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Zhenwei Yan, Xin Liu, Karin Ljung, Shuning Li, Wanying Zhao, Fan Yang, Meiling Wang, Yi Tao
During embryogenesis and organ formation, establishing proper gradient is critical for auxin function, which is achieved through coordinated regulation of both auxin metabolism and transport. Expression of auxin biosynthetic genes is often tissue specific and is regulated by environmental signals. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of a key auxin biosynthetic gene, TAA1 (L-Tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1). A canonical and a novel ARR (Arabidopsis response regulators) binding site were identified in the promoter and the second intron of TAA1, which were required for its tissue specific expression...
September 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
Chuanwei Yang, Lin Li
At high vegetation density, shade-intolerant plants sense a reduction in the red (660 nm) to far-red (730 nm) light ratio (R/FR) in addition to a general reduction in light intensity. These light signals trigger a spectrum of morphological changes manifested by growth of stem-like tissue (hypocotyl, petiole, etc.) instead of harvestable organs (leaves, fruits, seeds, etc.)-namely, shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Common phenotypical changes related to SAS are changes in leaf hyponasty, an increase in hypocotyl and internode elongation and extended petioles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
V V Lavrekha, T Pasternak, V B Ivanov, K Palme, V V Mironova
To date CYCB1;1 marker and cortex cell lengths are conventionally used to determine the proliferation activity of the Arabidopsis root meristem. By creating a 3D map of mitosis distribution we showed that these markers overlooked that stele and endodermis save their potency to divide longer than cortex and epidermis. Cessation of cell divisions is not a random process, so that the mitotic activity within the endodermis and stele shows a diarch pattern. Mitotic activity of all root tissues peaked at the same distance from the quiescent center (QC); however, different tissues stopped dividing at different distances, with cells of the protophloem exiting the cell cycle first and the procambial cells being the last...
September 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ick-Hyun Jo, Jinsu Lee, Chi Eun Hong, Dong Jin Lee, Wonsil Bae, Sin-Gi Park, Yong Ju Ahn, Young Chang Kim, Jang Uk Kim, Jung Woo Lee, Dong Yun Hyun, Sung-Keun Rhee, Chang Pyo Hong, Kyong Hwan Bang, Hojin Ryu
Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been widely used for medicinal purposes and contains potent plant secondary metabolites, including ginsenosides. To obtain transcriptomic data that offers a more comprehensive view of functional genomics in P. ginseng, we generated genome-wide transcriptome data from four different P. ginseng tissues using PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) technology. A total of 135,317 assembled transcripts were generated with an average length of 3.2 kb and high assembly completeness...
September 15, 2017: Genes
Panpan Yang, Leifeng Xu, Hua Xu, Yuchao Tang, Guoren He, Yuwei Cao, Yayan Feng, Suxia Yuan, Jun Ming
Aerial bulbils are an important propagative organ, playing an important role in population expansion. However, the detailed gene regulatory patterns and molecular mechanism underlying bulbil formation remain unclear. Triploid Lilium lancifolium, which develops many aerial bulbils on the leaf axils of middle-upper stem, is a useful species for investigating bulbil formation. To investigate the mechanism of bulbil formation in triploid L. lancifolium, we performed histological and transcriptomic analyses using samples of leaf axils located in the upper and lower stem of triploid L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Momoko Ikeuchi, Akira Iwase, Bart Rymen, Alice Lambolez, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Jefri Heyman, Shunsuke Watanabe, Mitsunori Seo, Lieven De Veylder, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Keiko Sugimoto
Wounding is a primary trigger of organ regeneration, but how wound stress reactivates cell proliferation and promotes cellular reprogramming remains elusive. In this study, we combined transcriptome analysis with quantitative hormonal analysis to investigate how wounding induces callus formation in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Our time-course RNA-seq analysis revealed that wounding induces dynamic transcriptional changes, starting from rapid stress responses followed by the activation of metabolic processes and protein synthesis and subsequent activation of cell cycle regulators...
