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Ilya E Zlobin, Yury V Ivanov, Alexander V Kartashov, Vladimir V Kuznetsov
We investigated physiological responses of 7-week-old Norway spruce seedlings to water deficits of different intensities. Hydroponically grown seedlings were subjected to mild (-0.15 MPa), strong (-0.5 and -1.0 MPa) and extreme (-1.5 MPa) water deficit induced by polyethylene glycol 6000, and their growth parameters, water status and physiological activity were analyzed. Seedlings effectively restricted water loss under drought, and even under extreme water deficit, shoot relative water content did not fall below 85%...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Saliha Shamshad, Muhammad Shahid, Marina Rafiq, Sana Khalid, Camille Dumat, Muhammad Sabir, Behzad Murtaza, Abu Bakr Umer Farooq, Noor S Shah
Despite significant recent advancement in research, biogeochemical behavior of heavy metals with respect to their applied form is still topical. Moreover, metal toxicity to plants may vary with their stage of development/maturity. Therefore, this study for the first time evaluated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) on cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity to germinating and young pea seedlings as well as in younger and older leaves. The experimental setup of current study consisted of two separate studies...
January 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yang Jiang, Xiaopeng Zhao, Xueyuan Gu, Cheng Gu, Xiaorong Wang
In metal toxicity model studies of soil-plant systems, hydroponic culture is often employed to simulate soil conditions but the validity of this approach has not been examined. This study evaluated Ni toxicity to wheat root elongation using models developed in hydroponic and sand cultures and then compared the results with those obtained from real soils. three mechanism toxicity models were examined: the free ion activity model (FIAM), the biotic ligand model (BLM), and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model (GCSM). After being developed in hydroponic and sand culture bioassays, the models were validated with 18 soils from across China...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Shuyan Zhao, Tao Zhou, Lingyan Zhu, Bohui Wang, Ze Li, Liping Yang, Lifen Liu
N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is an important perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) precursor (PreFOS) which is used in sulfluramid. The present work studied the uptake, translocation and metabolism of N-EtFOSA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) by hydroponic exposure. Except for parent N-EtFOSA, its metabolites of perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were detected in the roots and shoots of all the three plant species examined...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dániel Á Carrera, Sebastian Oddson, Jonas Grossmann, Christian Trachsel, Sebastian Streb
Plants are constantly challenged in their natural environment by a range of changing conditions. We investigated the acclimation processes and adaptive plant responses to various long-term mild changes and compared them directly within one experimental setup. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were grown in hydroponic culture for 10 days under controlled abiotic stress (15 °C, 25 °C, salt and osmotic) and in nutrient deficiency (nitrate and phosphate). Plant growth was monitored and proteomic experiments were performed...
December 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Joseph K Sagers, Blair L Waldron, Joseph Earl Creech, Ivan W Mott, Bruce Bugbee
Halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus) is an invasive species that displaces Gardner's saltbush (Atriplex gardneri) on saline rangelands, whereas, forage kochia (Bassia prostrata) potentially can rehabilitate these ecosystems. Salinity tolerance has been hypothesized as the predominant factor affecting frequency of these species. This study compared relative salinity tolerance of these species, and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Plants were evaluated in hydroponics, eliminating the confounding effects of drought, for 28 days at 0, 150, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 800 mmol/L NaCl...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Yang Jiang, Xueyuan Gu, Bojing Zhu, Cheng Gu
A terrestrial biotic ligand model (t-BLM) was developed to predict nickel toxicity to wheat (Triticum aestivum) root elongation in hydroponic solutions. The competitive effects of five major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and H+) on Ni toxicity were investigated and Mg2+was found to be a strong competitor, while H+ showed less competing effect. Besides free Ni2+, the toxicity induced by the species NiHCO3+ was non-neglect able at pH>7 because NiHCO3+ occupied a significant fraction of total Ni under such condition...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ángeles Hidalgo, José E Ruiz-Sainz, José M Vinardell
Plants use long-distance signaling mechanisms to coordinate their growth and control their interactions, positive or negative, with microbes. Split-root systems (SRS) have been used to study the relevance of both local and systemic plant mechanisms that participate in the control of rhizobia-legume symbioses. In this work we have developed a modification of the standard split-root system (SRS) used with soybean. This modified method, unlike previous systems, operates in hydroponics conditions and therefore is nondestructive and allows for the continuous monitoring of soybean roots throughout the whole experiment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Arry Morel, Nemo Peeters, Fabienne Vailleau, Patrick Barberis, Gaofei Jiang, Richard Berthomé, Alice Guidot
In this chapter, we describe different methods for phenotyping strains or mutants of the bacterial wilt agent, Ralstonia solanacearum, on four different host plants: Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), or Medicago truncatula. Methods for preparation of high volume or low volume inocula are first described. Then, we describe the procedures for inoculation of plants by soil drenching, stem injection or leaf infiltration, and scoring of the wilting symptoms development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zhenya Shi, Suqin Yang, Dan Han, Zhen Zhou, Xuanzhen Li, Ye Liu, Biao Zhang
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic element that poses a great threat to human health, while silicon (Si) is a beneficial element and has been shown to have a mitigation effect on plants under Cd toxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying the role of Si in alleviating Cd toxicity are still poorly understood in wheat. Therefore, growth status, photosynthesis parameters, root morphology, antioxidant system, and Cd2+ uptake and flux under Cd toxicity were studied through hydroponic experiment, aiming to explore the mitigation of Si on Cd toxicity in wheat seedlings...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaoyan Tang, Maya P Lim, Murray B McBride
To assess the importance of variation among arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) cultivars in the ability to accumulate arsenic (As) in above-ground tissues, uptake of As by 16 cultivars was measured in the field and in hydroponic culture. In the field trial on soil contaminated by past pesticide use, As soil-plant uptake coefficients varied by a factor of 2.7 among different cultivars, approaching a value of one for the strongest accumulators. Compared to the field assay, hydroponically grown arugula accumulated much lower concentrations of As when nutrient solutions contained standard (high) concentrations of phosphate along with 1...
