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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055169/diversification-in-tropics-and-subtropics-following-the-mid-miocene-climate-change-a-case-study-of-the-spider-genus-nesticella
#1
Francesco Ballarin, Shuqiang Li
Caves may offer suitable refugia for troglophilic invertebrates during periods of unfavourable climatic conditions because of their stable microclimates. As a consequence, allopatric divergence from their epigean counterparts may occur, leading to formation of truly hypogean communities (the Climatic Relict Hypothesis). Unlike the well-studied effects of Pleistocene glaciations, we know little about how ancient climate changes drove the development of cave-dwelling organisms living at both middle and lower latitudes...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055157/simulating-the-onset-of-spring-vegetation-growth-across-the-northern-hemisphere
#2
Qiang Liu, Yongshuo H Fu, Yongwen Liu, Ivan A Janssens, Shilong Piao
Changes in the spring onset of vegetation growth in response to climate change can profoundly impact climate-biosphere interactions. Thus, robust simulation of spring onset is essential to accurately predict ecosystem responses and feedback to ongoing climate change. To date, the ability of vegetation phenology models to reproduce spatiotemporal patterns of spring onset at larger scales has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we took advantage of phenology observations via remote sensing to calibrate and evaluated six models, including both one-phase (considering only forcing temperatures) and two-phase (involving forcing, chilling, and photoperiod) models across the Northern Hemisphere between 1982 and 2012...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054812/the-impact-of-inter-annual-rainfall-variability-on-african-savannas-changes-with-mean-rainfall
#3
Alexis D Synodinos, Britta Tietjen, Dirk Lohmann, Florian Jeltsch
Savannas are mixed tree-grass ecosystems whose dynamics are predominantly regulated by resource competition and the temporal variability in climatic and environmental factors such as rainfall and fire. Hence, increasing inter-annual rainfall variability due to climate change could have a significant impact on savannas. To investigate this, we used an ecohydrological model of stochastic differential equations and simulated African savanna dynamics along a gradient of mean annual rainfall (520-780 mm/year) for a range of inter-annual rainfall variabilities...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054645/how-ecosystems-change-following-invasion-by-robinia-pseudoacacia-insights-from-soil-chemical-properties-and-soil-microbial-nematode-microarthropod-and-plant-communities
#4
Lorenzo Lazzaro, Giuseppe Mazza, Giada d'Errico, Arturo Fabiani, Claudia Giuliani, Alberto F Inghilesi, Alessandra Lagomarsino, Silvia Landi, Lorenzo Lastrucci, Roberta Pastorelli, Pio Federico Roversi, Giulia Torrini, Elena Tricarico, Bruno Foggi
Biological invasions are a global threat to biodiversity. Since the spread of invasive alien plants may have many impacts, an integrated approach, assessing effects across various ecosystem components, is needed for a correct understanding of the invasion process and its consequences. The nitrogen-fixing tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) is a major invasive species worldwide and is used in forestry production. While its effects on plant communities and soils are well known, there have been few studies on soil fauna and microbes...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054633/climate-change-tourism-and-historical-grazing-influence-the-distribution-of-carex-lachenalii-schkuhr-a-rare-arctic-alpine-species-in-the-tatra-mts
#5
Patryk Czortek, Anna Delimat, Marcin K Dyderski, Antoni Zięba, Andrzej M Jagodziński, Bogdan Jaroszewicz
Mountain vegetation is highly specialized to harsh climatic conditions and therefore is sensitive to any change in environment. The rarest and most vulnerable plants occurring in alpine regions are expected to respond rapidly to environmental changes. An example of such a species is Carex lachenalii subsp. lachenalii Schkuhr, which occurs in Poland on only a few isolated sites in the Tatra Mts. The aim of this study was to assess changes in distribution of C. lachenalii in the Tatra Mts over the past 50-150years and the effects of climate change, tourism and historical grazing on the ecological niche of C...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054627/influence-of-diet-in-urinary-levels-of-metals-in-a-biomonitoring-study-of-a-child-population-of-the-valencian-region-spain
#6
Rosa Pérez, Eva Doménech, Andrea Conchado, Alfredo Sanchez, Clara Coscollà, Vicent Yusà
Pollution by trace elements and its possible effect on organisms has become a worldwide concern due to the increasing presence of trace elements in the environment and especially in the food chain. Exposure to chemicals has traditionally been measured using environmental samples, however, human biomonitoring brings a different perspective, in which all sources and exposure pathways are integrated. The objective of this paper is to discern the possible relationship between children's diet and the metals found in children urine...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054622/effect-of-a-strengthened-ecological-floating-bed-on-the-purification-of-urban-landscape-water-supplied-with-reclaimed-water
#7
Wen-Huai Wang, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Cun-Zhi Wei, Jing-Chan Zhao, Lu-Qin Sun
A floating bed (FB) system vegetated with calamus, iris, lythrum, and Hydrocotyle vulgaris, and a strengthened FB (SFB) system with zeolite and sponge iron as fillers were simultaneously applied to purify urban landscape water in different zones. The urban landscape water, an artificial lake of approximately 326m(2), was supplied with reclaimed water during a six-month experiment. Results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the SFB zone (SFBZ) were significantly lower than those in the control zone (CZ) and the FB zone (FBZ) after six months of operation...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054343/aster-yomena-extract-ameliorates-pro-inflammatory-immune-response-by-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-raw-264-7-cells
#8
Kyung-A Hwang, Yu-Jin Hwang, Jin Song
BACKGROUND: Aster yomena, an edible vegetable, is a perennial herb found in Korea, China, Japan, and Siberia. It is used as folk medicine to treat cough, bronchial asthma, and insect bites. A. yomena was recently shown to have antioxidant and anti-asthmatic activities. Studies have not yet evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of the various solvent fractions of A. yomena. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of various solvent fractions (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol) from ethanol extract of A...
