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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236179/effects-of-glucose-and-ethylene-on-root-hair-initiation-and-elongation-in-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l-seedlings
#1
Wakana Harigaya, Hidenori Takahashi
Root hair formation occurs in lettuce seedlings after transfer to an acidic medium (pH 4.0). This process requires cortical microtubule (CMT) randomization in root epidermal cells and the plant hormone ethylene. We investigated the interaction between ethylene and glucose, a new signaling molecule in plants, in lettuce root development, with an emphasis on root hair formation. Dark-grown seedlings were used to exclude the effect of photosynthetically produced glucose. In the dark, neither root hair formation nor the CMT randomization preceding it occurred, even after transfer to the acidic medium (pH 4...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233834/the-arabidopsis-alf4-protein-is-a-regulator-of-scf-e3-ligases
#2
Rammyani Bagchi, Charles W Melnyk, Gideon Christ, Martin Winkler, Kerstin Kirchsteiner, Mohammad Salehin, Julia Mergner, Michael Niemeyer, Claus Schwechheimer, Luz Irina A Calderón Villalobos, Mark Estelle
The cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) regulate diverse cellular processes in all eukaryotes. CRL activity is controlled by several proteins or protein complexes, including NEDD8, CAND1, and the CSN Recently, a mammalian protein called Glomulin (GLMN) was shown to inhibit CRLs by binding to the RING BOX (RBX1) subunit and preventing binding to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Here, we show that Arabidopsis ABERRANT LATERAL ROOT FORMATION4 (ALF4) is an ortholog of GLMN The alf4 mutant exhibits a phenotype that suggests defects in plant hormone response...
December 12, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223343/biotic-factors-that-induce-the-tomato-ve1-r-gene
#3
Christian Danve Castroverde, Xin Xu, Ross N Nazar, Jane Robb
In tomato, Verticillium resistance is determined by the Ve gene locus encoding two leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like proteins (Ve1, Ve2). The resistance function usually is attributed to Ve1 alone, with two known alleles: Ve1, encoding a resistance protein, and ve1, with a premature stop codon encoding a truncated product. We have examined further Ve-gene expression in resistant and susceptible near-isolines of Verticillium-infected Craigella tomatoes, using both quantitative RT-PCR and an alternative RFLP assay...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215737/nitric-oxide-as-a-signaling-molecule-in-brassinosteroid-mediated-virus-resistance-to-cucumber-mosaic-virus-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Li-Juan Zou, Xing-Guang Deng, Li-E Zhang, Tong Zhu, Wen-Rong Tan, Arfan Muhammad, Li-Jun Zhu, Chao Zhang, Da-Wei Zhang, Hong-Hui Lin
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting plant hormones that play a crucial role in biotic stress responses. Here, we found that BR treatment increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation, and a significant reduction of virus accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the plants pre-treated with NO scavenger (PTIO) or nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor (tungstate) were hardly generated NO generation and appeared to have the highest viral replication and suffer more damages. Furthermore, the antioxidant system and photosystem parameters were up-regulated in brassinolide (BL) - treated plants but down regulated in PTIO- or tungstate-treated plants, suggesting NO may be involved in BRs induced virus resistance in Arabidopsis...
December 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214424/itraq-based-comparative-proteomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-somatic-embryogenesis-in-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#5
Hua-Guo Zhu, Wen-Han Cheng, Wen-Gang Tian, Yang-Jun Li, Feng Liu, Fei Xue, Qian-Hao Zhu, Yu-Qiang Sun, Jie Sun
KEY MESSAGE: iTRAQ based proteomic identified key proteins and provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryogenesis in cotton. Somatic embryogenesis, which involves cell dedifferentiation and redifferentiation, has been used as a model system for understanding molecular events of plant embryo development in vitro. In this study, we performed comparative proteomics analysis using samples of non-embryogenic callus (NEC), embryogenic callus (EC) and somatic embryo (SE) using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology...
