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"plant hormone"

Tijs Ketelaar, Gilles Vismans, Tom van der Meer, Olivier Langevoort, Marielle Schreuder, Harro J Bouwmeester, Helga Peisker, Peter Dörmann, Alexander R van der Krol
Stromules are highly dynamic protrusions of the plastids in plants. Several factors, such as drought and light conditions influence the stromule frequency in a positive or negative way. A relatively recent discovered class of plant hormones are the strigolactones, strigolactones inhibit branching of the shoots and promote beneficial interactions between roots and arbuscular mycorrizal fungi. Here we investigate the link between the formation of stromules and strigolactones. This research shows a strong link between strigolactones and the formation of stromules: stromule frequency (SF) correlates with strigolactone levels in wild type and strigolactone mutants (max2-1 max3-9), SF is stimulated by strigolactone GR24 and reduced by strigolactone inhibitor D2...
October 19, 2016: Plant Physiology
Yasuhiro Ishimaru, Takaya Oikawa, Takeshi Suzuki, Syohei Takeishi, Hideyuki Matsuura, Kosaku Takahashi, Shin Hamamoto, Nobuyuki Uozumi, Takafumi Shimizu, Mitsunori Seo, Hiroyuki Ohta, Minoru Ueda
Jasmonates are major plant hormones involved in wounding responses. Systemic wounding responses are induced by an electrical signal derived from damaged leaves. After the signaling, jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) are translocated from wounded to undamaged leaves, but the molecular mechanism of the transport remains unclear. Here, we found that a JA-Ile transporter, GTR1, contributed to these translocations in Arabidopsis thaliana. GTR1 was expressed in and surrounding the leaf veins both of wounded and undamaged leaves...
October 20, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Junting Pan, Weidong Wang, Dongqin Li, Zaifa Shu, Xiaoli Ye, Pinpin Chang, Yuhua Wang
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a critical signaling molecule in the low-temperature stress responses in plants, including polarized pollen tube growth in Camellia sinensis. Despite this, the potential mechanisms underlying the participation of NO in pollen tube responses to low temperature remain unclear. Here, we investigate alterations to gene expression in C. sinensis pollen tubes exposed to low-temperature stress and NO using RNA-Seq technology, in order to find the potential candidate genes related to the regulation of pollen tube elongation by NO under low-temperature stress...
October 18, 2016: BMC Genomics
Brian Weselowski, Naeem Nathoo, Alexander William Eastman, Jacqueline MacDonald, Ze-Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Paenibacillus polymyxa is a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Various strains have been isolated that can benefit agriculture through antimicrobial activity, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, plant hormone production, or lignocellulose degradation. However, no single strain has yet been identified in which all of these advantageous traits have been confirmed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Cameron S Gordon, Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, Eddy P Risseeuw, Marci Surpin, Fraser J Ball, Carla J Barber, Leann M Buhrow, Shawn M Clark, Jonathan E Page, Chris D Todd, Suzanne R Abrams, Michele C Loewen
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA's modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported...
2016: PloS One
Yan-Lun Ju, Min Liu, Hui Zhao, Jiang-Fei Meng, Yu-Lin Fang
The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Qiongshan Wang, Nian Liu, Xiyan Yang, Lili Tu, Xianlong Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous non-coding RNAs modulating the expression of target genes involved in plant development and stress tolerance, by degrading mRNA or repressing translation. In this study, small RNA and mRNA degradome sequencing were used to identify low- and high-temperature stress-responsive miRNAs and their targets in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton seedlings were treated under different temperature conditions (4, 12, 25, 35, and 42 °C) and then the effects were investigated...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bruno Guillotin, Mohammad Etemadi, Corinne Audran, Mondher Bouzayen, Guillaume Bécard, Jean-Philippe Combier
Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is a complex and finely tuned process. Previous studies have shown that, among other plant hormones, auxin plays a role in this process but the specific involvement of Aux/IAAs, the key regulators of auxin responses, is still unknown. In this study, we addressed the role of the tomato Sl-IAA27 during AM symbiosis by using Sl-IAA27-RNAi and pSL-IAA27::GUS stable tomato lines. The data show that Sl-IAA27 expression is up-regulated by the AM fungus and that silencing of Sl-IAA27 has a negative impact on AM colonization...
