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"plant signaling"

Joseph M Patt, Paul S Robbins, Randy Niedz, Greg McCollum, Rocco Alessandro
Huanglongbing, also known as citrus greening, is a destructive disease that threatens citrus production worldwide. It is putatively caused by the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Currently, the disease is untreatable and efforts focus on intensive insecticide use to control the vector, Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Emerging psyllid resistance to multiple insecticides has generated investigations into the use of exogenously applied signaling compounds to enhance citrus resistance to D...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Rey, Christophe Jacquet
Basic molecular knowledge on plant-pathogen interactions has largely been gained from reverse and forward genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, as this model plant is unable to establish endosymbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi or rhizobia, plant responses to mutualistic symbionts have been studied in parallel in other plant species, mainly legumes. The resulting analyses led to the identification of gene networks involved in various functions, from microbe recognition to signalling and plant responses, thereafter assigned to either mutualistic symbiosis or immunity, according to the nature of the initially inoculated microbe...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Danuše Tarkowská, Miroslav Strnad
The present review summarizes current knowledge of the biosynthesis and biological importance of isoprenoid-derived plant signaling compounds. Cellular organisms use chemical signals for intercellular communication to coordinate their growth, development, and responses to environmental cues. The skeletons of majority of plant signaling molecules, mediators of plant intercellular 'broadcasting', are built from C5 units of isoprene and therefore belong to a huge and diverse group of natural substances called isoprenoids (terpenoids)...
March 12, 2018: Planta
Anne-Marie Garnerone, Fernando Sorroche, Lan Zou, Céline Mathieu-Demazière, Chang Fu Tian, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Jacques Batut
An ongoing signal exchange fine-tunes the symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legumes, ensuring the establishment and maintenance of mutualism. In a recently identified regulatory loop, endosymbiotic S. meliloti exert a negative feedback on root infection in response to unknown plant cues. Upon signal perception, three bacterial Adenylate Cyclases (ACs) of the inner membrane, CyaD1, CyaD2 and CyaK, synthesize the second messenger cAMP that, together with the cAMP-dependent Clr transcriptional activator, activates the expression of genes involved in root infection control...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Shunya Saito, Shin Hamamoto, Koko Moriya, Aiko Matsuura, Yoko Sato, Jun Muto, Hiroto Noguchi, Seiji Yamauchi, Yuzuru Tozawa, Minoru Ueda, Kenji Hashimoto, Philipp Köster, Qiuyan Dong, Katrin Held, Jörg Kudla, Toshihiko Utsumi, Nobuyuki Uozumi
N-myristoylation and S-acylation promote protein membrane association, allowing regulation of membrane proteins. However, how widespread this targeting mechanism is in plant signaling processes remains unknown. Through bioinformatics analyses, we determined that among plant protein kinase families, the occurrence of motifs indicative for dual lipidation by N-myristoylation and S-acylation is restricted to only five kinase families, including the Ca2+ -regulated CDPK-SnRK and CBL protein families. We demonstrated N-myristoylation of CDPK-SnRKs and CBLs by incorporation of radiolabeled myristic acid...
March 2, 2018: New Phytologist
Cezary Waszczak, Melanie Carmody, Jaakko Kangasjärvi
As fixed organisms, plants are especially affected by changes in their environment and have consequently evolved extensive mechanisms for acclimation and adaptation. Initially considered by-products from aerobic metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as major regulatory molecules in plants and their roles in early signaling events initiated by cellular metabolic perturbation and environmental stimuli are now established. Here, we review recent advances in ROS signaling. Compartment-specific and cross-compartmental signaling pathways initiated by the presence of ROS are discussed...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Sofie Van Holle, Els J M Van Damme
Lectins constitute an abundant group of proteins that are present throughout the plant kingdom. Only recently, genome-wide screenings have unraveled the multitude of different lectin sequences within one plant species. It appears that plants employ a plurality of lectins, though relatively few lectins have already been studied and functionally characterized. Therefore, it is very likely that the full potential of lectin genes in plants is underrated. This review summarizes the knowledge of plasma membrane-bound lectins in different biological processes (such as recognition of pathogen-derived molecules and symbiosis) and illustrates the significance of soluble intracellular lectins and how they can contribute to plant signaling...
