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"plant hormone"

Mahipal S Shekhawat, M Manokari
The optimum concentrations of the plant hormones for in vitro regeneration and subsequent effect of auxins on rooting (in vitro and ex vitro) of shoots of Basella alba L. have been investigated in present study. Nodal shoot segments were used as explants to initiate the cultures. The bud breaking from explants was observed within 1 week of incubation on agar gelled Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium. Multiple axillary shoots (7.30 ± 0.56 shoots per explant) were induced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Anderson Espirito Santo Pereira, Paula Mayara Silva, Jhones Luis Oliveira, Halley Caixeta Oliveira, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto
This work concerns the development of nanocarriers composed of alginate/chitosan (ALG/CS) and chitosan/tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP) for the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3). ALG/CS nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 450±10nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.3, zeta potential of -29±0.5mV, concentrations of 1.52×10(11) and 1.92×10(11) nanoparticles mL(-1), respectively, and 100% encapsulation efficiency. CS/TPP nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 195±1nm, PDI of 0...
November 23, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Luchang Deng, Peng Qin, Zhi Liu, Geling Wang, Weilan Chen, Jianhua Tong, Langtao Xiao, Bin Tu, Yuantao Sun, Wei Yan, Hang He, Jun Tan, Xuewei Chen, Yuping Wang, Shigui Li, Bingtian Ma
Leaves are the main organs in which photosynthates are produced. Leaf senescence facilitates the translocation of photosynthates and nutrients from source to sink, which is important for plant development and especially for crop yield. However, the molecular mechanism of leaf senescence is unknown. Here, we identified a mutant, yellow leaf and dwarf 1 (yld1), which exhibited decreased plant height and premature leaf senescence. Nitroblue tetrazolium and diamiobenzidine staining analyses revealed that the concentrations of reactive oxygen species were higher in yld1 leaves than in wild type leaves...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yuanli Wu, Evgenia Dor, Joseph Hershenhorn
Exogenously applied GR24 affected somatic embryo formation and morphogenesis of strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant through cross-talk with auxins and cytokinins indicating involvement of SLs in the embryogenic process. Strigolactones (SLs) mediate the regulation of plant responses to the environment through cross-talk with other plant hormones, especially auxins. Auxins play a crucial role in coordinating the morphogenesis and development of plant reproductive organs, including the signal-transduction cascade leading to the reprogramming of gene-expression patterns before embryo formation...
December 1, 2016: Planta
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
MAX2 (MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2) is involved in diverse physiological processes, including photomorphogenesis, the abiotic stress response, as well as karrikin and strigolactone signaling-mediated shoot branching. In this study, MdMAX2, an F-box protein that is a homolog of Arabidopsis MAX2, was identified and characterized. Overexpression of MdMAX2 in apple calli enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. Ectopic expression of MdMAX2 in Arabidopsis exhibited photomorphogenesis phenotypes, including increased anthocyanin content and decreased hypocotyl length...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Felipe Eng, Sven Haroth, Kirstin Feussner, Dorothea Meldau, Dmitrij Rekhter, Till Ischebeck, Florian Brodhun, Ivo Feussner
Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume...
2016: PloS One
Kai Jiang, Masato Otani, Hiroaki Shimotakahara, Jung-Min Yoon, Seung-Hyun Park, Tomoko Miyaji, Takeshi Nakano, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Masatoshi Nakajima, Tadao Asami
Gibberellin (GA) is a major plant hormone that regulates plant growth and development, and is widely used as a plant growth regulator in agricultural production. There is an increasing demand for function-limited GA mimics due to the limitations on the agronomical application of GA to crops, including GA's high cost of producing and its leading to the crops' lodging. AC94377, a substituted phthalimide, is a chemical that mimics the growth-regulating activity of GAs in various plants, despite its structural difference...
November 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
Ryan Hiltenbrand, Jacklyn Thomas, Hannah McCarthy, Karl J Dykema, Ashley Spurr, Hamilton Newhart, Mary E Winn, Arijit Mukherjee
Several studies have shown that plant hormones play important roles during legume-rhizobia symbiosis. For instance, auxins induce the formation of nodule-like structures (NLSs) on legume roots in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, these NLS can be colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which favor nitrogen fixation compared to regular roots and subsequently increase plant yield. Interestingly, auxin also induces similar NLS in cereal roots. While several genetic studies have identified plant genes controlling NLS formation in legumes, no studies have investigated the genes involved in NLS formation in cereals...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jingjing Cao, Mengya Li, Jian Chen, Pei Liu, Zhen Li
Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
An Yan, Zhong Chen
Seed maturation and germination are two continuous developmental processes that link two distinct generations in spermatophytes; the precise genetic control of these two processes is, therefore, crucially important for the survival of the next generation. Pieces of experimental evidence accumulated so far indicate that a concerted action of endogenous signals and environmental cues is required to govern these processes. Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a predominant role in directing seed maturation and maintaining seed dormancy under unfavorable environmental conditions until antagonized by gibberellins (GA) and certain environmental cues to allow the commencement of seed germination when environmental conditions are favorable; therefore, the balance of ABA and GA is a major determinant of the timing of seed germination...
