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Manling Wang, Xuedan Lu, Guoyun Xu, Xuming Yin, Yanchun Cui, Lifang Huang, Pedro S C F Rocha, Xinjie Xia
Abiotic stress seriously affects the yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Grain yield in rice is multiplicatively determined by the number of panicles, number of grains per panicle, and grain weight. Here, we describe the molecular and functional characterization of STRESS_tolerance and GRAIN_LENGTH (OsSGL), a rice gene strongly up-regulated by a wide spectrum of abiotic stresses. OsSGL encodes a putative member of the DUF1645 protein family of unknown function. Overexpression of OsSGL significantly altered certain development processes greatly and positively affecting an array of traits in transgenic rice plants, including increased grain length, grain weight and grain number per panicle, resulting in a significant increase in yield...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Paula E Jameson, Pragatheswari Dhandapani, Ondrej Novak, Jiancheng Song
Transporter genes and cytokinins are key targets for crop improvement. These genes are active during the development of the seed and its establishment as a strong sink. However, during germination, the seed transitions to being a source for the developing root and shoot. To determine if the sucrose transporter (SUT), amino acid permease (AAP), Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET), cell wall invertase (CWINV), cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT), activation (LOG) and degradation (CKX) gene family members are involved in both the sink and source activities of seeds, we used RT-qPCR to determine the expression of multiple gene family members, and LC-MS/MS to ascertain endogenous cytokinin levels in germinating Pisum sativum L...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuanli Wu, Evgenia Dor, Joseph Hershenhorn
Exogenously applied GR24 affected somatic embryo formation and morphogenesis of strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant through cross-talk with auxins and cytokinins indicating involvement of SLs in the embryogenic process. Strigolactones (SLs) mediate the regulation of plant responses to the environment through cross-talk with other plant hormones, especially auxins. Auxins play a crucial role in coordinating the morphogenesis and development of plant reproductive organs, including the signal-transduction cascade leading to the reprogramming of gene-expression patterns before embryo formation...
December 1, 2016: Planta
Clarisse Brígido, Bernard R Glick, Solange Oliveira
Rhizobia may possess other plant growth-promoting mechanisms besides nitrogen fixation. These mechanisms and the tolerance to different environmental factors, such as metals, may contribute to the use of rhizobia inocula to establish a successful legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Our goal was to characterize a collection of native Portuguese chickpea Mesorhizobium isolates in terms of plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and tolerance to different metals as well as to investigate whether these characteristics are related to the biogeography of the isolates...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Wen-Jing Cai, Tian-Tian Ye, Qing Wang, Bao-Dong Cai, Yu-Qi Feng
BACKGROUND: Phytohormones play crucial roles in almost all stages of plant growth and development. Accurate and simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones enabled us to better understand the physiological functions and the regulatory networks of phytohormones. However, simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones in plant is still a challenge due to their low concentrations, structural and chemical diversity, and complex matrix of plant tissues. Therefore, development of a simple and selective method for the simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones is highly needed...