December 6, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212037/a-bacterial-receptor-pcrk-senses-the-plant-hormone-cytokinin-to-promote-adaptation-to-oxidative-stress
#6
Fang-Fang Wang, Shou-Ting Cheng, Yao Wu, Bao-Zhen Ren, Wei Qian
Recognition of the host plant is a prerequisite for infection by pathogenic bacteria. However, how bacterial cells sense plant-derived stimuli, especially chemicals that function in regulating plant development, remains completely unknown. Here, we have identified a membrane-bound histidine kinase of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, PcrK, as a bacterial receptor that specifically detects the plant cytokinin 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP). 2iP binds to the extracytoplasmic region of PcrK to decrease its autokinase activity...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209346/katanin-a-sword-cutting-microtubules-for-cellular-developmental-and-physiological-purposes
#7
REVIEW
Ivan Luptovčiak, George Komis, Tomáš Takáč, Miroslav Ovečka, Jozef Šamaj
KATANIN is a well-studied microtubule severing protein affecting microtubule organization and dynamic properties in higher plants. By regulating mitotic and cytokinetic and cortical microtubule arrays it is involved in the progression of cell division and cell division plane orientation. KATANIN is also involved in cell elongation and morphogenesis during plant growth. In this way KATANIN plays critical roles in diverse plant developmental processes including the development of pollen, embryo, seed, meristem, root, hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf, shoot, and silique...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207438/caterpillars-induce-jasmonates-in-flowers-and-alter-plant-responses-to-a-second-attacker
#8
Lucille T S Chrétien, Anja David, Eirini Daikou, Wilhelm Boland, Jonathan Gershenzon, David Giron, Marcel Dicke, Dani Lucas-Barbosa
In nature, herbivorous insects and plant pathogens are generally abundant when plants are flowering. Thus, plants face a diversity of attackers during their reproductive phase. Plant responses to one attacker can interfere with responses to a second attacker, and phytohormones that orchestrate plant reproduction are also involved in resistance to insect and pathogen attack. We quantified phytohormonal responses of flowering plants exposed to single or dual attack and studied resistance mechanisms of plants in the flowering stage...
December 5, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204899/secondary-metabolism-in-fusarium-fujikuroi-strategies-to-unravel-the-function-of-biosynthetic-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Slavica Janevska, Bettina Tudzynski
The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes bakanae disease of rice due to its ability to produce the plant hormones, the gibberellins. The fungus is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins (e.g., fusaric acid and fusarins) and pigments (e.g., bikaverin and fusarubins). However, for a long time, most of these well-known products could not be linked to biosynthetic gene clusters. Recent genome sequencing has revealed altogether 47 putative gene clusters. Most of them were orphan clusters for which the encoded natural product(s) were unknown...
December 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194664/the-plant-hormone-salicylic-acid-interacts-with-the-mechanism-of-anti-herbivory-conferred-by-fungal-endophytes-in-grasses
#10
Daniel A Bastías, M Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa, Jonathan A Newman, Stuart D Card, Wade J Mace, Pedro E Gundel
The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is recognized as an effective defense against biotrophic pathogens, but its role as regulator of beneficial plant symbionts has received little attention. We studied the relationship between the SA hormone and leaf fungal endophytes on herbivore defenses in symbiotic grasses. We hypothesize that the SA exposure suppresses the endophyte reducing the fungal-produced alkaloids. Because of the role that alkaloids play in anti-herbivore defenses, any reduction in their production should make host plants more susceptible to herbivores...
