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Qi Zhao, Rui Li, Yang Zhang, Kejia Huang, Wenguo Wang, Jian Li
The bulbs of Fritillaria cirrhosa is wildly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat lung-related disease, which has recently been found to have antitussive, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive and anti-tumor activity. Steroidal alkaloids are the major effective ingredients of F. cirrhosa . In the current study, we demonstrated an efficient strategy for F. cirrhosa bulb regeneration in vitro by cytokinin/auxin induction. Our data showed that the regenerated bulbs accumulated higher alkaloid content that the wild ones...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Arjan van Zeijl, Titis A K Wardhani, Maryam Seifi Kalhor, Luuk Rutten, Fengjiao Bu, Marijke Hartog, Sidney Linders, Elena E Fedorova, Ton Bisseling, Wouter Kohlen, Rene Geurts
Parasponia represents five fast-growing tropical tree species in the Cannabaceae and is the only plant lineage besides legumes that can establish nitrogen-fixing nodules with rhizobium. Comparative analyses between legumes and Parasponia allows identification of conserved genetic networks controlling this symbiosis. However, such studies are hampered due to the absence of powerful reverse genetic tools for Parasponia . Here, we present a fast and efficient protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation and CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis of Parasponia andersonii ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tuba Bekircan, Ahmet Yaşar, Sercan Yıldırım, Münevver Sökmen, Atalay Sökmen
An efficient in vitro multiplication protocol was designed to Thymus leucotrichus , a subshrub and perennial herb growing naturally in the Northwest of Turkey. Of all basal media studied, Murashige and Skoog medium was found to be superior to the others, providing higher shoot formation and the maximum shoot length. Varying concentrations of cytokinins, i.e., 6-benzyladenine, thidiazuron, 2-isopentenyladenine and kinetin were supplemented in the nutrient media to observe their effects on shoot development and biomass...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Thomas Spallek, Pamela Gan, Yasuhiro Kadota, Ken Shirasu
Virulence factors are molecules that enable plant pathogens to infect and colonize host tissues successfully. These molecules co-evolve with host genes to ensure functionality and to avoid recognition by the host immune system. Some pathogens also produce the plant growth hormone cytokinin (CK) and other plant hormones that contribute to virulence without being subjected to the molecular arms race. Here, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of CKs during infection and the establishment of plant diseases...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Pu Liu, Chao Zhang, Jin-Qi Ma, Li-Yuan Zhang, Bo Yang, Xin-Yu Tang, Ling Huang, Xin-Tong Zhou, Kun Lu, Jia-Na Li
Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenases (CKXs) play a critical role in the irreversible degradation of cytokinins, thereby regulating plant growth and development. Brassica napus is one of the most widely cultivated oilseed crops worldwide. With the completion of whole-genome sequencing of B. napus , genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the BnCKX gene family has become technically feasible. In this study, we identified 23 BnCKX genes and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, protein subcellular localizations, and other properties...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Ekaterina M Savelieva, Vladimir E Oslovsky, Dmitry S Karlov, Nikolay N Kurochkin, Irina A Getman, Sergey N Lomin, Georgy V Sidorov, Sergey N Mikhailov, Dmitry I Osolodkin, Georgy A Romanov
Biological effects of hormones in both plants and animals are based on high-affinity interaction with cognate receptors resulting in their activation. The signal of cytokinins, classical plant hormones, is perceived in Arabidopsis by three homologous membrane receptors: AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1/AHK4. To study the cytokinin-receptor interaction, we used 25 derivatives of potent cytokinin N6 -benzyladenine (BA) with substituents in the purine heterocycle and/or in the side chain. The study was focused primarily on individual cytokinin receptors from Arabidopsis...
