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Carolina Grandellis, Elisa Fantino, María Noelia Muñiz García, Magalí Graciela Bialer, Franco Santin, Daniela Andrea Capiati, Rita María Ulloa
Calcium-dependent protein kinases, CDPKs, decode calcium (Ca2+) transients and initiate downstream responses in plants. In order to understand how CDPKs affect plant physiology, their specific target proteins must be identified. In tobacco, the bZIP transcription factor Repression of Shoot Growth (NtRSG) that modulates gibberellin (GA) content is a specific target of NtCDPK1. StCDPK3 from potato is homologous (88% identical) to NtCDPK1 even in its N-terminal variable domain. In this work, we observe that NtRSG is also phosphorylated by StCDPK3...
2016: PloS One
Kai Jiang, Masato Otani, Hiroaki Shimotakahara, Jung-Min Yoon, Seung-Hyun Park, Tomoko Miyaji, Takeshi Nakano, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Masatoshi Nakajima, Tadao Asami
Gibberellin (GA) is a major plant hormone that regulates plant growth and development, and is widely used as a plant growth regulator in agricultural production. There is an increasing demand for function-limited GA mimics due to the limitations on the agronomical application of GA to crops, including GA's high cost of producing and its leading to the crops' lodging. AC94377, a substituted phthalimide, is a chemical that mimics the growth-regulating activity of GAs in various plants, despite its structural difference...
November 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
Jing Zhao, Maria B Mantilla Perez, Jieyun Hu, Maria G Salas Fernandez
Sorghum [ (L) Moench], an important grain and forage crop, is receiving significant attention as a lignocellulosic feedstock because of its water-use efficiency and high biomass yield potential. Because of the advancement of genotyping and sequencing technologies, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become a routinely used method to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed a GWAS for nine grain and biomass-related plant architecture traits to determine their overall genetic architecture and the specific association of allelic variants in gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and signaling genes with these phenotypes...
July 2016: Plant Genome
Wen-Jing Cai, Tian-Tian Ye, Qing Wang, Bao-Dong Cai, Yu-Qi Feng
BACKGROUND: Phytohormones play crucial roles in almost all stages of plant growth and development. Accurate and simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones enabled us to better understand the physiological functions and the regulatory networks of phytohormones. However, simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones in plant is still a challenge due to their low concentrations, structural and chemical diversity, and complex matrix of plant tissues. Therefore, development of a simple and selective method for the simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones is highly needed...
2016: Plant Methods
Jindong Yan, Xiaoying Liao, Reqing He, Ming Zhong, Panpan Feng, Xinmei Li, Dongying Tang, Xuanming Liu, Xiaoying Zhao
Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in higher plant growth and development. GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) promotes catabolism and inactivation of bioactive GAs or their precursors. In this study, we identified the GA2-oxidase gene, BnGA2ox6, and found it to be highly expressed in the silique and flower. Overexpression of BnGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in GA-deficiency symptoms, including inhibited elongation of the hypocotyl and stem, delayed seed germination, and late flowering. BnGA2ox6 overexpression reduced silique growth, but had no effect on seed development...
November 15, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
An Yan, Zhong Chen
Seed maturation and germination are two continuous developmental processes that link two distinct generations in spermatophytes; the precise genetic control of these two processes is, therefore, crucially important for the survival of the next generation. Pieces of experimental evidence accumulated so far indicate that a concerted action of endogenous signals and environmental cues is required to govern these processes. Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a predominant role in directing seed maturation and maintaining seed dormancy under unfavorable environmental conditions until antagonized by gibberellins (GA) and certain environmental cues to allow the commencement of seed germination when environmental conditions are favorable; therefore, the balance of ABA and GA is a major determinant of the timing of seed germination...
