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Yunhua Xiao, Dapu Liu, Guoxia Zhang, Hongning Tong, Chengcai Chu
Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate important agronomic traits in rice, including plant height, leaf angle, and grain size. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. We previously showed that GSK2, the central negative regulator of BR signaling, targets DLT, the GRAS family protein, to regulate BR responses. Here, we identified Ovate Family Protein 1 (OFP1) as a DLT interacting protein. OFP1 was ubiquitously expressed and the protein was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of OFP1 led to enlarged leaf angles, reduced plant height, and altered grain shape, largely resembled DLT overexpression plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Takanori Saito, Shanshan Wang, Katsuya Ohkawa, Hitoshi Ohara, Hiromi Ikeura, Yukiharu Ogawa, Satoru Kondo
We found that lipid accumulation in the meristem region and the expression of MdLIP2A, which appears to be regulated by chromatin remodeling, coincided with endodormancy induction in the 'Fuji' apple. In deciduous trees, including apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.), lipid accumulation in the meristem region towards endodormancy induction has been thought to be an important process for the acquisition of cold tolerance. In this study, we conducted histological staining of crude lipids in the meristem region of 'Fuji' apples and found that lipid accumulation coincided with endodormancy induction...
October 10, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Yudong Liu, Wei Huang, Zhiqiang Xian, Nan Hu, Dongbo Lin, Hua Ren, Jingxuan Chen, Deding Su, Zhengguo Li
Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that inhibit plant growth and development impacting crop productivity. GRAS transcription factors play critical and diverse roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In this study, SlGRAS40, a member of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) GRAS family, was functionally characterized. In wild-type (WT) tomato, SlGRAS40 was upregulated by abiotic stress induced by treatment with D-mannitol, NaCl, or H2O2. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlGRAS40 (SlGRAS40-OE) were more tolerant of drought and salt stress than WT...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Meixiang Han, Xuefeng Jin, Wei Yao, Lingjie Kong, Gan Huang, Yujin Tao, Lingfei Li, Xiaojing Wang, Yaqin Wang
Petal appearance is an important horticultural trail that is generally used to evaluate the ornamental value of plants. However, knowledge of the molecular regulation of petal growth is mostly derived from analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana, and relatively little is known about this process in ornamental plants. Previously, GEG (Gerbera hybrida homolog of the gibberellin [GA]-stimulated transcript 1 [GAST1] from tomato), a gene from the GA stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) family, was reported to be an inhibitor of ray petal growth in the ornamental species, G...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sho Miyazaki, Kai Jiang, Masatomo Kobayashi, Tadao Asami, Masatoshi Nakajima
Helminthosporol was isolated from a fungus, Helminthosporium sativum, as a natural plant growth regulator in 1963. It showed gibberellin-like bioactivity that stimulated the growth of the second leaf sheath of rice. After studying the structure-activity relationship between the compound and some synthesized analogs, it was found that helminthosporic acid (H-acid) has higher gibberellin-like activity and chemical stability than helminthosporol. In this study, we showed that (1) H-acid displays gibberellin-like activities not only in rice but also in Arabidopsis, (2) it regulates the expression of gibberellin-related genes, (3) it induces DELLA degradation through binding with a gibberellin receptor (GID1), and (4) it forms the GID1-(H-acid)-DELLA complex to transduce the gibberellin signal in the same manner as gibberellin...
October 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Aixin Li, Mingqi Zhou, Donghui Wei, Hu Chen, Chenjiang You, Juan Lin
C-repeat binding factors (CBF) are a subfamily of AP2 transcription factors that play critical roles in the regulation of plant cold tolerance and growth in low temperature. In the present work, we sought to perform a detailed investigation into global transcriptional regulation of plant hormone signaling associated genes in transgenic plants engineered with CBF genes. RNA samples from Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing two CBF genes, CBF2 and CBF3, were subjected to Illumina HiSeq 2000 RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ourania Lantzouni, Carina Klermund, Claus Schwechheimer
The phytohormones gibberellin (GA) and strigolactone (SL) are involved in essential processes in plant development. Both GA and SL signal transduction mechanisms employ α/β-hydrolase-derived receptors that confer E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated protein degradation processes. This suggests a common evolutionary origin of these pathways and possibly a molecular interaction between them. One such indication stems from rice, where the DELLA protein of the GA pathway was reported to interact with the SL receptor...
