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Light AND (quality OR spectrum)

Stephen L Kopecky, Douglas C Bauer, Martha Gulati, Jeri W Nieves, Andrea J Singer, Peter P Toth, James A Underberg, Taylor C Wallace, Connie M Weaver
Description: Calcium is the dominant mineral present in bone and a shortfall nutrient in the American diet. Supplements have been recommended for persons who do not consume adequate calcium from their diet as a standard strategy for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Whether calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation is beneficial or detrimental to vascular health is not known. Methods: The National Osteoporosis Foundation and American Society for Preventive Cardiology convened an expert panel to evaluate the effects of dietary and supplemental calcium on cardiovascular disease based on the existing peer-reviewed scientific literature...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Ji-Yuan Liang, Jun-Yun Wu, Ming-Yeh Yang, Anren Hu, Liang-Yü Chen
Polyphenols are associated with a wide range of physiological properties. Catechin is a flavan-3-ol with five phenolic hydroxyl groups. After blue light illumination, the transparent solution of catechin became yellowish. The effects of visible light illumination (400-800nm) were investigated on molecular structures and antioxidant capacities of catechin. Under the neutral or alkaline aqueous with the illumination of blue light, the photolysis and polymerization of catechin were observed in this study. A chromogenic catechin dimer was separated and identified as a proanthocyanidin by the chromatographic technique and mass spectrometry...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Carolina Ortiz, José J Esteve-Taboada, Lurdes Belda-Salmerón, Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Alberto Domínguez-Vicent
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of decentration on the optical quality of two diffractive-refractive intraocular lenses, a bifocal and a trifocal, when displaced laterally (horizontal direction) from the center. METHODS: The AT LISA 809M IOL (+3.75 D add) with two main foci and the AT LISA tri 839MP intraocular lens with three main foci (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) were analyzed. The optical quality of the intraocular lenses was measured with the PMTF (power and modulation transfer function [MTF] measurement for refractive and diffractive intraocular lenses) optical bench (Lambda-X, Nivelles, Belgium)...
October 22, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Cong Wang, Yibo Gao, Xinghua Gao, Hua Wang, Jingxuan Tian, Li Wang, Bingpu Zhou, Ziran Ye, Jun Wan, Weijia Wen
A highly efficient photochromic hydrogel was successfully fabricated via casting precursor, which is based on amorphous tungsten oxide and poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (propylene oxide)-block-poly (ethylene oxide). Under simulated solar illumination, the hydrogel has a rapid and controlled temperature increasing ratio as its coloration degree. Localized electrons in the amorphous tungsten oxide play a vital role in absorption over a broad range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 1100 nm, encompassing the entire visible light and infrared regions in the solar spectrum...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Karthik Anantharaman, Christopher T Brown, Laura A Hug, Itai Sharon, Cindy J Castelle, Alexander J Probst, Brian C Thomas, Andrea Singh, Michael J Wilkins, Ulas Karaoz, Eoin L Brodie, Kenneth H Williams, Susan S Hubbard, Jillian F Banfield
The subterranean world hosts up to one-fifth of all biomass, including microbial communities that drive transformations central to Earth's biogeochemical cycles. However, little is known about how complex microbial communities in such environments are structured, and how inter-organism interactions shape ecosystem function. Here we apply terabase-scale cultivation-independent metagenomics to aquifer sediments and groundwater, and reconstruct 2,540 draft-quality, near-complete and complete strain-resolved genomes that represent the majority of known bacterial phyla as well as 47 newly discovered phylum-level lineages...
October 24, 2016: Nature Communications
Michelle Maclean, John G Anderson, Scott J MacGregor, Tracy White, Chintamani D Atreya
Bacterial contamination of injectable stored biological fluids such as blood plasma and platelet concentrates preserved in plasma at room temperature is a major health risk. Current pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) rely on the use of chemicals and/or ultraviolet light, which affects product quality and can be associated with adverse events in recipients. 405 nm violet-blue light is antibacterial without the use of photosensitizers and can be applied at levels safe for human exposure, making it of potential interest for decontamination of biological fluids such as plasma...