October 18, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054139/mc-media-pad-acplus%C3%A2-for-enumeration-of-aerobic-counts-in-a-variety-of-foods
#9
Hajime Teramura, Gail Betts
The MC-Media Pad ACplus™ is a dry, rehydratable film medium for the enumeration of aerobic bacterial colonies.The performance of the method in a variety of foods was compared to that of U.S. reference methods: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) Chapter 3.02 "Quantitative Analysis of Bacteria in Foods as Sanitary Indicators" (USDA/FSIS MLG 3.02); Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 "Microbiological Count Methods, Standard Plate Count Method" (SMEDP 6); AOAC Official Method(SM)966...
October 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054061/microbial-characteristics-analysis-and-kinetic-studies-on-substrate-composition-to-methane-after-microbial-and-nutritional-regulation-of-fruit-and-vegetable-wastes-anaerobic-digestion
#10
Chunhui Zhao, Hui Mu, Yuxiao Zhao, Liguo Wang, Bin Zuo
This study firstly evaluated the microbial role when choosing the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) as microbial and nutritional regulators to improve the biomethanation of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW). Results showed that the enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and Firmicutes and Spirochaeta in the AGS were responsible for the enhanced methane yield. A synthetic waste representing the mixture of WAS and FVW was then used to investigate the influences of different substrate composition on methane generations...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054058/study-on-improving-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-cow-manure-and-corn-straw-by-fruit-and-vegetable-waste-methane-production-and-microbial-community-in-cstr-process
#11
Xuemei Wang, Zifu Li, Xue Bai, Xiaoqin Zhou, Sikun Cheng, Ruiling Gao, Jiachen Sun
Based on continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure with available carbon slowly released corn straw, the effect of adding available carbon quickly released fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was explored, meanwhile microbial community variation was studied in this study. When the FVW added was 5% and 1%, the methane production of the cow manure and corn straw was improved, and the start-up process was shortened. With higher proportion of FVW to 5%, the performance was superior with a mean methane yield increase of 22...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053945/tree-uptake-of-excess-nutrients-and-herbicides-in-a-maize-olive-tree-cultivation-system
#12
George Pavlidis, Vassilios A Tsihrintzis, Helen Karasali, Dimitrios Alexakis
Due to the extent of non-point source agricultural pollution, protective measures to control agrochemicals from entering aquatic systems are necessary. Measures may include, among others, vegetated buffer strips (VFS), no spray buffer zones, alley crops and agroforestry systems (AFS). The scope of the present work is to examine the pollution abatement potential of a maize-olive (MO) AFS. The efficiency of a combined MO trees system in reducing nutrients and herbicides is tested through soil monitoring in an experimental plot, located in Koropi, Eastern Attica, Greece, in the period May 2015 to November 2015...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053827/comparative-evaluation-of-texture-wheat-ingredients-and-soy-proteins-in-the-quality-and-acceptability-of-emulsified-chicken-nuggets
#13
M Yeater, G Casco, R K Miller, C Z Alvarado
Chicken nuggets are commonly made with varying levels of textured vegetable proteins, such as soy and wheat, for their ability to bind water and their meat like conformation. This project compared textured wheat proteins and soy proteins at 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% in emulsified chicken nuggets. A total of 3,024 chicken nuggets were evaluated in replications for batter breader pickup (%), par fry yield (%), cook loss (%), L*, a*, b* color value, texture profile analysis, and sensory analysis. The analysis was conducted for all 4 concentrations of wheat and soy treatments then compared to each other and an all white meat chicken nugget control...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053738/neotropical-peatland-methane-emissions-along-a-vegetation-and-biogeochemical-gradient
#14
R Scott Winton, Neal Flanagan, Curtis J Richardson
Tropical wetlands are thought to be the most important source of interannual variability in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations, yet sparse data prevents them from being incorporated into Earth system models. This problem is particularly pronounced in the neotropics where bottom-up models based on water table depth are incongruent with top-down inversion models suggesting unaccounted sinks or sources of CH4. The newly documented vast areas of peatlands in the Amazon basin may account for an important unrecognized CH4 source, but the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of CH4 dynamics from these systems remain poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053575/the-impact-of-a-weight-loss-intervention-on-diet-quality-and-eating-behaviours-in-people-with-obesity-and-copd
#15
Rebecca F McLoughlin, Vanessa M McDonald, Peter G Gibson, Hayley A Scott, Michael J Hensley, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lisa G Wood
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status...
