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Theeta Sricoth, Weeradej Meeinkuirt, Patompong Saengwilai, John Pichtel, Puntaree Taeprayoon
Cadmium (Cd) may be toxic to aquatic plants even at modest concentrations, and excessive quantities of zinc (Zn) decrease plant performance. The Cd and Zn phytoremediation potential of several aquatic plant species (Thalia geniculate, Cyperus alternifolius, Canna indica, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes) and one grass species (Vetiveria zizanioides) was evaluated in hydroponic experiments. Vetiveria zizanioides, E. crassipes, and P. stratiotes experienced reduced growth performance in the presence of Cd as determined from biomass production, survival rate, and crown root number (CN); however, they accumulated high quantities of metals in their tissues, particularly in roots...
March 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhen-Zhen Cao, Mei-Ling Qin, Xiao-Yan Lin, Zhi-Wei Zhu, Ming-Xue Chen
Sulfur (S) fertilizer application in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is crucial in determining rice grain productivity and quality. However, little information is available concerning the effect of S supply on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in rice. In this study, both hydroponic and soil experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on Cd accumulation in rice under two Cd levels (0 and 50 μM), combined with three S concentrations (0, 2.64 and 5.28 mM). The moderate and excessive S supply (2...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ignacio Trucillo Silva, Hari Kishan R Abbaraju, Lynne P Fallis, Hongjun Liu, Michael Lee, Kanwarpal S Dhugga
Intracellular factors differentially affected enzyme activities of N assimilation in the roots of maize testcrosses where alanine aminotransferase and glutamate synthase were the main enzymes regulating the levels of glutamate. N is a key macronutrient for plant growth and development. Breeding maize with improved efficiency in N use could help reduce environmental contamination as well as increase profitability for the farmers. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of traits related to N metabolism in the root tissue was undertaken in a maize testcross mapping population grown in hydroponic cultures...
March 14, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Yue Cao, Dan Sun, Jun-Xiu Chen, Hanyi Mei, Hao Ai, Guohua Xu, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Phosphorus is an important nutrient for plant growth and is acquired by plants mainly as phosphate (P). Phosphate transporters (Phts) are responsible for P and arsenate (AsV) uptake in plants including arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. It is efficient in AsV uptake and P utilization, but P uptake in P. vittata is largely unknown. In this study, a P. vittata Pht, PvPht1;2, was identified and cloned. After transforming it into tobacco (N. tabacum), three independent transgenic lines (Ox1, Ox10, and Ox21) were studied...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xia Cao, Hetong Wang, Defeng Zhuang, He Zhu, Yanli Du, Zhibo Cheng, Weina Cui, Hilary J Rogers, Qianru Zhang, Chunjun Jia, Yuesuo Yang, Peidong Tai, Futi Xie, Wan Liu
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins have been implicated in sensing and correcting DNA damage, and in governing cell cycle progression in the presence of structurally anomalous nucleotide lesions induced by different stresses in mammalian cells. Here, Arabidopsis seedlings were grown hydroponically on 0.5 × MS media containing cadmium (Cd) at 0-4.0 mg L-1 for 5 d. Flow cytometry results indicated that Cd stress induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest both in MLH1-, MSH2-, MSH6-deficient, and in WT roots, associated with marked changes of G2/M regulatory genes, including ATM, ATR, SOG1, BRCA1, WEE1, CYCD4; 1, MAD2, CDKA;1, CYCB1; 2 and CYCB1; 1...
