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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123839/relationship-between-nitrogen-loss-and-blood-urea-nitrogen-concentrations-in-patients-requiring-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#1
Takeaki Sato, Shigeki Kushimoto
Aim: It is well known that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) produces some amount of nitrogen loss, but there are few tools that are easily applied to measure it. This study aimed to evaluate nitrogen loss using blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurement in patients receiving CRRT. Methods: The subjects were 28 patients who received CRRT (except for liver failure) between 2010 and 2012. Nutrition data and nitrogen excretion in dialysate and urine were measured...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108052/comparison-of-nitrogen-utilization-and-urea-kinetics-between-yaks-bos-grunniens-and-indigenous-cattle-bos-taurus
#2
J W Zhou, C L Zhong, H Liu, A A Degen, E C Titgemeyer, L M Ding, Z H Shang, X S Guo, Q Qiu, Z P Li, G Yang, R J Long
Under traditional management on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, yaks () graze only on natural pasture without supplements and are forced to cope with sparse forage of low N content, especially in winter. In contrast, indigenous Tibetan yellow cattle () require supplements during the cold season. We hypothesized that, in response to harsh conditions, yaks cope with low N intakes better than cattle. To test this hypothesis, a study of whole-body N retention and urea kinetics was conducted in 2 concurrent 4 × 4 Latin squares, with 1 square using yaks and 1 square using cattle...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103282/effects-of-low-dietary-cation-anion-difference-induced-by-ruminal-ammonium-chloride-infusion-on-performance-serum-and-urine-metabolites-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#3
Kun Wang, Xuemei Nan, Puyi Zhao, Wei Liu, James Drackley, Shijie Liu, Kaizhan Zhang, Dengpan Bu
Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine ammonium chloride tolerance of lactating dairy cows, by examining effects of negative DCAD induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum and urine minerals, serum metabolites and enzymes of lactating dairy cows. Methods: Four primiparous lactating Chinese Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were infused with increasing amounts (0, 150, 300, or 450 g/d) of ammonium chloride in a crossover design...
November 3, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102933/mesenchymal-stem-cells-contribute-to-improvement-of-renal-function-in-a-canine-kidney-injury-model
#4
Seung-Jun Lee, Min-Ok Ryu, Min-Soo Seo, Sang-Bum Park, Jin-Ok Ahn, Sei-Myoung Han, Kyung-Sun Kang, Dong-Ha Bhang, Hwa-Young Youn
BACKGROUND/AIM: The kidney excretes waste materials and regulates important metabolic functions, and renal disorders constitute a significant medical problem and can result in fatalities. In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells derived from canine umbilical cord blood (cUCB-MSCs) were isolated and evaluated for their ability to improve renal function in a canine model of acute kidney injury (AKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The canine AKI model was developed by i...
November 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101811/ameliorative-potential-of-sitagliptin-and-or-resveratrol-on-experimentally-induced-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
Ahmed M Kabel, Aliaa Atef, Remon S Estfanous
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sitagliptin with or without resveratrol on carcinogen-induced clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 equal groups as follows: control; clear cell renal cell carcinoma group; clear cell renal cell carcinoma+sitagliptin group; clear cell renal cell carcinoma+resveratrol group; clear cell renal cell carcinoma+carboxymethyl cellulose group and clear cell renal cell carcinoma+sitagliptin+resveratrol group. Blood urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, urinary N-acetyl beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) were determined...
November 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093184/ammonia-and-urea-handling-by-early-life-stages-of-fishes
#6
REVIEW
Alex M Zimmer, Patricia A Wright, Chris M Wood
Nitrogen metabolism in fishes has been a focus of comparative physiologists for nearly a century. In this Review, we focus specifically on early life stages of fishes, which have received considerable attention in more recent work. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in early life differs fundamentally from that of juvenile and adult fishes because of (1) the presence of a chorion capsule in embryos that imposes a limitation on effective ammonia excretion, (2) an amino acid-based metabolism that generates a substantial ammonia load, and (3) the lack of a functional gill, which is the primary site of nitrogen excretion in juvenile and adult fishes...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090028/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-statins-on-post-surgical-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury
#7
Abkhiz Saeed, Valizade Hasanloei Mohammad Amin, Mahoori Alireza, Hooshiar Hadi, Alizadeh Osalou Rahimeh
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury is the sudden and almost complete loss of renal function with reduced glomerular filtration rate, and it occurs whenever the kidneys are unable to excrete metabolic waste products. METHOD: This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a university educational hospital. After randomization with a random assigning table of numbers, patients were divided into two groups: an intervention group and a control group...
June 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080620/comparison-of-hypotensive-diuretic-and-renal-effects-between-cladodes-of-opuntia-ficus-indica-and-furosemide
#8
Meryem Bakour, Noori Al-Waili, Redouan El-Haskoury, Nawal El-Menyiy, Thia Al-Waili, Ali Al-Waili, Badiaa Lyoussi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diuretic, hypotensive and renal effect of Opuntia ficus-indica in two different species in oral and intravenous administration. METHODS: Diuretic activity was evaluated in rats with the plant cladode gel and aqueous extract administrated orally, and was evaluated in rabbits with plant extract administered intravenously. Single and repeated doses of cladode gel or aqueous extract of cladode were tested. Urine volume and blood and urine creatinine, sodium and potassium were measured, and creatinine clearance was calculated...
