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Junbo Du, Hengke Jiang, Xin Sun, Yan Li, Yi Liu, Mengyuan Sun, Zhou Fan, Qiulin Cao, Lingyang Feng, Jing Shang, Kai Shu, Jiang Liu, Feng Yang, Weiguo Liu, Taiwen Yong, Xiaochun Wang, Shu Yuan, Liang Yu, Chunyan Liu, Wenyu Yang
Plants use shade avoidance strategy to escape the canopy shade when grown under natural conditions. Previous studies showed that the Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase ERECTA (ER) is involved in shade avoidance syndrome. However, the mechanisms of ER in modulating SAR by promoting hypocotyl elongation are unknown yet. Here, we report that ER regulated hypocotyl elongation in shade avoidance requires auxin and gibberellins (GAs). The T-DNA insertional ER mutant er-3 shows a less hypocotyl length than that in Col-0 wild type...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Henok Zemene Yimer, Kamrun Nahar, Tina Kyndt, Ashley Haeck, Lieven Van Meulebroek, Lynn Vanhaecke, Kristof Demeestere, Monica Höfte, Godelieve Gheysen
Gibberellin (GA) regulates various plant growth and developmental processes, but its role in pathogen attack, and especially nematode-plant interactions, still remains to be elucidated. An in-depth characterization of the role of GA in nematode infection was conducted using mutant lines of rice, chemical inhibitors, and phytohormone measurements. Our results showed that GA influences rice-Meloidogyne graminicola interactions in a concentration-dependent manner. Foliar spray of plants with a low concentration of gibberellic acid enhanced nematode infection...
February 21, 2018: New Phytologist
Yuliya Salanenka, Inge Verstraeten, Christian Löfke, Kaori Tabata, Satoshi Naramoto, Matouš Glanc, Jiří Friml
The plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) is a crucial regulator of growth and development. The main paradigm of GA signaling puts forward transcriptional regulation via the degradation of DELLA transcriptional repressors. GA has also been shown to regulate tropic responses by modulation of the plasma membrane incidence of PIN auxin transporters by an unclear mechanism. Here we uncovered the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which GA redirects protein trafficking and thus regulates cell surface functionality...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dan Jin, Ming Wu, Bosheng Li, Birte Bücker, Philipp Keil, Shaoman Zhang, Jigang Li, Dingming Kang, Jie Liu, Jie Dong, Xing Wang Deng, Vivian Irish, Ning Wei
The control of seed germination and seed dormancy are critical for the successful propagation of plant species, and are important agricultural traits. Seed germination is tightly controlled by the balance of gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and is influenced by environmental factors. The COP9 Signalosome (CSN) is a conserved multi-subunit protein complex that is best known as a regulator of the Cullin-RING family of ubiquitin E3 ligases (CRLs). Multiple viable mutants of the CSN showed poor germination, except for csn5b-1...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Yunshu Wang, Zongli Hu, Jianling Zhang, XiaoHui Yu, Jun-E Guo, Honglian Liang, Changguang Liao, Guoping Chen
Mediator complex, a conserved multi-protein, is necessary for controlling RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription in eukaryotes. Given little is known about them in tomato, a tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene was isolated and named SlMED18. To further explore the function of SlMED18, the transgenic tomato plants targeting SlMED18 by RNAi-mediated gene silencing were generated. The SlMED18-RNAi lines exhibited multiple developmental defects, including smaller size and slower growth rate of plant and significantly smaller compound leaves...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qing Shen, Yingyao Liu, Naweed I Naqvi
Phytohormone networks are crucial for maintaining the delicate balance between growth and biotic stress responses in plants. Jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, and the associated signaling crosstalk are important for pathogen defense; whereas gibberellin and cytokinin function in growth and development in plants. Plant pathogenic fungi have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate and/or hijack such phytohormone signaling cascades for their own benefit, thus leading to susceptibility and disease in host plants...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Hao Liu, Ying Gao, Xiaobo Song, Qingguo Ma, Junpei Zhang, Dong Pei
Background: Juglans is a difficult-to-root tree. In the present study, we successfully rejuvenated stock plants by grafting and then burying them horizontally. Results: Rooting rates of rejuvenated shoots were 98.1% 20 days after cutting. We recorded spatial and temporal variation in endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin A 3 (GA 3 ) and zeatin-riboside (ZR) under root induction. The four types of endohormones were mainly confined to the phloem sieve and companion cells (S&Cs) at the base of either rejuvenated or mature soft shoots...
