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"plant hormone"

Mohammad Ubaidillah, Fika Ayu Safitri, Jun-Hyeon Jo, Sang-Kyu Lee, Adil Hussain, Bong-Gyu Mun, Il Kyung Chung, Byung-Wook Yun, Kyung-Min Kim
We previously identified the rice (Oryza sativa) senescence-associated gene OsSAP which encodes a highly conserved protein involved in anti-apoptotic activity. This novel Bax suppressor-related gene regulates tolerance to multiple stresses in yeast. Here, we show the effects of drought stress on leaf and root tissues of plants over-expressing OsSAP in relation to the levels of phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and zeatin. Results showed that rice plants over-expressing SAP were tolerant to drought stress compared to wild type and the plants over-expressing AtBI-1, which is a homolog of the human Bax inhibitor-1 in Arabidopsis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
Wei-Kai Chen, Ke-Ji Yu, Bin Liu, Yi-Bin Lan, Run-Ze Sun, Qiang Li, Fei He, Qiu-Hong Pan, Chang-Qing Duan, Jun Wang
The downstream flux of carotenoid metabolism in grape berries includes the biosynthesis of norisoprenoids, a group of important aroma compounds, and the production of ABA, a well-known plant hormone. This study focused on the transcriptional profiling comparison of genes participating in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, norisoprenoids, and ABA in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes at pea size, veraison, and ripening stages. The grapes were obtained from Changli (CL, eastern China) and Gaotai (GT, western China) regions and analyzed using RNA-sequencing technology...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Javier Barrero-Gil, Julio Salinas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Molecular Plant
De-You Ye, Yong-Hong Qi, Su-Fang Cao, Bing-Qiang Wei, Hua-Sheng Zhang
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) cause serious threat to cucumber production. Cucumis metuliferus, a relative of cucumber, is reported to be resistant to Meloidogyne incognita, yet the underlying resistance mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the response of resistant C. metuliferus accession PI482443 following nematode infection was studied in comparison with susceptible C. sativus cv. Jinlv No.3. Roots of selected Cucumis seedings were analysed using histological and biochemical techniques. Transcriptome changes of the resistance reaction were investigated by RNA-seq...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Hui Wang, Wanqing Li, Yaguang Qin, Yupeng Pan, Xiaofeng Wang, Yiqun Weng, Peng Chen, Yuhong Li
The dwarf or compact plant architecture is an important trait in plant breeding. A number of genes controlling plant height have been cloned and functionally characterized which often involve in biosynthesis or signaling of plant hormones such as brassinosteroids (BRs). No genes for plant height or vine length have been cloned in cucurbit crops (family Cucurbitaceae). From an EMS-induced mutagenesis population, we identified a super compact (SCP) mutant C257 which was extremely dwarf due to practically no internode elongation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Weiqiang Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Halophyte plant species are those that can finish their life cycle in the presence of 50% or more seawater concentration. Ethylene, as a natural plant hormone produced at later stages of seed germination, plays an important role in regulating seed germination. However, its regulatory role in seed dormancy and germination of halophyte plants under salt stress is still not well understood. In this chapter, we describe methods used for applications of two ethylene donors, ethephon and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, in studies aimed at examining the effects of ethylene on seed germination of a representative halophyte plant Suaeda salsa under high salinity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mark L Tucker, Joonyup Kim, Chi-Kuang Wen
The gaseous nature of ethylene affects not only its role in plant biology but also how you treat plants with the hormone. In many ways, it simplifies the treatment problem. Other hormones have to be made up in solution and applied to some part of the plant hoping the hormone will be taken up into the plant and translocated throughout the plant at the desired concentration. Because all plant cells are connected by an intercellular gas space the ethylene concentration you treat with is relatively quickly reached throughout the plant...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bram Van de Poel, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Analytical detection of the plant hormone ethylene is an important prerequisite in physiological studies. Real-time and super sensitive detection of trace amounts of ethylene gas is possible using laser-based photo-acoustic spectroscopy. This Chapter will provide some background on the technique, compare it with conventional gas chromatography, and provide a detailed user-friendly hand-out on how to operate the machine and the software. In addition, this Chapter provides some tips and tricks for designing and performing physiological experiments suited for ethylene detection with laser-based photo-acoustic spectroscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sandra Fonseca, Dhanya Radhakrishnan, Kalika Prasad, Andrea Chini
Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated co-evolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies...
March 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
J M Sui, G Li, G X Chen, M Y Yu, S T Ding, J S Wang, L X Qiao
The Rab protein family is the largest family of the small GTP-binding proteins. Among them, the RabG genes are known to be responsive to abiotic stresses, but the molecular mechanisms of the stress responses mediated by RabG genes in plants is poorly understood. To investigate the molecular mechanism of AhRabG gene in peanut, transgenic plants overexpressing the AhRabG gene (S6) with relatively higher salinity resistance than the non-transgenic plants (S7) were obtained. Digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing was performed with the leaves of S6 and S7 plants before and after salinity-stress treatment...
