roots, or transgenic plants. The transformed cells multiply and synthesize small molecules, called opines, used by Agrobacteria for their growth. Several T-DNA genes stimulate or influence plant growth. Among these, iaaH and iaaM encode proteins involved in auxin synthesis, whereas ipt encodes a protein involved in cytokinin synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Arthur Poitout, Amandine Crabos, Ivan Petřík, Ondřej Novák, Gabriel Krouk, Benoît Lacombe, Sandrine Ruffel
Plants face temporal and spatial variation in nitrogen (N) availability. This includes heterogeneity in soil nitrate (NO3-) content. To overcome these constraints, plants modify their gene expression and physiological processes to optimize N acquisition. This plasticity relies on a complex long-distance root-shoot-root signaling network that remains poorly understood. We previously showed that cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis is required to trigger systemic N signaling. Here, we performed split-root experiments and used a combination of CK-related mutant analyses, hormone profiling, transcriptomic analysis, NO3- uptake assays, and root growth measurements to gain insight into systemic N signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana...
May 15, 2018: Plant Cell
Carly M Shanks, Andreas Hecker, Chia-Yi Cheng, Luise Brand, Silvio Collani, Markus Schmid, G Eric Schaller, Dierk Wanke, Klaus Harter, Joseph J Kieber
Cytokinin plays diverse roles in plant growth and development, generally acting by modulating gene transcription in target tissues. The type-B ARR transcription factors have emerged as primary targets of cytokinin signaling and are required for essentially all cytokinin-mediated changes in gene expression. The diversity of cytokinin function is likely imparted by the activity of various transcription factors working with the type-B ARRs to alter specific sets of target genes. One potential set of co-regulators modulating the cytokinin response are the BARLEY B-RECOMBINANT/BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (BBR/BPC) family of plant-specific transcription factors...
May 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Sergi Munné-Bosch, Bárbara Simancas, Maren Müller
Ethylene signaling plays a major role in the regulation of plant growth, but its cross-talk with other phytohormones is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether or not a defect in ethylene signaling, particularly in the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor, alters plant growth and influences the contents of other phytohormones. With this aim, a hormonal profiling approach using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to unravel organ-specific responses (in roots, leaves and fruits) in the ein3-1 mutant and wild-type A...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xiaozhen Huang, Lingyan Hou, Jingjing Meng, Huiwen You, Zhen Li, Zhizhong Gong, Shuhua Yang, Yiting Shi
As sessile organisms, plants encounter a variety of environmental stresses and must optimize their growth for survival. Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin antagonistically regulate many developmental processes and environmental stress responses in plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the antagonism remains poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrated that Sucrose nonfermenting1-related kinases SnRK2.2/2.3/2.6, the key kinases of ABA signaling pathway, directly interacted with and phosphorylated type-A response regulator 5 (ARR5), a negative regulator in cytokinin signaling...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Plant
Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi, Manuel Rubio, Nadali Babaeian, Alfonso Albacete, Pedro Martínez-Gómez
Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar "Garrigues" onto the "GF305" peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting "Garrigues" onto "GF305" prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus...
May 3, 2018: Viruses
Helena Janečková, Alexandra Husičková, Ursula Ferretti, Maroš Prčina, Eva Pilařová, Lenka Plačková, Pavel Pospíšil, Karel Doležal, Martina Špundová
Light and cytokinins are known to be the key players in the regulation of plant senescence. In detached leaves, the retarding effect of light on senescence is well described; however, it is not clear to what extent is this effect connected with changes in endogenous cytokinin levels. We have performed a detailed analysis of changes in endogenous content of 29 cytokinin forms in detached leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (wild-type and three cytokinin receptor double-mutants). Leaves were kept under different light conditions and changes in cytokinin content were correlated with changes in chlorophyll content, efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry and lipid peroxidation...
May 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mattias Carlsson, Guo-Zhen Hu, Hans Ronne
Purine and pyrimidine analogues have important uses in chemotherapies against cancer, and a better understanding of the mechanisms that cause resistance to these drugs is therefore of importance in cancer treatment. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, overexpression of the HAM1 gene encoding inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase confers resistance to both the purine analogue 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) and the pyrimidine analogue 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (Carlsson et al., 2013, PLoS One 8, e52094). To find out more about the mechanisms of resistance to nucleotide analogues, and possible interdependencies between purine and pyrimidine analogue resistance mechanisms, we screened a plasmid library in yeast for genes that confer HAP resistance when overexpressed...
2018: PloS One
D Kulus, A Abratowska
  BACKGROUND: Ajania pacifica, a novelty on the horticultural market, is valued as an ornamental and a medicinal plant. Breeding programs led to the creation of numerous cultivars. Therefore, it is important to develop species storage methods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study has been to develop an encapsulation-based cryopreservation protocol of Ajania pacifica shoot tips. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Shoot tips of ajania 'Bengo' were precultured on media with different sucrose and ABA concentrations, encapsulated and dehydrated for various periods and stored in liquid nitrogen...