March 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Momchil Paunov, Lyubka Koleva, Andon Vassilev, Jaco Vangronsveld, Vasilij Goltsev
A comparative study of the effects of exposure to high Cd2+ (50 µM) and excess Zn2+ (600 µM) on photosynthetic performance of hydroponically-grown durum wheat seedlings was performed. At day 8, Cd and Zn were added to the nutrient solution. After 7-days exposure, the chosen concentrations of both metals resulted in similar relative growth rate (RGR) inhibitions of about 50% and comparable retardations of the CO₂ assimilation rates (about 30%) in the second developed leaf of wheat seedlings. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence indicated that both metals disturbed photosynthetic electron transport processes which led to a 4- to 5-fold suppression of the efficiency of energy transformation in Photosystem II...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Priscila Aparecida Milani, Karina Bugan Debs, Geórgia Labuto, Elma Neide Vasconcelos Martins Carrilho
Sugarcane bagasse and hydroponic lettuce roots were used as biosorbents for Cu(II), Fe(II), Zn(II), and Mn(II) removal from monoelemental solutions in aqueous medium, at pH 5.5, using batch procedures. These biomasses were studied in natura (lettuce roots, NLR, and sugarcane bagasse, NSB) and modified with HNO3 (lettuce roots, MLR, and sugarcane bagasse, MSB). Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich non-linear isotherm models were used to evaluate the data from the metal ion adsorption assessment. The maximum adsorption capacities (qmax ) in monoelemental solution, calculated using the Langmuir isothermal model for Cu(II), Fe(II), Zn(II), and Mn(II), were respectively 24...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Faisal Nadeem, Zeeshan Ahmad, Ruifeng Wang, Jienan Han, Qi Shen, Feiran Chang, Xianmin Diao, Fusuo Zhang, Xuexian Li
Foxtail millet (FM) [ Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN) at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pankajkumar R Waghmare, Anuprita D Watharkar, Byong-Hun Jeon, Sanjay P Govindwar
In this study, we have described three steps to produce ethanol from Pogonatherum crinitum , which was derived after the treatment of textile wastewater. (a) Production of biomass: biomass samples collected from a hydroponic P. crinitum phytoreactor treating dye textile effluents and augmented with Ca-alginate immobilized growth-promoting bacterium, Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ (consortium phytoreactor), and waste sorghum husks were collected and dried. Compositional analysis of biomass (consortium phytoreactor) showed that the concentration of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 42, 30 and 17%, respectively, whereas the biomass samples without the growth-promoting bacterium (normal phytoreactor) was slightly lower, 40, 29 and 16%, respectively...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Lia R Valeeva, Chuluuntsetseg Nyamsuren, Margarita R Sharipova, Eugene V Shakirov
Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo -inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wen Zheng, Zheng-Yan Zhong, Hong-Bin Wang, Hai-Juan Wang, Dong-Mo Wu
A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on arsenic (As) uptake and the physiological responses of Hydrilla verticillata exposed to 3 mg L-1 of As in different forms. Plant As(III) uptake was significantly increased by 200-2000 µg L-1 OA. However, an increase of As(V) uptake was only shown with 1000 µg L-1 OA, and no significant difference was observed with dimethylarsinate treatment. Peroxidase and catalase activities, and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugar and proline, were significantly increased by 1000 µg L-1 OA during As(III) treatment...
March 6, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ceyda Ozfidan-Konakci, Evren Yildiztugay, Mustafa Bahtiyar, Mustafa Kucukoduk
The using of bio-stimulant in plants grown under stress conditions for enhancing nutrition efficiency and crop quality traits is an effective approach. One of the bio-stimulants, humus material, is defined as humic acid (HA). HA application as a promotion of plant growth to plants grown in the heavy metals-contaminated soils has promised hope in terms of effects on plants but the its limiting effect is the application dose. Therefore, the wheat seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 d and the various concentrations of humic acid (HA; 750 or 1500 mg L-1 ) were treated alone or in combination with cadmium (Cd) stress (100 or 200 μM) for 7 d...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jie Chen, Kelun Li, X Chris Le, Lizhong Zhu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are toxic chemicals widely distributed in the environment, but few studies are available on their potential toxicity to rice at metabolic level. Therefore we exposed ten rice (Oryza sativa) varieties to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a predominant congener of PBDEs, in hydroponic solutions with different concentrations. Two varieties that showed different biological effects to BDE-47, YY-9 and LJ-7, were screened as sensitive and tolerant varieties according to changes of morphological and physiological indicators...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jia Dong, Robert H Jones, Pu Mou
(1) Background: Plant roots respond to nutrients through root architecture that is regulated by hormones. Strong inter-specific variation in root architecture has been well documented, but physiological mechanisms that may control the variation have not. (2) Methods: We examined correlations between root architecture and hormones to seek clues on mechanisms behind root foraging behavior. In the green house at Beijing Normal University, hydroponic culture experiments were used to examine the root responses of four species- Callistephus chinensis , Solidago canadensis , Ailanthus altissima , Oryza sativa- to two nitrogen types (NO₃- or NH₄⁺), three nitrogen concentrations (low, medium, and high concentrations of 0...