2016: Journal of Blood Transfusion
Miguel Anaya, Juan P Correa-Baena, Gabriel Lozano, Michael Saliba, Pablo Anguita, Bart Roose, Antonio Abate, Ullrich Steiner, Michael Grätzel, Mauricio E Calvo, Anders Hagfeldt, Hernán Míguez
Organic-inorganic perovskite structures in which lead is substituted by tin are exceptional candidates for broadband light absorption. Herein we present a thorough analysis of the optical properties of CH3NH3Sn x Pb1-x I3 films, providing the field with definitive insights about the possibilities of these materials for perovskite solar cells of superior efficiency. We report a user's guide based on the first set of optical constants obtained for a series of tin/lead perovskite films, which was only possible to measure due to the preparation of optical quality thin layers...
August 7, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
Yadan Guo, Wenchao Yu, Jinquan Chen, Xuegang Wang, Bai Gao, Guanghui Wang
To overcome the drawback of low stable brought by the transformation of Ag(+) into Ag, a highly efficient and stable photocatalyst Ag3PO4/rectorite composite was successfully synthesized by ultrasound-assisted precipitation method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, room-temperature photoluminescence spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectrum measurements and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sujan K Sarkar, Onyinye Osisioma, William L Karney, Manabu Abe, Anna D Gudmundsdottir
Photolysis of 3-azido-1-indenone (1) with a light-emitting diode (LED, λ= 405 nm) or mercury arc lamp (Pyrex) resulted in the formation of heterodimer 3 in excellent yield, through dimerization of triplet vinylnitrene (3)2. At ambient temperature, vinylnitrene (3)2 (λmax at 340 and 480 nm) was detected directly with laser flash photolysis of vinyl azide 1. The vinylnitrene intermediate was also characterized directly with IR and ESR spectroscopy in cryogenic matrices. The ESR spectrum of vinylnitrene (3)2 yielded a zero-field splitting parameter |D/hc| of 0...
October 22, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Germaine Cornelissen, Kuniaki Otsuka
Aging is generally associated with weakening of the circadian system. The circadian amplitude is reduced and the circadian acrophase becomes more labile, tending to occur earlier with advancing age. As originally noted by Franz Halberg, similar features are observed in the experimental laboratory after bilateral lesioning of the suprachiasmatic nuclei, suggesting the involvement of clock genes in the aging process as they are in various disease conditions. Recent work has been shedding light on underlying pathways involved in the aging process, with the promise of interventions to extend healthy life spans...
October 22, 2016: Gerontology
Kayla Presley, Jinwoo Hwang, Soshan Cheong, Richard Tilley, Josh Collins, Mariano Viapiano, John Lannutti
Optical oxygen sensors have many promising qualities but rely on excitation by violet or blue wavelengths that suffer from high levels of scattering and absorption in biological tissues. Here we demonstrate an alternative method using 980nm near-infrared light to initially stimulate ceramic upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) contained within a novel form, electrospun core-shell fibers. The emission of the UCNPs excites a molecular optical oxygen sensor, the subsequent phosphorescent emission being dynamically quenched by the presence of molecular oxygen...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jaqueline de Paula Rezende, Guilherme Max Dias Ferreira, Gabriel Max Dias Ferreira, Luis Henrique Mendes da Silva, Maria do Carmo Hepanhol da Silva, Maximiliano Soares Pinto, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos Pires
