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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715112/effects-of-free-air-carbon-dioxide-enrichment-face-on-nitrogen-assimilation-and-growth-of-winter-wheat-under-nitrate-and-ammonium-fertilization
#1
Markus Dier, Rieke Meinen, Martin Erbs, Lena Kollhorst, Christin-Kirsty Baillie, David Kaufholdt, Martin Kücke, Hans-Joachim Weigel, Christian Zörb, Robert Hänsch, Remy Manderscheid
A two year Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted with winter wheat. It was investigated whether elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2 ]) inhibit nitrate assimilation and whether better growth and nitrogen acquisition under e[CO2 ] can be achieved with an ammonium based fertilization as it was observed in hydroponic culture with wheat. Under e[CO2 ] a decrease of nitrate assimilation has been discussed as the cause for observed declines in protein concentration in C3 cereals. Wheat was grown under ambient [CO2 ] and e[CO2 ] (600 ppm) with three levels (deficiency, optimal and excessive) of nitrate based fertilization (calcium ammonium nitrate; CAN) or with optimal ammonium based fertilization...
July 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714046/effects-of-cd-and-zn-on-physiological-and-anatomical-properties-of-hydroponically-grown-brassica-napus-plants
#2
Martina Benáková, Hassan Ahmadi, Zuzana Dučaiová, Edita Tylová, Stephan Clemens, Jiří Tůma
Clarifying the connection between metal exposure and anatomical changes represents an important challenge for a better understanding of plant phytoextraction potential. A hydroponic screening experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined interactions of Cd and Zn on mineral uptake (Mg, K, Ca, Na) and on the physiological and anatomical characteristics of Brassica napus L cv. Cadeli, Viking, and Navajo. Plants were exposed to 5 μM Cd (CdCl2), 10 μM Zn (ZnSO4), or both Cd + Zn, for 14 days...
July 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711996/the-physiological-and-metabolic-changes-in-sugar-beet-seedlings-under-different-levels-of-salt-stress
#3
Yuguang Wang, Piergiorgio Stevanato, Lihua Yu, Huijie Zhao, Xuewei Sun, Fei Sun, Jing Li, Gui Geng
Salinity stress is a major limitation to global crop production. Sugar beet, one of the world's leading sugar crops, has stronger salt tolerant characteristics than other crops. To investigate the response to different levels of salt stress, sugar beet was grown hydroponically under 3 (control), 70, 140, 210 and 280 mM NaCl conditions. We found no differences in dry weight of the aerial part and leaf area between 70 mM NaCl and control conditions, although dry weight of the root and whole plant treated with 70 mM NaCl was lower than control seedlings...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702037/transcriptomic-response-of-purple-willow-salix-purpurea-to-arsenic-stress
#4
Aymeric Yanitch, Nicholas J B Brereton, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Michel Labrecque, Simon Joly, Frederic E Pitre
Arsenic (As) is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation), including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. 'Fish Creek' for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694816/physiological-and-transcriptional-changes-of-three-citrus-rootstock-seedlings-under-iron-deficiency
#5
Lina Fu, Qingqing Zhu, Yinya Sun, Wei Du, Zhiyong Pan, Shu'ang Peng
Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and plants have evolved adaptive mechanisms to improve iron acquisition from soils. Grafting on iron deficiency-tolerant rootstock is an effective strategy to prevent iron deficiency-chlorosis in fruit-tree crops. To determine the mechanisms underlying iron uptake in iron deficiency, two iron deficiency-tolerant citrus rootstocks, Zhique (ZQ) and Xiangcheng (XC), as well as iron deficiency-sensitive rootstock trifoliate orange (TO) seedlings were studied. Plants were grown in hydroponics system for 100 days, having 50 μM iron (control) and 0 μM iron (iron deficiency) nutrient solution...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692936/tritium-forms-discrimination-in-ryegrass-under-constant-tritium-exposure-from-seed-germination-to-seedling-autotrophy
#6
H Renard, D Maro, S Le Dizès, A Escobar-Gutiérrez, C Voiseux, L Solier, D Hébert, M Rozet, C Cossonnet, R Barillot
Uncertainties remain regarding the fate of atmospheric tritium after it has been assimilated in grasslands (ryegrass) in the form of TFWT (Tissue Free Water Tritium) or OBT (Organically Bound Tritium). One such uncertainty relates to the tritium forms discrimination during transfer from TFWT to OBT resulting from photosynthesis (OBTphoto), corresponding to the OBTphoto/TFWT ratio. In this study, the OBT/TFWT ratio is determined by experiments in the laboratory using a ryegrass model and hydroponic cultures, with constant activity of tritium in the form of tritiated water (denoted as HTO) in the "water" compartment (liquid HTO) and "air" compartment (HTO vapour in the air)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690622/nitrogen-metabolism-in-adaptation-of-photosynthesis-to-water-stress-in-rice-grown-under-different-nitrogen-levels
#7
Chu Zhong, Xiaochuang Cao, Jijie Hu, Lianfeng Zhu, Junhua Zhang, Jianliang Huang, Qianyu Jin
To investigate the role of nitrogen (N) metabolism in the adaptation of photosynthesis to water stress in rice, a hydroponic experiment supplying with low N (0.72 mM), moderate N (2.86 mM), and high N (7.15 mM) followed by 150 g⋅L(-1) PEG-6000 induced water stress was conducted in a rainout shelter. Water stress induced stomatal limitation to photosynthesis at low N, but no significant effect was observed at moderate and high N. Non-photochemical quenching was higher at moderate and high N. In contrast, relative excessive energy at PSII level (EXC) was declined with increasing N level...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688348/characterization-of-iron-deficiency-symptoms-in-grapevine-vitis-spp-leaves-by-reflectance-spectroscopy
#8
Laura Rustioni, Daniele Grossi, Lucio Brancadoro, Osvaldo Failla
The work aims at the description of the iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine leaves by reflectance spectroscopy at the plant and leaf levels. 5 genotypes of Vitis spp. were selected and grown in hydroponic conditions with and without iron supply. 450 spectra were collected among basal, young and apical leaves, as well as veins and interveinal areas. Iron deficiency produced significant and characteristic modifications in the pigment accumulation, proportion and distribution in plants. Basal leaves resulted to have higher concentrations of photosynthetic pigments in stressed plants with respect to the control, probably due to compensation effects...