September 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079456/extra-collagen-overlay-prolongs-the-differentiated-phenotype-in-sandwich-cultured-rat-hepatocytes
#9
Marlies Oorts, Janneke Keemink, Neel Deferm, Robin Adriaensen, Lysiane Richert, Patrick Augustijns, Pieter Annaert
INTRODUCTION: Sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRH) have become an invaluable in vitro model to study hepatic drug disposition. SCRH are maintained between two layers of extracellular matrix. In this configuration, culture periods of 4days are typically applicable. The aim of the present study was to modify conventional SCRH by applying an additional collagen overlay to prolong the hepatic phenotype in SCRH and thus to extend the applicability of the model. METHODS: The cultures receiving an extra top layer ('SCRH-plus' cultures) were compared with the conventional SCRH by testing the morphology, cell functionality, metabolic capacity and Mrp2-activity...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078759/endothelin-a-receptor-blocker-and-calcimimetic-in-the-adenine-rat-model-of-chronic-renal-insufficiency
#10
Suvi Törmänen, Ilkka Pörsti, Päivi Lakkisto, Ilkka Tikkanen, Onni Niemelä, Timo Paavonen, Jukka Mustonen, Arttu Eräranta
BACKGROUND: We studied whether endothelin receptor antagonist and calcimimetic treatments influence renal damage and kidney renin-angiotensin (RA) components in adenine-induced chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 80) were divided into 5 groups for 12 weeks: control (n = 12), 0.3% adenine (Ade; n = 20), Ade + 50 mg/kg/day sitaxentan (n = 16), Ade + 20 mg/kg/day cinacalcet (n = 16), and Ade + sitaxentan + cinacalcet (n = 16)...
October 27, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052786/tolvaptan-promotes-urinary-excretion-of-sodium-and-urea-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Satoshi Minami, Takayuki Hamano, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Masayuki Mizui, Yoshiki Kimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan (TLV) promotes aquaresis; however, little is known about its effect on solute excretion in chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied CKD patients with decompensated heart failure (HF) or those with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) receiving TLV. Patients with an increased urine volume of more than twice of daily variance were defined as "responders" in HF. We compared the ability of the urinary osmolality (U-OSM) change and urinary creatinine concentration ([U-Cr]) change to discriminate "responders"...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030642/saline-is-as-effective-as-nitrogen-scavengers-for-treatment-of-hyperammonemia
#12
G van Straten, M G M de Sain-van der Velden, I M van Geijlswijk, R P Favier, S J Mesu, N E Holwerda-Loof, M van der Ham, H Fieten, J Rothuizen, B Spee, N M Verhoeven-Duif
Urea cycle enzyme deficiency (UCED) patients with hyperammonemia are treated with sodium benzoate (SB) and sodium phenylacetate (SPA) to induce alternative pathways of nitrogen excretion. The suggested guidelines supporting their use in the management of hyperammonemia are primarily based on non-analytic studies such as case reports and case series. Canine congenital portosystemic shunting (CPSS) is a naturally occurring model for hyperammonemia. Here, we performed cross-over, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in healthy dogs to assess safety and pharmacokinetics of SB and SPA (phase I)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025319/the-effects-of-salvia-przewalskii-total-phenolic-acid-extract-on-immune-complex-glomerulonephritis
#13
Yang Yang, Zhi-Peng Wang, Shou-Hong Gao, Hong-Qi Ren, Ren-Qian Zhong, Wan-Sheng Chen
CONTEXT: Salvia przewalskii Maxim. (Lamiaceae) is a Chinese herbal medicine that has long been used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of S. przewalskii total phenolic acid extract (SPE) on immune complex glomerulonephritis (ICG) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two Wistar rats were randomized into six groups. ICG was induced in all groups except normal control group...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994541/-effect-of-chinese-herb-chicory-extract-on-expression-of-renal-transporter-glut9-in-rats-with-hyperuricemia
#14
Yu Wang, Zhi-Jian Lin, An-Zheng Nie, Li-Yu Li, Bing Zhang
Sixty SD male rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, benzbromarone group(20 mg•kg⁻¹•d⁻¹), chicory extract high dose, middle dose and low dose groups (5, 7.5, 10 g•kg⁻¹•d⁻¹). The rats in normal group were given with water, and the rats in other groups were given with 10% fructose solution to establish hyperuricemia models. All the rats were sacrificed on the 42th day. Then their serum uric acid(SUA), serum creatinine(CRE), urea nitrogen(BUN) and urinary uric acid(UUA) levels were detected to calculate the clearance rate of uric acid in kidney(CUA)...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993663/renal-iron-accumulation-occurs-in-lupus-nephritis-and-iron-chelation-delays-the-onset-of-albuminuria
#15
Eileen S Marks, Mathilde L Bonnemaison, Susan K Brusnahan, Wenting Zhang, Wei Fan, Jered C Garrison, Erika I Boesen
