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urea excretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205048/mild-orotic-aciduria-in-umps-heterozygotes-a-metabolic-finding-without-clinical-consequences
#1
Saskia B Wortmann, Margaret A Chen, Roberto Colombo, Alessandro Pontoglio, Bader Alhaddad, Lorenzo D Botto, Tatiana Yuzyuk, Curtis R Coughlin, Maria Descartes, Stephanie Grűnewald, Bruno Maranda, Philippa B Mills, James Pitt, Catherine Potente, Richard Rodenburg, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Srirangan Sampath, Emil F Pai, Ron A Wevers, George E Tiller
BACKGROUND: Elevated urinary excretion of orotic acid is associated with treatable disorders of the urea cycle and pyrimidine metabolism. Establishing the correct and timely diagnosis in a patient with orotic aciduria is key to effective treatment. Uridine monophosphate synthase is involved in de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Uridine monophosphate synthase deficiency (or hereditary orotic aciduria), due to biallelic mutations in UMPS, is a rare condition presenting with megaloblastic anemia in the first months of life...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202885/tolvaptan-reduces-the-risk-of-worsening-renal-function-in-patients-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-and-preserved-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction%C3%A3-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#2
Shunsuke Tamaki, Yoshihiro Sato, Takahisa Yamada, Takashi Morita, Yoshio Furukawa, Yusuke Iwasaki, Masato Kawasaki, Atsushi Kikuchi, Takumi Kondo, Tatsuhisa Ozaki, Masahiro Seo, Iyo Ikeda, Eiji Fukuhara, Makoto Abe, Jun Nakamura, Masatake Fukunami
BACKGROUND: Although the mainstay of treatment for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is decongestion by diuretic therapy, it is often associated with worsening renal function (WRF). The effect of tolvaptan, a selective V2 receptor antagonist, on WRF in ADHF patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is unknown.Methods and Results:We enrolled 50 consecutive ADHF patients whose LVEF on admission was ≥45%. Patients were randomly assigned to either tolvaptan add-on (n=26) or conventional diuretic therapy (n=24)...
February 16, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179254/a-mathematical-model-of-the-rat-kidney-k-induced-natriuresis
#3
Alan M Weinstein
A model of the rat nephron (Am. J. Physiol. 308:F1098, 2015) has been extended with addition of medullary vasculature. Blood vessels contain solutes from the nephron model, plus additional species from the model of Atherton et al. (Am. J. Physiol. 247:F61, 1984), representing hemoglobin buffering. In contrast to prior models of the urine concentrating mechanism, reflection coefficients for DVR are near zero. Model unknowns are initial proximal tubule pressures and flows, connecting tubule pressure, and medullary interstitial pressures and concentrations...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177373/a-strategy-to-improve-nitrogen-utilization-reduce-environmental-impact-and-increase-performance-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-fattening-lambs-using-pomegranate-peel-extract
#4
M Rajabi, Y Rouzbehan, J Rezaei
Dietary natural plant secondary metabolites (PSM) extracted from a pomegranate peel (PP) byproduct have the potential to improve milk yield and the milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. This experiment was performed to assess the influence of different dietary levels of PP extract (PPE) on feedlot performance, ruminal status, nutrient utilization, and antioxidant status in fattening Moghani lambs. Thirty-two lambs (initial BW of 22 ± 1.2 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with a 72-d period and 4 treatments: PPE0 (no extract), PPE15 (15 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), PPE30 (30 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), and PPE45 (45 mL PPE/kg of diet DM)...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174217/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia-compilation-of-the-guidelines
#5
Ewout J Hoorn, Robert Zietse
Hyponatremia is a common water balance disorder that often poses a diagnostic or therapeutic challenge. Therefore, guidelines were developed by professional organizations, one from within the United States (2013) and one from within Europe (2014). This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia, comparing the two guidelines and highlighting recent developments. Diagnostically, the initial step is to differentiate hypotonic from nonhypotonic hyponatremia. Hypotonic hyponatremia is further differentiated on the basis of urine osmolality, urine sodium level, and volume status...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131569/histidine-deficiency-has-a-negative-effect-on-lactational-performance-of-dairy-cows