October 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Haiwei Shuai, Yongjie Meng, Xiaofeng Luo, Feng Chen, Wenguan Zhou, Yujia Dai, Ying Qi, Junbo Du, Feng Yang, Jiang Liu, Wenyu Yang, Kai Shu
Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA1/ABA and GA4/ABA ratios...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tamar Azoulay-Shemer, Po-Kai Hsu, Julian I Schroeder
Gibberellins (GAs) control key growth and developmental processes in plants. Real-time monitoring of GA concentrations in living tissues is critical for understanding the actions of this hormone class. A first-generation optogenetic GA-nano-indicator now illuminates the effects of GA levels on cell length and light signalling.
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Annalisa Rizza, Ankit Walia, Viviane Lanquar, Wolf B Frommer, Alexander M Jones
The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Although the upstream regulation and downstream responses to GA vary across cells and tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions, the spatiotemporal distribution of GA in vivo remains unclear. Using a combinatorial screen in yeast, we engineered an optogenetic biosensor, GIBBERELLIN PERCEPTION SENSOR 1 (GPS1), that senses nanomolar levels of bioactive GAs. Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a nuclear localized GPS1 report on GAs at the cellular level...
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Bipin Balan, Tiziano Caruso, Federico Martinelli
Identifying key information in transcriptomic data is very important, especially when the "omic" study deals with plant responses to stresses in field conditions where a high number of variables and disturbing factors may affect the analysis. In this meta-analysis we collected 12 transcriptomic works in Malus in order to identify which key genes, proteins, gene categories are involved in general plant pathological conditions and those features linked with exclusive biotic stress responses. Those genes that are only related with molecular responses to pathogen attacks and those linked with other plant physiological processes were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhenqing Bai, Pengguo Xia, Ruilin Wang, Jie Jiao, Mei Ru, Jingling Liu, Zongsuo Liang
The gibberellin-responsive element binding factor (GRAS) family of proteins plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of plant development and hormone signaling. To date, there are no reports on GRAS family proteins expressed in Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, 28 ESTs that contained the GRAS domain were identified from a S. miltiorrhiza cDNA library. Of these, full-length sequences of five genes were cloned and sequence analysis indicated that all five proteins contain only one GRAS domain and therefore, belong to the GRAS family...
2017: PloS One
Tobias Würschum, Simon M Langer, C Friedrich H Longin, Matthew R Tucker, Willmar L Leiser
Wheat yield increases during the late 20(th) century Green Revolution were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin and are now widespread through international breeding programs. However, this interference with the plants' response to gibberellin also ensues adverse effects on a range of important agronomic traits and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required...