November 23, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Youn-Jeong Nam, Dorota Herman, Jonas Blomme, Eunyoung Chae, Mikiko Kojima, Frederik Coppens, Véronique Storme, Twiggy Van Daele, Stijn Dhondt, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Detlef Weigel, Dirk Inzé, Nathalie Gonzalez
Although phytohormones such as gibberellins are essential for many conserved aspects of plant physiology and development, plants vary greatly in their responses to these regulatory compounds. Here, we use genetic perturbation of endogenous gibberellin levels to probe the extent of intraspecific variation in gibberellin responses in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We find that these accessions vary greatly in their ability to buffer the effects of overexpression of GA20ox1, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme for gibberellin biosynthesis, with substantial differences in bioactive gibberellin concentrations as well as transcriptomes and growth trajectories...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology
Tao Xu, Nengfei Bian, Mingxing Wen, Jin Xiao, Chunxia Yuan, Aizhong Cao, Shouzhong Zhang, Xiue Wang, Haiyan Wang
A novel high-tillering dwarf mutant in common wheat Wangshuibai was characterized and mapped to facilitate breeding for plant height and tiller and the future cloning of the causal gene. Tiller number and plant height are two major agronomic traits in cereal crops affecting plant architecture and grain yield. NAUH167, a mutant of common wheat landrace Wangshuibai induced by ethylmethyl sulfide (EMS) treatment, exhibits higher tiller number and reduced plant height. Microscope observation showed that the dwarf phenotype was attributed to the decrease in the number of cells and their length...
November 19, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hilla Schayek, Eilon Shani, Roy Weinstain
The physical location of plant hormones is an important factor in maintaining their proper metabolism, perception, and mediated developmental responses. Thus, unveiling plant hormones dynamics at the molecule's level is essential for a comprehensive, detailed understanding of both their functions and the regulative mechanisms they are subjected to. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled, bioactive gibberellins (GAs) to highlight the dynamic distribution and accumulation sites of bioactive GAs in Arabidopsis thaliana roots by confocal microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Jae-Man Park, In-Jung Lee
Very few bacterial species were identified as bio-herbicides for weed control. The present research was focused to elucidate the plant growth retardant properties of Enterobacter sp. I-3 during their interaction by determining the changes in endogenous photosynthetic pigments, plant hormones and amino acids. The two bacterial isolates I-4-5 and I-3 were used to select the superior bacterium for controlling weed seeds (Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) germination. The post-inoculation of I-3 (Enterobacter sp...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
Daniel Bellieny-Rabelo, Eduardo Alves Gamosa De Oliveira, Elaneda Silva Ribeiro, Evenilton Pessoa Costa, Antônia Elenir Amâncio Oliveira, Thiago Motta Venancio
Soybean (Glycine max) is a major legume crop worldwide, providing a critical source of protein and oil. The release of the soybean genome fuelled several transcriptome projects comprising multiple developmental stages and environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the global transcriptional patterns of embryonic axes during germination remain unknown. Here we report the analysis of ~1.58 billion RNA-Seq reads from soybean embryonic axes at five germination stages. Our results support the early activation of processes that are critical for germination, such as glycolysis, Krebs cycle and cell wall remodelling...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lijuan Yang, Daibin Yang, Xiaojing Yan, Li Cui, Zhenying Wang, Huizhu Yuan
Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e((-x/k)). Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xuan Gao, Aaron E Walworth, Charity Mackie, Guo-Qing Song
Flowering locus T (FT) is a primary integrator in the regulation of plant flowering. Overexpressing a blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT gene (VcFT) (herein VcFT-OX) resulted in early flowering and dwarfing in 'Aurora' plants (herein 'VcFT-Aurora'). In this study, we found that VcFT-OX reduced shoot regeneration from leaf explants. To investigate the potential roles of the phytohormone pathway genes associated with VcFT-OX, differentially expressed (DE) genes in leaf tissues of 'VcFT-Aurora' plants were annotated and analyzed using non-transgenic 'Aurora' plants as a control...
