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Takeshi Ito, Sarahmi Ishida, Yohsuke Takahashi
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Ca2+-dependent protein kinase 1 (NtCDPK1) is involved in feedback regulation of the plant hormone gibberellin through the phosphorylation of the transcription factor, REPRESSION OF SHOOT GROWTH (RSG). Previously, Ser-6 and Thr-21 were identified as autophosphorylation sites in NtCDPK1. Autophosphorylation of Ser-6 and Thr-21 not only decreases the binding affinity of NtCDPK1 for RSG, but also inhibits the homodimerization of NtCDPK1. Furthermore, autophosphorylation decreases the phosphorylation efficiency of RSG...
2018: PloS One
Guiping Ren, Lingfei Li, Yuhua Huang, Yaqin Wang, Wenbin Zhang, Rouyan Zheng, Chunmei Zhong, Xiaojing Wang
Cell expansion is a key determinant for the final size and shape of plant organ, and is regulated by various phytohormones. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) consist of a superfamily involved in multiple aspects of organ morphogenesis. However, little is known about WIP-type ZFP function in phytohormone-mediated organ growth. Using reverse genetics, RNA-seq and phytohormone quantification, we elucidated the role of a new WIP-type ZFP from Gerbera hybrida, GhWIP2, in controlling organ growth via regulation of cell expansion...
April 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Weed control is a challenging event during crop cultivation. Integrated management, including the application of bioherbicides, is an emerging method for weed control in sustainable agriculture. Plant extracts, allelochemicals and some microbes are utilized as bioherbicides to control weed populations. Bioherbicides based on plants and microbes inhibit the germination and growth of weeds; however,few studies conducted in weed physiology. This review ascribes the current knowledge of the physiological changes in weeds that occur during the exposure to bioherbicides...
April 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shixue Li, Qian Zhao, Dengyun Zhu, Jingjuan Yu
The DREB (dehydration-responsive element binding)-type transcription factors are classified into six subgroups, named A-1 to A-6. The members of DREB A-1 and A-2 subgroups have been reported to be involved in response to various abiotic stresses. However, there were only a few genes belonging to A-3 to A-6 subgroups to be reported. In this study, we cloned a DREB A-4 subgroup gene from maize ( Zea mays ), ZmDREB4.1 , and analyzed its characteristics and functions. ZmDREB4.1 was expressed in roots, stems, and leaves at very low levels...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sonia Salazar-Cerezo, Nancy Martinez-Montiel, Maria Del Carmen Cruz-Lopez, Rebeca D Martinez-Contreras
Stanhopea tigrina is a Mexican endemic orchid reported as a threatened species. The naturally occurring microorganisms present in S. tigrina are unknown. In this work, we analyzed the diversity of endophytic and epiphytic culturable fungi in S. tigrina according to morphological and molecular identification. Using this combined approach, in this study we retrieved a total of 634 fungal isolates that presented filamentous growth, which were grouped in 134 morphotypes that were associated to 63 genera, showing that S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Clevison L Giacobbo, Luciano Picolotto, Mateus S Pasa, José Carlos Fachinello
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of boron foliar application, branch girdling and plant growth regulators on the performance of pear trees cv. Garber. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of different boron rates (220, 440, 660 and 880 mL 100 L-1), branch girdling, and the plant growth regulators Promalin® (benzyladenine + gibberellins AG4+7) (560 mL 100 L-1) and Biozyme * TF (200 mL 100 L-1). The percentage of fruit set, stem length, fruit length, fruit diameter, flesh firmness, soluble solids and yield were assessed...
