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"plant signaling"

Laura J Carter, Mike Williams, Sheridan Martin, Sara P B Kamaludeen, Rai S Kookana
Reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of crops is growing in arid and semi-arid regions, whilst increasing amounts of biosolids are being applied to fields to improve agricultural outputs. Due to incomplete removal in the wastewater treatment processes, pharmaceuticals present in treated wastewater and biosolids can contaminate soil systems. Benzodiazepines are a widely used class of pharmaceuticals that are released following wastewater treatment. Benzodiazepines are represented by a class of compounds with a range of physicochemical properties and this study was therefore designed to evaluate the influence of soil properties on the sorption behaviour and subsequent uptake of seven benzodiazepines (chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, diazepam, flurazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and triazolam) in two plant species...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sameh Soliman, Mohammad G Mohammad, Ali A El-Keblawy, Hany Omar, Mohamed Abouleish, Mohamed Madkour, Attiat Elnaggar, Racha M Hosni
Unlike animals, plants are sessile organisms, lacking circulating antibodies and specialized immune cells and are exposed to various harsh environmental conditions that make them at risk of being attacked by different pathogens and herbivores. Plants produce chemo-signals to respond to the surroundings and be able to distinguish between harmless and harmful signals. In this study, the production of phytochemicals as plant signaling mechanisms and their defensive roles in disease resistance and repelling herbivores are examined in Calligonum comosum...
2018: PloS One
Philip Poole, Vinoy Ramachandran, Jason Terpolilli
Rhizobia are some of the best-studied plant microbiota. These oligotrophic Alphaproteobacteria or Betaproteobacteria form symbioses with their legume hosts. Rhizobia must exist in soil and compete with other members of the microbiota before infecting legumes and forming N2-fixing bacteroids. These dramatic lifestyle and developmental changes are underpinned by large genomes and even more complex pan-genomes, which encompass the whole population and are subject to rapid genetic exchange. The ability to respond to plant signals and chemoattractants and to colonize nutrient-rich roots are crucial for the competitive success of these bacteria...
January 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Franz Walter Rieger Hippler, Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto, Veronica Lorena Dovis, José Antônio Quaggio, Ricardo Antunes Azevedo, Dirceu Mattos-Jr
Nutritional stress caused by copper (Cu) deficiency or toxicity affects fruit production of citrus orchards worldwide, but this could be minimised by fine-tuned fertilisation in the orchards. Two experiments were performed aiming to evaluate the photosynthetic capacity and the antioxidant enzyme activities of Swingle citrumelo seedlings, grown in nutrient solution (NS) with two levels of nitrogen (N) in the first experiment (adequate-N and high-N) and two levels of calcium (Ca) in the second (low-Ca and adequate-Ca)...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fuqiang Cui, Hongpo Wu, Omid Safronov, Panpan Zhang, Rajeev Kumar, Hannes Kollist, Jarkko Salojärvi, Ralph Panstruga, Kirk Overmyer
The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O3 ) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O3- sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Qingyu Wu, David Jackson
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential component of development, biotic and abiotic responses. Hypersensitive response (HR)-associated cell death activated under pathogen attack is one of the most dramatic manifestations of PCD in plants. Signal transduction through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, a very conserved signaling pathway across eukaryotes, is a core mediator for HR-associated PCD. Therefore, monitoring MAPK activation enables the mechanisms underlying HR-associated PCD to be elucidated...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chai Hao Chiu, Jeongmin Choi, Uta Paszkowski
Perception of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) triggers distinct plant signalling responses for parallel establishment of symbiosis and induction of lateral root formation. Rice receptor kinase CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) and α/β-fold hydrolase DWARF14-LIKE (D14L) are involved in pre-symbiotic fungal perception. After 6 wk post-inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis, root developmental responses, fungal colonization and transcriptional responses were monitored in two independent cerk1 null mutants; a deletion mutant lacking D14L, and with D14L complemented as well as their respective wild-type cultivars (cv Nipponbare and Nihonmasari)...
November 30, 2017: New Phytologist
Adriana Racolta, Michael D Nodine, Kelli Davies, Cameron Lee, Scott Rowe, Yulemi Velazco, Rachel Wellington, Frans E Tax
Cell-cell communication is essential for plants to integrate developmental programs with external cues that affect their growth. Recent advances in plant signaling have uncovered similar molecular mechanisms in shoot, root and vascular meristem signaling that involve receptor-like kinases and small, secreted peptides. Here we report that the receptor-like kinases TOAD2/RPK2 and RPK1 regulate root growth by controlling cell proliferation and affecting meristem size. Two types of developmental alterations were observed upon exogenous CLE peptide application...
November 29, 2017: Genetics
Chris Gehring, Ilona S Turek
The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lanting Zeng, Yinyin Liao, Jianlong Li, Ying Zhou, Jinchi Tang, Fang Dong, Ziyin Yang
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) act as direct defenses against herbivores and as indirect defenses by attracting herbivore enemies. However, the involvement of HIPVs in within-plant or plant-to-plant signaling is not fully clarified. Furthermore, in contrast to model plants, HIPV signaling roles in crops have hardly been reported. Here, we investigated HIPVs emitted from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, an important crop used for beverages, and their involvement in tea plant-to-plant signaling. To ensure uniform and sufficient exposure to HIPVs, jasmonic acid combined with mechanical damage (JAMD) was used to simulate herbivore attacks...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Pranav P Sahu, Manoj Prasad, Shelly Praveen, Hanu R Pappu
Geminiviruses are plant-infecting viruses characterized by a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome. Geminivirus-derived proteins are multifunctional and effective regulators in modulating the host cellular processes resulting in successful infection. Virus-host interactions result in changes in host gene expression patterns, reprogram plant signaling controls, disrupt central cellular metabolic pathways, impair plant's defense system, and effectively evade RNA silencing response leading to host susceptibility...
