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Smart device*

Juan Guerrero-Ibáñez, Sherali Zeadally, Juan Contreras-Castillo
Modern society faces serious problems with transportation systems, including but not limited to traffic congestion, safety, and pollution. Information communication technologies have gained increasing attention and importance in modern transportation systems. Automotive manufacturers are developing in-vehicle sensors and their applications in different areas including safety, traffic management, and infotainment. Government institutions are implementing roadside infrastructures such as cameras and sensors to collect data about environmental and traffic conditions...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
William F Pickard, Barbara Abraham-Shrauner
The heat exchanger is important in practical thermal processes, especially those of (i) the molten-salt storage schemes, (ii) compressed air energy storage schemes and (iii) other load-shifting thermal storage presumed to undergird a Smart Grid. Such devices, although central to the utilization of energy from sustainable (but intermittent) renewable sources, will be unfamiliar to many scientists, who nevertheless need a working knowledge of them. This tutorial paper provides a largely self-contained conceptual introduction for such persons...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yeting Guo, Fang Liu, Zhiping Cai, Nong Xiao, Ziming Zhao
Smart sensor-equipped mobile devices sense, collect, and process data generated by the edge network to achieve intelligent control, but such mobile devices usually have limited storage and computing resources. Mobile cloud storage provides a promising solution owing to its rich storage resources, great accessibility, and low cost. But it also brings a risk of information leakage. The encryption of sensitive data is the basic step to resist the risk. However, deploying a high complexity encryption and decryption algorithm on mobile devices will greatly increase the burden of terminal operation and the difficulty to implement the necessary privacy protection algorithm...
April 13, 2018: Sensors
Rikkert J Nap, Estefania Gonzalez Solveyra, Igal Szleifer
When engineering nanomaterials for application in biological systems, it is important to understand how multivalent ions, such as calcium, affect the structural and chemical properties of polymer-modified nanoconstructs. In this work, a recently developed molecular theory was employed to study the effect of surface curvature on the calcium-induced collapse of end-tethered weak polyelectrolytes. In particular, we focused on cylindrical and spherical nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) in the presence of different amounts of Ca2+ ions...
April 13, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Rodrigo Almeida, Rui Oliveira, Miguel Luís, Carlos Senna, Susana Sargento
A common concern in smart cities is the focus on sensing procedures to provide city-wide information to city managers and citizens. To meet the growing demands of smart cities, the network must provide the ability to handle a large number of mobile sensors/devices, with high heterogeneity and unpredictable mobility, by collecting and delivering the sensed information for future treatment. This work proposes a multi-wireless technology communication platform for opportunistic data gathering and data exchange with respect to smart cities...
April 12, 2018: Sensors
Dan Li, Huazhen Duan, Yadan Ma, Wei Deng
This study demonstrates a novel strategy for colorimetric/surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode sensing of sulfur dioxide (SO2) by coupling headspace sampling (HS) with paper-based analytical device (PAD). The smart and multifunctional PAD is fabricated with a vacuum filtration method in which 4-mercaptopyridine (Mpy)-modified gold nanorods (GNRs)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids (rGO/MPy-GNRs), anhydrous methanol and starch-iodine complex are immobilized into cellulose-based filter papers...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Oliver Carr, Kate E A Saunders, Amy C Bilderbeck, Athanasios Tsanas, Niclas Palmius, John R Geddes, Russell Foster, Maarten De Vos, Guy M Goodwin
It has long been proposed that diurnal rhythms are disturbed in bipolar disorder (BD). Such changes are obvious in episodes of mania or depression. However, detailed study of patients between episodes has been rare and comparison with other psychiatric disorders rarer still. Our hypothesis was that evidence for desynchronization of diurnal rhythms would be evident in BD and that we could test the specificity of any effect by studying borderline personality disorder (BPD). Individuals with BD (n = 36), BPD (n = 22) and healthy volunteers (HC, n = 25) wore a portable heart rate and actigraphy device and used a smart-phone to record self-assessed mood scores 10 times per day for 1 week...