September 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Jun Ni, Mei-Li Zhao, Mao-Sheng Chen, Bang-Zhen Pan, Yan-Bin Tao, Zeng-Fu Xu
Cytokinin (CK) is the primary hormone that positively regulates axillary bud outgrowth. However, in many woody plants, such as Jatropha curcas, gibberellin (GA) also promotes shoot branching. The molecular mechanisms underlying GA and CK interaction in the regulation of bud outgrowth in Jatropha remain unclear. To determine how young axillary buds respond to GA3 and 6-benzyladenine (BA), we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis of the young axillary buds of Jatropha seedlings treated with GA3 or BA...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christina Joy Müller, Emma Larsson, Lukáš Spíchal, Eva Sundberg
The Arabidopsis thaliana gynoecium consists of two congenitally fused carpels made up of two lateral valve domains and two medial domains, which retain meristematic properties and later fuse to produce the female reproductive structures vital for fertilization. Polar auxin transport (PAT) is important for setting up distinct apical auxin signaling domains in the early floral meristem remnants allowing for lateral domain identity and outgrowth. Crosstalk between auxin and cytokinin plays important roles in the development of other meristematic tissues, however hormone interaction studies to date have focused on more accessible later-stage gynoecia and the spatiotemporal interactions pivotal for patterning of early gynoecium primordia remain unknown...
September 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
Fei Zhang, Alan May, Vivian F Irish
The WUSCHEL (WUS) gene is necessary for the maintenance of stem cells in the shoot apical meristem. Four recent reports show that cytokinin responsive type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs (ARRs) directly activate WUS expression, providing a long-awaited explanation for how cytokinin influences the maintenance of the stem cell niche.
September 5, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Víctor M Zúñiga-Mayo, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Stefan de Folter
The phytohormones auxin and cytokinin are key regulators of plant development, and both regulate almost all aspects of plant growth and development. Communication between auxin-cytokinin signaling pathways has been the subject of intense research. However, few studies have focused specifically on the development of the early gynoecium. We have recently discovered that cytokinin signaling plays a role in the regulation of auxin biosynthesis and transport in the ovary region of the gynoecium, and that the transcription factor SPATULA (SPT) is necessary...
September 7, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tomáš Hluska, Marek Šebela, René Lenobel, Ivo Frébort, Petr Galuszka
Almost 25 years ago, an enzyme named zeatin cis-trans isomerase from common bean has been described by Bassil et al. (1993). The partially purified enzyme required an external addition of FAD and dithiothreitol for the conversion of cis-zeatin to its trans- isomer that occurred only under light. Although an existence of this important enzyme involved in the metabolism of plant hormones cytokinins was generally accepted by plant biologists, the corresponding protein and encoding gene have not been identified to date...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anindya Kundu, Maitrayee DasGupta
Rhizobia-legume interaction activates SYM-pathway that recruits cytokinin signaling for induction of nodule primordia in the cortex. In Arachis hypogaea, bradyrhizobia invade through natural cracks developed in the lateral root base and are directly endocytosed in the cortical cells to generate the nodule primordia. To unravel the role of cytokinin signaling in Arachis hypogaea, RNA-interference (RNAi) of cytokinin receptor Histidine-Kinase1 (AhHK1) was done. AhHK1-RNAi downregulated the expression of Type-A Response Regulators like AhRR5 and AhRR3 along with several symbiotic genes indicating both cytokinin signaling and SYM-Pathway was affected...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Takamitsu Kurusu, Tomoko Koyano, Nobutaka Kitahata, Mikiko Kojima, Shigeru Hanamata, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu
Autophagy has recently been shown to be required for postmeiotic anther development including anther dehiscence, programmed cell death-mediated degradation of the tapetum and pollen maturation in rice. Several phytohormones are known to play essential roles during male reproductive development including pollen maturation. However, the relationship between phytohormone metabolism and autophagy in plant reproductive development is unknown. We here comprehensively analyzed the effect of autophagy disruption on phytohormone contents in rice anthers at the flowering stage, and found that endogenous levels of active-forms of gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinin, trans-zeatin, were significantly lower in the autophagy-defective mutant, Osatg7-1, than in the wild type...
September 5, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ehsan Mohseni Fard, Behnam Bakhshi, Mohammad Farsi, Amin Mirshamsi Kakhki, Nava Nikpay, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimi, Mohsen Mardi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous regulatory RNAs that are involved in a variety of biological processes related to proliferation, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. miRNA profiles of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64.) leaves in a partial root zone drying (PRD) system were analysed using a high-throughput sequencing approach to identify miRNAs associated with drought signalling. The treatments performed in this study were as follows: well-watered ("wet" roots, WW), wherein both halves of the pot were watered daily; drought ("dry" roots, DD), wherein water was withheld from both halves of the pot; and well-watered/drought ("wet" and "dry" roots, WD), wherein one half of each pot was watered daily, the same as in WW, and water was withheld from the other part, the same as in DD...
