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Vitor de Salles Painelli, Kleiner Márcio Nemezio, Ana Jéssica, Mariana Franchi, Isabel Andrade, Luiz Augusto Riani, Bryan Saunders, Craig Sale, Roger Charles Harris, Bruno Gualano, Guilherme Giannini Artioli
PURPOSE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that training can increase muscle carnosine (MCarn), although longitudinal studies have failed to confirm this. A lack of control for dietary β-alanine intake or muscle fibre type shifting may have hampered their conclusions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on MCarn. METHODS: Twenty vegetarian men were randomly assigned to a control (CON; n=10) or HIIT (n=10) group...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Balázs E Helga, Christoph A O Schmid, Ioana Feher, Dorina Podar, Paul-Marian Szatmari, Olivian Marincaş, Zoltan R Balázs, Peter Schröder
Current physical or chemical methods used for remediation of soils contaminated with hexachlocyclohexane (HCH), leave behind significant levels of pollutants. Given the compound's volatility and persistence in the environment, sites contaminated with HCH remain a concern for the population living in nearby areas. By making use of both the recovery capacity and the pollutant uptake ability of spontaneously growing vegetation, our study aimed to identify native plant species able to cover and moreover take up the HCH left at a former lindane production unit in Turda, Romania...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jennifer R Bail, Andrew D Frugé, Mallory G Cases, Jennifer F De Los Santos, Julie L Locher, Kerry P Smith, Alan B Cantor, Harvey J Cohen, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
BACKGROUND: The current study assessed the feasibility of a mentored home-based vegetable gardening intervention and examined changes in health-related outcomes among breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: BCS were randomized to either a year-long vegetable gardening intervention to begin immediately or a wait-list control. Master Gardeners mentored participants in planning, planting, and maintaining 3 seasonal gardens over the course of 1 year. Participant accrual, retention, and satisfaction rates of ≥80% served as feasibility (primary outcome) benchmarks...
June 22, 2018: Cancer
Evandro Fei Fang, Lynn Froetscher, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Tzi Bun Ng
Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a common vegetable in Asia and it is distinctive for its bitter taste. As an ingredient in folk medicine, research from different laboratories in recent years supports its potential medicinal applications with anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV activities in both in vitro and animal studies. In this short review, we summarize herein the recent progress in the antitumor aspect of bitter melon with a focus on the underlying molecular mechanisms. Further mechanistic studies as well as clinical trials are necessary to further verify its medicinal applications...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Fiona M Soper, Benjamin W Sullivan, Megan K Nasto, Brooke B Osborne, David Bru, Christopher S Balzotti, Phillip G Taylor, Gregory P Asner, Alan R Townsend, Laurent Philippot, Stephen Porder, Cory C Cleveland
Tropical forests exhibit significant heterogeneity in plant functional and chemical traits that may contribute to spatial patterns of key soil biogeochemical processes, such as carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions. Although tropical forests are the largest ecosystem source of nitrous oxide (N2 O), drivers of spatial patterns within forests are poorly resolved. Here, we show that local variation in canopy foliar N, mapped by remote-sensing image spectroscopy, correlates with patterns of soil N2 O emission from a lowland tropical rainforest...
June 21, 2018: Ecology
Anjani M Karunaratne
The focus on investigations of probiotics has been on their health beneficial roles thus far, with some of the findings finally reaching food and pharmaceutical industries to commercialize their products. In biocontrol research some microbes mainly isolated from plants have shown antagonism towards both enteric and plant pathogens and out of them, some represent probiotic species. Fresh fruits and vegetables are upheld as health promoting dietary components, and if probiotics could be used to control pathogens on them, they could turn out to be even more healthy...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Khandker Shazia Afrin, Md Abdur Rahim, Jong-In Park, Sathishkumar Natarajan, Hoy-Taek Kim, Ill-Sup Nou
Heading cabbage is a nutritionally rich and economically important cruciferous vegetable. Black rot disease, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, reduces both the yield and quality of the cabbage head. Nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding resistance (R) genes play a vital role in the plant immune response to various pathogens. In this study, we analyzed the expression and DNA sequence variation of 31 NBS-encoding genes in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). These genes encoded TIR, NBS, LRR and RPW8 protein domains, all of which are known to be involved in disease resistance...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
S C Shaw, C M Parsons, N R Fuggle, M H Edwards, S M Robinson, E M Dennison, C Cooper, K A Ward
There are few data describing associations between dietary patterns and bone microarchitecture. This study investigated the relationship between diet quality and HRpQCT and pQCT measures in older adults. Data were available for 184 men and 166 women. Dietary data were collected at baseline (1998-2003) using an administered food frequency questionnaire. A 'prudent' diet score (PDS) was identified using principal component analysis and used as an indicator of dietary quality. HRpQCT and pQCT images were acquired at follow-up in 2012, from the non-dominant distal radius and tibia using Scanco XtremeCT and Stratec XCT2000 instrument scanners, respectively...