April 16, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Grace Uwase, Taylor P Enrico, David S Chelimo, Benjamin R Keyser, Russell R Johnson
The aleurone layer of barley grains is an important model system for hormone-regulated gene expression in plants. In aleurone cells, genes required for germination or early seedling development are activated by gibberellin (GA), while genes associated with stress responses are activated by abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanisms of GA and ABA signaling can be interrogated by introducing reporter gene constructs into aleurone cells via particle bombardment, with the resulting transient expression measured using enzyme assays...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Guangzheng Sun, Qichao Yang, Ancheng Zhang, Jia Guo, Xinjie Liu, Yang Wang, Qing Ma
The antifungal properties and the induction of resistance by ε-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) and chitooligosaccharide (COS) were examined to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of the devastating fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomatoes. As presented herein, this combined treatment (200 mg/L ε-PL + 400 mg/L COS) was found to have optimal in vitro antifungal activities, achieving an inhibition rate of 90.22%. In vivo assays with these combined bio-fungicides, under greenhouse conditions using susceptible tomato plants, demonstrated good protection against severe grey mould...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Shengen Zhou, Zongli Hu, Fenfen Li, Xiaohui Yu, Muhammad Naeem, Yanjie Zhang, Guoping Chen
Previous studies suggest that GRAS transcription factors act as essential regulators, not only in plant growth and development but also in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recently, 53 GRAS proteins have been identified, but only a few of them have been functionally studied in tomato. Here, we isolated a novel GRAS transcription factor SlGRAS26, its down-regulation generated pleiotropic phenotypes, including reduced plant height with more lateral shoots, internode length, leaf size, even leaflets, accelerated flowering transition and decreased trichome number...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Elizabeth French, Anjali S Iyer-Pascuzzi
Biochar is a carbon negative soil amendment that can promote crop growth. However, the effects of biochar on different plant species and cultivars within a species are not well understood, nor is the underlying basis of biochar-mediated plant growth promotion. This knowledge is critical for optimal use of biochar and for breeding biochar-responsive plants. Here, we investigated the genotype-specific effects of biochar on two cultivars of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), and two wild relatives of tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium, and Solanum pennelli, in two types of biochar...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shaochuan Shi, Guangyou Duan, Dandan Li, Jie Wu, Xintong Liu, Bo Hong, Mingfang Yi, Zhao Zhang
Lily is a popular flower around the world not only because of its elegant appearance, but also due to its appealing scent. Little is known about the regulation of the volatile compound biosynthesis in lily flower scent. Here, we conducted an approach combining two-dimensional analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to explore candidate genes regulating flower scent production. In the approach, changes of flower volatile emissions and corresponding gene expression profiles at four flower developmental stages and four circadian times were both captured by GC-MS and RNA-seq methods...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiu-Xia Ren, Jing-Qi Xue, Shun-Li Wang, Yu-Qian Xue, Ping Zhang, Hai-Dong Jiang, Xiu-Xin Zhang
Seed germination is a critical process that is influenced by various factors. In the present study, the effect of low temperature (4 °C) on tree peony seed germination was investigated. Compared to seeds maintained at 25 °C, germination was inhibited when seeds were kept at 4 °C. Furthermore, low-temperature exposure of seeds resulted in a delay in water uptake, starch degradation, and soluble sugar consumption and a subsequent increase in soluble protein levels. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic analysis identified 100 protein spots...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Agnieszka Płażek, Franciszek Dubert, Przemysław Kopeć, Michał Dziurka, Agnieszka Kalandyk, Jakub Pastuszak, Bogdan Wolko
Seed imbibition under cold temperature is dangerous when dry seeds have relatively low water content. The aim of this study was to investigate germination of 20 lines/cultivars of narrow-leaf lupine at 7 °C (cold) and 13 °C (control) under the influence of smoke water and following seed hydropriming for 3 h at 20 °C. The efficacy of individual treatments was examined with regard to seed protection during low-temperature germination. Based on seed germination, vigour at cold was evaluated four days after sowing by means of hypocotyl length, the studied lines/cultivars were divided into three groups with low, high and very high germination rates...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Muhammad Numan, Samina Bashir, Yasmin Khan, Roqayya Mumtaz, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Abdul Latif Khan, Ajmal Khan, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
Approximately 5.2 billion hectare agriculture land are affected by erosion, salinity and soil degradation. Salinity stress has significantly affecting the fertile lands, and therefore possesses a huge impact on the agriculture and economy of a country. Salt stress has severe effects on the growth and development of plants as well as reducing its yield. Plants are inherently equipped with stress tolerance ability to responds the specific type of stress. Plants retained specific mechanisms for salt stress mitigation, such as hormonal stimulation, ion exchange, antioxidant enzymes and activation of signaling cascades on their metabolic and genetic frontiers that sooth the stressed condition...