#6
F Giallongo, M T Harper, J Oh, C Parys, I Shinzato, A N Hristov
A 10-wk randomized complete block design experiment with 24 Holstein cows was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of feeding a His-deficient diet on lactational performance of dairy cows. Cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 2 treatments: (1) His-adequate diet [HAD; providing +166 g/d over metabolizable protein (MP) requirements, according to the National Research Council (2001) and digestible His (dHis) supply of 68 g/d, or 2.5% of MP requirements] and (2) His-deficient diet (HDD; +37 g/d over MP requirements and dHis supply of 49 g/d, or 1...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122568/thermodynamic-considerations-in-renal-separation-processes
#7
Robert H Louw, David M Rubin, David Glasser, Robyn F R Letts, Diane Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Urine production in the kidney is generally thought to be an energy-intensive process requiring large amounts of metabolic activity to power active transport mechanisms. This study uses a thermodynamic analysis to evaluate the minimum work requirements for urine production in the human kidney and provide a new perspective on the energy costs of urine production. In this study, black-box models are used to compare the Gibbs energy inflow and outflow of the overall kidney and physiologically-based subsections in the kidney, to calculate the work of separation for urine production...
January 26, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105769/renal-tubular-resistance-is-the-primary-driver-for-loop-diuretic-resistance-in-acute-heart-failure
#8
Jozine M Ter Maaten, Veena S Rao, Jennifer S Hanberg, F Perry Wilson, Lavanya Bellumkonda, Mahlet Assefa, J Sam Broughton, Julie D'Ambrosi, W H Wilson Tang, Kevin Damman, Adriaan A Voors, David H Ellison, Jeffrey M Testani
BACKGROUND: Loop diuretic resistance is a common barrier to effective decongestion in acute heart failure (AHF), and is associated with poor outcome. Specific mechanisms underlying diuretic resistance are currently unknown in contemporary AHF patients. We therefore aimed to determine the relative importance of defects in diuretic delivery vs. renal tubular response in determining diuretic response (DR) in AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty AHF patients treated with intravenous bumetanide underwent a 6-h timed urine collection for sodium and bumetanide clearance...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105508/euterpe-oleracea-mart-seed-extract-protects-against-renal-injury-in-diabetic-and-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-role-of-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#9
Viviane da Silva Cristino Cordeiro, Graziele Freitas de Bem, Cristiane Aguiar da Costa, Izabelle Barcellos Santos, Lenize Costa Reis Marins de Carvalho, Dayane Teixeira Ognibene, Ana Paula Machado da Rocha, Jorge José de Carvalho, Roberto Soares de Moura, Angela Castro Resende
PURPOSE: Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) seed extract (ASE), through its anti-hypertensive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may be useful to treat or prevent human diseases. Several evidences suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that ASE (200 mg/kg(-1)day(-1)) prevents diabetes and hypertension-related oxidative stress and inflammation, attenuating renal injury. METHODS: Male rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (D), and spontaneously hypertensive rats with STZ-induced diabetes (DH) were treated daily with tap water or ASE (D + ASE and DH + ASE, respectively) for 45 days...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078852/cell-based-therapies-for-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
H J Tang, Z G Tian, X Yang, Y Cao, W G Li
Study has shown that stem cell–based therapies are promising strategies in the treatment of several chronic diseases, but their overall benefit in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to summarize the evidence of the effect of cell-based therapy in the treatment of DN to guide future clinical trials. We searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library for studies from the inception of cell-based therapies up to July 2015. We included animal trials that reported the effects of cell-based therapy on kidney function, cardiovascular risk factors, and body factors...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069102/the-effect-of-cp-concentration-in-the-diet-on-urea-kinetics-and-microbial-usage-of-recycled-urea-in-cattle-a-meta-analysis
#11
E D Batista, E Detmann, S C Valadares Filho, E C Titgemeyer, R F D Valadares
In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach...