September 15, 2017: Viruses
Meihua Fan, Xue Sun, Nianjun Xu, Zhi Liao, Yahe Li, Jianxin Wang, Yingping Fan, Dalian Cui, Peng Li, Zengliang Miao
To investigate changes in transcript and relative protein levels in response to salicylic acid regulation of the thermotolerance in U. prolifera, complementary transcriptome and proteome analyses were performed with U. prolifera grown at 35 °C (UpHT) and with the addition of SA at high temperature (UpSHT). At mRNA level,12,296 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from the comparison of UpSHT with UpHT. iTRAQ-labeling proteome analysis showed that a total of 4,449 proteins were identified and reliably quantified...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Allyson M MacLean, Armando Bravo, Maria J Harrison
Plants have lived in close association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for over 400 million years and today this endosymbiosis occurs broadly in the plant kingdom where it has a pronounced impact on plant mineral nutrition. The symbiosis develops deep within the root cortex with minimal alterations in the external appearance of the colonized root; however, the absence of macroscopic alterations belies the extensive signaling, cellular remodeling and metabolic alterations that occur within each colonized cortical cell to enable accommodation of the fungal endosymbiont...
August 30, 2017: Plant Cell
Swarup Roy Choudhury, Sona Pandey
Heterotrimeric G-proteins, comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, regulate key signaling processes in eukaryotes. The Gα subunit determines the status of signaling by switching between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. Unlike animal systems, in which multiple Gα proteins with variable biochemical properties exist, plants have fewer, highly similar Gα subunits that have resulted from recent genome duplications. These proteins exhibit subtle differences in their GTP-binding, GDP/GTP-exchange, and GTP-hydrolysis activities, but the extent to which these differences contribute to affect plant signaling and development remains unknown...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Seong Woo Noh, Rira Seo, Jung-Kwon Park, Md Maniruzzaman Manir, Kyungseok Park, Mee Kyung Sang, Surk-Sik Moon, Ho Won Jung
Cyclic dipeptides (CDPs) are one of the simplest compounds produced by living organisms. Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) also produce CDPs that can induce disease resistance. Bacillus vallismortis strain BS07 producing various CDPs has been evaluated as a potential biocontrol agent against multiple plant pathogens in chili pepper. However, plant signal pathway triggered by CDPs has not been fully elucidated yet. Here we introduce four CDPs, cyclo(Gly-L-Pro) previously identified from Aspergillus sp...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Markus F F Arnold, Mohammed Shabab, Jon Penterman, Kevin L Boehme, Joel S Griffitts, Graham C Walker
The model legume species Medicago truncatula expresses more than 700 nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) signaling peptides that mediate the differentiation of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. NCR peptides are essential for a successful symbiosis in legume plants of the inverted-repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) and show similarity to mammalian defensins. In addition to signaling functions, many NCR peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobial activities is likely to be important for symbiosis...
August 1, 2017: MBio
Lan Zou, Amandine Gastebois, Céline Mathieu-Demazière, Fernando Sorroche, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Jacques Batut, Anne-Marie Garnerone
The cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Clr of Sinorhizobium meliloti regulates the overall number of infection events on Medicago roots by a so-far unknown mechanism requiring smc02178, a Clr-target gene of unknown function. In order to shed light on the mode of action of Clr on infection and potentially reveal additional biological functions for Clr, we inventoried genomic Clr target genes by transcriptome profiling. We have found that Clr positively controls the synthesis of cAMP-dependent succinoglycan as well as the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of a so-far unknown polysaccharide compound...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tao Li, James D Blande
Many plants respond to herbivory by releasing a complex blend of volatiles that may differ from that emitted by intact counterparts. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) mediate many interactions among plants and their community members, including alerting undamaged leaves of the attacked or neighboring plants to impending danger. It has been postulated that HIPVs evolved for within-plant signaling and that other organisms subsequently evolved to use them. However, only 7 studies have reported HIPV-mediated within-plant signaling, most conducted in the laboratory or greenhouse...
August 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Zaigham Shahzad, Anna Amtmann
The spatial arrangement of the plant root system (root system architecture, RSA) is very sensitive to edaphic and endogenous signals that report on the nutrient status of soil and plant. Signalling pathways underpinning RSA responses to individual nutrients, particularly nitrate and phosphate, have been unravelled. Researchers have now started to investigate interactive effects between two or more nutrients on RSA. Several proteins enabling crosstalk between signalling pathways have recently been identified...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Sophia L Samodelov, Matias D Zurbriggen
With the need to respond to and integrate a multitude of external and internal stimuli, plant signaling is highly complex, exhibiting signaling component redundancy and high interconnectedness between individual pathways. We review here novel theoretical-experimental approaches in manipulating plant signaling towards the goal of a comprehensive understanding and targeted quantitative control of plant processes. We highlight approaches taken in the field of synthetic biology used in other systems and discuss their applicability in plants...
August 2017: Trends in Plant Science
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