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Yolanda Durán-Medina, David Díaz-Ramírez, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez
Cytokinins are important signals that participate in different plant processes, and are well known for their strong influence in plant development. With the years, knowledge has been built about their effects, chemical nature, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms. However, one aspect about cytokinins that has been lagging behind is cytokinin transport. Recent reports are providing more information about how cytokinins are transported and how their transport is connected to their effects in development. This review provides a general overview of what is known about cytokinin transport, with a focus on the latest reports...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hafiz A S Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Waseem Raza, Alwina Hanif, Liming Wu, Massawe V Colman, Xuewen Gao
Bacterial volatiles play a significant role in promoting plant growth by regulating the synthesis or metabolism of phytohormones. In vitro and growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain SYST2 on hormone regulation and growth promotion in tomato plants. We observed a significant increase in plant biomass under both experimental conditions; we observed an increase in photosynthesis and in the endogenous contents of gibberellin, auxin, and cytokinin, while a decrease in ethylene levels was noted...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shi-Weng Li, Yan Leng, Rui-Fang Shi
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been known to function as a signalling molecule involved in the modulation of various physiological processes in plants. H2O2 has been shown to act as a promoter during adventitious root formation in hypocotyl cuttings. In this study, RNA-Seq was performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying H2O2-induced adventitious rooting. RESULTS: RNA-Seq data revealed that H2O2 treatment greatly increased the numbers of clean reads and expressed genes and abundance of gene expression relative to the water treatment...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
Annu Smitha Ninan, Anish Shah, Jiancheng Song, Paula E Jameson
For successful molecular breeding it is important to identify targets to the gene family level, and in the specific species of interest, in this case Pisum sativum L. The cytokinins have been identified as a key breeding target due to their influence on plant architecture, and on seed size and sink activity. We focused on the cytokinin biosynthetic gene family (the IPTs) and the gene family key to the destruction of cytokinins (the CKXs), as well as other gene families potentially affected by changing cytokinin levels...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Junbei Ni, Songling Bai, Ling Gao, Minjie Qian, Linbing Zhong, Yuanwen Teng
Type-B response regulators (B-RRs) are transcription factors that function in the final step of two-component signaling systems. In model plants, B-RRs have been shown to play important roles in cytokinin signal transduction. However, the functions of B-RRs in pear have not been well studied. In this report, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 11 putative genes encoding B-PpRR proteins based on the published genome sequence of Pyrus bretschneideri. A phylogenetic tree of the B-PpRR family was constructed, and the motif distribution, chromosome localization, and gene structure of B-PpRR family genes were determined...
2017: PloS One
Osama Alabdallah, Abdellah Ahou, Namrata Mancuso, Valerio Pompili, Alberto Macone, Dimitre Pashkoulov, Pasquale Stano, Alessandra Cona, Riccardo Angelini, Paraskevi Tavladoraki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gulshan Kumar, Khushboo Gupta, Shivalika Pathania, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Usha Kumari Rattan, Gagandeep Singh, Ram Kumar Sharma, Anil Kumar Singh
The availability of sufficient chilling during bud dormancy plays an important role in the subsequent yield and quality of apple fruit, whereas, insufficient chilling availability negatively impacts the apple production. The transcriptome profiling during bud dormancy release and initial fruit set under low and high chill conditions was performed using RNA-seq. The comparative high number of differentially expressed genes during bud break and fruit set under high chill condition indicates that chilling availability was associated with transcriptional reorganization...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wona Ding, Huishan Tong, Wenjuan Zheng, Jing Ye, Zhichong Pan, Botao Zhang, Shihua Zhu
Cytokinins play important roles in regulating plant development, including shoot and root meristems, leaf longevity, and grain yield. However, the in planta functions of rice cytokinin receptors have not been genetically characterized yet. Here we isolated a rice mutant, Osckt1, with enhanced tolerance to cytokinin treatment. Further analysis showed that Osckt1 was insensitive to aromatic cytokinins but responded normally to isoprenoid and phenylurea-type cytokinins. Map-based cloning revealed that the mutation occurred in a putative cytokinin receptor gene, histidine kinase 6 (OsHK6)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sharmila Singh, Alka Singh, Sandeep Yadav, Vibhav Gautam, Archita Singh, Ananda K Sarkar
In Arabidopsis thaliana, besides several key transcription factors and chromatin modifiers, phytohormones auxin and cytokinin play pivotal role in shoot and root meristem maintenance, and lateral root (LR) development. Sirtinol, a chemical inhibitor of Sir2 proteins, is known to promote some auxin induced phenotypes in Arabidopsis. However, its effect on plant stem cell maintenance or organ formation remained unaddressed. Here we show that sirtinol affects meristem maintenance by altering the expression of key stem cell regulators, cell division and differentiation by modulating both auxin and cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Elena T Iakimova, Ernst J Woltering
Physiological and molecular studies support the view that xylogenesis can largely be determined as a specific form of vacuolar programmed cell death (PCD). The studies in xylogenic zinnia cell culture have led to many breakthroughs in xylogenesis research and provided a background for investigations in other experimental models in vitro and in planta . This review discusses the most essential earlier and recent findings on the regulation of xylem elements differentiation and PCD in zinnia and other xylogenic systems...
February 13, 2017: Planta
Koichi Kobayashi, Ai Ohnishi, Daichi Sasaki, Sho Fujii, Akira Iwase, Keiko Sugimoto, Tatsuru Masuda, Hajime Wada
Development of plant chloroplasts is regulated by various developmental, environmental, and hormonal cues. In Arabidopsis thaliana, chloroplast development is repressed in roots via auxin signaling. However, roots develop chloroplasts when they are detached from the shoot. In contrast to auxin, cytokinin positively affects chloroplast development in roots, but the role and signaling pathway of cytokinin in the root greening response remain unclear. To understand the regulatory pathways of chloroplast development in the plant stress response, we examined the mechanisms underlying the conditional greening of detached roots...
