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Light AND (quality OR spectrum)

Akira Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Murota, Mika Terao, Ichiro Katayama
Intense chronic itch significantly reduces quality of life for atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, impairing daily activity. While abnormal itch sensation can be induced by innocuous stimuli, known as alloknesis, the mechanisms driving this process remain obscure. Psychological and environmental stimuli are known to aggravate AD symptoms. Recently, the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (HSD11β1), which is expressed in keratinocytes, has been implicated in maintaining homeostasis against environmental stimuli by activating endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Matthias Schürmann, Norman Shepheard, Natalie Frese, Kevin Geishendorf, Holger Sudhoff, Armin Gölzhäuser, Ulrich Rückert, Christian Kaltschmidt, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Andy Thomas
In this manuscript, we first reveal a simple ultra violet laser lithographic method to design and produce plain tailored multielectrode arrays. Secondly, we use the same lithographic setup for surface patterning to enable controlled attachment of primary neuronal cells and help neurite guidance. For multielectrode array production, we used flat borosilicate glass directly structured with the laser lithography system. The multi layered electrode system consists of a layer of titanium coated with a layer of di-titanium nitride...
2018: PloS One
Tobias Kampfrath, R Kramer Campen, Martin Wolf, Mohsen Sajadi
The dielectric response of liquids in the terahertz (THz) and sub-THz frequency range arise from low-energy collective molecular motions, which are often strongly influenced by intermolecular interactions. To shed light on the microscopic origin of the THz dielectric response of the simplest alcohol, methanol, we resonantly excite this liquid with an intense THz electric-field pulse and monitor the relaxation of the induced optical birefringence. We find a unipolar THz Kerr-effect signal which, in contrast to aprotic polar liquids, shows a weak coupling between the THz electric field and the permanent molecular dipole moment...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tianshuai Liu, Junyan Rong, Peng Gao, Wenli Zhang, Wenlei Liu, Yuanke Zhang, Hongbing Lu
With the advances of x-ray excitable nanophosphors, x-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) has become a promising hybrid imaging modality. In particular, a cone-beam XLCT (CB-XLCT) system has demonstrated its potential in in vivo imaging with the advantage of fast imaging speed over other XLCT systems. Currently, the imaging models of most XLCT systems assume that nanophosphors emit light based on the intensity distribution of x-ray within the object, not completely reflecting the nature of the x-ray excitation process...
February 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Haoran Wang, Xiaomin Li, Mingjian Yuan, Xuyong Yang
Despite the recent advances in the performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), the effects of water on the perovskite emissive layer and its electroluminescence are still unclear, even though it has been previously demonstrated that moisture has a significant impact on the quality of perovskite films in the fabrication process of perovskite solar cells and is a prerequisite for obtaining high-performance PeLEDs. Here, the effects of postmoisture on the luminescent CH3 NH3 PbBr3 (MAPbBr3 ) perovskite films are systematically investigated...
February 23, 2018: Small
Arnab Gupta, Santanu Das, Kunal Ray
Wilson disease (WD), a Mendelian disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene, manifests a large spectrum of phenotypic variability. This phenomenon of extensive symptom variation is not frequently associated with a monogenic disorder. We hypothesize that the phenotypic variability in WD is primarily driven by the variations in interacting proteins that regulate the ATP7B function and localization in the cell. Based on existing literature, we delineated a potential molecular mechanism for ATP7B mediated copper transport in the milieu of its interactome, its dysfunction in WD and the resulting variability in the phenotypic manifestation...