November 30, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190381/expression-of-mdccd7-in-the-scion-determines-the-extent-of-sylleptic-branching-and-the-primary-shoot-growth-rate-of-apple-trees
#11
Toshi M Foster, Susan E Ledger, Bart J Janssen, Zhiwei Luo, Revel S M Drummond, Sumathi Tomes, Sakuntala Karunairetnam, Chethi N Waite, Keith A Funnell, Ben M van Hooijdonk, Ali Saei, Alla N Seleznyova, Kimberley C Snowden
Branching has a major influence on the overall shape and productivity of a plant. Strigolactones (SLs) have been identified as plant hormones that have a key role in suppressing the outgrowth of axillary meristems. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE (CCD) genes are integral to the biosynthesis of SLs and are well characterized in annual plants, but their role in woody perennials is relatively unknown. We identified CCD7 and CCD8 orthologues from apple and demonstrated that MdCCD7 and MdCCD8 are able to complement the Arabidopsis branching mutants max3 and max4 respectively, indicating conserved function...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187569/dynamics-of%C3%A2-lotus-japonicus%C3%A2-ethylene-production-in-response-to-compatible-nod-factor
#12
Dugald Elgin Reid, Huijun Liu, Simon Kelly, Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Terry Mun, Stig U Andersen, Guilhem J Desbrosses, Jens Stougaard
Establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in legumes is regulated by the plant hormone ethylene, but it has remained unclear whether and how its biosynthesis is regulated by the symbiotic pathway. We established a sensitive ethylene detection system for Lotus japonicus and found that ethylene production increased as early as six hours after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. This ethylene response was dependent on Nod factor production by compatible rhizobia. Analyses of nodulation mutants showed that perception of Nod factor was required for ethylene emission, while downstream transcription factors including CYCLOPS, NIN and ERN1 were not required for this response...
November 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182721/molecular-mimicry-modulates-plant-host-responses-to-pathogens
#13
Pamela Ronald, Anna Joe
Background: Pathogens often secrete molecules that mimic those present in the plant host. Recent studies indicate that some of these molecules mimic plant hormones required for development and immunity. Scope and Conclusion: This Viewpoint reviews the literature on microbial molecules produced by plant pathogens that functionally mimic molecules present in the plant host. This article includes examples from nematodes, bacteria and fungi with emphasis on RaxX, a microbial protein produced by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
November 22, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181647/the-role-of-plant-hormones-during-grafting
#14
Amrit K Nanda, Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plant tissues together through a process known as grafting. By creating a chimeric organism, desirable properties from two plants combine to enhance disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, vigour or facilitate the asexual propagation of plants. In addition, grafting has been extremely informative in science for studying and identifying the long-distance movement of molecules. Despite its increasing use in horticulture and science, how plants undertake the process of grafting remains elusive...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179551/synthetic-access-to-non-canonical-strigolactones-syntheses-of-carlactonic-acid-and-methyl-carlactonoate
#15
Michael Christian Dieckmann, Pierre-Yves Dakas, Alain De Mesmaeker
Strigolactones are plant hormones regulating essential stages of a plants development. Their low natural abundance combined with a low chemical stability significantly hampered the detailed investigation of their biological activity. Non-canonical strigolactones lack the fused tricyclic ABC-ring system commonly present in canonical-type strigolactones, but feature an open chain unit linking structurally diverse A-ring moieties to the butenolide D-ring. We herein present an efficient synthetic access to enantiomerically pure non-canonical strigolactones by a Stille cross-coupling approach to forge the central diene moiety and demonstrate this strategy by syntheses of natural products methyl carlactonoate (MeCLA) and carlactonic acid (CLA)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177846/open-glume1-a-key-enzyme-reducing-the-precursor-of-ja-participates-in-carbohydrate-transport-of-lodicules-during-anthesis-in-rice
#16
Xiaohui Li, Yihua Wang, Erchao Duan, Qi Qi, Kunneng Zhou, Qiuyun Lin, Di Wang, Yunlong Wang, Wuhua Long, Zhigang Zhao, Zhijun Cheng, Cailin Lei, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Jiulin Wang, Chuanyin Wu, Ling Jiang, Chunming Wang, Jianmin Wan
OG1 is involved in JA-regulated anthesis by modulating carbohydrate transport of lodicules in rice. Flowering plants have evolved a sophisticated regulatory network to coordinate anthesis and maximize reproductive success. In addition to various environmental conditions, the plant hormone jasmonic acid and its derivatives (JAs) are involved in anthesis. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a JA-defective mutant in rice (Oryza sativa), namely open glume 1, which has dysfunctional lodicules that lead to open glumes following anthesis...