March 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Madeleine Seale, Tom Bennett, Ottoline Leyser
The degree of shoot branching in Arabidopsis is determined by the activation of axillary buds. Bud activity is regulated by diverse environmental and developmental signals, often mediated via plant hormones including auxin, strigolactone and cytokinin. The transcription factor, BRANCHED1 (BRC1), has been proposed to integrate these regulatory signals. This idea is based on increased branching in brc1 mutants, the effects of bud-regulating hormones on BRC1 expression, and a general correlation between BRC1 expression and bud growth inhibition...
March 13, 2017: Development
Ganesh K Jaganathan, Yingying Han, Weijie Li, Danping Song, Xiaoyan Song, Mengqi Shen, Qiang Zhou, Chenxue Zhang, Baolin Liu
The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h(-1)) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch(-1)) seeds (P < 0...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
María Isabel Duran, Cesar González, Alison Acosta, Andrés F Olea, Katy Díaz, Luis Espinoza
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that promote growth in different plant organs and tissues. The structural requirements that these compounds should possess to exhibit this biological activity have been studied. In this work, a series of known BR analogs 5-15, were synthesized starting from hyodeoxycholic acid 4, and maintaining the alkyl side chain as cholic acid or its methyl ester. The growth-promoting effects of brassinolide (1) and synthesized analogs were evaluated by using the rice lamina inclination assay at concentrations ranging from 1 × 10(-8)-1 × 10(-6) M...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Huimin Jiang, Jianfeng Zhang, Zhuo Han, Juncheng Yang, Cailin Ge, Qingyu Wu
Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient, and deficiency of P is one of the most important factors restricting maize yield. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a more efficient program of P fertilization and breeding crop varieties with enhanced Pi uptake and use efficiency, which required understanding how plants respond to Pi starvation. To understand how maize plants adapt to P-deficiency stress, we screened 116 inbred lines in the field and identified two lines, DSY2 and DSY79 that were extreme low-P resistant and sensitive, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Peng Cui, Hongbo Liu, Songlin Ruan, Basharat Ali, Rafaqat Ali Gill, Huasheng Ma, Zhifu Zheng, Weijun Zhou
The plant hormone auxin plays a crucial role in lateral root development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying lateral root formation, an auxin-responsive gene OsCYP2 (Os02g0121300) was characterized from rice. Compared to the wild type, OsCYP2-RNAi lines exhibited distinctive defects in lateral root development. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down results confirmed that OsCYP2 interacted with a C2HC-type zinc finger protein (OsZFP, Os01g0252900) which is located in the rice nucleus. T2 OsZFP-RNAi lines had significantly fewer lateral roots than did wild type plants, which suggests a role for OsCYP2 and OsZFP in regulating lateral root development...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Víctor Carrasco Loba, Marta-Marina Pérez Alonso, Stephan Pollmann
Over the last few years, it became more and more evident that plant hormone action is to great parts determined through their sophisticated crosstalk, rather than by their isolated activities. Thus, the parallel analysis of interconnected phytohormones in only very small amounts of tissue developed to an important issue in the field of plant sciences. In the following, a highly sensitive and accurate method is described for the quantitative analysis of the plant hormones jasmonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Muhammad Naseem, Shabana Shams, Thomas Roitsch
Cytokinins are adenine and non-adenine derived heterogeneous class of regulatory molecules that participate in almost every aspect of plant biology. They also affect plant defense responses as well as help microbial pathogens to establish pathogenesis. The functional approaches that ensure desired and subtle modulations in the levels of plant cytokinins are highly instrumental in assessing their functions in plant immunity. Here, we describe a detailed working protocol regarding the enhanced production of cytokinins from plants that harbor isopentenyltransferase (IPT) enzyme gene under the control of 4xJERE (jasmonic acid and elicitor-responsive element) pathogen-inducible promoter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alfonso Albacete
Since their discovery in the 1950s, it has been established that cytokinins (CKs) play important regulatory roles in various physiological processes in plants. Only recently have CKs been also implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. During the last years, several analytical methods have been developed to determine CK concentrations in plant tissues. Here we present a simple and robust method for CK extraction, purification and analysis in plant tissues, using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-HRMS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jutta Ludwig-Müller, Susann Auer, Sabine Jülke, Sabine Marschollek
The symptoms of the clubroot disease on Brassica species caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae relies, among other factors, on the modulation of plant hormones. Signaling, transport as well as biosynthesis and metabolism are key features how the levels of auxins and cytokinins are controlled. We here describe (a) how to inoculate the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with P. brassicae, (b) qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate disease severity in auxin and cytokinin mutants,...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wenjing Yao, Xuemei Zhang, Boru Zhou, Kai Zhao, Renhua Li, Tingbo Jiang
Identification of gene expression patterns of key genes across multiple abiotic stresses is critical for mechanistic understanding of stress resistance in plant. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra under respective stresses of NaCl, KCl, CdCl2, and PEG. On the basis of RNA-Seq, we detected 247 DEGs that are shared by the four stresses in wild type poplar, and mRNA abundance of the DEGs were validated in transgenic poplar overexpressing ERF76 gene by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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