September 5, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
Yunpeng Wei, Dan Liu, Yin Zheng, Honglian Li, Chaoshuang Hao, Wuqing Ouyang
Increasing evidence indicates that aluminum exposure and oxidative stress play crucial roles in the initiation and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and d-galactose (d-gal) combined treatment of mice is considered as an easy and cheap way to obtain an animal model of AD. Kinetin is a plant cytokinin, which is also reported to exert neuro-protective effects in vivo and in vitro. Thus, in this study, neuro-protective effects of kinetin were investigated in an AD model of mice induced by AlCl3 and d-gal...
September 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Geupil Jang, Sun Hyun Chang, Tae Young Um, Sangyool Lee, Ju-Kon Kim, Yang Do Choi
Developmental flexibility under stress conditions largely relies on the interactions between hormones that mediate stress responses and developmental processes. In this study, we showed that the stress hormone jasmonic acid (JA) induces formation of extra xylem in the roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0). JA signaling mutants such as coronatine insensitive1-1 and jasmonate resistant1-1 did not form extra xylem in response to JA, but the JA biosynthesis mutant oxophytodienoate-reductase3 did form extra xylem...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Olga Otrusinová, Gabriel Demo, Petr Padrta, Zuzana Jaseňáková, Blanka Pekárová, Zuzana Gelová, Agnieszka Szmitkowska, Pavel Kadeřávek, Séverine Jansen, Milan Zachrdla, Tomáš Klumpler, Jaromír Marek, Jozef Hritz, Lubomír Janda, Hideo Iwaï, Michaela Wimmerová, Jan Hejátko, Lukáš Žídek
Multistep phosphorelay (MSP) cascades mediate responses to a wide spectrum of stimuli, including plant hormonal signaling, but several aspects of MSP await elucidation. Here, we provide first insight into the key step of MSP-mediated phosphotransfer in a eukaryotic system, the phosphorylation of the receiver domain of the histidine kinase CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT 1 (CKI1RD) from Arabidopsis thaliana We observed that the crystal structures of free, Mg(2+)-bound, and beryllofluoridated CKI1RD (a stable analog of the labile phosphorylated form) were identical and similar to the active state of receiver domains of bacterial response regulators...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Abdulrahman A Alatar, Mohammad Faisal, Eslam M Abdel-Salam, Tomas Canto, Quaiser Saquib, Saad B Javed, Mohamed A El-Sheikh, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy
In the present study, we develop an efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration system for two cultivars viz., Jamila and Tomaland of Solanum lycopersicum L., an economically important vegetable crop throughout the world. Sterilization of seeds with 2.5% (v/v) NaOCl was found to be most effective, about 97% of seeds germinated on cotton in magenta box moistened with sterile half strength (½)Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Regeneration efficiency of cotyledonary leaf (CL) and cotyledonary node (CN) explants derived from 08 days old aseptic seedling were assessed on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of auxins and cytokinin...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Jie Luo, Limei Cai, Shihua Qi, Jian Wu, Xiaowen Sophie Gu
Multiple techniques for soil decontamination were combined to enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulese and alleviate the corresponding environmental risks. The approach constituted of chelating agent using, electrokinetic remediation, plant hormone foliar application and phytoremediation was designed to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils from a notorious e-waste recycling town. The decontamination ability of E. globulese increased from 1.35, 58.47 and 119.18 mg per plant for Cd, Pb and Cu in planting controls to 7...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Emilie Chanclud, Benoît Lacombe
It is well established that plant hormones such as auxins, cytokinins (CKs), and abscisic acid (ABA) not only govern important plant physiological traits but are key players in plant-microbe interactions. A poorly appreciated fact, however, is that both microbes and animals produce and perceive plant hormones and their mimics. Moreover, dietary plant hormones impact on human physiological process such as glucose assimilation, inflammation, and cell division. This leads us to wonder whether plant hormones could ensure functions in microbes per se as well as in animal-microbe interactions...
July 28, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
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