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been recognized as a marker of the cow's health, milk quality, an allergenic protein and as a carrier. Its detection is important in the food, pharmaceutical and medical industries. However, traditional techniques used to detect BSA are often time-consuming, expensive, and show limited sensitivity. This paper describes properties of polydiacetylene-triblock copolymer (L64) nanosensors, synthesized to easily detect BSA. Sensor efficiency was studied as a function of nanosensor composition, polydiacetylene chemical structures, BSA conformation and hydrophobic domain availability, using spectroscopic, calorimetric, light scattering, and electrokinetic analyses...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Paibul Suriyawongpaisal, Wichai Aekplakorn, Samrit Srithamrongsawat, Chaisit Srithongchai, Orawan Prasitsiriphon, Rassamee Tansirisithikul
BACKGROUND: Although bodies of evidence on copayment effects on access to care and quality of care in general have not been conclusive, allowing copayment in the case of emergency medical conditions might pose a high risk of delayed treatment leading to avoidable disability or death. METHODS: Using mixed-methods approach to draw evidence from multiple sources (over 40,000 records of administrative dataset of Thai emergency medical services, in-depth interviews, telephone survey of users and documentary review), we are were able to shed light on the existence of copayment and its related factors in the Thai healthcare system despite the presence of universal health coverage since 2001...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Sonja Rutten, Chris Vriend, Jan H Smit, Henk W Berendse, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf
BACKGROUND: A disturbed circadian rhythm seems to be a causal factor in the occurrence of depressive disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The circadian rhythm can be restored with light. Therefore, Bright Light Therapy (BLT) might be a new treatment option for depression in PD patients. METHODS/DESIGN: In this double-blind controlled trial, 84 subjects with idiopathic PD are randomized to either BLT or a control light condition. The BLT condition emits white light with an intensity of 10,000 Lux, while the control device emits dim white light of 200 Lux, which is presumed to be too low to influence the circadian rhythm...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Michał Książkiewicz, Sandra Rychel, Matthew N Nelson, Katarzyna Wyrwa, Barbara Naganowska, Bogdan Wolko
BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) family, is a major controller of flowering in response to photoperiod, vernalization and light quality. In legumes, FT evolved into three, functionally diversified clades, FTa, FTb and FTc. A milestone achievement in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) domestication was the loss of vernalization responsiveness at the Ku locus. Recently, one of two existing L...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Carlos Gonzalez-Ballestero, Johannes Feist, Eduardo Gonzalo Badía, Esteban Moreno, Francisco J Garcia-Vidal
When a collection of quantum emitters interacts with an electromagnetic field, the whole system can enter into the collective strong coupling regime in which hybrid light-matter states, i.e., polaritons can be created. Only a small portion of excitations in the emitters are coupled to the light field, and there are many dark states that, in principle, retain their pure excitonic nature. Here we theoretically demonstrate that these dark states can have a delocalized character, which is inherent to polaritons, despite the fact that they do not have a photonic component...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