November 25, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174403/a-bacterial-type-iii-effector-targets-the-master-regulator-of-salicylic-acid-signaling-npr1-to-subvert-plant-immunity
#17
Huan Chen, Jian Chen, Min Li, Ming Chang, Kaimei Xu, Zhenhua Shang, Yi Zhao, Ian Palmer, Yuqiang Zhang, Jon McGill, James R Alfano, Marc T Nishimura, Fengquan Liu, Zheng Qing Fu
Most plant bacterial pathogens rely on type III effectors to cause diseases. Although it is well known that the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an essential role in defense, whether the master regulator of SA signaling, NPR1, is targeted by any plant pathogen effectors is unknown. SA facilitates the reduction of cytosolic NPR1 oligomers into monomers, which enter the nucleus and function as transcriptional coactivators of plant defense genes. We show that SA promotes the interaction between the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrPtoB and NPR1...
November 18, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169081/transcriptome-profiling-reveals-specific-patterns-of-paclitaxel-synthesis-in-a-new-taxus-yunnanensis-cultivar
#18
Chun-Tao He, Zhi-Liang Li, Qian Zhou, Chuang Shen, Ying-Ying Huang, Samavia Mubeen, Jun-Zhi Yang, Jian-Gang Yuan, Zhong-Yi Yang
The difference in contents of paclitaxel and 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DABIII) in needles between wildtype (WT) and a new cultivar (Zhongdayihao, ZD1) of Taxus yunnanensis was examined. Transcriptome profiling was conducted for different tissues of the ZD1 and WT to illustrate the regulation mechanism of paclitaxel biosynthesis. It was observed that average contents of paclitaxel and 10-DABIII in ZD1 were 4 folds and 32 folds higher than those in WT, respectively. More significant elevations of differential expressed genes (DEGs) from paclitaxel biosynthesis pathway were revealed in ZD1 rather than WT, which should be responsible for the higher contents of paclitaxel and 10-DABIII in the ZD1...
November 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167321/an-automated-confocal-micro-extensometer-enables-in-vivo-quantification-of-mechanical-properties-with-cellular-resolution
#19
Sarah Robinson, Michal Huflejt, Pierre Barbier de Reuille, Siobhan A Braybrook, Martine Schorderet, Didier Reinhardt, Cris Kuhlemeier
How complex developmental-genetic networks are translated into organs with specific 3D shapes remains an open question. This question is particularly challenging because the elaboration of specific shapes is in essence a question of mechanics. In plants, this means how the genetic circuitry affects the cell wall. The mechanical properties of the wall and their spatial variation are the key factors controlling morphogenesis in plants. However, these properties are difficult to measure and investigating their relation to genetic regulation is particularly challenging...
November 22, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165704/involvement-of-def-1-mutation-in-the-response-of-tomato-plants-to-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-under-well-watered-and-drought-conditions
#20
Beatriz Sánchez-Romera, Mónica Calvo-Polanco, Juan Manuel Ruiz-Lozano, Ángel María Zamarreño, Vicent Arbona, Jose María García-Mina, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Ricardo Aroca
Jasmonic acid (JA) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses are known to protect plants against abiotic and biotic stresses, but are also involved in the regulation of root hydraulic conductance (L). The objective of this experiment was to elucidate the role of JA in the water relations and hormonal regulation of AM plants under drought by using tomato plants defective in the synthesis of JA (def-1). Our results showed that JA is involved in the uptake and transport of water through its effect on both physiological parameters (stomatal conductance and L), and molecular parameters, mainly by controlling the expression and abundance of aquaporins...
November 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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