September 2017: Cryo Letters
Mónica Escandón, Mónica Meijón, Luis Valledor, Jesús Pascual, Gloria Pinto, María Jesús Cañal
The integrative omics approach is crucial to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying high-temperature response in non-model species. Based on future scenarios of heat increase, Pinus radiata plants were exposed to a temperature of 40°C for a period of 5 days, including recovered plants (30 days after last exposure to 40°C) in the analysis. The analysis of the metabolome using complementary mass spectrometry techniques (GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS) allowed the reliable quantification of 2,287 metabolites...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Victor M Zuñiga-Mayo, Cesar R Baños-Bayardo, David Díaz-Ramírez, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Stefan de Folter
Hormones are an important component in the regulatory networks guiding plant development. Cytokinins are involved in different physiological and developmental processes in plants. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, cytokinin application during gynoecium development produces conspicuous phenotypes. On the other hand, Brassica napus, also known as canola, is a crop plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, as A. thaliana. This makes B. napus a good candidate to study whether the cytokinin responses observed in A...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tanya Waldie, Ottoline Leyser
Cytokinin is well known to promote shoot branching by activating axillary buds, but its mechanism of action in this process is unclear. We have previously shown that a hextuple mutant lacking a clade of type-A Arabidopsis Response Regulators (ARRs) known to act in cytokinin signalling has reduced shoot branching compared to wild-type. Since these proteins typically act as negative regulators of cytokinin signalling, this is an unexpected result. To explore this paradox more deeply, we characterised the effects of loss of function of the type-B ARR, ARR1, which positively regulates cytokinin-induced gene expression...
May 1, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ruishi He, Yongjing Ni, Junchang Li, Zhixin Jiao, Xinxin Zhu, Yumei Jiang, Qiaoyun Li, Jishan Niu
Tiller number is an important agronomic trait for grain yield of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). A dwarf-monoculm wheat mutant ( dmc ) was obtained from cultivar Guomai 301 (wild type, WT). Here, we explored the molecular basis for the restrained tiller development of the mutant dmc . Two bulked samples of the mutant dmc (T1, T2 and T3) and WT (T4, T5 and T6) with three biological replicates were comparatively analyzed at the transcriptional level by bulked RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total, 68.8 Gb data and 463 million reads were generated, 80% of which were mapped to the wheat reference genome of Chinese Spring...
April 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Huiyu Wang, Xia Ye, Jidong Li, Bin Tan, Peng Chen, Jun Cheng, Wei Wang, Xianbo Zheng, Jiancan Feng
BACKGROUND: Jujube witches' broom (JWB), caused by a phytoplasma, devastates jujube tree (Ziziphus jujuba) growth and production in Asia. Although host responses to phytoplasmas are studied at the phenotypic, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels, it remains unclear how a host plant responds at the molecular level during the primary stage of infection. METHODS: To understand the response of the jujube tree to JWB infection, leaves were sampled at different times during the phytoplasma infection...
April 27, 2018: Gene
Sergio Alan Cervantes-Pérez, Annie Espinal-Centeno, Araceli Oropeza-Aburto, Juan Caballero-Pérez, Francisco Falcon, Alejandro Aragón-Raygoza, Lino Sánchez-Segura, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Andrés Cruz-Hernández, Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez
In plants, the best characterized plant regeneration process is de novo organogenesis. This type of regeneration is characterized by the formation of a multicellular structure called callus. Calli are induced via phytohormone treatment of plant sections. The callus formation in plants like Agave species with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) is poorly studied. In this study, we induced callus formation from Agave salmiana leaves and describe cell arrangement in this tissue. Moreover, we determined and analyzed the transcriptional program of calli, as well as those of differentiated root and leaf tissues, by using RNA-seq...
April 26, 2018: Developmental Biology
Jan Šimura, Ioanna Antoniadi, Jitka Široká, Danuse Tarkowska, Miroslav Strnad, Karin Ljung, Ondrej Novak
Phytohormones are physiologically important small molecules, which play essential roles in intricate signaling networks that regulate diverse processes in plants. We present a method for the simultaneous targeted profiling of 101 phytohormone-related analytes from minute amounts of fresh plant material (< 20 mg). Rapid and non-selective extraction, fast one-step sample purification, and extremely sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) enable concurrent quantification of the main phytohormone classes: cytokinins, auxins, brassinosteroids, gibberellins, jasmonates, salicylates, and abscisates...
April 27, 2018: Plant Physiology
C S Bedetti, N C Jorge, Fcg Trigueiro, G P Bragança, L V Modolo, Rms Isaias
We report a new method for histochemical localization of cytokinins (CKs) in plant tissues based on bromophenol blue/silver nitrate staining. The method was validated by immunohistochemistry using anti-trans-zeatin riboside antibody. Indole-3-acetic acid (auxin, IAA) was localized by anti-IAA antibody in plant tissues as a proof for IAA histolocalization. We used root sections, because they are major sites of CKs synthesis, and insect galls of Piptadenia gonoacantha that accumulate IAA. Immunostaining confirmed the presence of zeatin and sites of accumulation of IAA indicated by histochemistry...
April 27, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
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