November 23, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Laura Sturla, Elena Mannino, Sonia Scarfì, Santina Bruzzone, Mirko Magnone, Giovanna Sociali, Valeria Booz, Lucrezia Guida, Tiziana Vigliarolo, Chiara Fresia, Laura Emionite, Ambra Buschiazzo, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti, Antonio De Flora, Elena Zocchi
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone also present in animals, where it is involved in the regulation of innate immune cell function and of glucose disposal, through its receptor LANCL2. ABA stimulates glucose uptake by myocytes and pre-adipocytes in vitro and oral ABA improves glycemic control in rats and in healthy subjects. Here we investigated the role of the ABA/LANCL2 system in the regulation of glucose uptake and metabolism in adipocytes. Silencing of LANCL2 abrogated both the ABA- and insulin-induced increase of glucose transporter-4 expression and of glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes; conversely, overexpression of LANCL2 enhanced basal, ABA- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maren Müller, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Plant hormones are for a long time known to act as chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. Furthermore, plant hormones simultaneously coordinate physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To study the hormonal regulation of physiological processes, three main approaches have been used (1) exogenous application of hormones, (2) correlative studies through measurements of endogenous hormone levels, and (3) use of transgenic and/or mutant plants altered in hormone metabolism or signaling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Víctor Carrasco Loba, Stephan Pollmann
Technical advances in mass spectrometry constantly raise the bar for analyzing trace amounts of plant hormones in only very small amounts of tissue. Here, a highly sensitive and accurate method is described for the quantitative analysis of the plant hormone salicylic acid not only in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana but also in other plant species. The presented method is optimized for the working up of as little as 20 to 50 mg of plant tissue. The discussed protocol and the utilized laboratory equipment facilitate the implementation of the method into other laboratories that possess access to adequate state-of-the-art gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ulrike Vavra, Christiane Veit, Richard Strasser
Glycosylation is essential for all trees of life. N-glycosylation is one of the most common covalent protein modifications and influences a large variety of cellular processes including protein folding, quality control and protein-receptor interactions. Despite recent progress in understanding of N-glycan biosynthesis, our knowledge of N-glycan function on individual plant proteins is still very limited. In this respect, plant hormone receptors are an interesting group of proteins as several of these proteins are present at distinct sites in the secretory pathway or at the plasma membrane and have numerous potential N-glycosylation sites...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
S Vinod Kumar, Doris Lucyshyn
Plant hormone signaling involves complex transcriptional networks, where transcription factors orchestrate the control of specific gene expression. These networks include cross talk between hormone signaling pathways, and the integration of environmental signals and the developmental program. Understanding how particular transcription factors respond and integrate specific signals is crucial in order to understand the basic mechanisms of hormonal signaling and cross talk. Studying transcription factor binding at specific genomic loci by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is therefore a valuable technique in order to analyze transcriptional regulation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hilla Schayek, Eilon Shani, Roy Weinstain
The physical location of plant hormones is an important factor in maintaining their proper metabolism, perception, and mediated developmental responses. Thus, unveiling plant hormones dynamics at the molecule's level is essential for a comprehensive, detailed understanding of both their functions and the regulative mechanisms they are subjected to. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled, bioactive gibberellins (GAs) to highlight the dynamic distribution and accumulation sites of bioactive GAs in Arabidopsis thaliana roots by confocal microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jingchun Liu, Bruno Müller
Cytokinins are classical plant hormones that control numerous developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle. Cytokinin-responsive cells activate transcription via a phospho-relay signaling network. Type-B nuclear RESPONSE REGULATOR (RR) proteins mediate transcriptional activation as the final step in the signaling cascade. They bind to promoters of immediate-early target genes via a conserved Myb-related DNA-binding domain. To monitor transcriptional activation in response to a cytokinin stimulus, we have constructed a synthetic promoter, TCS (two-component signaling sensor) that harbors the concatemerized binding motifs for activated type-B RR in an optimized configuration...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Daniela Ristova, Wolfgang Busch
Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a powerful method for the identification of alleles that underlie quantitative traits. It enables one to understand how genetic variation translates into phenotypic variation. In particular, plant hormone signaling pathways play a key role in shaping phenotypes. This chapter presents a protocol for genome-wide association mapping of root traits of Arabidopsis thaliana in the context of hormone research. We describe a specific protocol for acquiring primary and lateral root trait data that is appropriate for GWA studies using FIJI (ImageJ), and subsequent GWA mapping using a user-friendly Internet application...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tessa Albrecht, Cristiana T Argueso
BACKGROUND: Perception and activation of plant immunity require a remarkable level of signalling plasticity and control. In Arabidopsis and other plant species, constitutive defence activation leads to resistance to a broad spectrum of biotrophic pathogens, but also frequently to stunted growth and reduced seed set. Plant hormones are important integrators of the physiological responses that influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. SCOPE: We review the mechanisms by which the plant hormone cytokinin regulates both plant growth and response to pathogens, and how cytokinins may connect these two processes, ultimately affecting the growth trade-offs observed in plant immunity...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Botany
Pavel Klimeš, Pavel Mazura, Dušan Turek, Břetislav Brzobohatý
Enzyme kinetic measurements are important for the characterization and engineering of biocatalysts, with applications in a wide range of research fields. The measurement of initial reaction velocity is usually slow and laborious, which motivated us to explore the possibilities for automating this process. Our model enzyme is the maize β-glucosidase Zm-p60.1. Zm-p60.1 plays a significant role in plant growth and development by regulating levels of the active plant hormone cytokinin. Zm-p60.1 belongs to a wide group of hydrolytic enzymes...
November 12, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
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