2016: Horticulture Research
Liqiang Su, Qinying Lan, Hugh W Pritchard, Hua Xue, Xiaofeng Wang
Seed germination is comprehensively regulated by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are relatively new among these factors. However, the role and underlying mechanisms of ROS in germination regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, we initially found that cold stratification could promote germination and respiration of Hedysarum scoparium seeds, especially at low temperature. We then noted that a ROS environment change induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or methylviologen (MV) could similarly promote seed germination...
October 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
María Dolores Gomez, Daniel Ventimilla, Raquel Sacristan, Miguel A Perez-Amador
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate most plant life cycle aspects, including flowering and fruit development. Here, we demonstrate the implication of GAs in ovule development. DELLA proteins, negative GA response regulators, act as positive factors for ovule integument development in a mechanism that involves transcription factor ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS). The seeds of the della global mutant, a complete loss-of-function of DELLA, and the ats-1 mutant are remarkably similar, with a round shape, a disorganized testa, and viviparism...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
Nathalie Kühn, Alejandra Serrano, Carlos Abello, Aníbal Arce, Carmen Espinoza, Satyanarayana Gouthu, Laurent Deluc, Patricio Arce-Johnson
BACKGROUND: Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant auxin, is a growth promoter hormone involved in several developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is very important to its function and this is achieved through the regulation of IAA biosynthesis, conjugation, degradation and transport. In grapevine, IAA plays an essential role during initial stages of berry development, since it delays fruitlet abscission by reducing the ethylene sensitivity in the abscission zone. For this reason, Continuous polar IAA transport to the pedicel is required...
October 28, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Rex Shun Chiu, Yazan Saleh, Sonia Gazzarrini
During seed imbibition at supra-optimal temperature, an increase in the abscisic acid (ABA)/gibberellin (GA) ratio imposes secondary dormancy to prevent germination (thermoinhibition). FUSCA3 (FUS3), a positive regulator of seed dormancy, accumulates in seeds imbibed at high temperature and increases ABA levels to inhibit germination. Recently, we showed that ABA inhibits FUS3 degradation at high temperature, and that ABA and high temperature also inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome system, by dampening both proteasome activity and protein polyubiquitination...
November 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Maria João Pimenta Lange, Theo Lange
Gibberellins (GAs) are hormones that control many aspects of plant development, including flowering. It is well known that stamen is the source of GAs that regulate male and bisexual flower development. However, little is known about the role of GAs in female flower development. In cucumber, high levels of GA precursors are present in ovaries and high levels of bioactive GA4 are identified in sepals/petals, reflecting the expression of GA 20-oxidase and 3-oxidase in these organs, respectively. Here, we show that the biologically inactive precursor GA9 moves from ovaries to sepal/petal tissues where it is converted to the bioactive GA4 necessary for female flower development...
December 1, 2016: Development
Yuri Kanno, Takaya Oikawa, Yasutaka Chiba, Yasuhiro Ishimaru, Takafumi Shimizu, Naoto Sano, Tomokazu Koshiba, Yuji Kamiya, Minoru Ueda, Mitsunori Seo
Transmembrane transport of plant hormones is required for plant growth and development. Despite reports of a number of proteins that can transport the plant hormone gibberellin (GA), the mechanistic basis for GA transport and the identities of the transporters involved remain incomplete. Here, we provide evidence that Arabidopsis SWEET proteins, AtSWEET13 and AtSWEET14, which are members of a family that had previously been linked to sugar transport, are able to mediate cellular GA uptake when expressed in yeast and oocytes...
October 26, 2016: Nature Communications
C-G Ou, J-H Mao, L-J Liu, C-J Li, H-F Ren, Z-W Zhao, F-Y Zhuang
Carrot is generally regarded as a biennial plant with an obligatory vernalization requirement. Early spring cultivation makes plants vulnerable to premature bolting, which results in a loss of commercial value. However, our knowledge of flowering time genes and flowering mechanisms in carrot remain limited. Bolting behavior of D. carota ssp. carota 'Songzi', a wild species sensitive to flower induction by vernalization and photoperiod, and orange cultivar 'Amsterdam forcing', and their offspring were investigated in different growing conditions...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biology
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