February 28, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Muhammad Moman Khan, Ejazul Islam, Samra Irem, Kalsoom Akhtar, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Javed Iqbal, Dan Liu
Hydroponics experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of Pb on Para Grass (Brachiaria mutica) and Castorbean (Ricinus communis L). Generally, Para Grass exhibited higher tolerance to excessive concentrations of Pb in nutrient solution, whereas a consistent decline was observed in growth of Castorbean plants exposed to similar Pb levels. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2 O2 contents exhibited contrasting results with a general decrease in Para Grass and a linear increase in case of Castorbean...
February 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Ying Ji, Adrien Mestrot, Rainer Schulin, Susan Tandy
Used as a hardening agent in lead bullets, antimony (Sb) has become a major contaminant in shooting range soils of some countries including Switzerland. Soil contamination by Sb is also an environmental problem in countries with Sb-mining activities such as China and Bolivia. Because of its toxicity and relatively high mobility, there is concern over the risk of Sb transfer from contaminated soils into plants, and thus into the food chain. In particular there is very little information on the environmental behavior of methylated antimony, which can be produced by microbial biomethylation of inorganic Sb in contaminated soils...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christine Schwake-Anduschus, Georg Langenkämper
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic drugs are excreted to a large proportion by livestock. Thus, antibiotics are distributed on fields with slurry and can be taken up by plants. Hydroponic experiments were performed to reveal whether the widely administered chlortetracycline is taken up into wheat grain in a concentration dependent manner. A further goal was to determine (chlor)tetracyclines in wheat and rye grain from agricultural practice. RESULTS: Increasing chlortetracycline deposition in wheat grain was observed with rising chlortetracycline spiking level in the hydroponic solution...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Raquel Azevedo, Eleazar Rodriguez, Rafael José Mendes, Nuno Mariz-Ponte, Sara Sario, José Carlos Lopes, José Miguel P Ferreira de Oliveira, Conceição Santos
Inorganic Mercury (Hg) contamination persists an environmental problem, but its cyto- and genotoxicity in plants remains yet unquantified. To determine the extent of Hg-induced cyto- and genotoxicity, and assess most sensitive endpoints in plants, Pisum sativum L. seedlings were exposed for 14 days to different HgCl2 concentrations up to 100 μM. Shoots and roots from hydroponic exposure presented growth impairment and/or morphological disorders for doses >1 μM, being the roots more sensitive. Plant growth, ploidy changes, clastogenicity (HPCV), cell cycle dynamics (G1 -S-G2 ), Comet-tail moment (TM), Comet-TD, Mitotic-index (MI) and cell proliferation index (CPI) were used to evaluate Hg-induced cyto/genotoxicity...
February 16, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Wenli Ding, Peta L Clode, Jonathan C Clements, Hans Lambers
To study mechanism underpinning the calcifuge habit of some Lupinus species, especially under low-phosphorus (P) conditions, Lupinus species that were likely to respond differently to calcium (Ca) availability were assembled, and the sensitivity to Ca under a low P supply was assessed. Seven Lupinus species (9 genotypes, L. albus L. cv Kiev, L. albus L. P26766, L. angustifolius L. cv Mandelup, L. angustifolius L. P26723, L. luteus L. cv Pootalong, L. hispanicus ssp. bicolor Boiss. and Reut. P22999, L. pilosus Murr...
February 24, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Joanna Jaskowiak, Oliver Tkaczyk, Michal Slota, Jolanta Kwasniewska, Iwona Szarejko
Barley is one of the cereals that are most sensitive to aluminum (Al). Al in acid soils limits barley growth and development and, as a result, its productivity. The inhibition of root growth is a widely accepted indicator of Al stress. Al toxicity is affected by many factors including the culture medium, pH, Al concentration and the duration of the treatment. However, Al can act differently in different species and still Al toxicity in barley deserves study. Since the mechanism of Al toxicity is discussed we cytogenetically describe the effects of different doses of bioavailable Al on the barley nuclear genome-mitotic activity, cell cycle profile and DNA integrity...
2018: PloS One
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