December 22, 2017: Chemosphere
Huijie Fu, Haiying Yu, Tingxuan Li, Xizhou Zhang
A hydroponic experiment with two different cadmium (Cd) accumulating rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) was carried out to explore the links among Cd stress, root exudates and Cd accumulation. The results showed that (1) Cd stress increased quantities of organic acids, but had no effect on composition in root exudates of the two rice lines. In Cd treatments, the contents of every detected organic acid in root exudates of Lu527-8 were 1.76-2.43 times higher than those of Lu527-4...
December 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Lisa Emhofer, Markus Himmelsbach, Wolfgang Buchberger, Christian W Klampfl
The metabolization of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by cress ((Lepidium sativum) was investigated using a HPLC-MS2 method. Cress was grown hydroponically in water containing 0.1 mg L-1 of each drug for investigations on the kinetics of drug uptake and metabolization over a growing period of 12 days. It could be shown that the parent drugs are metabolized and the abundance of both the parent drug and the metabolites formed, varies over time. Furthermore the distribution of the investigated substances within the different plant parts changed throughout the duration of the experiment due to translocation...
December 18, 2017: Electrophoresis
Erika C Pierattini, Alessandra Francini, Andrea Raffaelli, Luca Sebastiani
Surfactants are widely used detergent ingredients and, thanks to their chemical properties, they are applied for remediation of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic contaminants, both in soil flushing and in phytoremediation. However, their direct effects on tree physiology especially in consociation with heavy metal pollution, as well as their possible absorption by plants, have not been appropriately investigated. In order to evaluate plant uptake/translocation of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the heavy metal zinc (Zn) in Populus alba L...
December 7, 2017: Tree Physiology
Ruben Vera, Clàudia Fontàs, Josep Galceran, Olga Serra, Enriqueta Anticó
Metal speciation studies can be performed with a new technique based on a functionalized membrane. The estimation of not only the total amount of metal, but also the metal available to living organisms is very important. In this context, we have investigated the use of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) in a new tool for the determination of free metal ion concentration. In order to check the usefulness of PIM devices in metal speciation studies and metal availability to potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), Zn has been chosen as a case study...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yasmine Ligerot, Alexandre de Saint Germain, Tanya Waldie, Christelle Troadec, Sylvie Citerne, Nikita Kadakia, Jean-Paul Pillot, Michael Prigge, Grégoire Aubert, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Ottoline Leyser, Mark Estelle, Frédéric Debellé, Catherine Rameau
Strigolactones (SLs) are well known for their role in repressing shoot branching. In pea, increased transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes are observed in stems of highly branched SL deficient (ramosus1 (rms1) and rms5) and SL response (rms3 and rms4) mutants indicative of negative feedback control. In contrast, the highly branched rms2 mutant has reduced transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes. Grafting studies and hormone quantification led to a model where RMS2 mediates a shoot-to-root feedback signal that regulates both SL biosynthesis gene transcript levels and xylem sap levels of cytokinin exported from roots...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Birgit W Hütsch, Katrin Keipp, Ann-Kathrin Glaser, Sven Schubert
BACKGROUND: Chloride sensitivity of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Marabel and Désirée was investigated in two pot experiments (soil/sand mixture and hydroponics). It was tested whether there are differential effects of KCl and K2 SO4 application on tuber yield and tuber quality, and whether both potato cultivars differ in their chloride sensitivity. RESULTS: Tuber yield, dry matter percentage of the tubers, starch concentration and starch yield were not significantly affected by potassium source (K2 SO4 or KCl)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Putthita Punjee, Wilailak- Siripornadulsil, Surasak- Siripornadulsil
The effects of the cadmium (Cd)-tolerant bacterium <i>Cupriavidus taiwanensis</i> KKU2500-3 on the growth, yield and Cd concentration in rice grains were investigated in the rice variety Phitsanulok 2 (PL2), which was cultivated in a hydroponic greenhouse. The numbers of Cd-tolerant bacteria isolated from the roots and shoots of plants under the RB [rice with bacteria] and RBC [rice with bacteria and Cd] treatments ranged from 2.60 to 9.03 and 3.99 to 9.60 log CFU•g<sup>-1</sup> of PL2, respectively...
December 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Lizhi Long, Daniel P Persson, Fengying Duan, Kirsten Jørgensen, Lixing Yuan, Jan K Schjoerring, Pai R Pedas
Transporters involved in manganese (Mn) uptake and intracellular Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis and rice are well characterized, while much less is known for barley, which is particularly prone to Mn deficiency. In this study we have investigated the role of the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) for Mn uptake and translocation in barley plants. We employed an RNAi approach to reduce HvIRT1 expression to 5% of the wild-type level. This enabled characterization of the functional role of HvIRT1 by use of advanced imaging and phenotyping techniques applied to plants growing in hydroponics or soils with different Mn availability...
December 5, 2017: New Phytologist
Manuel Fernández-Escalada, Ainhoa Zulet-González, Miriam Gil-Monreal, Ana Zabalza, Karl Ravet, Todd Gaines, Mercedes Royuela
A key enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC, is the known target of the widely used herbicide glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri, one of the most troublesome weeds in agriculture, has evolved through increased EPSPS gene copy number. The aim of this work was to study the pleiotropic effects of (i) EPSPS increased transcript abundance due to gene copy number variation (CNV) and of (ii) glyphosate application on the aromatic amino acid (AAA) and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) synthesis pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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