February 22, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
M Makavitskaya, D Svistunenko, I Navaselsky, P Hryvusevich, V Mackievic, C Rabadanova, E Tyutereva, V Samokhina, D Straltsova, A Sokolik, O Voitsekhovskaja, V Demidchik
Ascorbate is not often considered as a signalling molecule in plants. This study demonstrates that, in Arabidopsis roots, exogenous L-ascorbic acid triggers a transient increase of the cytosolic free calcium activity ([Ca2+]cyt.) that is central to plant signalling. Exogenous copper and iron stimulates the ascorbate-induced [Ca2+]cyt. elevation while cation channel blockers, free radical scavengers, low extracellular [Ca2+], transition metal chelators and removal of the cell wall inhibit this reaction. These data show that apoplastic redox-active transition metals are involved in the ascorbate-induced [Ca2+]cyt...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Carmen K Blubaugh, Jacob S Asplund, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Matthew J Morra, Christopher R Philips, Inna E Popova, John P Reganold, William E Snyder
Plant defenses often mediate whether competing chewing and sucking herbivores indirectly benefit or harm one another. Dual guild herbivory also can muddle plant signals used by specialist natural enemies to locate prey, further complicating the net impact of herbivore-herbivore interactions in naturally diverse settings. While dual guild herbivore communities are common in nature, their community trilevel consequences are unclear, as chemically mediated tri-trophic interactions are rarely evaluated in field environments...
February 21, 2018: Ecology
Siddhi K Jalmi, Prakash K Bhagat, Deepanjali Verma, Stanzin Noryang, Sumaira Tayyeba, Kirti Singh, Deepika Sharma, Alok K Sinha
Plants confront multifarious environmental stresses widely divided into abiotic and biotic stresses, of which heavy metal stress represents one of the most damaging abiotic stresses. Heavy metals cause toxicity by targeting crucial molecules and vital processes in the plant cell. One of the approaches by which heavy metals act in plants is by over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) either directly or indirectly. Plants act against such overdose of metal in the environment by boosting the defense responses like metal chelation, sequestration into vacuole, regulation of metal intake by transporters, and intensification of antioxidative mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laura J Carter, Mike Williams, Sheridan Martin, Sara P B Kamaludeen, Rai S Kookana
Reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of crops is growing in arid and semi-arid regions, whilst increasing amounts of biosolids are being applied to fields to improve agricultural outputs. Due to incomplete removal in the wastewater treatment processes, pharmaceuticals present in treated wastewater and biosolids can contaminate soil systems. Benzodiazepines are a widely used class of pharmaceuticals that are released following wastewater treatment. Benzodiazepines are represented by a class of compounds with a range of physicochemical properties and this study was therefore designed to evaluate the influence of soil properties on the sorption behaviour and subsequent uptake of seven benzodiazepines (chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, diazepam, flurazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and triazolam) in two plant species...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sameh Soliman, Mohammad G Mohammad, Ali A El-Keblawy, Hany Omar, Mohamed Abouleish, Mohamed Madkour, Attiat Elnaggar, Racha M Hosni
Unlike animals, plants are sessile organisms, lacking circulating antibodies and specialized immune cells and are exposed to various harsh environmental conditions that make them at risk of being attacked by different pathogens and herbivores. Plants produce chemo-signals to respond to the surroundings and be able to distinguish between harmless and harmful signals. In this study, the production of phytochemicals as plant signaling mechanisms and their defensive roles in disease resistance and repelling herbivores are examined in Calligonum comosum...