February 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Vladyslav Oles, Alexander Panchenko, Andrei Smertenko
Rise of atmospheric CO2 is one of the main causes of global warming. Catastrophic climate change can be avoided by reducing emissions and increasing sequestration of CO2. Trees are known to sequester CO2 during photosynthesis, and then store it as wood biomass. Thus, breeding of trees with higher wood yield would mitigate global warming as well as augment production of renewable construction materials, energy, and industrial feedstock. Wood is made of cellulose-rich xylem cells produced through proliferation of a specialized stem cell niche called cambium...
2017: PloS One
Miwa Ohashi, Keiki Ishiyama, Soichi Kojima, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Tomoyuki Yamaya, Toshihiko Hayakawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Olga Rosspopoff, Liudmila Chelysheva, Julie Saffar, Lena Lecorgne, Delphine Gey, Erwann Caillieux, Vincent Colot, François Roudier, Pierre Hilson, Richard Berthomé, Marco Da Costa, Philippe Rech
To understand how the identity of an organ can be switched, we studied the transformation of lateral root primordia (LRP) into shoot meristems in Arabidopsis root segments. In this system, the cytokinin-induced conversion does not involve the formation of callus-like structures. Detailed analysis showed that the conversion sequence starts with a mitotic pause and is concomitant with the differential expression of regulators of root and shoot development. The conversion requires the presence of apical stem cells and only LRP at stages VI or VII can be switched...
February 7, 2017: Development
Zhongjuan Zhang, Elise Tucker, Marita Hermann, Thomas Laux
The establishment of pluripotent stem cells is a key event during plant and animal embryogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. We show that in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, expression of the shoot meristem stem cell marker CLV3 becomes detectable in transition stage embryos. Surprisingly, the key regulator of stem cell homeostasis WUSCHEL (WUS) is expressed but dispensable for stem cell initiation. Rather, the WUS paralog WOX2, a regulator of embryo patterning initiated in the zygote, functions in this process by shielding stem cell progenitors from differentiation...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Jiří Voller, Tibor Béres, Marek Zatloukal, Pierre Alexandre Kaminski, Percy Niemann, Karel Doležal, Petr Džubák, Marián Hajdúch, Miroslav Strnad
Cytokinin ribosides (N(6)-substituted adenosines) have demonstrated anticancer activity in various cultured cell lines, several xenografts and even a small clinical trial. Effects of kinetin riboside, N(6)-benzyladenosine (BAR) and N(6)-isopentenyladenosine on various parameters related to apoptosis have also been reported, but not directly compared with those of the highly active naturally occurring aromatic cytokinins oTR (ortho-topolin riboside) and 2OH3MeOBAR (N(6)-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)adenosine)...
January 30, 2017: Phytochemistry
Maria N Danilova, Natalia V Kudryakova, Anastasia S Doroshenko, Dmitry A Zabrodin, Zulfira F Rakhmankulova, Ralf Oelmüller, Victor V Kusnetsov
Cytokinin membrane receptors of the Arabidopsis thaliana AHK2 and AHK3 play opposite roles in the expression of plastid genes and genes for the plastid transcriptional machinery during leaf senescence Loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana were used to study the role of cytokinin receptors in the expression of chloroplast genes during leaf senescence. Accumulation of transcripts of several plastid-encoded genes is dependent on the АНК2/АНК3 receptor combination. АНК2 is particularly important at the final stage of plant development and, unlike АНК3, a positive regulator of leaf senescence...
February 1, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Anaïs Hérivaux, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Christophe Roux, Marc Clastre, Vincent Courdavault, Amandine Gastebois, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Timothy Y James, Jean-Paul Latgé, Francis Martin, Nicolas Papon
Histidine kinases (HKs) are among the most prominent sensing proteins studied in the kingdom Fungi. Their distribution and biological functions in early diverging fungi (EDF), however, remain elusive. We have taken advantage of recent genomic resources to elucidate whether relationships between the occurrence of specific HKs in some EDF and their respective habitat/lifestyle could be established. This led to the unexpected discovery of fungal HKs that share a high degree of similarity with receptors for plant hormones (ethylene and cytokinin)...
January 31, 2017: MBio
Xiaodong Xie, Guangyong Qin, Ping Si, Zhaopeng Luo, Junping Gao, Xia Chen, Jianfeng Zhang, Pan Wei, Qingyou Xia, Fucheng Lin, Jun Yang
The plant-specific PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins have been well characterized in many plant species, where they are crucial in the regulation of auxin transport in various aspects of plant development. However, little is known about the exact roles of the PIN genes during plant development in Nicotiana species. This study investigated the PIN genes in tobacco (N. tabacum) and in two ancestral species (N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis). Genome-wide analysis of the N. tabacum genome identified 20 genes of the PIN family...
January 27, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Eva Hellmann, Christine Swinka, Alexander Heyl
Genetic screens are a common tool to identify new modulators in a defined context, e.g. hormonal response or environmental stress. However, most screens are either in vitro or laborious and time-and-space inefficient. Here we present a novel in planta screening approach that shortens the time from the actual screening process to the identification of a new modulator and simultaneously reduces space requirements and costs. The basic features of this screening approach are the creation of luciferase reporter plants which enable a non-invasive readout in a streamlined multiplate reader process, the transformation of those plants with an inducible, Gateway™-compatible expression vector, and a screening setup, in which whole plants at the seedling stage are screened in 96 multiwell plates in the first transformed generation without the use of an expensive CCD camera system...
January 24, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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