February 23, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Shahid Ullah Khan, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Khaista Rahman, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Wasim Ullah Khan, Sajid Kamal, Baharullah Khattak, Ali Muhammad, Hikmat Ullah Khan
Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Thomas H Sanderson, Joseph M Wider, Icksoo Lee, Christian A Reynolds, Jenney Liu, Bradley Lepore, Reneé Tousignant, Melissa J Bukowski, Hollie Johnston, Alemu Fite, Sarita Raghunayakula, John Kamholz, Lawrence I Grossman, Karin Przyklenk, Maik Hüttemann
The interaction of light with biological tissue has been successfully utilized for multiple therapeutic purposes. Previous studies have suggested that near infrared light (NIR) enhances the activity of mitochondria by increasing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, which we confirmed for 810 nm NIR. In contrast, scanning the NIR spectrum between 700 nm and 1000 nm revealed two NIR wavelengths (750 nm and 950 nm) that reduced the activity of isolated COX. COX-inhibitory wavelengths reduced mitochondrial respiration, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ), attenuated mitochondrial superoxide production, and attenuated neuronal death following oxygen glucose deprivation, whereas NIR that activates COX provided no benefit...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eleftherios P Pappas, Vasiliki Peppa, Costas J Hourdakis, Pantelis Karaiskos, Panagiotis Papagiannis
PURPOSE: To evaluate a commercially available Ferrous-Xylenol Orange-Gel (FXG) dosimeter (TrueView™) coupled with Optical-Computed Tomography (OCT) read out, for 3D dose verification in an Ir-192 superficial brachytherapy application. METHODS: Two identical polyethylene containers filled with gel from the same batch were used. One was irradiated with an 18 MeV electron field to examine the dose-response linearity and obtain a calibration curve. A flap surface applicator was attached to the other to simulate treatment of a skin lesion...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Meng-Yeh Lin, Tzu-Ping Huang, Chih-Hao Chin, Yu-Jong Wu
The infrared (IR) spectrum of borane(3) anions (BH3 - ) isolated in solid Ar was recorded; two vibrational modes were observed at 2259.4 and 606.6 cm-1 , which were assigned to the BH2 stretching (ν3 ) and out-of-plane large-amplitude (ν2 ) modes, respectively. These anions were produced by the electron bombardment of an Ar matrix sample containing a small proportion of B2 H6 and H2 during matrix deposition or by the photolysis of single-bridged-B2 H5 - in an Ar matrix with the selected ultraviolet light...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mark Bree, Douglas Borchman
Organ culturing of lenses is useful for testing the direct effect of moieties such as cations, glucose, oxygen, antioxidants or drugs on the lens. Lens opacity changes in organ cultured lenses have never been measured quantitatively. Our aims were twofold: to establish the time course of lens opacity changes in organ cultured rat, porcine and human lenses and to test the utility of our system to measure opacity changes in lenses treated with dexamethasone. Human, porcine and rat lenses were incubated with or without 5 μM dexamethasone in minimum essential medium for 13 days...
February 19, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Dooshaye Moonshiram, Pablo Garrido-Barros, Carolina Gimbert-Suriñach, Antonio Picon, Cunming Liu, Xiaoyi Zhang, Michael Karnahl, Antoni Llobet
We report the light-induced electronic and geometric changes taking place within a heteroleptic Cu(I) photosensitizer, namely [(xant)Cu(Me2phenPh2)]PF6 (xant = xantphos, Me2phenPh2 = bathocuproine), by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the ps-µs time-regime. Time-resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis enabled the elucidation of the electronic and structural configuration of the copper centre in the excited state as well as its decay dynamics in different solvent conditions with and without triethylamine acting as a sacrificial electron donor...