June 21, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Roman Pawlak, Paul Vos, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Daniela Hampel, Lindsay H Allen, Maryanne Tigchelaar Perrin
Background: The nutritional profile of human milk varies significantly between women, and the impact of maternal diet on these variations is not well understood. Objective: We analyzed breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentration and vitamin B-12 supplement use pattern among women who adhered to different dietary patterns: vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian. Design: A total of 74 milk samples, 29 from vegan, 19 from vegetarian, and 26 from nonvegetarian breastfeeding mothers, were analyzed...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Johanna Rienks, Janett Barbaresko, Kolade Oluwagbemigun, Matthias Schmid, Ute Nöthlings
Background: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired glucose metabolism. Bioactive compounds in fruits and vegetables such as polyphenols have been suggested to influence glucose metabolism. Objective: The aim of the current study was to systematically review the literature and conduct dose-response meta-analyses to summarize evidence of polyphenol exposure in association with incident type 2 diabetes. Design: Prospective epidemiologic studies published before January 2018 were searched through 2 databases...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Banafshe Hosseini, Bronwyn S Berthon, Ahmad Saedisomeolia, Malcolm R Starkey, Adam Collison, Peter A B Wark, Lisa G Wood
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is associated with an increased risk of a range of chronic diseases. A diet high in fruit and vegetables may help to reduce inflammation, as fruit and vegetables are rich sources of antioxidants and other biologically active substances, which may improve immune function. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence, we executed a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effects of fruit and/or vegetable intake on inflammatory biomarkers and immune cells in humans with different diseases and conditions...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shigeki Bamba, Kenichiro Takahashi, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Atsushi Nishida, Masahiro Kawahara, Osamu Inatomi, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Masaya Sasaki, Akira Andoh
In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), probiotics are often employed as an adjuvant therapeutic option. In the present study, a fermented vegetable beverage containing Pediococcus pentosaceus strain IDS885 was administered to patients with active UC for 8 weeks. A total of 11 patients with mildly to moderately active UC were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A (n=6), in which the subjects consumed the fermented beverage for 8 weeks immediately following enrollment, and Group B (n=5), in which the subjects were followed up for 8 weeks following enrollment and then consumed the beverage over the ensuring 8 weeks...