April 2018: Microbiological Research
Ci-Tao Liu, Wei Wang, Bi-Gang Mao, Cheng-Cai Chu
Low temperature is a major factor affecting rice geographical distribution growth, development, and productivity. Cold stress mediates a series of physiological and metabolite changes, such as alterations in chlorophyll fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MAD), sucrose, lipid peroxides, proline, and other metabolites, plant endogenous hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) also changes. In this review, we summarize the recent research progress on physiological and metabolic changes under low temperature, cold stress related loci and QTL reported by map-based cloning and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS), and some molecular mechanisms in response to low temperature in rice...
March 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Yongqiang Zhang, Zhongjuan Liu, Xiaoyun Wang, Jianfeng Wang, Kai Fan, Zhaowei Li, Wenxiong Lin
DELLA proteins' negative regulation of dark-induced senescence and chlorophyll degradation in Arabidopsis is through interaction with WRKY6 and thus repression of its transcriptional activities on senescence-related genes. Senescence is an intricate and highly orchestrated process regulated by numerous endogenous and environmental signals. Gibberellins (GAs) and their signaling components DELLA proteins have been known to participate in the regulation of senescence. However, the mechanism of the GA-DELLA system involved in the senescence process remains largely unclear...
March 24, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Guanghui Guo, Xinye Liu, Fenglong Sun, Jie Cao, Na Huo, Bala Wuda, Mingming Xin, Zhaorong Hu, Jinkun Du, Rui Xia, Vincenzo Rossi, Huiru Peng, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Yingyin Yao
Seed germination is important for grain yield and quality and rapid, near-simultaneous germination helps in cultivation; however, cultivars that germinate too readily can undergo pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), which causes substantial losses in areas that tend to get rain around harvest time. Moreover, our knowledge of mechanisms regulating seed germination in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remains limited. In this study, we analyzed function of a wheat-specific microRNA 9678 (miR9678), which is specifically expressed in the scutellum of developing and germinating seeds...
March 22, 2018: Plant Cell
Li Liu, Weili Xia, Haixia Li, Hanlai Zeng, Benhui Wei, Suoyi Han, Changxi Yin
Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs), such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sonia Salazar-Cerezo, Nancy Martínez-Montiel, Jenny García-Sánchez, Rocío Pérez-Y-Terrón, Rebeca D Martínez-Contreras
Gibberellins (GAs) are natural complex biomolecules initially identified as secondary metabolites in the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi with strong implications in plant physiology. GAs have been identified in different fungal and bacterial species, in some cases related to virulence, but the full understanding of the role of these metabolites in the different organisms would need additional investigation. In this review, we summarize the current evidence regarding a common pathway for GA synthesis in fungi, bacteria and plant from the genes depicted as part of the GA production cluster to the enzymes responsible for the catalytic transformations and the biosynthetical routes involved...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Zhong-Feng Li, Yong Guo, Lin Ou, Huilong Hong, Jun Wang, Zhang-Xiong Liu, Bingfu Guo, Lijuan Zhang, Lijuan Qiu
GmDW1 encodes an ent-kaurene synthase (KS) acting at the early step of the biosynthesis pathway for gibberellins (GAs) and regulates the development of plant height in soybean. Plant height is an important component of plant architecture, and significantly affects crop breeding practices and yield. Here, we report the characterization of an EMS-induced dwarf mutant (dw) of the soybean cultivar Zhongpin 661 (ZDD23893). The dw mutant displayed reduced plant height and shortened internodes, both of which were mainly attributed to the longitudinally decreased cell length...
March 17, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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