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Rusdi Rusli, Mazharul Haque, Mohammad Saifuzzaman, Mark King
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes along mountainous highways may lead to injuries and fatalities more often than highways on plain topography; however, research focusing on the injury outcome of such crashes is relatively scant. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the likelihood that traffic crashes along rural mountainous highways result in injuries. METHOD: This study proposes a combination of decision tree and logistic regression techniques to model crash severity (injury vs non-injury), as the combined approach allows the specification of nonlinearities and interactions in addition to main effects...
June 22, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Mayumi Ikeda, Takami Akagi, Masao Nagao, Mitsuru Akashi
A quantitative method of analyzing nanoparticles (NPs) for drug delivery is urgently required by researchers and industry. Therefore, we developed new quantitative analytical methods for biodegradable and amphiphilic NPs consisting of polymeric γ-PGA-Phe [phenylalanine attached to poly(γ-glutamic acid)] molecules. These γ-PGA-Phe NPs were completely dissociated into separate γ-PGA-Phe molecules by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The dissociated NPs were chromatographically separated to analyze parameters such as the γ-PGA-Phe content in the NPs, the impurities present [using reverse-phase (RP) HPLC with an ultraviolet (UV) detector], and the absolute MW [using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with refractive index detection (RI) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection, i...
June 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Tara O'Neill, Janice Light, Lauramarie Pope
Purpose: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions that included aided AAC input (e.g., aided AAC modeling, aided language modeling, aided language stimulation, augmented input) on communicative outcomes (both comprehension and expression) for individuals with developmental disabilities who use AAC. Method: A systematic search resulted in the identification of 26 single-case experimental designs (88 participants) and 2 group experimental designs (103 participants)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Paulo H C Corgosinho, Terue C Kihara, Nikolaos V Schizas, Alexandra Ostmann, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, Viatcheslav N Ivanenko
Aegisthidae is one of the most abundant and diverse families of harpacticoid copepods living in deep-sea benthos, and the phylogenetic relationships within the family are in state of flux. Females of two new deep-water species of harpacticoid copepods belonging to the Hase gen. n. (Aegisthidae: Cerviniinae) are described. The first taxonomic description of marine copepod species based on the combined use of interference and confocal microscopy for the study of the habitus and dissected appendages is presented here...
2018: ZooKeys
T Devincenzi, A Prunier, K Meteau, S Prache
Excessive flavour in lamb meat is undesirable for consumers and can prompt purchase resistance. Volatile indoles responsible for off-flavours accumulate more in the fat of lambs on pasture than on grain and are enhanced when lambs graze alfalfa. Here, we investigated whether barley supplementation of lambs grazing alfalfa influences meat sensory quality. Using three groups of 12 male Romane lambs, we compared three feeding regimes: alfalfa grazing (AG), alfalfa grazing + daily supplementation with barley (29 g/kg live weight0...
June 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ohad Green, Liat Ayalon
BACKGROUND: Home care workers work in an isolated environment, with limited supervision and guidance which makes them more prone to abuse and exploitation. While past research focused mostly on the well-being of care recipients, this study aimed to shed light on the care workers' daily reality and explore if and how boundaries of professional care work are blurred. Our primary aim was to assess the working conditions and the prevalence of abuse and exploitation among live-in migrant home care workers and live-out local home care workers...