April 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Lucille Babel, Laure Guénée, Céline Besnard, Svetlana V Eliseeva, Stéphane Petoud, Claude Piguet
Metal-containing (bio)organic polymers are materials of continuously increasing importance for applications in energy storage and conversion, drug delivery, shape-memory items, supported catalysts, organic conductors and smart photonic devices. The embodiment of luminescent components provides a revolution in lighting and signaling with the ever-increasing development of polymeric light-emitting devices. Despite the unique properties expected from the introduction of optically and magnetically active lanthanides into organic polymers, the deficient control of the metal loading currently limits their design to empirical and poorly reproducible materials...
January 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Gyeong Woo Cheon, Berk Gonenc, Russell H Taylor, Peter L Gehlbach, Jin U Kang
In this study, we built and tested a handheld motion-guided micro-forceps system using common-path swept source optical coherence tomography (CP-SSOCT) for highly accurate depth controlled epiretinal membranectomy. A touch sensor and two motors were used in the forceps design to minimize the inherent motion artifact while squeezing the tool handle to actuate the tool and grasp, and to independently control the depth of the tool-tip. A smart motion monitoring and a guiding algorithm were devised to provide precise and intuitive freehand control...
December 2017: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Nathalie Barroca, Ana Marote, Sandra I Vieira, Abílio Almeida, Maria H V Fernandes, Paula M Vilarinho, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Tissue engineering is evolving towards the production of smart platforms exhibiting stimulatory cues to guide tissue regeneration. This work explores the benefits of electrical polarization to produce more efficient neural tissue engineering platforms. Poly (l-lactic) acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds were prepared as solvent cast films and electrospun aligned nanofibers, and electrically polarized by an in-lab built corona poling device. The characterization of the platforms by thermally stimulated depolarization currents reveals a polarization of 60 × 10-10 C cm-2 that is stable on poled electrospun nanofibers for up to 6 months...
March 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Maria Leonora G Comello, Jeannette H Porter
BACKGROUND: Wearable/portable devices that unobtrusively detect smoking and contextual data offer the potential to provide Just-In-Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI) support for mobile cessation programs. Little has been reported on the development of these technologies. INTRODUCTION: To address this gap, we offer a case report of users' experiences with a prototype "smart" cigarette case that automatically tracks time and location of smoking. Small-scale user-experience studies are typical of iterative product design and are especially helpful when proposing novel ideas...
April 5, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Ravi M A P Lima, José Jarib Alcaraz-Espinoza, Fernando A G da Silva, Helinando P de Oliveira
Multifunctional wearable electronic textiles based on interfacial polymerization of polypyrrole on carbon nanotubes/cotton fibers offer advantages of simple and low-cost materials that incorporate bactericidal, good electrochemical performance and electrical heating properties. The high conductivity of doped polypyrrole/CNT composite provides textiles that reaches temperature in order of 70 °C with field of 5V/cm, superior electrochemical performance applied as electrodes of supercapacitor prototypes, reaching capacitance in order of 30 Fg-1 and strong bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Prabal Dev Bhuyan, Sanjeev K Gupta, Ashok Kumar, Yogesh Sonvane, P N Gajjar
Recent studies on the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of VO2 (vanadium dioxide) materials have motivated the exploration of one dimensional VO2 nanowires. First principles calculations were performed to investigate the structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of the monoclinic (M) and rutile (R) phases of VO2 nanowires. The monoclinic phase shows semiconducting behaviour with a band gap of 1.17 eV, whereas the rutile phase of VO2 nanowires behaves as a spin gapless semiconducting material, as band lines cross the Fermi level due only to up spin contribution...