October 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053349/essential-metal-and-metalloid-elements-in-the-philippi-horticultural-area-and-their-uptake-into-selected-vegetable-crops
#16
Marÿke Malan, Francuois Müller, Lincoln Raitt, Lilburne Cyster, Luc Brendonck
This study evaluated Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Se, Sn and V status in the soils of the PHA, as well as the vegetables produced on these soils. We also determined the agronomic sources of these elements to the soils in the PHA. Farmyard manures applied as fertilizer amendments to the soils in the PHA were found to be the major agronomic sources of the metal and metalloid elements. These elements were however, retained in significantly higher concentrations in the soils compared to the concentrations found in the edible portions of the vegetable crops collected...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053340/the-beneficial-role-of-potassium-in-cd-induced-stress-alleviation-and-growth-improvement-in-gladiolus-grandiflora-l
#17
Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Malik Muhammad Zaheer, Waheed Ullah Khan, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Aqeel Ahmad, Aamir Ali, Waheed Akram
Heavy metal contaminated agricultural soils are one of the most important constraints for successful cultivation of crops. The current research was conducted to evaluate the role of potassium (K) on plant growth and amelioration of cadmium (Cd) stress in Gladiolus grandiflora under greenhouse conditions. G. grandiflora corms were sown in media contaminated with 0 (C), 50 (Cd50) and 100 (Cd100) mg Cd kg(-1) soil. The plants growing in Cd-contaminated media exhibited reduced gas exchange attributes, chlorophyll (Chl) contents, vegetative and reproductive growth as compared to control...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053190/quantitative-mesophyll-parameters-rather-than-whole-leaf-traits-predict-response-of-c3-steppe-plants-to-aridity
#18
Larissa A Ivanova, Polina K Yudina, Dina A Ronzhina, Leonid A Ivanov, Norbert Hölzel
We studied the impact of aridity on leaf and mesophyll traits in dominant and very abundant plant species of Eurasian steppe plant communities. We covered a 500-km latitudinal gradient across three vegetation zones in the Volga region of southern European Russia. Whole-leaf traits, volumetric fractions of leaf tissues, quantitative parameters of photosynthetic cells and chloroplasts, and chlorophyll, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents were analyzed and related to plant functional type (PFT), type of mesophyll anatomy, phylogeny and climate aridity...
October 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053145/geometagenomics-illuminates-the-impact-of-agriculture-on-the-distribution-and-prevalence-of-plant-viruses-at-the-ecosystem-scale
#19
Pauline Bernardo, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Emmanuel Fernandez, Denis Filloux, Penelope Hartnady, Tony A Rebelo, Stephen R Cousins, François Mesleard, Damien Cohez, Nicole Yavercovski, Arvind Varsani, Gordon W Harkins, Michel Peterschmitt, Carolyn M Malmstrom, Darren P Martin, Philippe Roumagnac
Disease emergence events regularly result from human activities such as agriculture, which frequently brings large populations of genetically uniform hosts into contact with potential pathogens. Although viruses cause nearly 50% of emerging plant diseases, there is little systematic information about virus distribution across agro-ecological interfaces and large gaps in understanding of virus diversity in nature. Here we applied a novel landscape-scale geometagenomics approach to examine relationships between agricultural land use and distributions of plant-associated viruses in two Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots (Western Cape region of South Africa and Rhône river delta region of France)...
October 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052695/alternating-horner-syndrome-with-vegetative-alterna-and-spastic-quadraparesis-after-bacterial-meningitis
#20
Adrian Budhram, Mary Feng, Rookaya Mather, Donald H Lee, Dwight E Moulin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: JAMA Neurology
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