June 21, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Onur Kerimoglu, Fabian Große, Markus Kreus, Hermann-J Lenhart, Justus E E van Beusekom
We employed a coupled physical-biogeochemical modelling framework for the reconstruction of the historic (H), pre-industrial state of a coastal system, the German Bight (southeastern North Sea), and we investigated its differences with the recent, control (C) state of the system. According to our findings: i) average winter concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus (DIN and DIP) concentrations at the surface are ∼70-90% and ∼50-70% lower in the H state than in the C state within the nearshore waters, and differences gradually diminish towards off-shore waters; ii) differences in average growing season chlorophyll a (Chl) concentrations at the surface between the two states are mostly less than 50%; iii) in the off-shore areas, Chl concentrations in the deeper layers are affected less than in the surface layers; iv) reductions in phytoplankton carbon (C) biomass under the H state are weaker than those in Chl, due to the generally lower Chl:C ratios; v) in some areas the differences in growth rates between the two states are negligible, due to the compensation by lower light limitation under the H state, which in turn explains the lower Chl:C ratios; vi) zooplankton biomass, and hence the grazing pressure on phytoplankton is lower under the H state...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Irfan Ullah, Ali Haider, Nasir Khalid, Saqib Ali, Sajjad Ahmed, Yaqoob Khan, Nisar Ahmed, Muhammad Zubair
Tungsten-doped TiO2 (W@TiO2 ) nanoparticles, with different percentages of atomic tungsten dopant levels (range of 0 to 6 mol%) have been synthesized by the sol-gel method and characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, EDX, ICP-OES and XPS analysis. By means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, it has been observed that with 6 mol% tungsten doping the wavelength range of excitation of TiO2 has extended to the visible portion of spectrum. Therefore, we evaluated the photocatalytic activity of W@TiO2 catalysts for the degradation of Congo red dye under varying experimental parameters such as dopant concentration, catalyst dosage, dye concentrations and pH...
June 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Neha P Limaye, Magaly M Blas, Isaac E Alva, Cesar P Carcamo, Patricia J García
The Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon faces many obstacles to health care delivery. The majority of the population is river-bound and lives below the poverty line, with some of the worst health indicators in Peru. To overcome these barriers and fill a gap in health services, an NGO-based provider known as the Vine Trust has been providing care since 2001 via a mobile ship clinic called the Amazon Hope. This study presents an assessment of the Amazon Hope, first reporting health indicators of the program´s catchment area, services provided, and program utilization...
2018: PloS One
Zainab Ahmadi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom globally. It is associated with major adverse health outcomes. This review provides an overview of new evidence about the prevalence of chronic breathlessness in the population. RECENT FINDINGS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE database including studies on prevalence of chronic breathlessness and its impact on the community published between 2016 and 2018. Identified studies were divided into four themes: breathlessness in relation to sex, BMI, quality of life and age (the elderly)...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
S Lobón, M Blanco, A Sanz, G Ripoll, M Joy
BACKGROUND: The interest for grazing systems and the use of condensed tannins (CT) as sources of natural antioxidants in animal diets has been increasing in recent years. The objective was to study the animal performance and carcass quality of the lambs according to the feeding strategy during lactation (Indoor, grazing Alfalfa, grazing Sainfoin) and the inclusion of quebracho as a source of CT (50 g kg-1 ) in the fattening concentrate. RESULTS: The feeding strategy during lactation only had effects on carcass quality...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Song Gao, Sang-Shin Lee, Eun-Soo Kim, Duk-Yong Choi
An optical device with minimized dimensions, which is capable of efficiently resolving an ultra-broad spectrum into a wide splitting angle but incurring no spectrum overlap, is of importance in advancing the development of spectroscopy. Unfortunately, this challenging task cannot be easily addressed through conventional geometrical or diffractive optical elements. Herein, we propose and demonstrate vertically integrated visible and near-infrared metasurfaces which render an ultra-broadband and highly angle-resolved anomalous reflection...
June 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Yatao Zou, Muyang Ban, Yingguo Yang, Sai Bai, Chen Wu, Yujie Han, Tian Wu, Yeshu Tan, Qi Huang, Xingyu Gao, Tao Song, Qiao Zhang, Baoquan Sun
Solution-processed perovskite light emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted wide attentions in the past several years. However, the overall efficiency and stability of perovskite-based LEDs remains inferior to those of organic or quantum dot LEDs. Non-radiative charge recombination and the unbalanced charge injection are two critical factors that limit the device efficiency and operational stability of perovskite LEDs. Here, we develop a strategy to modify the interface between hole transport layer and the perovskite emissive layer with an amphiphilic conjugated polymer of poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN)...