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
Maoulida Toueni, Cécile Ben, Aurélie Le Ru, Laurent Gentzbittel, Martina Rickauer
Resistance mechanisms to Verticillium wilt are well-studied in tomato, cotton, and Arabidopsis, but much less in legume plants. Because legume plants establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses in their roots, resistance to root-attacking pathogens merits particular attention. The interaction between the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium alfalfae and the model legume Medicago truncatula was investigated using a resistant (A17) and a susceptible (F83005.5) line. As shown by histological analyses, colonization by the pathogen was initiated similarly in both lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nobuhiro Suzuki
As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses. In contrast to the controlled conditions employed in many researches, more than one or more abiotic and/or biotic stresses simultaneously occur and highly impact growth of plants and crops in the field environments. Therefore, an urgent need to generate crops with enhanced tolerance to stress combinations exists. Researchers, however, focused on the mechanisms underlying acclimation of plants to combined stresses only in recent studies...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Marimuthu Maruthi Kalaiselvi, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile organic compound synthesized from salicylic acid (SA) a plant hormone that helps to fight against plant disease. Seed treatment with MeSA, is an encouraging method to the seed industry to produce more growth and yield. The aim of our study is to find out the growth, development and disease tolerance of rice seed treated with different concentrations of MeSA. Also the seed treatments were studied to determine whether they directly influenced seedling emergence and growth in rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars 'IR 20, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 19 and ADT 46' under greenhouse condition...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
G P Danezis, C J Anagnostopoulos, K Liapis, M A Koupparis
One of the recent trends in Analytical Chemistry is the development of economic, quick and easy hyphenated methods to be used in a field that includes analytes of different classes and physicochemical properties. In this work a multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 28 xenobiotics (polar and hydrophilic) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography technique (HILIC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The scope of the method includes plant growth regulators (chlormequat, daminozide, diquat, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat, paraquat), pesticides (cyromazine, the metabolite of the fungicide propineb PTU (propylenethiourea), amitrole), various multiclass antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides quinolones, kasugamycin and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A)...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
M Kvasnica, J Oklestkova, V Bazgier, L Rárová, P Korinkova, J Mikulík, M Budesinsky, T Béres, K Berka, Q Lu, E Russinova, M Strnad
We have prepared and studied a series of new brassinosteroid derivatives with a p-substituted phenyl group in the side chain. To obtain the best comparison between molecular docking and biological activities both types of brassinosteroids were synthesized; 6-ketones, 10 examples, and B-lactones, 8 examples. The phenyl group was introduced into the steroid skeleton by Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons. The docking studies were carried out using AutoDock Vina 1.05. Plant biological activities were established using different brassinosteroid bioassays in comparison with natural brassinosteroids...
September 21, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Xiaozhen Huang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhizhong Gong, Shuhua Yang, Yiting Shi
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in regulating seed germination and post-germination growth. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), an APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor, is required for the ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination. Cytokinins promote seed germination and seedling growth by antagonizing ABA signaling. However, the interaction between ABA and cytokinin signaling during seed germination remains unclear. Here, we report that ABA signaling downregulates Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs), a class of cytokinin-inducible genes, during seed germination and cotyledon greening...
October 6, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Guillaume Née, Yong Xiang, Wim Jj Soppe
Seed dormancy determines the timing of germination, thereby contributing to successful seedling establishment and plant fitness. The induction and release of dormancy are controlled by various regulators like plant hormones and dormancy proteins. The relative strengths of these regulators are influenced by environmental factors during seed maturation and storage. In the last few years additional processes have been identified to be involved in the release of dormancy during seed storage with an important role for non-enzymatic oxidative reactions...
October 3, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
John A Fozard, Malcolm J Bennett, John R King, Oliver E Jensen
We describe a method for the simulation of the growth of elongated plant organs, such as seedling roots. By combining a midline representation of the organ on a tissue scale and a vertex-based representation on the cell scale, we obtain a multiscale method, which is able to both simulate organ growth and incorporate cell-scale processes. Equations for the evolution of the midline are obtained, which depend on the cell-wall properties of individual cells through appropriate averages over the vertex-based representation...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
L M Wang, L D Zhang, J B Chen, D F Huang, Y D Zhang
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important vegetable crop that ranks second in salt tolerance among the Cucurbitaceae. Previous studies on the two muskmelon cultivars 'Bing XueCui' (BXC) and 'Yu Lu' (YL) revealed that they had different characteristics under salt stress, but the molecular basis underlying their different physiological responses is unclear. Here, we combined a physiological study with a genome-wide transcriptome analysis to understand the molecular basis of genetic variation that responds to salt stress in the melon...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Lihong Liu, Haoran Liu, Shuo Li, Xin Zhang, Min Zhang, Ning Zhu, Craig P Dufresne, Sixue Chen, Qiaomei Wang
Fruit ripening is a complex and genetically programmed process. Brassinosteroids (BRs) play an essential role in plant growth and development, including fruit ripening. As a central component of BR signaling, the transcription factor BZR1 is involved in fruit development in tomato. However, the transcriptional network through which BZR1 regulates fruit ripening is mostly unknown. In this study, we use isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technology to explore important proteins regulated by BZR1 in two independent tomato transgenic lines over-expressing BZR1-1D at four ripening stages, identifying 411 differentially expressed proteins...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
J N Valitova, A G Sulkarnayeva, F V Minibayeva
Sterols, which are isoprenoid derivatives, are structural components of biological membranes. Special attention is now being given not only to their structure and function, but also to their regulatory roles in plants. Plant sterols have diverse composition; they exist as free sterols, sterol esters with higher fatty acids, sterol glycosides, and acylsterol glycosides, which are absent in animal cells. This diversity of types of phytosterols determines a wide spectrum of functions they play in plant life. Sterols are precursors of a group of plant hormones, the brassinosteroids, which regulate plant growth and development...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Hiromu Kameoka, Elizabeth Ann Dun, Mauricio Lopez-Obando, Philip B Brewer, Alexandre de Saint Germain, Catherine Rameau, Christine A Beveridge, Junko Kyozuka
The cell-to-cell transport of signaling molecules is essential for multicellular organisms to coordinate the action of their cells. Recent studies identified DWARF14 (D14) as a receptor of strigolactones (SLs), molecules that act as plant hormones and inhibit shoot branching. Here, we demonstrate that RAMOSUS3 (RMS3), a pea ortholog of D14, works as a graft-transmissible signal to suppress shoot branching. In addition, we show that D14 protein is contained in phloem sap and transported through the phloem to axillary buds in rice...
September 26, 2016: Plant Physiology
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