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"plant signal"

Qiqi Yan, Lixiang Wang, Xia Li
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play an essential role in plant growth, and BRI1-EMS suppressor 1 (BES1)/brassinazole-resistant 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors integrate a variety of plant signaling pathways. Despite the fact that BRs inhibit nodulation in leguminous plants, how BRs modulate rhizobia-host interactions and nodule morphogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that GmBEHL1, a soybean homolog of Arabidopsis BES1/BZR1 homolog 1 (BEH1), is an interacting partner of Nodule Number Control 1, a transcriptional repressor that mediates soybean nodulation...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Seyyedeh-Sanam Kazemi-Shahandashti, Reza Maali-Amiri
Cold stress (CS) as one of the unfavorable abiotic tensions proceeds different aspects of plant responses. These responses are generated through CS effects on crucial processes such as photosynthesis, energy metabolism, ROS homeostasis, membrane fluidity and cell wall architecture. As a tolerance response, plants apply proteins in various strategies such as transferring the message of cold entrance named as signaling, producing defensive and protective molecules against the stress and degrading some unfavorable or unnecessary proteins to produce other required ones...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ioannis A Stringlis, Hao Zhang, Corné M J Pieterse, Melvin D Bolton, Ronnie de Jonge
Covering: up to 2018Plants live in close association with a myriad of microbes that are generally harmless. However, the minority of microbes that are pathogens can severely impact crop quality and yield, thereby endangering food security. By contrast, beneficial microbes provide plants with important services, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and protection against pests and diseases. Like pathogens, beneficial microbes can modulate host immunity to efficiently colonize the nutrient-rich niches within and around the roots and aerial tissues of a plant, a phenomenon mirroring the establishment of commensal microbes in the human gut...
May 14, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Alexandra Miricescu, Kevin Goslin, Emmanuelle Graciet
A fundamental question in biology is how organisms integrate the plethora of environmental cues that they perceive to trigger a coordinated response. The regulation of protein stability, which is largely mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in eukaryotes, plays a pivotal role in these processes. Due to their sessile lifestyle and the need to respond rapidly to a multitude of environmental factors, plants are thought to be especially dependent on proteolysis to regulate cellular processes. In this review, we present the complexity of the ubiquitin system in plants, and discuss the relevance of the proteolytic and non-proteolytic roles of this system in the regulation and coordination of plant responses to environmental signals...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tatsuya Nobori, Akira Mine, Kenichi Tsuda
Plant immune receptors enable detection of a multitude of microbes including pathogens. The recognition of microbes activates various plant signaling pathways, such as those mediated by phytohormones. Over the course of coevolution with microbes, plants have expanded their repertoire of immune receptors and signaling components, resulting in highly interconnected plant immune networks. These immune networks enable plants to appropriately respond to different types of microbes and to coordinate immune responses with developmental programs and environmental stress responses...
April 30, 2018: FEBS Letters
Joseph M Patt, Paul S Robbins, Randy Niedz, Greg McCollum, Rocco Alessandro
Huanglongbing, also known as citrus greening, is a destructive disease that threatens citrus production worldwide. It is putatively caused by the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Currently, the disease is untreatable and efforts focus on intensive insecticide use to control the vector, Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Emerging psyllid resistance to multiple insecticides has generated investigations into the use of exogenously applied signaling compounds to enhance citrus resistance to D...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Rey, Christophe Jacquet
Basic molecular knowledge on plant-pathogen interactions has largely been gained from reverse and forward genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, as this model plant is unable to establish endosymbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi or rhizobia, plant responses to mutualistic symbionts have been studied in parallel in other plant species, mainly legumes. The resulting analyses led to the identification of gene networks involved in various functions, from microbe recognition to signalling and plant responses, thereafter assigned to either mutualistic symbiosis or immunity, according to the nature of the initially inoculated microbe...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Danuše Tarkowská, Miroslav Strnad
The present review summarizes current knowledge of the biosynthesis and biological importance of isoprenoid-derived plant signaling compounds. Cellular organisms use chemical signals for intercellular communication to coordinate their growth, development, and responses to environmental cues. The skeletons of majority of plant signaling molecules, mediators of plant intercellular 'broadcasting', are built from C5 units of isoprene and therefore belong to a huge and diverse group of natural substances called isoprenoids (terpenoids)...