2018: Plant Methods
Songyu Liu, Youwei Zhang, Qiushuo Feng, Li Qin, Changtian Pan, Anthony Tumbeh Lamin-Samu, Gang Lu
Auxin response factors (ARFs) encode transcriptional factors that function in the regulation of plant development processes. A tomato ARF gene, SlARF5, was observed to be expressed at high levels in emasculated ovaries but maintained low expression levels in pollinated ovaries. The amiRNA SlARF5 lines exhibited ovary growth and formed seedless fruits following emasculation. These parthenocarpic fruits developed fewer locular tissues, and the fruit size and weight were decreased in transgenic lines compared to those of wild-type fruits...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Feng Yang, Yuanfang Fan, Xiaoling Wu, Yajiao Cheng, Qinlin Liu, Lingyang Feng, Junxu Chen, Zhonglin Wang, Xiaochun Wang, Taiwen Yong, Weiguo Liu, Jiang Liu, Junbo Du, Kai Shu, Wenyu Yang
The intensity and quality (red to far-red (R/Fr) ratio) of light directly affect growth of plant under shading. Gibberellins (GAs) and auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] play important roles in mediating the shading adaptive responses of plants. Thus, the intensity and quality of the uncoupling light from shading were assessed to identify the influence of each component on the morphology and matter distribution of the leaf, stem, and petiole. This assessment was based on the changes in endogenous Gibberellin 1 (GA1) and IAA levels...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lin Lv, Ximei Huo, Luhua Wen, Zhihong Gao, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman
Bud dormancy release is regulated by gibberellins (GAs). DELLA proteins are highly conserved and act as negative regulators in GA signaling pathway. The present study established a relationship between PmRGL2 in Japanese apricot and GA4 levels during dormancy release of floral buds. Overexpression of PmRGL2 in poplar delayed the onset of bud dormancy and resulted in dwarf plants, relative to wild-type trees. PmRGL2 exhibited higher expression during ecodormancy and relatively lower expression during endodormancy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Erin L McAdam, James B Reid, Eloise Foo
Leguminous plant roots can form a symbiosis with soil dwelling nitrogen-fixing rhizobia leading to the formation of a new root organ, the nodule. Successful nodulation requires co-ordination of spatially separated events in the root, including infection in the root epidermis and nodule organogenesis deep in the root cortex. We show that the hormone gibberellin plays distinct roles in these epidermal and cortical programs. We employed a unique set of genetic material in pea that includes severely gibberellin-deficient lines and della-deficient lines that enabled us to characterise all stages of infection and nodule development...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Han Zheng, Yong Ding
The covalent histone modifications were associated with plant development. However, the function of histone modification factors involved in gibberellins (GAs) signaling pathway remains unclear. In recent study, we reported that histone modification factors MUT9p-LIKE KINASE1 (MLK1) and MLK2 coordinate GA and circadian clock signaling in hypocotyl elongation. MLK1 and MLK2 interact with the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), and antagonize the function of RGA to interact with CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), resulting in promoting hypocotyl elongation...
February 12, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yuhan Tang, Daqiu Zhao, Jun Tao
Daminozide is a plant growth retardant that inhibits 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase activity in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway, but few studies have focused on its effect on the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway involved in flower color. In the present study, the effect of daminozide on the regulation of flower color was investigated. An herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) cultivar 'Fenzhu Pan' was used as the material and treated with daminozide. Color parameters of petals were measured; flavonoid composition and content as well as flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression were monitored...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Yunhui Zhang, Kai Liu, Xiaomei Zhu, Yan Wu, Suobing Zhang, Haiyuan Chen, Jing Ling, Yingjie Wang, Xianwen Fang
RTD1 encodes a homogentisate phytyltransferase catalyzing a key step in rice tocopherol biosynthesis, confers cold tolerance and regulates rice development by affecting the accumulation of DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1. Tocopherols are one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants having indispensable roles in living organisms. The physiological functions of tocopherols have been comprehensively characterized in animals and artificial membranes. However, genetic and molecular functions of tocopherols in plants are less understood...