January 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040487/a-waterborne-chemical-cue-from-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta-prompts-pulsatile-urea-excretion-in-conspecifics
#12
Jeremy Fulton, Christophe M R LeMoine, Carol Bucking, Kevin V Brix, Patrick J Walsh, M Danielle McDonald
The Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) has a fully functional ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) that allows it to excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of urea. Interestingly, urea is excreted in a pulse across the gill that lasts 1-3h and occurs once or twice a day. Both the stress hormone, cortisol, and the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) are involved in the control of pulsatile urea excretion. This and other evidence suggests that urea pulsing may be linked to toadfish social behavior. The hypothesis of the present study was that toadfish urea pulses can be triggered by waterborne chemical cues from conspecifics...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040266/angiotensin-ii-at1-receptor-signaling-is-necessary-for-cyclooxygenase-2-dependent-postnatal-nephron-generation
#13
Stefanie Frölich, Patrick Slattery, Dominique Thomas, Itamar Goren, Nerea Ferreiros, Boye L Jensen, Rolf M Nüsing
Deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) causes impairment of postnatal kidney development. Here we tested whether the renin angiotensin system contributes to COX-2-dependent nephrogenesis in mice after birth and whether a rescue of impaired renal development and function in COX-2(-/-) mice was achievable. Plasma renin concentration in mouse pups showed a birth peak and a second peak around day P8 during the first 10 days post birth. Administration of the angiotensin II receptor AT1 antagonist telmisartan from day P1 to P3 did not result in cortical damage...
December 28, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013356/diuretic-effect-of-extracts-fractions-and-two-compounds-2%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-19%C3%AE-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid-and-5-hydroxy-3-6-7-8-4-pentamethoxyflavone-from-rubus-rosaefolius-sm-rosaceae-leaves-in-rats
#14
Priscila de Souza, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Camile Cecconi Cechinel-Zanchett, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Marcel Petreanu, Rivaldo Niero, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
Although diuretics have been widely used to treat hypertension along with others cardiovascular and renal disorders, no scientific data have been recorded to support the diuretic properties of Rubus rosaefolius Sm. (Rosaceae), a plant popularly used in Brazil to treat hypertension. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with: vehicle; hydrochlorothiazide; aqueous (AERR) and methanolic (MERR) extracts; dichloromethane (DCM), hexane (HEX) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions; and the isolated compounds 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (TUA) and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF)...
December 24, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007977/genomic-basis-of-adaptive-evolution-the-survival-of-amur-ide-leuciscus-waleckii-in-an-extremely-alkaline-environment
#15
Jian Xu, Jiong-Tang Li, Yanliang Jiang, Wenzhu Peng, Zongli Yao, Baohua Chen, Likun Jiang, Jingyan Feng, Peifeng Ji, Guiming Liu, Zhanjiang Liu, Ruyu Tai, Chuanju Dong, Xiaoqing Sun, Zi-Xia Zhao, Yan Zhang, Jian Wang, Shangqi Li, Yunfeng Zhao, Jiuhui Yang, Xiaowen Sun, Peng Xu
The Amur ide (Leuciscus waleckii) is a cyprinid fish that is widely distributed in Northeast Asia. The Lake Dali Nur population inhabits one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth, with an alkalinity up to 50 mmol/L (pH 9.6), thus providing an exceptional model with which to characterize the mechanisms of genomic evolution underlying adaptation to extreme environments. Here, we developed the reference genome assembly for L. waleckii from Lake Dali Nur. Intriguingly, we identified unusual expanded long terminal repeats (LTRs) with higher nucleotide substitution rates than in many other teleosts, suggesting their more recent insertion into the L...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989876/iridoid-glycoside-from-cornus-officinalis-ameliorated-diabetes-mellitus-induced-testicular-damage-in-male-rats-involvement-of-suppression-of-the-ages-rage-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#16