June 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michael L Kuntz, Ryan Vadori, M Ibraheem Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gentle and continuous loads are preferred for optimum orthodontic tooth movement. Nitinol, an alloy of nickel and titanium developed for the aerospace industry, found its first clinical applications in orthodontics because it has ideal load-deflection behavior. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the criteria for effective orthodontic mechanics relative to emerging Nitinol technology. The specialized materials with variable stiffness that were originally developed for orthodontics are increasingly attractive for in the temporomandibular joint, orthognathic surgery, and orthopedics...
June 20, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Scott D Emerson, Louise C Mâsse, Tavinder K Ark, Kimberly A Schonert-Reichl, Martin Guhn
PURPOSE: The Satisfaction With Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C) is a self-report measure of children's quality of life and has exhibited sound psychometric properties. In light of increasing ethno-cultural diversity, it is important to understand child life satisfaction across diverse subgroups. Employing children's language background as a proxy for cultural background among children in British Columbia, Canada, we examined (a) the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the SWLS-C; and (b) cross-cultural relations of peer support and adult support with SWLS-C...
June 20, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Nikos Papadopoulos, Riccardo Frisenda, Robert Biele, Eduardo Flores, Jose R Ares, Carlos Sánchez, Herre S J van der Zant, Isabel J Ferrer, Roberto D'Agosta, Andres Castellanos-Gomez
TiS3 nanosheets have proven to be promising candidates for ultrathin optoelectronic devices due to their direct narrow band-gap and the strong light-matter interaction. In addition, the marked in-plane anisotropy of TiS3 is appealing for the fabrication of polarization sensitive optoelectronic devices. Herein, we study the optical contrast of TiS3 nanosheets of variable thickness on SiO2/Si substrates, from which we obtain the complex refractive index in the visible spectrum. We find that TiS3 exhibits very large birefringence, larger than that of well-known strong birefringent materials like TiO2 or calcite, and linear dichroism...
June 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Eiichiro Okumura, Noriyuki Hashimoto
In Japan, medical liquid-crystal display (LCD) and general LCD monitors have color temperatures of 7500 and 6500 K, respectively. The differences in color temperature make it difficult for radiologists to judge whether the same color is being displayed on the monitor. Therefore, the radiologist may overlook lesions. We examined chromaticity on a color scale test pattern to determine the relationships between color temperature (6500-12,500 K) of the medical color LCD monitors, there are three types of fluorescent light and three types of illuminance LCD monitors...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Suado M Abdillahi, Tobias Maaß, Gopinath Kasetty, Adam A Strömstedt, Maria Baumgarten, Ramesh Tati, Sara L Nordin, Björn Walse, Raimund Wagener, Artur Schmidtchen, Matthias Mörgelin
Collagen VI is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix component that forms extensive microfibrillar networks in most connective tissues. In this study, we describe for the first time, to our knowledge, that the collagen VI von Willebrand factor type A-like domains exhibit a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in human skin infections in vivo. In silico sequence and structural analysis of VWA domains revealed that they contain cationic and amphipathic peptide sequence motifs, which might explain the antimicrobial nature of collagen VI...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Gro Berntsen, Audhild Høyem, Idar Lettrem, Cornelia Ruland, Markus Rumpsfeld, Deede Gammon
BACKGROUND: Person-Centered Integrated Care (PC-IC) is believed to improve outcomes and experience for persons with multiple long-term and complex conditions. No broad consensus exists regarding how to capture the patient-experienced quality of PC-IC. Most PC-IC evaluation tools focus on care events or care in general. Building on others' and our previous work, we outlined a 4-stage goal-oriented PC-IC process ideal: 1) Personalized goal setting 2) Care planning aligned with goals 3) Care delivery according to plan, and 4) Evaluation of goal attainment...
June 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Marcelo R Rosales, Jennifer Romack, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
PURPOSE: The aim was to explore the timing and duration of muscle activation during a landing task in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compare their responses to those of children who are developing typically (TD). METHODS: Six children (ages 3-4.5 years), half with ASD, hung from a vertical bar, landed, and reacted to a light cue that signaled the child to run to the right or left or to stay in place. Electromyography and kinematics were recorded and compared between groups...
July 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
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