February 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Bizuneh Woldeab, Abebe Beyene, Argaw Ambelu, Ishi Buffam, Seid Tiku Mereta
This research investigated the spatiotemporal variation of water quality in the Gilgel Gibe reservoir, Ethiopia, using physicochemical water quality parameters. Nonparametric tests and multivariate statistical techniques were used to evaluate data sets measured during dry and rainy seasons. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 ), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3 - ), total dissolved solids (TDSs), and total suspended solids (TSSs) were all significantly different among seasons (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ariadny da S Arcas, Fábio da S Dutra, Regina C S B Allil, Marcelo M Werneck
Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) is a large and diverse bacteria group that inhabits the intestinal tract of many mammals. Most E. coli strains are harmless, however some of them are pathogenic, meaning they can make one sick if ingested. By being in the feces of animals and humans, its presence in water and food is used as indicator of fecal contamination. The main method for this microorganism detection is the bacterial culture medium that is time-consuming and requires a laboratory with specialized personnel...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
Jyoti Prasad Deka, Amarendra K Sarma
We propose a parity-time symmetric dielectric-nano-film-dielectric multilayered structure that could facilitate highly amplified transmission of optical power in the infrared spectrum. We have theoretically studied our model using the transfer-matrix formalism. The reflection and the transmission coefficients of the S-matrix are evaluated. The theoretical results are validated by FDTD numerical simulation. We have shown how the thickness of the layers and the gain/loss coefficient of the active layers could generate spectral singularities in the S-matrix and how these singularities could be exploited to achieve amplified transmission of a single wavelength through the structure...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Min Li, Lulu Wang, Wenjiang Shen, Dongmin Wu, Yu Bai
A type of microlens array (MLA) expander with an improved light intensity distribution (LID) is designed and fabricated through submicro-scale filling, which could be applied to near-eye displays. Through the reflection of a 0.8-μm-wide metal filling, the light field is split and superimposed only through the microlens. The bright spot at the center of the LID is effectively eliminated. The results demonstrate that the expanded numerical aperture (NA) and focal length are about 0.38 and 19 μm, respectively, and the error in the radius of curvature is within 5% between the experimental and designed values...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Weipeng Zhang, Haoyun Wei, Honglei Yang, Xuejian Wu, Yan Li
A precise 3D surface measurement method for large stepped structures without height ambiguity is proposed based on optical-frequency-comb-referenced frequency-sweeping interferometry and Fourier-transformed fractional phase retrieval. Unlike other interferometry that depends on the absolute phase value for several certain wavelengths, this method obtains results from the phase change during frequency sweeping and thus remains free from the confined non-ambiguity range. By reference to an optical frequency comb, the relative uncertainty from the tunable laser frequency was reduced by three orders of magnitude, and the sweeping frequency range can be precisely determined...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Hongchun Gao, Yi Jiang, Liuchao Zhang, Lan Jiang
Five-step phase-shifting white-light interferometry is presented for interrogating the absolute cavity length of the fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI). It combines ideas of phase-shifting interferometry and white-light interferometry (WLI) to extend the measurement range of fiber optic WLI. Five sub-interferograms intercepted from the white-light optical spectrum are used to recover the optical path difference (OPD) of the EFPI. This method is demonstrated to interrogate a wider range of OPD...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Louise M Burke, Peter Peeling
Many expert sporting bodies now support a pragmatic acceptance of the use of performance supplements which have passed a risk:benefit analysis of being safe, effective, and permitted for use, while also being appropriate to the athlete's age and maturation in their sport. However, gaining evidence of the performance benefits of these supplements is a process challenged by the scarcity of research in relation to the number of available products, and the limitations of the poor quality of some studies. While meta-analyses and systematic reviews can help to provide information about the general use of performance supplements, the controlled scientific trial provides the basis on which these reviews are undertaken, as well as an opportunity to address more specific questions about supplement applications...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Margaret L Pfeiffer, Helen A Merritt, Lucy A Bailey, Karina Richani, Margaret E Phillips
Purpose: To describe a case of orbital apex syndrome as a result of isolated bacterial sinusitis. Observations: A 63-year-old woman presented with an orbital apex syndrome from isolated bacterial sinusitis with rapidly declining visual acuity to no light perception. We compared our case with 6 similar cases of severe vision loss from isolated bacterial sinusitis. In contrast to previously published cases, our patient presented with good vision yet deteriorated to no light perception despite appropriate treatment...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
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