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"kynurenine pathway"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731451/novel-blood-based-biomarkers-of-cognition-stress-and-physical-or-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia-preliminary-evidence-for-a-role-of-bdnf-irisin-and-the-kynurenine-pathway
#1
Olivia C Küster, Daria Laptinskaya, Patrick Fissler, Cathrin Schnack, Martina Zügel, Verena Nold, Franka Thurm, Sina Pleiner, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Björn von Einem, Patrick Weydt, Andre Liesener, Andreas Borta, Alexander Woll, Bastian Hengerer, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christine A F von Arnim
 Psychosocial stress and physical, cognitive, and social activity predict the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The aim of this study was to elucidate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), irisin, and the kynurenine pathway (KP) as potential underlying biological correlates. We evaluated associations of irisin and the KP with BDNF in serum and with cognition, stress, and activities. Furthermore, changes in serum concentrations of BDNF, irisin, and KP metabolites were investigated after physical or cognitive training...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#2
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
July 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712531/the-role-of-tryptophan-metabolism-and-food-craving-in-the-relationship-between-obesity-and-bipolar-disorder
#3
N Dalkner, M Platzer, S A Bengesser, A Birner, F T Fellendorf, R Queissner, A Painold, H Mangge, D Fuchs, B Reininghaus, H P Kapfhammer, S J Holasek, E Z Reininghaus
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have a significantly increased risk of obesity-related conditions. The imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure is assumed to be a major risk factor for obesity in BD. This study analyzed food craving in relation to anthropometric, metabolic, and neurobiological parameters in a well-characterized cohort of euthymic individuals with BD. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-five patients completed the Food-Craving Inventory assessing four categories of food craving (fat, fast-food, sweets and carbohydrate craving)...
July 4, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712413/sleep-disturbance-and-kynurenine-metabolism-in-depression
#4
Hyong Jin Cho, Jonathan Savitz, Robert Dantzer, T Kent Teague, Wayne C Drevets, Michael R Irwin
OBJECTIVE: Although the interrelationships between sleep disturbance, inflammation, and depression have been found, molecular mechanisms that link these conditions are largely unknown. Kynurenine metabolism is hypothesized to be a key mechanism that links inflammation and depression. Inflammation activates the kynurenine pathway, leading to increases in 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) and quinolinic acid (QA), potentially neurotoxic metabolites, and decreases in kynurenic acid (KynA), a potentially neuroprotective compound...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688912/inhibition-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-protects-against-reactive-microglial-associated-reductions-in-the-complexity-of-primary-cortical-neurons
#5
Katherine O'Farrell, Eimear Fagan, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
Brain glia possess the rate limiting enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) which catalyses the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Microglia also express kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) and kynureninase (KYNU) which lead to the production of the free radical producing metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid respectively and subsequently production of the NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of IFNγ-stimulated kynurenine pathway (KP) induction in microglia on neurite outgrowth and complexity, and to determine whether alterations could be abrogated using pharmacological inhibitors of the KP...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680298/high-fat-diet-and-voluntary-chronic-aerobic-exercise-recover-altered-levels-of-aging-related-tryptophan-metabolites-along-the-kynurenine-pathway
#6
Keon-Joo Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Joo-Youn Cho, Soon-Tae Lee, Hwa Suk Kim, Jun Hwa Shim, Sang Kun Lee, Manho Kim, Kon Chu
Tryptophan metabolites regulate a variety of physiological processes, and their downstream metabolites enter the kynurenine pathway. Age-related changes of metabolites and activities of associated enzymes in this pathway are suggestable and would be potential intervention targets. Blood levels of serum tryptophan metabolites in C57BL/6 mice of different ages, ranging from 6 weeks to 10 months, were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the enzyme activities for each metabolic step were estimated using the ratio of appropriate metabolite levels...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664173/dietary-amino-acid-intakes-associated-with-a-low-phenylalanine-diet-combined-with-amino-acid-medical-foods-and-glycomacropeptide-medical-foods-and-neuropsychological-outcomes-in-subjects-with-phenylketonuria
#7
Bridget M Stroup, Sangita G Murali, Nivedita Nair, Emily A Sawin, Fran Rohr, Harvey L Levy, Denise M Ney
This article provides original data on median dietary intake of 18 amino acids from amino acid medical foods, glycomacropeptide medical foods, and natural foods based on 3-day food records obtained from subjects with phenylketonuria who consumed low-phenylalanine diets in combination with amino acid medical foods and glycomacropeptide medical foods for 3 weeks each in a crossover design. The sample size of 30 subjects included 20 subjects with classical phenylketonuria and 10 with a milder or variant form of phenylketonuria...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659861/the-effect-of-systemic-nitroglycerin-administration-on-the-kynurenine-pathway-in-the-rat
#8
