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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469230/quantitative-3d-imaging-of-cell-level-auxin-and-cytokinin-response-ratios-in-soybean-roots-and-nodules
#1
Jon Fisher, Paul Gaillard, Carl R Fellbaum, Senthil Subramanian, Steve Smith
Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis results in root nodules where rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen into plant usable forms in exchange for plant-derived carbohydrates. The development of these specialized root organs involves a set of carefully orchestrated plant hormone signaling. In particular, a spatio-temporal balance between auxin and cytokinin appears to be crucial for proper nodule development. We put together a construct that carried nuclear localized fluorescence sensors for auxin and cytokinin, and used two photon induced fluorescence microscopy for concurrent quantitative 3-dimensional imaging to determine cellular level auxin and cytokinin outputs and ratios in root and nodule tissues of soybean...
February 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466465/analysis-of-the-genetic-basis-of-plant-height-related-traits-in-response-to-ethylene-by-qtl-mapping-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#2
Weiqiang Zhang, Zhi Li, Hui Fang, Mingcai Zhang, Liusheng Duan
Ethylene (ET) is critical importance in the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Plant hormonal stress responses have been extensively studied, however, the role of ET in plant growth, especially plant height (PH) remains unclear. Understanding the genetic control for PH in response to ET will provide insights into the regulation of maize development. To clarify the genetic basis of PH-related traits of maize in response to ET, we mapped QTLs for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of Zea mays after ET treatment and in an untreated control (CK) group...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463779/coordinating-the-overall-stomatal-response-of-plants-rapid-leaf-to-leaf-communication-during-light-stress
#3
Amith R Devireddy, Sara I Zandalinas, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Eduardo Blumwald, Ron Mittler
The plant canopy functions as an aerial array of light-harvesting antennas. To achieve maximal yield, each leaf within this array and the array as a whole need to rapidly adjust to naturally occurring fluctuations in light intensity and quality. Excessive light stress triggers the closing of pores in leaves called stomata to minimize moisture loss. We found that different leaves within the canopy of an Arabidopsis thaliana plant, including leaves not directly exposed to light, coordinated stomatal closure in response to light stress by sending and receiving rapid systemic signals...
February 20, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463731/gibberellin-della-signaling-targets-the-retromer-complex-to-redirect-protein-trafficking-to-the-plasma-membrane
#4
Yuliya Salanenka, Inge Verstraeten, Christian Löfke, Kaori Tabata, Satoshi Naramoto, Matouš Glanc, Jiří Friml
The plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) is a crucial regulator of growth and development. The main paradigm of GA signaling puts forward transcriptional regulation via the degradation of DELLA transcriptional repressors. GA has also been shown to regulate tropic responses by modulation of the plasma membrane incidence of PIN auxin transporters by an unclear mechanism. Here we uncovered the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which GA redirects protein trafficking and thus regulates cell surface functionality...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463443/brexit-possible-brassinosteroid-export-and-transport-routes
#5
REVIEW
Nemanja Vukašinović, Eugenia Russinova
The movement and differential distribution of endogenous plant hormones are the determining factors for many developmental processes. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of plant steroidal hormones that promote growth and development. Although synthesis and signalling of BRs are well described and characterized, the exit mechanism of these compounds from the cell remains uncharacterizd. Whether BRs are able to move within the apoplast and whether the BR synthesis in one cell can trigger the signalling in its neighbours is also unknown...
February 17, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463247/hormonal-and-environmental-signals-guiding-stomatal-development
#6
REVIEW
Xingyun Qi, Keiko U Torii
Stomata are pores on plant epidermis that facilitate gas exchange and water evaporation between plants and the environment. Given the central role of stomata in photosynthesis and water-use efficiency, two vital events for plant growth, stomatal development is tightly controlled by a diverse range of signals. A family of peptide hormones regulates stomatal patterning and differentiation. In addition, plant hormones as well as numerous environmental cues influence the decision of whether to make stomata or not in distinct and complex manners...
February 20, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462363/a-gene-regulatory-network-for-cellular-reprogramming-in-plant-regeneration
#7
Momoko Ikeuchi, Michitaro Shibata, Bart Rymen, Akira Iwase, Anne-Maarit Bågman, Lewis Watt, Duncan Coleman, David S Favero, Tatsuya Takahashi, Sebastian E Ahnert, Siobhan M Brady, Keiko Sugimoto
Wounding triggers organ regeneration in many plant species, and application of plant hormones, such as auxin and cytokinin, enhances their regenerative capacities in tissue culture. Recent studies have identified several key players mediating wound- and/or plant hormone-induced cellular reprogramming, but the global architecture of gene regulatory relationships underlying plant cellular reprogramming is still far from clear. In this study, we uncovered a gene regulatory network (GRN) associated with plant cellular reprogramming by using an enhanced yeast one-hybrid (eY1H) screen systematically to identify regulatory relationships between 252 transcription factors (TFs) and 48 promoters...