February 9, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Qian-Yu Liu, Guang-Sheng Guo, Zhen-Fei Qiu, Xiao-Dan Li, Bing-Shan Zeng, Chun-Jie Fan
Gibberellins (GAs) play a key role in plant growth and development including cell elongation, cell expansion, and xylem differentiation. Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees providing fiber and energy. However, the roles of GAs in Eucalyptus remain unclear and their effects on xylem development remain to be determined. In this study, E. grandis plants were treated with 0.10 mg L-1 GA3 and/or paclobutrazol (PAC, a GA inhibitor). The growth of shoot and root were recorded, transverse sections of roots and stems were stained using toluidine blue, and expression levels of genes related to hormone response and secondary cell wall biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR...
February 8, 2018: Protoplasma
Lulu Liu, Zhigang Wang, Jianlong Liu, Fengxia Liu, Rui Zhai, Chunqin Zhu, Huibin Wang, Fengwang Ma, Lingfei Xu
Phytohormones play crucial roles in fruit set regulation and development. Here, gibberellins (GA4+7), but not GA3, induced pear parthenocarpy. To systematically investigate the changes upon GA4+7 induced pear parthenocarpy, dynamic changes in histology, hormone and transcript levels were observed and identified in unpollinated, pollinated and GA4+7-treated ovaries. Mesocarp cells continued developing in both GA4+7-treated and pollinated ovaries. In unpollinated ovaries, mesocarp cells stopped developing 14 days after anthesis...
2018: Horticulture Research
Longhua Zhou, Tao Yan, Xin Chen, Zhilan Li, Dezhi Wu, Shuijin Hua, Lixi Jiang
Global warming causes a faster increase of night temperature than of day temperature in tropical and subtropical zones. Little is known about the effect of high night temperature on storage lipids and transcriptome changes in oilseed rape. This study compared the total fatty acids and fatty acid compositions in seeds of two oilseed rape cultivars between high and low night temperatures. Their transcriptome profiles were also analyzed. High night temperature significantly affected the total fatty acids and fatty acid compositions in seeds of both low and high oil content cultivars, namely Jiuer-13 and Zheyou-50, thereby resulting in 18...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiaojuan Ran, Jian Liu, Meifang Qi, Yuejun Wang, Jingfei Cheng, Yijing Zhang
Phytohormones regulate diverse aspects of plant growth and environmental responses. Recent high-throughput technologies have promoted a more comprehensive profiling of genes regulated by different hormones. However, these omics data generally result in large gene lists that make it challenging to interpret the data and extract insights into biological significance. With the rapid accumulation of theses large-scale experiments, especially the transcriptomic data available in public databases, a means of using this information to explore the transcriptional networks is needed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xueying Liu, Shanshan Lv, Ran Liu, Shuangxi Fan, Chaojie Liu, Renyi Liu, Yingyan Han
A cool temperature is preferred for lettuce cultivation, as high temperatures cause premature bolting. Accordingly, exploring the mechanism of bolting and preventing premature bolting is important for agriculture. To explore this relationship in depth, morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of the bolting-sensitive line S39 at the five-leaf stage grown at 37°C were performed in the present study. Based on paraffin section results, we observed that S39 began bolting on the seventh day at 37°C...
2018: PloS One
Zhenghai Mo, Gang Feng, Wenchuan Su, Zhuangzhuang Liu, Fangren Peng
Pecan (Carya illinoinensis), as a popular nut tree, has been widely planted in China in recent years. Grafting is an important technique for its cultivation. For a successful grafting, graft union development generally involves the formation of callus and vascular bundles at the graft union. To explore the molecular mechanism of graft union development, we applied high throughput RNA sequencing to investigate the transcriptomic profiles of graft union at four timepoints (0 days, 8 days, 15 days, and 30 days) during the pecan grafting process...
February 5, 2018: Genes
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