March 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
Tonni Grube Andersen, Sadaf Naseer, Robertas Ursache, Brecht Wybouw, Wouter Smet, Bert De Rybel, Joop E M Vermeer, Niko Geldner
In vascular plants, the root endodermis surrounds the central vasculature as a protective sheath that is analogous to the polarized epithelium in animals, and contains ring-shaped Casparian strips that restrict diffusion. After an initial lag phase, individual endodermal cells suberize in an apparently random fashion to produce 'patchy' suberization that eventually generates a zone of continuous suberin deposition. Casparian strips and suberin lamellae affect paracellular and transcellular transport, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Youssef Rouphael, Giampaolo Raimondi, Luigi Lucini, Petronia Carillo, Marios C Kyriacou, Giuseppe Colla, Valerio Cirillo, Antonio Pannico, Christophe El-Nakhel, Stefania De Pascale
Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da) in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny) treated with omeprazole (OMP), a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 μM) as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control) or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Geupil Jang, Yang Do Choi
Drought stress provokes jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, which mediates plant stress responses; moreover, growing numbers of studies suggest that JA is involved in the modulation of root development under drought stress. Recently, we showed that JA promotes differentiation of xylem from procambial cells in Arabidopsis roots. Further molecular and genetic approaches revealed that the effect of JA on xylem development is caused by suppression of cytokinin responses, suggesting that JA antagonistically interacts with cytokinin to modulate xylem development...
March 13, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Muhammad Naseem, Elena Bencurova, Thomas Dandekar
A conserved PGGxGTxxE motif misleads the cytokinin (CK) converting LONELY GUY enzymes to be wrongly annotated as lysine decarboxylases (LDCs). However, so far PGGxGTxxE motif-containing LDCs do not show any LDC activity. Instead, they show phosphoribohydrolase activity by converting inactive CK nucleotides into active free-base forms to invoke CK responses.
March 7, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Karolina Kubiasová, Václav Mik, Jaroslav Nisler, Martin Hönig, Alexandra Husičková, Lukáš Spíchal, Zuzana Pěkná, Olga Šamajová, Karel Doležal, Ondřej Plíhal, Eva Benková, Miroslav Strnad, Lucie Plíhalová
Isoprenoid cytokinins play a number of crucial roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. To study cytokinin receptor properties in plants, we designed and prepared fluorescent derivatives of 6-[(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)amino]purine (N6 -isopentenyladenine, iP) with several fluorescent labels attached to the C2 or N9 atom of the purine moiety via a 2- or 6-carbon linker. The fluorescent labels included dansyl (DS), fluorescein (FC), 7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD), rhodamine B (RhoB), coumarin (Cou), 7-(diethylamino)coumarin (DEAC) and cyanine 5 dye (Cy5)...
March 7, 2018: Phytochemistry
Kieron D Edwards, Naoki Takata, Mikael Johansson, Manuela Jurca, Ondřej Novák, Eva Hényková, Silvia Liverani, Iwanka Kozarewa, Miroslav Strnad, Andrew J Millar, Karin Ljung, Maria E Eriksson
Trees are carbon dioxide sinks and major producers of terrestrial biomass with distinct seasonal growth patterns. Circadian clocks enable the co-ordination of physiological and biochemical temporal activities, optimally regulating multiple traits including growth. To dissect the clock's role in growth, we analysed Populus tremula × P. tremuloides trees with impaired clock function due to down-regulation of central clock components. late elongated hypocotyl (lhy-10) trees, in which expression of LHY1 and LHY2 is reduced by RNAi, have a short free-running period and show disrupted temporal regulation of gene expression and reduced growth, producing 30-40% less biomass than wild-type trees...
March 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Vladimir E Oslovsky, Pavel N Solyev, Konstantin M Polyakov, Cyril S Alexeev, Sergey N Mikhailov
Nucleoside phosphorylases are involved in the salvage pathways of nucleoside biosynthesis and catalyze the reversible reaction of a nucleobase with α-d-ribose-1-phosphate to yield a corresponding nucleoside and an inorganic phosphate. The equilibrium of these reactions is shifted towards nucleosides, especially in the case of purines. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP, EC is widely used in labs and industry for the synthesis of nucleosides of practical importance. Bacterial PNPs have relatively broad substrate specificity utilizing a wide range of purines with different substituents to form the corresponding nucleosides...