2016: Plant Methods
Ryan Hiltenbrand, Jacklyn Thomas, Hannah McCarthy, Karl J Dykema, Ashley Spurr, Hamilton Newhart, Mary E Winn, Arijit Mukherjee
Several studies have shown that plant hormones play important roles during legume-rhizobia symbiosis. For instance, auxins induce the formation of nodule-like structures (NLSs) on legume roots in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, these NLS can be colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which favor nitrogen fixation compared to regular roots and subsequently increase plant yield. Interestingly, auxin also induces similar NLS in cereal roots. While several genetic studies have identified plant genes controlling NLS formation in legumes, no studies have investigated the genes involved in NLS formation in cereals...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lin Wu, Nan Ma, Yangchao Jia, Yi Zhang, Ming Feng, Cai-Zhong Jiang, Chao Ma, Junping Gao
In many plant species, including rose (Rosa hybrida), flower senescence is promoted by the gaseous hormone, ethylene, and inhibited by cytokinin (CTK) class of hormones. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these antagonistic effects are not well understood. In this current study, we characterized the association between a pathogenesis related PR-10 family gene from rose (RhPR10.1) and the hormonal regulation of flower senescence. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the RhPR10.1 was expressed at high levels during senescence in different floral organs, including petal, sepal, receptacle, stamen, and pistil, and that expression was induced by ethylene treatment...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology
Yi Feng, Xinzhong Zhang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Zhenhai Han, Yi Wang
The molecular mechanism of dwarfing in the apple rootstock is poorly understood, and has been attributed to low root cytokinin biosynthesis levels. Here we identified differences in root trans-zeatin content and expression of cytokinin metabolic pathway genes between dwarfing and vigorous rootstocks. Specifically, a stable low expression of IPT5b was identified in the dwarfing rootstocks. Bisulfite sequencing showed that two CpG islands (CpG2 and CpG4) in the IPT5b promoter region showed higher methylation levels in the M9 rootstock (dwarfing) compared to the Mr (vigorous) rootstock...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ondřej Novák, Ioanna Antoniadi, Karin Ljung
We describe a method combining fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with one-step miniaturized isolation and accurate quantification of cytokinins (CKs) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) to measure these phytohormones in specific cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. The methodology provides information of unprecedented resolution about spatial distributions of CKs, and thus should facilitate attempts to elucidate regulatory networks involved in root developmental processes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jingchun Liu, Bruno Müller
Cytokinins are classical plant hormones that control numerous developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle. Cytokinin-responsive cells activate transcription via a phospho-relay signaling network. Type-B nuclear RESPONSE REGULATOR (RR) proteins mediate transcriptional activation as the final step in the signaling cascade. They bind to promoters of immediate-early target genes via a conserved Myb-related DNA-binding domain. To monitor transcriptional activation in response to a cytokinin stimulus, we have constructed a synthetic promoter, TCS (two-component signaling sensor) that harbors the concatemerized binding motifs for activated type-B RR in an optimized configuration...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tessa Albrecht, Cristiana T Argueso
BACKGROUND: Perception and activation of plant immunity require a remarkable level of signalling plasticity and control. In Arabidopsis and other plant species, constitutive defence activation leads to resistance to a broad spectrum of biotrophic pathogens, but also frequently to stunted growth and reduced seed set. Plant hormones are important integrators of the physiological responses that influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. SCOPE: We review the mechanisms by which the plant hormone cytokinin regulates both plant growth and response to pathogens, and how cytokinins may connect these two processes, ultimately affecting the growth trade-offs observed in plant immunity...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Botany
Pragatheswari Dhandapani, Jiancheng Song, Ondrej Novak, Paula E Jameson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pisum sativum L. (pea) seed is a source of carbohydrate and protein for the developing plant. By studying pea seeds inoculated by the cytokinin-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus fascians, we sought to determine the impact of both an epiphytic (avirulent) strain and a pathogenic strain on source-sink activity within the cotyledons during and following germination. METHODS: Bacterial spread was monitored microscopically, and real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to determine the expression of cytokinin biosynthesis, degradation and response regulator gene family members, along with expression of family members of SWEET, SUT, CWINV and AAP genes - gene families identified initially in pea by transcriptomic analysis...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Botany
Nora Adam, Theresa Erler, Mario Kallenbach, Martin Kaltenpoth, Grit Kunert, Ian T Baldwin, Meredith C Schuman
Herbivore species sharing a host plant often compete. In this study, we show that host plant-mediated interaction between two insect herbivores - a generalist and a specialist - results in a sex ratio shift of the specialist's offspring. We studied demographic parameters of the specialist Tupiocoris notatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) when co-infesting the host plant Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae) with the generalist leafhopper Empoasca sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). We show that the usually female-biased sex ratio of T...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Pavel Klimeš, Pavel Mazura, Dušan Turek, Břetislav Brzobohatý
Enzyme kinetic measurements are important for the characterization and engineering of biocatalysts, with applications in a wide range of research fields. The measurement of initial reaction velocity is usually slow and laborious, which motivated us to explore the possibilities for automating this process. Our model enzyme is the maize β-glucosidase Zm-p60.1. Zm-p60.1 plays a significant role in plant growth and development by regulating levels of the active plant hormone cytokinin. Zm-p60.1 belongs to a wide group of hydrolytic enzymes...