2018: PloS One
Philip Poole, Vinoy Ramachandran, Jason Terpolilli
Rhizobia are some of the best-studied plant microbiota. These oligotrophic Alphaproteobacteria or Betaproteobacteria form symbioses with their legume hosts. Rhizobia must exist in soil and compete with other members of the microbiota before infecting legumes and forming N2 -fixing bacteroids. These dramatic lifestyle and developmental changes are underpinned by large genomes and even more complex pan-genomes, which encompass the whole population and are subject to rapid genetic exchange. The ability to respond to plant signals and chemoattractants and to colonize nutrient-rich roots are crucial for the competitive success of these bacteria...
January 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Franz Walter Rieger Hippler, Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto, Veronica Lorena Dovis, José Antônio Quaggio, Ricardo Antunes Azevedo, Dirceu Mattos
Nutritional stress caused by copper (Cu) deficiency or toxicity affects fruit production of citrus orchards worldwide, but this could be minimised by fine-tuned fertilisation in the orchards. Two experiments were performed aiming to evaluate the photosynthetic capacity and the antioxidant enzyme activities of Swingle citrumelo seedlings, grown in nutrient solution (NS) with two levels of nitrogen (N) in the first experiment (adequate-N and high-N) and two levels of calcium (Ca) in the second (low-Ca and adequate-Ca)...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fuqiang Cui, Hongpo Wu, Omid Safronov, Panpan Zhang, Rajeev Kumar, Hannes Kollist, Jarkko Salojärvi, Ralph Panstruga, Kirk Overmyer
The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O3 ) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O3 sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS...
April 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Qingyu Wu, David Jackson
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential component of development, biotic and abiotic responses. Hypersensitive response (HR)-associated cell death activated under pathogen attack is one of the most dramatic manifestations of PCD in plants. Signal transduction through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, a very conserved signaling pathway across eukaryotes, is a core mediator for HR-associated PCD. Therefore, monitoring MAPK activation enables the mechanisms underlying HR-associated PCD to be elucidated...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chai Hao Chiu, Jeongmin Choi, Uta Paszkowski
Perception of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) triggers distinct plant signalling responses for parallel establishment of symbiosis and induction of lateral root formation. Rice receptor kinase CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) and α/β-fold hydrolase DWARF14-LIKE (D14L) are involved in pre-symbiotic fungal perception. After 6 wk post-inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis, root developmental responses, fungal colonization and transcriptional responses were monitored in two independent cerk1 null mutants; a deletion mutant lacking D14L, and with D14L complemented as well as their respective wild-type cultivars (cv Nipponbare and Nihonmasari)...
January 2018: New Phytologist
Adriana Racolta, Michael D Nodine, Kelli Davies, Cameron Lee, Scott Rowe, Yulemi Velazco, Rachel Wellington, Frans E Tax
Cell-cell communication is essential for plants to integrate developmental programs with external cues that affect their growth. Recent advances in plant signaling have uncovered similar molecular mechanisms in shoot, root, and vascular meristem signaling that involve receptor-like kinases and small, secreted peptides. Here, we report that the receptor-like kinases TOAD2/RPK2 and RPK1 regulate root growth by controlling cell proliferation and affecting meristem size. Two types of developmental alterations were observed upon exogenous CLE peptide application...
February 2018: Genetics
Chris Gehring, Ilona S Turek
The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lanting Zeng, Yinyin Liao, Jianlong Li, Ying Zhou, Jinchi Tang, Fang Dong, Ziyin Yang
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) act as direct defenses against herbivores and as indirect defenses by attracting herbivore enemies. However, the involvement of HIPVs in within-plant or plant-to-plant signaling is not fully clarified. Furthermore, in contrast to model plants, HIPV signaling roles in crops have hardly been reported. Here, we investigated HIPVs emitted from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, an important crop used for beverages, and their involvement in tea plant-to-plant signaling. To ensure uniform and sufficient exposure to HIPVs, jasmonic acid combined with mechanical damage (JAMD) was used to simulate herbivore attacks...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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