March 9, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Han Yong Park, Kyung Won Kang, Doo Hwan Kim, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan
The influence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), benzyladenine (BA), and thidiazuron (TDZ) on direct rhizome induction and shoot formation from rhizome explants of Cymbidium goeringii was explored. Rhizome segments obtained from in vitro seed cultures of C. goeringii were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium incorporated with 5, 10, 20, or 40 µM 2,4-D and 1, 2, 4, or 8 µM BA or TDZ alone or in combination with 20 µM 2,4-D. The explants developed only rhizomes on MS medium with or without 2,4-D...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Aloka Kumari, Ponnusamy Baskaran, Lenka Plačková, Hana Omámiková, Jaroslav Nisler, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden
The endogenous auxin and cytokinin contents of in vitro regenerated Tulbaghia simmleri maintained on applied plant growth regulators in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were investigated using UHPLC-MS analysis. The highest number of shoots (27.6 per leaf) were produced in MS medium supplemented with 2.5 μM thidiazuron. A higher number of these shoots were rooted with 10 μM 6-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzylamino) purine (PI-55, cytokinin antagonist). Production of somatic embryos (SEs: 16.4-4.6, globular to cotyledonary stages) improved significantly with liquid MS medium containing 2...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Petr Klíma, Martina Laňková, Filip Vandenbussche, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Jan Petrášek
Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability...
March 3, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Jia Dong, Robert H Jones, Pu Mou
(1) Background: Plant roots respond to nutrients through root architecture that is regulated by hormones. Strong inter-specific variation in root architecture has been well documented, but physiological mechanisms that may control the variation have not. (2) Methods: We examined correlations between root architecture and hormones to seek clues on mechanisms behind root foraging behavior. In the green house at Beijing Normal University, hydroponic culture experiments were used to examine the root responses of four species- Callistephus chinensis , Solidago canadensis , Ailanthus altissima , Oryza sativa- to two nitrogen types (NO₃- or NH₄⁺), three nitrogen concentrations (low, medium, and high concentrations of 0...
February 28, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Fan-Chen Huang, Bi-Ju Fu, Yin-Tzu Liu, Yao-Ren Chang, Shin-Fei Chi, Pei-Ru Chien, Si-Chi Huang, Hau-Hsuan Hwang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens can genetically transform various eukaryotic cells because of the presence of a resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. During infection, a defined region of the Ti plasmid, transfer DNA (T-DNA), is transferred from bacteria into plant cells and causes plant cells to abnormally synthesize auxin and cytokinin, which results in crown gall disease. T-DNA and several virulence (Vir) proteins are secreted through a type IV secretion system (T4SS) composed of T-pilus and a transmembrane protein complex...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Víctor M Vergara Martínez, Samuel E Estrada-Soto, José de Jesús Arellano-García, Julio C Rivera-Leyva, Patricia Castillo-España, Angélica Flores Flores, Alexandre T Cardoso-Taketa, Irene Perea-Arango
Background: The production of triterpenes from plants for pharmacological purposes varies in concentration, due to genetic and environmental factors. In vitro culture enables the control and increase of these bioactive molecules. Objective: To evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators and elicitors in the induction of calli and the production of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in Lepechinia caulescens . Materials and Methods: Leaf explants were exposed for the induction of calli at different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Joseph J Kieber, G Eric Schaller
The phytohormone cytokinin plays diverse roles in plant development, influencing many agriculturally important processes, including growth, nutrient responses and the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Cytokinin levels in plants are regulated by biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. Cytokinins are perceived by membrane-localized histidine-kinase receptors and are transduced through a His-Asp phosphorelay to activate a family of transcription factors in the nucleus. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we summarize the current understanding of cytokinin metabolism, transport and signaling, and discuss how this phytohormone regulates changes in gene expression to mediate its pleiotropic effects...
February 27, 2018: Development
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