February 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461641/mutational-studies-of-the-aux-iaa-proteins-in-physcomitrella-reveal-novel-insights-into-their-function
#8
Sibo Tao, Mark Estelle
The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin signaling involves hormone perception by the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE/AUXIN F-BOX (TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA co-receptor system, and the subsequent degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. This leads to the activation of downstream gene expression and diverse physiological responses. Here, we investigate how the structural elements in the Aux/IAAs determine their function in Auxin perception and transcriptional repression...
February 20, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460196/a-comparative-study-of-biotechnological-approaches-for-producing-valuable-flavonoids-in-prosopis-farcta
#9
Somaieh Zafari, Mohsen Sharifi, Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi
The callus and hairy root cultures of Prosopis farcta were established to develop effective strategies to enhance its valuable and medicinally important flavonoid compounds. For callus induction, the hypocotyl, cotyledon and shoot explants were subjected to different plant hormones, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Greater callus induction was obtained from hypocotyl explants on MS medium containing 3.0 mg L-1 NAA + 2.0 mg L-1 BAP. With the addition of 0...
February 19, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459726/the-systemin-receptor-syr1-enhances-resistance-of-tomato-against-herbivorous-insects
#10
Lei Wang, Elias Einig, Marilia Almeida-Trapp, Markus Albert, Judith Fliegmann, Axel Mithöfer, Hubert Kalbacher, Georg Felix
The discovery in tomato of systemin, the first plant peptide hormone1,2 , was a fundamental change for the concept of plant hormones. Numerous other peptides have since been shown to play regulatory roles in many aspects of the plant life, including growth, development, fertilization and interactions with symbiotic organisms3-6 . Systemin, an 18 amino acid peptide derived from a larger precursor protein7 , was proposed to act as the spreading signal that triggers systemic defence responses observed in plants after wounding or attack by herbivores1,7,8 ...
February 19, 2018: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458867/does-plant-microbe-interaction-confer-stress-tolerance-in-plants-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Akhilesh Kumar, Jay Prakash Verma
The biotic and abiotic stresses are major constraints for crop yield, food quality and global food security. A number of parameters such as physiological, biochemical, molecular of plants are affected under stress condition. Since the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture practices cause degradation of soil fertility and environmental pollutions. Hence it is necessary to develop safer and sustainable means for agriculture production. The application of plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) and mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant growth, under such conditions...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454112/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-maize-responses-to-early-leaf-senescence-induced-by-preventing-pollination
#12
Liancheng Wu, Shunxi Wang, Lei Tian, Liuji Wu, Mingna Li, Jun Zhang, Pei Li, Weiqiang Zhang, Yanhui Chen
The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms of induced leaf senescence by preventing pollination in maize using a proteomic method combined with other physiological methods. An elite maize inbred line Yu816 were selected for evaluation of its senescence mechanism. Phenotypic and chlorophyll content analysis revealed that the onset of leaf senescence occurred earlier in non-pollinated (NONPOL) leaves than pollinated (POL) leaves. Leaf protein species of NONPOL and POL leaves were separately extracted and their proteomes were assessed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449862/characterization-of-transcription-factor-gene-osdrap1-conferring-drought-tolerance-in-rice
#13
Liyu Huang, Yinxiao Wang, Wensheng Wang, Xiuqin Zhao, Qiao Qin, Fan Sun, Fengyi Hu, Yan Zhao, Zichao Li, Binying Fu, Zhikang Li
HIGHLIGHTS Overexpressing and RNA interfering OsDRAP1 transgenic rice plants exhibited significantly improved and reduced drought tolerance, but accompanied with negative effects on development and yield. The dehydration responsive element binding (DREBs) genes are important transcription factors which play a crucial role in plant abiotic stress tolerances. In this study, we functionally characterized a DREB2-like gene, OsDRAP1 conferring drought tolerance (DT) in rice. OsDRAP1 , containing many cis -elements in its promoter region, was expressed in all organs (mainly expressed in vascular tissues) of rice, and induced by a variety of environmental stresses and plant hormones...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448940/comparative-analysis-of-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-l-leaf-transcriptomes-reveals-genotype-specific-salt-tolerance-mechanisms
#14
Yunting Lei, Yuxing Xu, Christian Hettenhausen, Chengkai Lu, Guojing Shen, Cuiping Zhang, Jing Li, Juan Song, Honghui Lin, Jianqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to salt stress, particularly among different salt-tolerant cultivars. RESULTS: Among seven alfalfa cultivars, we found that Zhongmu-1 (ZM) is relatively salt-tolerant and Xingjiang Daye (XJ) is salt-sensitive. Compared to XJ, ZM showed slower growth under low-salt conditions, but exhibited stronger tolerance to salt stress...