Gábor Nagy-Grócz, Klaudia F Laborc, Gábor Veres, Attila Bajtai, Zsuzsanna Bohár, Dénes Zádori, Annamária Fejes-Szabó, Eleonóra Spekker, László Vécsei, Árpád Párdutz
The primary headache disorders include migraine, which is one of the most frequent neurological disorders, which influences more than 14% of the whole population. Despite the research efforts, its exact pathomechanism is not fully revealed, but evidence points to the role of glutamate and its receptors. Kynurenic acid is an endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist produced by the kynurenine pathway (KP). Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) convert l-tryptophan to N-formyl-l-kynurenine, to be further transformed to l-kynurenine...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659716/aspects-of-tryptophan-and-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-in-immunity-a-new-twist-in-an-old-tale
#9
REVIEW
Hector Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Anju Vasudevan, Abdallah Elkhal
Increasing evidence underscores the interesting ability of tryptophan to regulate immune responses. However, the exact mechanisms of tryptophan's immune regulation remain to be determined. Tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway is known to play an important role in tryptophan's involvement in immune responses. Interestingly, quinolinic acid, which is a neurotoxic catabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is the major pathway for the de novo synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Recent studies have shown that NAD+, a natural coenzyme found in all living cells, regulates immune responses and creates homeostasis via a novel signaling pathway...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651456/phytochemical-treatments-target-kynurenine-pathway-induced-oxidative-stress
#10
K Parasram
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to link the phytochemical and metabolic research treating quinolinic acid induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: Quinolinic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, plays a role in the oxidative stress associated with many neurological disorders and is used to simulate disorders such as Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: In these models, phytochemicals have been shown to reduce striatal lesion size, reduce inflammation and prevent lipid peroxidation caused by quinolinic acid...
June 26, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650043/heme-containing-enzymes-and-inhibitors-for-tryptophan-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Daojing Yan, Ying-Wu Lin, Xiangshi Tan
Iron-containing enzymes such as heme enzymes play crucial roles in biological systems. Three distinct heme-containing dioxygenase enzymes, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step of l-tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway in mammals. Overexpression of these enzymes causes depletion of tryptophan and the accumulation of metabolic products, which contributes to tumor immune tolerance and immune dysregulation in a variety of disease pathologies...
June 26, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631232/activation-of-brain-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-contributes-to-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-an-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-streptozotocin-in-mice
#12
Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R Jesse, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Lucian Del Fabbro, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Franciele Donato, Silvana Peterini Boeira
There is a lack of information concerning the molecular events underlying the depressive-like effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in mice. The elevated activity of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been proposed to mediate depression in inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we reported that ICV-STZ activates IDO in the hippocampus of mice and culminates in depressive-like behaviors, as measured by the increased duration of immobility in the tail suspension test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test...
June 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628213/changes-in-kynurenine-pathway-metabolism-in-parkinson-patients-with-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#13
Jesper F Havelund, Andreas D Andersen, Michael Binzer, Morten Blaabjerg, Niels H H Heegaard, Egon Stenager, Nils J Faergeman, Jan Bert Gramsbergen
L-DOPA is the most effective drug in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease, but chronic use is associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in more than half the patients after 10 years of treatment. L-DOPA treatment may affect tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. Altered levels of kynurenine metabolites can affect glutamatergic transmission and may play a role in the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In this study we assessed kynurenine metabolites in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease patients and controls...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602601/association-of-amine-biomarkers-with-incident-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-framingham-study
#14
Vincent Chouraki, Sarah R Preis, Qiong Yang, Alexa Beiser, Shuo Li, Martin G Larson, Galit Weinstein, Thomas J Wang, Robert E Gerszten, Ramachandran S Vasan, Sudha Seshadri
INTRODUCTION: The identification of novel biomarkers associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) could provide key biological insights and permit targeted preclinical prevention. We investigated circulating metabolites associated with incident dementia and AD using metabolomics. METHODS: Plasma levels of 217 metabolites were assessed in 2067 dementia-free Framingham Offspring Cohort participants (mean age = 55.9 ± 9.7 years; 52.4% women). We studied their associations with future dementia and AD risk in multivariate Cox models...