June 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678533/a-method-for-screening-copper-tolerant-rice-oryza-sativa-l-cultivars-based-on-hydroponic-experiments-and-cluster-analysis
#9
Sen Lin, Tingting Yang, Shaowei Zhu, Jifeng Wang, Wuzhong Ni
A method for screening copper (Cu) tolerant rice cultivars was studied by combining hydroponic experiments and cluster analysis, and the classification of cultivars in Cu stress tolerance was done. In the first hydroponic experiment, seedlings of Jiahe991 and Xiushui114 were planted in nutrient solution with different Cu(2+) concentrations from 10 to 1800 μg/L. Results indicated that the toxic threshold of Cu concentration in solution ranged from 900 to 1200 μg/L, since SPAD values of leaves and seedlings biomass of the treatments with ≥ 900 and/or 1200 µg/L were significantly lower than the control...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676812/cultivar-differences-in-root-nitrogen-uptake-ability-of-maize-hybrids
#10
Qiang Li, Yawei Wu, Wei Chen, Rong Jin, Fanlei Kong, Yongpei Ke, Haichun Shi, Jichao Yuan
Although, considerable differences in root size in response to nitrogen (N) application among crop species and cultivars have been widely reported, there has been limited focus on the differences in root N uptake ability. In this study, two maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids, Zhenghong 311 (ZH 311, N-efficient) and Xianyu 508 (XY 508, N-inefficient), were used to compare differences in root N uptake ability. The two cultivars were grown in field pots Experiment I (Exp. I) and hydroponic cultures Experiment II (Exp...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667911/metabolomics-analysis-of-tio2-nanoparticles-induced-toxicological-effects-on-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#11
Biying Wu, Lizhong Zhu, X Chris Le
The wide occurrence and high environmental concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) have raised concerns about their potential toxic effects on crops. In this study, we employed a GC-MS-based metabolomic approach to investigate the potential toxicity of nano-TiO2 on hydroponically-cultured rice (Oryza sativa L.) after exposed to 0, 100, 250 or 500 mg/L of nano-TiO2 for fourteen days. Results showed that the biomass of rice was significantly decreased and the antioxidant defense system was significantly disturbed after exposure to nano-TiO2...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667406/biochemical-indicators-of-root-damage-in-rice-oryza-sativa-genotypes-under-zinc-deficiency-stress
#12
Jae-Sung Lee, Matthias Wissuwa, Oscar B Zamora, Abdelbagi M Ismail
Zn deficiency is one of the major soil constraints currently limiting rice production. Although recent studies demonstrated that higher antioxidant activity in leaf tissue effectively protects against Zn deficiency stress, little is known about whether similar tolerance mechanisms operate in root tissue. In this study we explored root-specific responses of different rice genotypes to Zn deficiency. Root solute leakage and biomass reduction, antioxidant activity, and metabolic changes were measured using plants grown in Zn-deficient soil and hydroponics...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651339/formation-of-silica-aggregates-in-sorghum-root-endodermis-is-predetermined-by-cell-wall-architecture-and-development
#13
Milan Soukup, Michal Martinka, Dragana Bosnic, Mária Caplovicová, Rivka Elbaum, Alexander Lux
Background and Aims: Deposition of silica in plant cell walls improves their mechanical properties and helps plants to withstand various stress conditions. Its mechanism is still not understood and silica-cell wall interactions are elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silica deposition on the development and structure of sorghum root endodermis and to identify the cell wall components involved in silicification. Methods: Sorghum bicolor seedlings were grown hydroponically with (Si+) or without (Si-) silicon supplementation...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645057/effects-of-salinity-and-short-term-elevated-atmospheric-co2-on-the-chemical-equilibrium-between-co2-fixation-and-photosynthetic-electron-transport-of-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni
#14
Sayed Hussin, Nicole Geissler, Mervat M M El-Far, Hans-Werner Koyro
The effect of water salinity on plant growth and photosynthetic traits of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated to determine its level and mechanisms of salinity tolerance. It was also attempted to assess how short-term elevated CO2 concentration would influence the boundaries and mechanisms of its photosynthetic capacity. The plants were grown in gravel/hydroponic system under controlled greenhouse conditions and irrigated with four different salinity levels (0, 25, 50 and 100 mol m(-3)NaCl). Low salinity did not significantly alter the plant fresh weight, which was substantially decreased by 67% at high salinity treatment...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643161/nonlinear-biotic-ligand-model-for-assessing-alleviation-effects-of-ca-mg-and-k-on-cd-toxicity-to-soybean-roots