July 2018: Biomedical Reports
Changwei Tan, Dunliang Wang, Jian Zhou, Ying Du, Ming Luo, Yongjian Zhang, Wenshan Guo
Fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), as an important index for evaluating yields and biomass production, is key to providing the guidance for crop management. However, the shortage of good hyperspectral data can frequently result in the hindrance of accurate and reliable FPAR assessment, especially for wheat. In the present research, aiming at developing a strategy for accurate FPAR assessment, the relationships between wheat canopy FPAR and vegetation indexes derived from concurrent ground-measured hyperspectral data were explored...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chengkang Zhang, Zenghong Luo, Dongdong He, Li Su, Hui Yin, Guo Wang, Hong Liu, Christopher Rensing, Zonghua Wang
Rho GTPases are signaling macromolecules that are associated with developmental progression and pathogenesis of Fusarium graminearum . Generally, enzymatic activities of Rho GTPases are regulated by Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs). In this study, we identified a putative RhoGEF encoding gene ( FgBUD3 ) in F. graminearum database and proceeded further by using a functional genetic approach to generate FgBUD3 targeted gene deletion mutant. Phenotypic analysis results showed that the deletion of FgBUD3 caused severe reduction in growth of FgBUD3 mutant generated during this study...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
James R Holmquist, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Norman Bliss, Stephen Crooks, James T Morris, J Patrick Megonigal, Tiffany Troxler, Donald Weller, John Callaway, Judith Drexler, Matthew C Ferner, Meagan E Gonneea, Kevin D Kroeger, Lisa Schile-Beers, Isa Woo, Kevin Buffington, Joshua Breithaupt, Brandon M Boyd, Lauren N Brown, Nicole Dix, Lyndie Hice, Benjamin P Horton, Glen M MacDonald, Ryan P Moyer, William Reay, Timothy Shaw, Erik Smith, Joseph M Smoak, Christopher Sommerfield, Karen Thorne, David Velinsky, Elizabeth Watson, Kristin Wilson Grimes, Mark Woodrey
Tidal wetlands produce long-term soil organic carbon (C) stocks. Thus for carbon accounting purposes, we need accurate and precise information on the magnitude and spatial distribution of those stocks. We assembled and analyzed an unprecedented soil core dataset, and tested three strategies for mapping carbon stocks: applying the average value from the synthesis to mapped tidal wetlands, applying models fit using empirical data and applied using soil, vegetation and salinity maps, and relying on independently generated soil carbon maps...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Evan L Busch, Joseph A Galanko, Robert S Sandler, Ajay Goel, Temitope O Keku
Differences in tumor characteristics might partially account for mortality disparities between African American (AA) and European American (EA) colorectal cancer patients. We evaluated effect modification by race for exposure and patient-outcomes associations with colorectal tumor methylation among 218 AA and 267 EA colorectal cancer cases from the population-based North Carolina Colon Cancer Study. Tumor methylation was assessed in CACNA1G, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1. We used logistic regression to assess whether associations between several lifestyle factors-intake of fruits, vegetables, folate, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-and tumor methylation were modified by race...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mary J Christoph, Nicole Larson, Katie C Hootman, Jonathan M Miller, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, consumer demand for gluten-free products has increased, but little is known about the public health impact of and factors correlated with valuing gluten-free food. OBJECTIVE: Describe the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of young adults valuing gluten-free as an important food attribute, and compare their dietary intake with other young adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of survey data collected in 2015 to 2016 as part of the fourth wave of the Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) cohort study...
June 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Jiao Wang, Xin Qian, Qiang Gao, Chunmei Lv, Jie Xu, Hongbo Jin, Hui Zhu
BACKGROUND: Menopause is the most important sign of aging in women, and the ovary is the organ most sensitive to aging. Quercetin is a potential antioxidant and free radical scavenger that is widely found in fruits, vegetables, and leaves. However, the effect of quercetin on ovarian aging has not been elucidated, and the mechanism underlying its antioxidative effect remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether quercetin protects ovarian function by decreasing oxidative stress...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Heleen Coenen, Tom Viaene, Michiel Vandenbussche, Koen Geuten
BACKGROUND: MADS-box genes are key regulators of plant reproductive development and members of most lineages of this gene family have been extensively studied. However, the function and diversification of the ancient TM8 lineage remains elusive to date. The available data suggest a possible function in flower development in tomato and fast evolution through numerous gene loss events in flowering plants. RESULTS: We show the broad conservation of TM8 within angiosperms and find that in contrast to other MADS-box gene lineages, no gene duplicates have been retained after major whole genome duplication events...
June 22, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Rongxiao Che, Yongcui Deng, Fang Wang, Weijin Wang, Zhihong Xu, Yanbin Hao, Kai Xue, Biao Zhang, Li Tang, Huakun Zhou, Xiaoyong Cui
Biological nitrogen fixation, conducted by soil diazotrophs, is the primary nitrogen source for natural grasslands. However, the diazotrophs in grassland soils are still far from fully investigated. Particularly, their regional-scale distribution patterns have never been systematically examined. Here, soils (0-5 cm) were sampled from 54 grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau to examine the diazotroph abundance, diversity, and community composition, as well as their distribution patterns and driving factors. The diazotroph abundance was expressed as nifH gene copies, measured using real-time PCR...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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