Yuping Chen, Yunhao Wu, Xiaoyang Gan, Kai Liu, L V Xing, Hongsheng Shen, Guoying Dai, Huiqin Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus officinalis (CO) has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Iridoid glycoside from C. officinalis (IGCO) can resist apoptosis, hyperglycemia, oxidation and so on. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of IGCO on DM-induced testicular damage through inhibition of the AGEs/RAGE/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A DM model of male Wistar rats was induced with streptozotocin injection (30mg/kg, i...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988110/the-effect-of-by-product-inclusion-level-on-milk-production-nutrient-digestibility-and-excretion-and-rumen-fermentation-parameters-in-lactating-dairy-cows-offered-a-pasture-based-diet
#17
S J Whelan, W Carey, T M Boland, M B Lynch, A K Kelly, G Rajauria, K M Pierce
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of replacing barley and soybean meal with increasing levels of by-products on production, digestive, and metabolic parameters in early-mid lactation dairy cows offered perennial ryegrass-based pasture. Forty-eight (32 multiparous and 16 primiparous) dairy cows that were 64 ± 24 d in milk were assigned to 1 of 4 pasture-based dietary treatments (n = 12) in a randomized block design experiment that ran for 70 d. Treatments consisted of a perennial ryegrass-based pasture and 1 of 4 supplementary concentrates: BP35, BP55, BP75, and BP95 containing 35, 55, 75, and 95% by-products, respectively, in the concentrate on a dry matter basis...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964714/diuretic-and-antioxidant-activities-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-leaves-of-vepris-heterophylla-engl-r-let-rutaceae-in-rats
#18
Fidèle Ntchapda, Christian Bonabe, David Romain Kemeta Azambou, Emmanuel Talla, Théophile Dimo
BACKGROUND: Vepris heterophylla (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant used empirically in African traditional medicine for many clinical conditions including edematous disorders and hypertension. V. heterophylla aqueous extract has been used in northern part of Cameroon by traditional healers for the treatment of arterial hypertension. The study aim was to assess the putative diuretic and antioxidant properties of V. heterophylla leaves aqueous extract. METHODS: Adult rats were administered with V...
December 13, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942173/effect-of-ferula-assa-foetida-oleo-gum-resin-on-renal-function-in-normal-wistar-rats
#19
S M Bagheri, H Mohammadsadeghi, M H Dashti-R, S M M Mousavian, Z A Aghaei
In traditional Iranian medicine, asafoetida, an oleo-gum-resin obtained from the roots of Ferula assa-foetida, has been prescribed as a diuretic. This study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic effect of asafoetida in normal rats. Asafoetida was administered orally at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg and furosemide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was used as positive control. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring urine volume and sodium, potassium, urea, and creatinine content in urine and serum. Urine volume, excretion of sodium, and potassium were significantly increased by asafoetida as compared to the control group...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940129/a-systematic-meta-analysis-on-the-efficacy-of-pre-clinically-tested-nephroprotectants-at-preventing-aminoglycoside-nephrotoxicity
#20
REVIEW
Laura Vicente-Vicente, Alfredo G Casanova, María Teresa Hernández-Sánchez, Moisés Pescador, Francisco J López-Hernández, Ana Isabel Morales
Nephrotoxicity limits the use of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Kidney damage is produced mainly in the renal tubule due to an inflammatory and oxidative process. At preclinical level, many drugs and natural products have been tested as prospective protectors of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. The main objective of this work was to make a systematic literature review of preclinical studies about aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity protection and a statistical analysis based on the meta-analysis methodology. Studies published up to January 2016 were identified...
February 15, 2017: Toxicology
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