June 8, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590049/chromatographic-analysis-of-tryptophan-metabolites
#15
REVIEW
Ilona Sadok, Andrzej Gamian, Magdalena Maria Staniszewska
The kynurenine pathway generates multiple tryptophan metabolites called collectively kynurenines and leads to formation of the enzyme cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The first step in this pathway is tryptophan degradation, initiated by the rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, or tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, depending on the tissue. The balanced kynurenine metabolism, which has been a subject of multiple studies in last decades, plays an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as infections, autoimmunity, neurological disorders, cancer, cataracts, as well as pregnancy...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559281/uridine-monophosphate-synthetase-enables-eukaryotic-de-novo-nad-biosynthesis-from-quinolinic-acid
#16
Melanie R McReynolds, Wenqing Wang, Lauren M Holleran, Wendy Hanna-Rose
NAD(+) biosynthesis is an attractive and promising therapeutic target for influencing health span and obesity-related phenotypes as well as tumor growth. Full and effective use of this target for therapeutic benefit requires a complete understanding of NAD(+) biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role for a conserved phosphoribosyltransferase in NAD(+) biosynthesis. Because a required quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRTase) is not encoded in its genome, Caenorhabditis elegans are reported to lack a de novo NAD(+) biosynthetic pathway...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557618/microenvironment-tumor-metabolic-interactions-highlighted-by-qmsi-application-to-the-tryptophan-kynurenine-pathway-in-immuno-oncology
#17
Rima Ait-Belkacem, Vanesa Bol, Gregory Hamm, Florence Schramme, Benoit Van Den Eynde, Lauranne Poncelet, Fabien Pamelard, Jonathan Stauber, Bruno Gomes
Inhibition of NK and effector T-cell functions and activation of regulatory cell populations are the main immunosuppressive effects of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase1 (IDO1). By converting tryptophan (Trp) into kynurenine (Kyn), IDO1 is involved in the immune response homeostasis, and its dysregulated expression is described in immune-related pathologies, as tumors that hijack it to evade immune destruction. Thereby, IDO1 inhibitors are being developed to stimulate antitumor immune responses. Existing and standard quantitation methods of IDO1 substrate and metabolite(s) are based on the total level of Trp and its metabolites determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis in human plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain...
May 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551532/effects-of-tryptophan-kynurenine-and-kynurenic-acid-exerted-on-human-reconstructed-corneal-epithelium-in-vitro
#18
Anna Matysik-Woźniak, Roman Paduch, Waldemar A Turski, Ryszard Maciejewski, Anselm G Jünemann, Robert Rejdak
BACKGROUND: Tryptophan metabolites formed along kynurenine pathway may affect cell proliferation and tissue function. This pathway presents potential sites for drug discovery. Tryptophan and its metabolites kynurenine and kynurenic acid may be involved in the physiology and pathology of the ocular surface. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect exerted by tryptophan, kynurenine and kynurenic acid upon corneal epithelium. METHODS: A SkinEthic™ HCE human reconstructed corneal epithelium model was used...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546077/systemic-administration-of-l-kynurenine-sulfate-induces-cerebral-hypoperfusion-transients-in-adult-c57bl-6-mice
#19
Dániel Péter Varga, Ákos Menyhárt, Tamás Puskás, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas, Zsolt Kis, László Vécsei, József Toldi, Levente Gellért
The kynurenine pathway is a cascade of enzymatic steps generating biologically active compounds. l-kynurenine (l-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation. In the mammalian brain, l-KYN is partly converted to kynurenic acid (KYNA), which exerts multiple effects on neurotransmission. Recently, l-KYN or one of its derivatives were attributed a direct role in the regulation of the systemic circulation. l-KYN dilates arterial blood vessels during sepsis in rats, while it increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) in awake rabbits...
May 22, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539670/simvastatin-and-bezafibrate-ameliorate-emotional-disorder-induced-by-high-fat-diet-in-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Hui Wang, Jia Zhou, Qiong Zhen Liu, Lu Lu Wang, Jing Shang
High fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorders may lead to emotional disorders. This study aimed to explore the effect of simvastatin (SMV) and bezafibrate (BZ) on improving HFD-induced emotional changes, and tried to identify their different mechanisms. The intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was used to evaluate glucose control ability; and behavior tests including open field tests (OFT), forced swimming tests (FST), tail suspension tests (TST) and sucrose preference (SPT), were then performed to evaluate emotional changes...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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