March 12, 2018: Planta
Anne-Marie Garnerone, Fernando Sorroche, Lan Zou, Céline Mathieu-Demazière, Chang Fu Tian, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Jacques Batut
An ongoing signal exchange fine-tunes the symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legumes, ensuring the establishment and maintenance of mutualism. In a recently identified regulatory loop, endosymbiotic S. meliloti exert a negative feedback on root infection in response to unknown plant cues. Upon signal perception, three bacterial Adenylate Cyclases (ACs) of the inner membrane, CyaD1, CyaD2 and CyaK, synthesize the second messenger cAMP that, together with the cAMP-dependent Clr transcriptional activator, activates the expression of genes involved in root infection control...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Shunya Saito, Shin Hamamoto, Koko Moriya, Aiko Matsuura, Yoko Sato, Jun Muto, Hiroto Noguchi, Seiji Yamauchi, Yuzuru Tozawa, Minoru Ueda, Kenji Hashimoto, Philipp Köster, Qiuyan Dong, Katrin Held, Jörg Kudla, Toshihiko Utsumi, Nobuyuki Uozumi
N-myristoylation and S-acylation promote protein membrane association, allowing regulation of membrane proteins. However, how widespread this targeting mechanism is in plant signaling processes remains unknown. Through bioinformatics analyses, we determined that among plant protein kinase families, the occurrence of motifs indicative for dual lipidation by N-myristoylation and S-acylation is restricted to only five kinase families, including the Ca2+ -regulated CDPK-SnRK and CBL protein families. We demonstrated N-myristoylation of CDPK-SnRKs and CBLs by incorporation of radiolabeled myristic acid...
June 2018: New Phytologist
Cezary Waszczak, Melanie Carmody, Jaakko Kangasjärvi
As fixed organisms, plants are especially affected by changes in their environment and have consequently evolved extensive mechanisms for acclimation and adaptation. Initially considered by-products from aerobic metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as major regulatory molecules in plants and their roles in early signaling events initiated by cellular metabolic perturbation and environmental stimuli are now established. Here, we review recent advances in ROS signaling. Compartment-specific and cross-compartmental signaling pathways initiated by the presence of ROS are discussed...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Sofie Van Holle, Els J M Van Damme
Lectins constitute an abundant group of proteins that are present throughout the plant kingdom. Only recently, genome-wide screenings have unraveled the multitude of different lectin sequences within one plant species. It appears that plants employ a plurality of lectins, though relatively few lectins have already been studied and functionally characterized. Therefore, it is very likely that the full potential of lectin genes in plants is underrated. This review summarizes the knowledge of plasma membrane-bound lectins in different biological processes (such as recognition of pathogen-derived molecules and symbiosis) and illustrates the significance of soluble intracellular lectins and how they can contribute to plant signaling...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
M Makavitskaya, D Svistunenko, I Navaselsky, P Hryvusevich, V Mackievic, C Rabadanova, E Tyutereva, V Samokhina, D Straltsova, A Sokolik, O Voitsekhovskaja, V Demidchik
Ascorbate is not often considered as a signalling molecule in plants. This study demonstrates that, in Arabidopsis roots, exogenous L-ascorbic acid triggers a transient increase of the cytosolic free calcium activity ([Ca2+]cyt.) that is central to plant signalling. Exogenous copper and iron stimulates the ascorbate-induced [Ca2+]cyt. elevation while cation channel blockers, free radical scavengers, low extracellular [Ca2+], transition metal chelators and removal of the cell wall inhibit this reaction. These data show that apoplastic redox-active transition metals are involved in the ascorbate-induced [Ca2+]cyt...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Carmen K Blubaugh, Jacob S Asplund, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Matthew J Morra, Christopher R Philips, Inna E Popova, John P Reganold, William E Snyder
Plant defenses often mediate whether competing chewing and sucking herbivores indirectly benefit or harm one another. Dual-guild herbivory also can muddle plant signals used by specialist natural enemies to locate prey, further complicating the net impact of herbivore-herbivore interactions in naturally diverse settings. While dual-guild herbivore communities are common in nature, consequences for top-down processes are unclear, as chemically mediated tri-trophic interactions are rarely evaluated in field environments...