November 12, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Lingling Qiu, Bo Jiang, Jia Fang, Yike Shen, Zhongxiang Fang, Saravana Kumar Rm, Keke Yi, Chenjia Shen, Daoliang Yan, Bingsong Zheng
BACKGROUND: Hickory (Carya cathayensis), a woody plant with high nutritional and economic value, is widely planted in China. Due to its long juvenile phase, grafting is a useful technique for large-scale cultivation of hickory. To reveal the molecular mechanism during the graft process, we sequenced the transcriptomes of graft union in hickory. RESULTS: In our study, six RNA-seq libraries yielded a total of 83,676,860 clean short reads comprising 4.19 Gb of sequence data...
November 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Emily Merewitz, Yi Xu, Bingru Huang
Transformation with an isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene controlling cytokinin (CK) synthesis has been shown to enhance plant drought tolerance. The objective of this study was to identify differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) overexpressing ipt compared to non-transgenic plants. The ipt transgene was controlled by a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12). Both a null transformed line (NT) and SAG12-ipt plants were exposed to drought stress in an environmentally-controlled growth chamber until the soil water content declined to approximately 5% and leaf relative water content declined to 47%, which were both significantly below the well-watered controls...
2016: PloS One
Nathan Mellor, Milad Adibi, Sedeer El-Showk, Bert De Rybel, John King, Ari Pekka Mähönen, Dolf Weijers, Anthony Bishopp
The root vascular tissues provide an excellent system for studying organ patterning, as the specification of these tissues signals a transition from radial symmetry to bisymmetric patterns. The patterning process is controlled by the combined action of hormonal signaling/transport pathways, transcription factors, and miRNA that operate through a series of non-linear pathways to drive pattern formation collectively. With the discovery of multiple components and feedback loops controlling patterning, it has become increasingly difficult to understand how these interactions act in unison to determine pattern formation in multicellular tissues...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Isidro Ovando-Medina, Leny P Pérez-Díaz, Sonia Ruiz-González, Miguel Salvador-Figueroa, Marcos E Urbina-Reyes, Lourdes Adriano-Anaya
This study addresses the in vitro culture as an alternative to obtain compounds with cytotoxic activity from the medicinal plant Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). We determined the presence of cytotoxic compounds in both whole plants and dedifferentiated cells. We evaluated the effect of auxin, cytokinins and light on callus induction in cotyledon explants. We found that the most effective combination to induce callus was the auxin 2,4-D (5 mM) with the cytokinin 6-BAP (2.5 mM), on Murashige-Skoog medium in darkness...
2016: PeerJ
Edward C Lulai, Larry G Campbell, Karen K Fugate, Kent F McCue
The two stages of potato tuber wound healing, closing layer formation (CLF) and wound periderm formation (WPF), have critical biological differences. The first stage, CLF, involves early induction of DNA synthesis and nuclear division in the absence of cell division. The transition phase from CLF to the second stage, WPF, is marked by a transient decrease in expression of suberin-specific genes. The second stage involves cell division. Although biologically active cytokinins (CKs) are not present in quantifiable amounts during this stage, the presence of precursor and catabolic products suggest the presence of trace amounts of active CKs that, in conjunction with increased auxin (indole acetic acid), provide necessary signals for meristematic activity...
November 10, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Dong-Wei Di, Lei Wu, Li Zhang, Chen-Wei An, Tian-Zi Zhang, Pan Luo, Huan-Huan Gao, Verena Kriechbaumer, Guang-Qin Guo
Auxin and cytokinin (CK) are both important hormones involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. However, the details of auxin biosynthesis and the interaction between auxin and CK are still unclear. Isolation and characterization of an auxin deficient mutant cytokinin induced root curling 2 (ckrc2) in this work reveal that CKRC2 encodes a previously identified member of YUCCA (YUC) flavin monooxygenase-like proteins (YUC8). Our results show that, like other YUCs, CKRC2/YUC8 is a rate-limiting enzyme for catalyzing the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), acting downstream of CKRC1/TAA1 in the IPyA pathway...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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