Proteins involved in iron homeostasis have been identified as biomarkers for lupus nephritis, a serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We tested the hypothesis that renal iron accumulation occurs and contributes to renal injury in SLE. Renal non-heme iron levels were increased in the (New Zealand Black x New Zealand White) F1 (NZB/W) mouse model of lupus nephritis compared with healthy New Zealand White (NZW) mice in an age- and strain-dependent manner. Biodistribution studies revealed increased transferrin-bound iron accumulation in the kidneys of albuminuric NZB/W mice, but no difference in the accumulation of non-transferrin bound iron or ferritin...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987762/protective-outcomes-of-low-dose-doxycycline-on-renal-function-of-wistar-rats-subjected-to-acute-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Aline L Cortes, Sabrina R Gonsalez, Lilimar S Rioja, Simone S C Oliveira, André L S Santos, Minolfa C Prieto, Paulo A Melo, Lucienne S Lara
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute renal failure. Doxycycline (Dc) belongs to the tetracycline-class of antibiotics with demonstrated beneficial molecular effects in the brain and heart, mainly through matrix metalloproteinases inhibition (MMP). However, Dc protection of renal function has not been demonstrated. We determined whether low doses of Dc would prevent decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and maintain tubular Na(+) handling in Wistar rats subjected to kidney I/R...
October 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979774/early-detection-of-acute-cisplatin-nephrotoxicity-interest-of-urinary-monitoring-of-proximal-tubular-biomarkers
#17
Valérian Bunel, Yasmina Tournay, Thomas Baudoux, Eric De Prez, Marie Marchand, Zita Mekinda, Raphaël Maréchal, Thierry Roumeguère, Marie-Hélène Antoine, Joëlle L Nortier
BACKGROUND: Renal toxicity induced by cisplatin (CisPt) is a clinical issue in patients with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proximal tubular injury can result in acute kidney injury (AKI), which may compromise the course of chemotherapy and the prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of urinary markers of acute tubulotoxicity and to assess the usefulness of such monitoring in a routine clinical setting. METHODS: This work is an open prospective pilot study carried out among 23 patients receiving a platinum-based chemotherapy...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979213/taurine-a-potential-ergogenic-aid-for-preventing-muscle-damage-and-protein-catabolism-and-decreasing-oxidative-stress-produced-by-endurance-exercise
#18
Flávia G De Carvalho, Bryan S M Galan, Priscila C Santos, Kelly Pritchett, Karina Pfrimer, Eduardo Ferriolli, Marcelo Papoti, Júlio S Marchini, Ellen C de Freitas
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation on oxidative stress and protein metabolism markers, and aerobic parameters in triathletes. Methods: A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male triathletes, aged 30.9 ± 1.3 year, height 1.79 ± 0.01 m and body weight 77.45 ± 2.4 kg. Three grams of taurine and 400 ml of chocolate milk (TAUchoc), or a placebo (chocolate milk) (CHOC) was ingested post exercise for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress marker levels, and 24 h urinary nitrogen, creatinine, and urea excretion were measured before and after 8 weeks of training and supplementation with TAUchoc or CHOC...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944832/icariin-improves-acute-kidney-injury-and-proteinuria-in-a-rat-model-of-pregnancy%C3%A2-induced-hypertension
#19
Wenyu Zhang, Wei Yuan, Ning Xu, Jinping Li, Wenxiu Chang
Icariin has previously been demonstrated to attenuate hyperglycemia‑induced renal injury, however the renoprotective effects of icariin in a rat model of pregnancy‑induced hypertension (PIH) remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of icariin on PIH‑induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and proteinuria. Following 18 days of icariin treatment between day 1 and day 18 of gestation, which was combined with NG‑nitro‑L‑arginine methyl ester (L‑NAME) treatment between day 12 and day 18 of gestation to induce PIH, the 24 h urine protein level, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were measured by using the Coomassie Brilliant Blue method, a commercial enzymatic kit and the picric acid method, respectively...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929659/-effects-and-mechanisms-of-shenkang-injection-promoting-extracellular-matrix-degradation-via-regulating-erk1-2-mmps-signaling-pathway-in-renal-failure-rats
#20
Jing-Jing Yang, Zhi-Min Mao, Yi-Gang Wan, Wei Wu, Yan-Ru Huang, Ge Shi, Wen-Bei Han, Jian Yao
This study aimed to clarify preliminarily the effects and mechanisms of Shenkang injection (SKI) promoting extracellular matrix(ECM)degradation via regulating extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase(ERK)1/2/matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs)signaling pathway in renal failure rats. Twenty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:the Sham group,the Model group,the SKI group and the Enalapril maleate(EM)group. The model rats with renal failure were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and unilateral ureteral obstruction(UUO)...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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