February 15, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447216/genome-mining-of-streptomyces-scabrisporus-nf3-reveals-symbiotic-features-including-genes-related-to-plant-interactions
#15
Corina Diana Ceapă, Melissa Vázquez-Hernández, Stefany Daniela Rodríguez-Luna, Angélica Patricia Cruz Vázquez, Verónica Jiménez Suárez, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja, Elena R Alvarez-Buylla, Sergio Sánchez
Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447166/a-molecular-basis-behind-heterophylly-in-an-amphibious-plant-ranunculus-trichophyllus
#16
Juhyun Kim, Youngsung Joo, Jinseul Kyung, Myeongjune Jeon, Jong Yoon Park, Ho Gyun Lee, Doo Soo Chung, Eunju Lee, Ilha Lee
Ranunculus trichophyllus is an amphibious plant that produces thin and cylindrical leaves if grown under water but thick and broad leaves if grown on land. We found that such heterophylly is widely controlled by two plant hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene, which control terrestrial and aquatic leaf development respectively. Aquatic leaves produced higher levels of ethylene but lower levels of ABA than terrestrial leaves. In aquatic leaves, its distinct traits with narrow shape, lack of stomata, and reduced vessel development were caused by EIN3-mediated overactivation of abaxial genes, RtKANADIs, and accompanying with reductions of STOMAGEN and VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VDN7)...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439134/self-organizing-periodicity-in-development-organ-positioning-in-plants
#17
REVIEW
Neha Bhatia, Marcus G Heisler
Periodic patterns during development often occur spontaneously through a process of self-organization. While reaction-diffusion mechanisms are often invoked, other types of mechanisms that involve cell-cell interactions and mechanical buckling have also been identified. Phyllotaxis, or the positioning of plant organs, has emerged as an excellent model system to study the self-organization of periodic patterns. At the macro scale, the regular spacing of organs on the growing plant shoot gives rise to the typical spiral and whorled arrangements of plant organs found in nature...
February 8, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438896/transcriptomic-profiling-reveals-pigment-regulation-during-peanut-testa-development
#18
Liyun Wan, Bei Li, Yong Lei, Liying Yan, Dongxin Huai, Yanping Kang, Huifang Jiang, Jiazhuang Tan, Boshou Liao
Although peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important edible oil crops globally, pigments present in the testa influence both the processing efficiency and the quality of the oil. In peanut, polymeric phenolic compounds are present in the episperm rather than in the endothelium and their levels increase during ripening; therefore, to better understand testa development, and especially the accumulation of pigments, RNA-Seq was applied to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of peanut testae at three different developmental stages (i...
February 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437379/separations-at-the-speed-of-sensors
#19
Darshan C Patel, M Farooq Wahab, Thomas C O'Haver, Daniel W Armstrong
The virtue of chemical sensors is speed and analyte specificity. The response time to generate an analytical signal typically varies from ∼1 to 20 s, and they are generally limited to a single analyte. Chemical sensors are significantly affected by multiple interferents, matrix effects, temperature, and can vary widely in sensitivity depending on the sensor format. Separation-based analyses remove matrix effects and interferents and are compatible with multiple analytes. However, the speed of such analyses has not been commensurate with traditional sensors until now...
February 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425824/salt-and-drought-stress-and-aba-responses-related-to-bzip-genes-from-v-radiata-and-v-angularis
#20
Lanfen Wang, Jifeng Zhu, Xiaoming Li, Shumin Wang, Jing Wu
Mung bean and adzuki bean are warm-season legumes widely cultivated in China. However, bean production in major producing regions is limited by biotic and abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes play key roles in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, only several bZIP genes involved in drought and salt stress in legumes, especially Vigna radiata and Vigna angularis, have been identified. In this study, we identified 54 and 50 bZIP proteins from whole-genome sequences of V...
February 6, 2018: Gene
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