F P An, A B Balantekin, H R Band, M Bishai, S Blyth, D Cao, G F Cao, J Cao, W R Cen, Y L Chan, J F Chang, L C Chang, Y Chang, H S Chen, Q Y Chen, S M Chen, Y X Chen, Y Chen, J-H Cheng, J Cheng, Y P Cheng, Z K Cheng, J J Cherwinka, M C Chu, A Chukanov, J P Cummings, J de Arcos, Z Y Deng, X F Ding, Y Y Ding, M V Diwan, M Dolgareva, J Dove, D A Dwyer, W R Edwards, R Gill, M Gonchar, G H Gong, H Gong, M Grassi, W Q Gu, M Y Guan, L Guo, R P Guo, X H Guo, Z Guo, R W Hackenburg, R Han, S Hans, M He, K M Heeger, Y K Heng, A Higuera, Y K Hor, Y B Hsiung, B Z Hu, T Hu, W Hu, E C Huang, H X Huang, X T Huang, P Huber, W Huo, G Hussain, D E Jaffe, P Jaffke, K L Jen, S Jetter, X P Ji, X L Ji, J B Jiao, R A Johnson, J Joshi, L Kang, S H Kettell, S Kohn, M Kramer, K K Kwan, M W Kwok, T Kwok, T J Langford, K Lau, L Lebanowski, J Lee, J H C Lee, R T Lei, R Leitner, J K C Leung, C Li, D J Li, F Li, G S Li, Q J Li, S Li, S C Li, W D Li, X N Li, Y F Li, Z B Li, H Liang, C J Lin, G L Lin, S Lin, S K Lin, Y-C Lin, J J Ling, J M Link, L Littenberg, B R Littlejohn, D W Liu, J L Liu, J C Liu, C W Loh, C Lu, H Q Lu, J S Lu, K B Luk, Z Lv, Q M Ma, X Y Ma, X B Ma, Y Q Ma, Y Malyshkin, D A Martinez Caicedo, K T McDonald, R D McKeown, I Mitchell, M Mooney, Y Nakajima, J Napolitano, D Naumov, E Naumova, H Y Ngai, Z Ning, J P Ochoa-Ricoux, A Olshevskiy, H-R Pan, J Park, S Patton, V Pec, J C Peng, L Pinsky, C S J Pun, F Z Qi, M Qi, X Qian, N Raper, J Ren, R Rosero, B Roskovec, X C Ruan, H Steiner, G X Sun, J L Sun, W Tang, D Taychenachev, K Treskov, K V Tsang, C E Tull, N Viaux, B Viren, V Vorobel, C H Wang, M Wang, N Y Wang, R G Wang, W Wang, X Wang, Y F Wang, Z Wang, Z Wang, Z M Wang, H Y Wei, L J Wen, K Whisnant, C G White, L Whitehead, T Wise, H L H Wong, S C F Wong, E Worcester, C-H Wu, Q Wu, W J Wu, D M Xia, J K Xia, Z Z Xing, J Y Xu, J L Xu, Y Xu, T Xue, C G Yang, H Yang, L Yang, M S Yang, M T Yang, M Ye, Z Ye, M Yeh, B L Young, Z Y Yu, S Zeng, L Zhan, C Zhang, H H Zhang, J W Zhang, Q M Zhang, X T Zhang, Y M Zhang, Y X Zhang, Y M Zhang, Z J Zhang, Z Y Zhang, Z P Zhang, J Zhao, Q W Zhao, Y B Zhao, W L Zhong, L Zhou, N Zhou, H L Zhuang, J H Zou
This Letter reports an improved search for light sterile neutrino mixing in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel with the full configuration of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. With an additional 404 days of data collected in eight antineutrino detectors, this search benefits from 3.6 times the statistics available to the previous publication, as well as from improvements in energy calibration and background reduction. A relative comparison of the rate and energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos in the three experimental halls yields no evidence of sterile neutrino mixing in the 2×10^{-4}≲|Δm_{41}^{2}|≲0...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
A C Shortall, R B Price, L MacKenzie, F J T Burke
Light curing is a critical step in the restorative process when using light-activated resin-based composites, but it is frequently not given the attention it deserves. The selection of a reliable light curing unit (LCU) that meets the practitioner's needs is an important equipment purchase. Using an inappropriate LCU may seriously compromise the quality of care without the practitioner realising their mistake until years later. The importance of the subject is reflected by the rapidly increasing use of light-cured composites and the decline in the use of amalgam...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
Angie D Ambers, Jennifer D Churchill, Jonathan L King, Monika Stoljarova, Harrell Gill-King, Mourad Assidi, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Bruce Budowle
BACKGROUND: Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Dawid P Hanak, Athanasios J Kolios, Tosin Onabanjo, Stuart T Wagland, Kumar Patchigolla, Beatriz Fidalgo, Vasilije Manovic, Ewan McAdam, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel, Elise Cartmell
With about 2.4 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation facilities, there is a strong incentive for development of novel sanitation systems to improve the quality of life and reduce mortality. The Nano Membrane Toilet is expected to provide a unique household-scale system that would produce electricity and recover water from human excrement and urine. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of the conceptual energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet designed for a household of ten people and to assess its self-sustainability...
October 15, 2016: Energy Conversion and Management
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