April 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shiuh-Chuan Her, Han-Yung Chen
INTRODUCTION: Smart structures equipped with piezoelectric devices to sense and actuate the structure could be used in many engineering applications. To explore the smart structure further and apply it to more complex structures, some problems are critical to be concerned. Among them, delamination due to the high stress is an important issue since its serious effect on the strength and stiffness of the composite structure. METHOD: In this investigation, a piezoelectric layer is embedded into the host structure to form a sandwich composite structure...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Lina Altomare, Lorenzo Bonetti, Chiara E Campiglio, Luigi De Nardo, Lorenza Draghi, Francesca Tana, Silvia Farè
Advances in regenerative medicine and in modern biomedical therapies are fast evolving and set goals causing an upheaval in the field of materials science. This review discusses recent developments involving the use of biopolymers as smart materials, in terms of material properties and stimulus-responsive behavior, in the presence of environmental physico-chemical changes. An overview on the transformations that can be triggered in natural-based polymeric systems (sol-gel transition, polymer relaxation, cross-linking, and swelling) is presented, with specific focus on the benefits these materials can provide in biomedical applications...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Matus Stredansky, Alessandro Sala, Tommaso Fontanot, Roberto Costantini, Cristina Africh, Giovanni Comelli, Luca Floreano, Alberto Morgante, Albano Cossaro
The synthesis and preliminary characterization of a boron-based 2D framework are presented. The peculiar electronic and morphological properties of this compound, together with its facile formation process, enable it to be used as a novel smart material for the design of electronic devices.
April 3, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yassine Rabhi, Makrem Mrabet, Farhat Fnaiech
A new control system of a hand gesture-controlled wheelchair (EWC) is proposed. This smart control device is suitable for a large number of patients who cannot manipulate a standard joystick wheelchair. The movement control system uses a camera fixed on the wheelchair. The patient's hand movements are recognized using a visual recognition algorithm and artificial intelligence software; the derived corresponding signals are thus used to control the EWC in real time. One of the main features of this control technique is that it allows the patient to drive the wheelchair with a variable speed similar to that of a standard joystick...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Ran Li, Kerui Li, Gang Wang, Lei Li, Qiangqiang Zhang, Jinhui Yan, Yao Chen, Qinghong Zhang, Chengyi Hou, Yaogang Li, Hongzhi Wang
Sodium ion (Na+)-based electrochemical systems have been extensively investigated in batteries and supercapacitors and also can be quality candidates for electrochromic (EC) devices. However, poor diffusion kinetics and severe EC performance degradation occur during the intercalation/deintercalation processes because the ionic radii of Na+ are larger than those of conventional intercalation ions. Here, through intentional design of ion-transport channels in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), Na+ serves as an efficient intercalation ion for incorporation into a nanostructured electrode with a high diffusion coefficient of approximately 10-8 cm2 s-1...
March 29, 2018: ACS Nano
Dong-Hoon Choi, Abigail Thaxton, In Cheol Jeong, Kain Kim, Patrick R Sosnay, Garry R Cutting, Peter C Searson
BACKGROUND: Sweat chloride testing for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) involves sweat induction, collection and handling, and measurement in an analytical lab. We have developed a wearable sensor with an integrated salt bridge for real-time measurement of sweat chloride concentration. Here, in a proof-of-concept study, we compare the performance of the sensor to current clinical practice in CF patients and healthy subjects. METHOD: Sweat was induced on both forearms of 10 individuals with CF and 10 healthy subjects using pilocarpine iontophoresis...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Juliana Oliveira, Vitor Correia, Enrico Sowade, Ikerne Etxebarria, Raul D Rodriguez, Kalyan Yoti Mitra, Reinhard R Baumann, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez
Organic photodetectors based on printing technologies will allow to expand the current field of photodetector applications towards large-area and flexible applications in areas such as medical imaging, security and quality control, among others. Inkjet printing is a powerful digital tool for the deposition of smart and functional materials on various substrates, allowing the development of electronic devices such as photodetectors on various substrates. In this work, inkjet-printed photodetector array, based on organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) architecture, have been developed and applied for the indirect detection of X-ray radiation using a scintillator ink as X-ray absorber...
March 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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