May 2018: Ecology
Siddhi K Jalmi, Prakash K Bhagat, Deepanjali Verma, Stanzin Noryang, Sumaira Tayyeba, Kirti Singh, Deepika Sharma, Alok K Sinha
Plants confront multifarious environmental stresses widely divided into abiotic and biotic stresses, of which heavy metal stress represents one of the most damaging abiotic stresses. Heavy metals cause toxicity by targeting crucial molecules and vital processes in the plant cell. One of the approaches by which heavy metals act in plants is by over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) either directly or indirectly. Plants act against such overdose of metal in the environment by boosting the defense responses like metal chelation, sequestration into vacuole, regulation of metal intake by transporters, and intensification of antioxidative mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laura J Carter, Mike Williams, Sheridan Martin, Sara P B Kamaludeen, Rai S Kookana
Reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of crops is growing in arid and semi-arid regions, whilst increasing amounts of biosolids are being applied to fields to improve agricultural outputs. Due to incomplete removal in the wastewater treatment processes, pharmaceuticals present in treated wastewater and biosolids can contaminate soil systems. Benzodiazepines are a widely used class of pharmaceuticals that are released following wastewater treatment. Benzodiazepines are represented by a class of compounds with a range of physicochemical properties and this study was therefore designed to evaluate the influence of soil properties on the sorption behaviour and subsequent uptake of seven benzodiazepines (chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, diazepam, flurazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and triazolam) in two plant species...
July 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sameh Soliman, Mohammad G Mohammad, Ali A El-Keblawy, Hany Omar, Mohamed Abouleish, Mohamed Madkour, Attiat Elnaggar, Racha M Hosni
Unlike animals, plants are sessile organisms, lacking circulating antibodies and specialized immune cells and are exposed to various harsh environmental conditions that make them at risk of being attacked by different pathogens and herbivores. Plants produce chemo-signals to respond to the surroundings and be able to distinguish between harmless and harmful signals. In this study, the production of phytochemicals as plant signaling mechanisms and their defensive roles in disease resistance and repelling herbivores are examined in Calligonum comosum...
2018: PloS One
Philip Poole, Vinoy Ramachandran, Jason Terpolilli
Rhizobia are some of the best-studied plant microbiota. These oligotrophic Alphaproteobacteria or Betaproteobacteria form symbioses with their legume hosts. Rhizobia must exist in soil and compete with other members of the microbiota before infecting legumes and forming N2 -fixing bacteroids. These dramatic lifestyle and developmental changes are underpinned by large genomes and even more complex pan-genomes, which encompass the whole population and are subject to rapid genetic exchange. The ability to respond to plant signals and chemoattractants and to colonize nutrient-rich roots are crucial for the competitive success of these bacteria...
May 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Franz Walter Rieger Hippler, Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto, Veronica Lorena Dovis, José Antônio Quaggio, Ricardo Antunes Azevedo, Dirceu Mattos
Nutritional stress caused by copper (Cu) deficiency or toxicity affects fruit production of citrus orchards worldwide, but this could be minimised by fine-tuned fertilisation in the orchards. Two experiments were performed aiming to evaluate the photosynthetic capacity and the antioxidant enzyme activities of Swingle citrumelo seedlings, grown in nutrient solution (NS) with two levels of nitrogen (N) in the first experiment (adequate-N and high-N) and two levels of calcium (Ca) in the second (low-Ca and adequate-Ca)...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fuqiang Cui, Hongpo Wu, Omid Safronov, Panpan Zhang, Rajeev Kumar, Hannes Kollist, Jarkko Salojärvi, Ralph Panstruga, Kirk Overmyer
The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O3 ) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O3 sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS...
April 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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