#15
Bo-Ching Chen, Pin-Jie Wang, Pei-Chi Ho, Kai-Wei Juang
Developing a nonlinear biotic ligand model (BLM) that considers the geometrical constraints for binding of different cations on biotic ligands will provide more reliable details about the hypothetical mechanism governing the alleviation of cadmium (Cd) toxicity by coexistent cations. Soybean seedlings under Cd stress produced by various activities of coexistent cations such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and potassium (K(+)) were hydroponically assayed for Cd toxicity to soybean roots. The Cd(2+) activity resulting in 50% reduction of root elongation (RE), EA 50, was used for assessing the Cd toxicity to the soybean seedling...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641150/polyamine-and-tyramine-involvement-in-nacl-induced-improvement-of-cd-resistance-in-the-halophyte-inula-chrithmoides-l
#16
Rim Ghabriche, Tahar Ghnaya, Mejda Mnasri, Hanen Zaier, Raoudha Baioui, Delphine Vromman, Chedly Abdelly, Stanley Lutts
The aim of the present work was to analyze the impact of salinity on the plant response to Cd toxicity in the Mediterranean halophyte species Inula crithmoides. For this purpose, cuttings were cultivated hydroponically during 21d in the presence of 0, 25 or 50μM CdCl2 combined or not with 0, 100, 200 and 400mM NaCl. The obtained data demonstrated that, in the absence of Cd, NaCl strongly increased plant growth (the maximal dry weight being observed at 100mM) and enhanced the Na(+)/K(+) ratio in the shoot. Cd alone strongly affected plant growth in this halophyte...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639018/test-of-aerobic-tce-degradation-by-willows-salix-viminalis-and-willows-inoculated-with-tce-cometabolizing-strains-of-burkholderia-cepacia
#17
Lauge Peter Westergaard Clausen, Mette Martina Broholm, Ulrich Gosewinkel, Stefan Trapp
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread soil and groundwater pollutant and clean-up is often problematic and expensive. Phytoremediation may be a cost-effective solution at some sites. This study investigates TCE degradation by willows (S. viminalis) and willows inoculated with three strains of B. cepacia (301C, PR1-31 and VM1330-pTOM), using chloride formation as an indicator of dehalogenation. Willows were grown in non-sterile, hydroponic conditions for 3 weeks in chloride-free nutrient solution spiked with TCE...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638393/non-chemical-control-of-root-parasitic-weeds-with-biochar
#18
Hanan Eizenberg, Dina Plakhine, Hammam Ziadne, Ludmila Tsechansky, Ellen R Graber
This study tested whether soil-applied biochar can impact the seed germination and attachment of root parasitic weeds. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (i) biochar adsorbs host-exuded signaling molecules; (ii) biochar activates plants' innate system-wide defenses against invasion by the parasite; and (iii) biochar has a systemic influence on the amount of seed germination stimulant produced or released by the host plant. Three types of experiments were performed: (I) pot trials with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) infested with Phelipanche aegyptiaca PERS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637253/synthesis-and-secretion-of-isoflavones-by-field-grown-soybean
#19
Akifumi Sugiyama, Yumi Yamazaki, Shoichiro Hamamoto, Hisabumi Takase, Kazufumi Yazaki
Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analysed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expressions of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (Isoflavone conjugates hydrolysing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages...
June 16, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631209/allelopathic-effects-of-exogenous-phenylalanine-a-comparison-of-four-monocot-species
#20
Barbara R Evans, Garima Bali, Art Ragauskas, Riddhi Shah, Hugh O'Neill, Cory Howard, Fayola Lavenhouse, Dawn Ramirez, Kelly Weston, Kelly Ramey, Valerie Cangemi, Brian Kinney, Claudia Partee, Teresa Ware, Brian Davison
Exogenous phenylalanine stunted annual ryegrass but not switchgrass or winter grain rye, with deuterium incorporation up to 3% from phenyalanine-d 8 . Toxicity to duckweed varied with illumination intensity and glucose uptake. Isotopic labeling of biomolecules through biosynthesis from deuterated precursors has successfully been employed for both structural studies and metabolic analysis. Phenylalanine is the precursor of many products synthesized by plants, including the monolignols used for synthesis of lignin...
June 19, 2017: Planta
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