September 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yi Hao, Chuanxin Ma, Zetian Zhang, Youhong Song, Weidong Cao, Jing Guo, Guopeng Zhou, Yukui Rui, Liming Liu, Baoshan Xing
The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity effects of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), namely fullerene (C60), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), on a mini-ecosystem of rice grown in a loamy potted soil. We measured plant physiological and biochemical parameters and examined bacterial community composition in the CNMs-treated plant-soil system. After 30 days of exposure, all the three CNMs negatively affected the shoot height and root length of rice, significantly decreased root cortical cells diameter and resulted in shrinkage and deformation of cells, regardless of exposure doses (50 or 500 mg/kg)...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yi-Feng Zhang, Ping Su, Tian-Yuan Hu, Jia-Wei Zhou, Hong-Yu Guan, Wei Gao, Lu-Qi Huang
Kaurenoic acid oxidase involved in biosynthesis pathway of gibberellin. According to the transcriptome database, the specific primers were designed and used in cloning the full-length cDNA of TwKAO, the bioinformatic analysis of the sequence was performed. The qRT-PCR were used to detect the expression level of TwKAO after MeJA treatment.The full-length cDNA of the TwKAO was 1 874 bp encoding a polypeptide of 487 amino acids.The calculate molecular weight was about 56.02 kDa,and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) was 8...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xueke Zheng, Haoli Hou, Hao Zhang, Mengxia Yue, Yan Hu, Lijia Li
The aleurone layer is crucial to seed germination. Using dissected aleurone layers, we found that GA increased histone acetylation accompanied by rDNA decondensation in aleurone layers during maize seed germination. Aleurone layers play an important role in cereal seed germination. In this study, we reported that rDNA chromatin was decondensed, accompanied with increased rDNA expression and genomic global hyperacetylation in gibberellin (GA)-treated maize-dissected aleurone layers. The activity analysis of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC) showed that GA increased the level of histone acetylation by promoting the ratio of HAT/HDAC activity in aleurone layers...
September 22, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
X Q Li, Y Z Liu, W F Guo, M K Solanki, Z D Yang, Y Xiang, Z C Ma, Y G Wen
Gall-inducing insects produce various types of galls on plants, but little is known about the gall-induction mechanism of these galling insects. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) forms galls of different sizes on several Eucalyptus species. To clarify the physiological responses of Eucalyptus to L. invasa infestation, we measured the dynamics of nitrogen (N), carbon (C), total phenolics, total tannins and four types of phytohormones (zeatin [Z] + zeatin riboside [ZR], gibberellins [GA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and abscisic acid [ABA]) in galled and ungalled leaf tissues of two Eucalyptus horticultural varieties (DH201-2 [Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis] and EA [Eucalyptus exserta]) with different susceptibility to galling throughout the larval developmental stages...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
Chuanwei Yang, Lin Li
At high vegetation density, shade-intolerant plants sense a reduction in the red (660 nm) to far-red (730 nm) light ratio (R/FR) in addition to a general reduction in light intensity. These light signals trigger a spectrum of morphological changes manifested by growth of stem-like tissue (hypocotyl, petiole, etc.) instead of harvestable organs (leaves, fruits, seeds, etc.)-namely, shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Common phenotypical changes related to SAS are changes in leaf hyponasty, an increase in hypocotyl and internode elongation and extended petioles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cheng Pan, Kunhong Tian, Qiuyan Ban, Leigang Wang, Qilu Sun, Yan He, Yuanfei Yang, Yuting Pan, Yeyun Li, Jiayue Jiang, Changjun Jiang
Gibberellins (GAs), a class of diterpenoid phytohormones, play a key role in regulating diverse processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Bioactive GA levels are rapidly regulated by Gibberellin-dioxygenases (GAox), which are involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of gibberellin. In this manuscript, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out to find all GAox in Camellia sinensis. For the first time in a tea plant, 14 CsGAox genes, containing two domains, DIOX_N (PF14226) and 2OG-FeII_Oxy, were identified (PF03171)...
September 19, 2017: Genes
Charitha P A Jayasinghege, Jocelyn A Ozga, Kosala D Waduthanthri, Dennis M Reinecke
In pea, the auxins 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) occur naturally; however, only 4-Cl-IAA stimulates pericarp growth and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis, and inhibits the ethylene response in deseeded ovaries (pericarps), mimicking the presence of seeds. Expression of ovary ethylene biosynthesis genes was regulated similarly in most cases by the presence of 4-Cl-IAA or seeds. PsACS1 [which encodes an enzyme that synthesizes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)] transcript abundance was high in pericarp tissue adjacent to developing seeds following pollination...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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